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The Dialogical Self Theory in Education: A Multicultural Perspective



This edited volume offers cross-country and cross-cultural applications of Dialogical Self Theory within the field of education. It combines the work of internationally recognized authors to demonstrate how theoretical and practical innovations emerge at the highly fertile interface of external and internal dialogues. The Theory, developed by Hubert Hermans and his colleagues in the past 25 years, responds fruitfully to the issue of educational experts hitherto working in splendid isolation and does so by combining two aspects of Dialogical Self Theory: the dialogue among individuals as well as dialogical processes within individuals, in this context students and teachers. top-alt:auto;mso-margin-bottom-alt:auto; line-height:normal">family: Helvetica , sans-serif;">It is the first book in which Dialogical Self Theory is applied to the field of education. In 13 chapters, authors from different cultures and continents produce theoretical considerations and a wide variety of practical procedures showing that this interface is an ideal ground for the production of new theoretical, methodological, and practical approaches that enrich the work of educational researchers and specialists. Academics, practitioners, and postgraduate students in the field of education, particularly those who are interested in the innovative and community-enhancing potentials of dialogue, will find this book valuable and informative. Ultimately the work presented here is intended to inspire more self-reflection and creative ways to engage in new conversations that can respond to real-world issues and in which education can play a more vital role.
Cultural Psychology of Education
Volume 5
Series Editor
Giuseppina Marsico, University of Salerno, Salerno, Italy
Centre for Cultural Psychology, Aalborg University, Aalborg, Denmark
Editorial Board
Jaan Valsiner, Niels Bohr Professor of Cultural Psychology, Aalborg University,
Aalborg, Denmark
Nandita Chaudhary, Lady Irwin College, University of Delhi, Delhi, India
Virgínia Dazzani, UFBA-Universidade, Salvador, Brazil
Xiao-Wen Li, East China Normal University, Shanghai, China
Harry Daniels, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Nicolay Veresov, Monash University, Melbourne, Victoria, Australia
Wolff-Michael Roth, University of Victoria, Victoria, Canada
Yasuhiro Omi, University of Yamanashi, Victoria, Japan
This book series focuses on the development of new qualitative methodologies
for educational psychology and interdisciplinary enrichment in ideas and practices.
It publishes key ideas of methodology, different approaches to schooling, family,
relationships and social negotiations of issues of educational processes. It presents
new perspectives, such as dynamic systems theory, dialogical perspectives on the
development of the self within educational contexts, and the role of various sym-
bolic resources in educational processes. The series publishes research rooted in the
cultural psychology framework, thus combining the elds of psychology, anthropol-
ogy, sociology, education and history. Cultural psychology examines how human
experience is organized culturally, through semiotic mediation, symbolic action,
accumulation and exchange of inter-subjectively shared representations of the life-
space. By taking this approach, the series breaks through the "ontological" concep-
tualization of education in which processes of education are localized in liminality.
In this series, education is understood as goal-oriented personal movement that is at
the core of societal change in all its different formsfrom kindergarten to voca-
tional school and lifelong learning. It restructures personal lives both inside school
and outside the school. The cultural psychology approach to education ts the
global processes of most countries becoming multi-cultural in their social orders,
reects the interdisciplinary nature of educational psychology, and informs the
applications of educational psychology in a vast variety of cultural contexts.
This book series:
Is the rst to approach education from a cultural psychology perspective.
Offers an up-to-date exploration of recent work in cultural psychology of
Brings together new, novel, and innovative ideas.
Broadens the practical usability of different trends of cultural psychology of
More information about this series at
Frans Meijers · Hubert Hermans
The Dialogical Self Theory
in Education
A Multicultural Perspective
Frans Meijers
Meijers Onderzoek & Advies
The Netherlands
Hubert Hermans
Emeritus-Professor of Psychology
Radboud University of Nijmegen
The Netherlands
ISSN 2364-6780 ISSN 2364-6799 (electronic)
Cultural Psychology of Education
ISBN 978-3-319-62860-8 ISBN 978-3-319-62861-5 (eBook)
Library of Congress Control Number: 2017956745
©Springer International Publishing AG 2018
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The use of general descriptive names, registered names, trademarks, service marks, etc. in this publica-
tion does not imply, even in the absence of a specic statement, that such names are exempt from the
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The publisher, the authors and the editors are safe to assume that the advice and information in this
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The purpose of this book is to take a signicant step forward in order to go from
one-way reproductive learning to two-way dialogical learning in a society that is,
more than ever, in need of the personal construction of meaning. This step is
essential to transcend the limitations of an educational system that is still operating
in the shadow of the industrial age which favored reproduction above construc-
tion. Taking Dialogical Self Theory (DST) as their conceptual framework, the
authors in this book, working in different countries, cultures and contexts, offer a
variety of qualitative procedures and research projects that demonstrate both the
relevance and the fertility of the concept dialogicalityin contemporary educa-
tion. With this purpose in mind, we as editors bring together 13 contributions
from Western Europe, Eastern Europe, North America, Australia, and South-
Africa. All contributors are working in their own cultural context on the applica-
tion of DST in the eld of education.
In order for 21st century education to be truly meaningful for students and tea-
chers alike, educational environments must be developed where meaning can be
constructed on the basis of concrete experiences in all life domains. This requires
a dialogue on all levels of education. Firstly, on a micro-level where students are
invited to transform information into knowledge in a constructive way one that
is meaningful to them. Secondly, on a meso-level where transformational leader-
ship and collective learning are needed in order to create new professional identi-
ties and strong learning environments that makes co-construction possible. And
lastly, on a macro-level where public discourses should take place in which the
role of education in society in the 21st century is negotiated and the means by
which this can be realized are discussed.
Each chapter is divided into three parts: (a) a theoretical foundation (DST or a
combination of DST and another theoretical framework); (b) an exposition of a
qualitative research project or methodology as an elaboration of the proposed the-
oretical framework; and (c) several practical implications of the ndings or conclu-
sions of the research project, where attention is paid to the specic cultural
context in which the project was realized.
All contributions considered, this book offers relevant theoretical insights and
practical approaches to realize more dialogical forms of education. It will require
and hopefully also inspire more self-reection and creative ways to engage in new
conversations about education, both within ourselves as well as with others. We
hope indeed that it will contribute to education in a way that will shape, inspire,
and add meaning to the lives of many learners.
Frans Meijers
Hubert Hermans
vi Foreword
Preface from the Series Editor
Dialogue in Education
At the beginning of Platos Symposium, a short exchange between Agathon and
Socrates (175 c-d) sets the dialogical stage for the succession of speeches aimed at
exploring the power and nature of the erotic, and how it relates to issues of ethics,
epistemology, and ontology. I always found this short interchange the most mean-
ingful way to represent the dialogical bases of any educational intervention. The
scene is the following: Socrates arrives late to Agathons home since he was lost
in his own thoughts in the atrium. When he enters, Agathon invites Socrates to sit
next to him so that I may touch you, he says. And in doing so he hopes he can
become wise, as surely what was in Socratesmind while he was in the portico
can be thus transmitted to Agathon.
Socrates replies:
How I wish, taking his place as he was desired, that wisdom could be infused by touch,
out of the fuller into the emptier man, as water runs through wool out of a fuller cup into
an emptier one. (Plato, 1999)
What is at stake here is the transmissive versus the dialogically constructed
idea of knowledge and education. We are in an historical phase in which educa-
tion has been downsized in favour of reproductive learning and standardized
instructional practices. Teaching and learning have indeed been standardized with
very detailed prescriptions about how teachers are expected to teach and what stu-
dents are expected to learn, which is subsequently presented to the public as
goals-oriented teaching and learning.
Agathons invitation to Socrates to sit next to him hoping to be lled by his
wisdom (based on the simple exposure or proximity) is a hallmark of most con-
temporary educational debates. Education, instead, is hard and painful and takes
time. It implies, rst and foremost, the deconstruction and reconstruction of pre-
vious systems of knowledge. How is this possible without dialogue? It is not. And
it requires a specic kind of dialogical interaction between people with different
roles (i.e., teachers and students), under a specic set of conditions, within a parti-
cular system of rules and expectations, but still a dialogue!
The dialogue has transformative powers and supports the developmental changes
in both the way in which we come to know the world around us and make sense of
it and the denition of our Self (Hermans et al., 2017; Marsico, 2015).
According to the authors:
The composite concept dialogical selftranscends this dichotomy by bringing the exter-
nal to the internal and, in reverse, transporting the internal to the external. This allows
people to study the self as a society of I-positionsand, on the other hand, to consider
society as populated, stimulated, and renewed by the selves of its individual participants.
In this way, the Theory abandons any self-society dualism and any conception that
regards the self as essentialized and encapsulated in and of itself. (Meijers & Hermans,
this volume, p. 7)
Education, then, is one of the most signicant human arenas where this process
of internalization/externalization happens. Most educational psychologists shun
internalization and talk of appropriation. But it is only through internalization that
active makers of novel knowledge are created. Societies need young people who
are creatively ahead of the standards of existing knowledge so they may create
new understandings (Marsico & Valsiner, 2017). After all, education is the way to
free oneself from the oppression of rigid forms of thinking and narrow-minded
denitions of the Self and the Other (Szulevicz et al., 2016). The learning prac-
tices should improve the capability of developing abstract and general forms of
knowledge as well as a more integrated organization of the Self. Yet tensions,
oppositions and contradictions are the rule and not the exception within the Self.
Education is about a tension between the person and the imagined-person, lled
with the inherent ambivalence of educational ideology. In every educational con-
text, there are several kinds of tensions at stake: a polyphony between the adults
imaginations (e.g., teacher, parents) and the learners imaginations (Tateo, 2015)
Yet the tension is a dialogical condition in other words, any dialogical condition
is characterized by a structural tension that allows both dynamic stability and
dynamic development (Marsico & Tateo, 2017). Tension, then, is not something
to overcome (as long as it is within acceptable parameters), but it is a constitutive
element of psychological life itself and the basis of any educational process allowing
both development and integrity of the self-system.
Meijers and Hermansvolume The Dialogical Self Theory in Education: a
multicultural perspectivenicely shows how any educational process inevitably
deals with the ambivalences and complexities of our contemporary and future
existence as human beings.
July 2017
Salerno (Italy)
Giuseppina Marsico
viii Preface from the Series Editor
Hermans, H.J.M., Konopka, A., Oosterwegel, A., & Zomer, P. (2017). Fields of tension in a bound-
ary crossing world: towards a democratic organization of the self. Integrative Psychological and
Behavioural Science, 51(4). doi:
Marsico, G., (Ed.). (2015). Jerome S. Bruner beyond 100: cultivating possibilities.InCultural
psychology of education (Vol. 2). Cham: Springer.
Marsico, G., & Tateo, L. (2017). Borders, tensegrity and development in dialogue. Integrative
Psychological and Behavioural Sciences,51(4). doi:
Marsico, G., & Valsiner, J. (2017). Beyond the mind: cultural dynamics of the psyche. Charlotte:
Information Age Publishing.
Plato. (1999). The symposium (trans: Gill, C.). London: Penguin Books.
Szulevicz, T., May Eckerdal, R., Marsico, G., & Valsiner, J. (2016). When disruptive behaviour
meets outcome-based education. Psihologija, 49(4), 447468. doi:
Tateo, L. (2015). Lets frankly play: ambivalence, dilemmas and imagination. In G. Marsico (Ed.),
Jerome S. Bruner beyond 100: cultivating possibilities (pp. 5564). New York: Springer.
ixPreface from the Series Editor
Dialogical Self Theory in Education: An Introduction............... 1
Frans Meijers and Hubert Hermans
Being, Doing, and Becoming: Fostering Possibilities for Agentive
Dialogue .................................................. 19
Jennifer Clifton and Bob Fecho
Dialogue, Inquiry, Changing Roles, and the Dialogical Self .......... 35
Trevor Thomas Stewart
Engaging Children in Dialogic Classroom Talk: Does It Contribute
to a Dialogical Self? ......................................... 49
Chiel van der Veen, Marjolein Dobber and Bert van Oers
The Experience of the Other and the Premise of the Care for Self.
Intercultural Education as Umwendung .......................... 65
Barbara Schellhammer
Writing the Self for Reconciliation and Global Citizenship: The Inner
Dialogue and Creative Voices for Cultural Healing ................. 81
Reinekke Lengelle, Charity Jardine and Charlene Bonnar
Dialogue for Bridging Student TeachersPersonal and Professional
Identity ................................................... 97
Äli Leijen, Katrin Kullasepp and Aivi Toompalu
Teacher Identity as a Dialogical Construction ..................... 111
Rudy Vandamme
Afrikaner and Coloured School-Going Adolescents Negotiating Ethnic
Identities in a Post-Colonial South African Educational Context:
A Dialogical Self Interpretation ................................ 129
Charl Alberts
Dialogical Selves and Intersectional Masculinities: Image-and-Interview
Research with South African Adolescents ........................ 143
David Blackbeard
Dialogical Self and Struggling Reader Identity .................... 157
Dawan Coombs
Use of My Career Chapter to Engage Students in
Reexive Dialogue........................................... 173
Michael Healy, Peter McIlveen and Sara Hammer
A Dialogical Approach for Learning Communities Between Positioning
and Reformulation .......................................... 189
Susanna Annese and Marta Traetta
Index ..................................................... 211
xii Contents
... I as a sports fanatic, I as a helpful colleague, I as wanting to become a doctor) is relevant to mental health, but also the way they are organised as parts of a dynamic self, including the relative dominance of I-positions, neglected I-positions, and the role of significant others as internalised I-positions in the self. Moreover, this theory has generated a diversity of methods and practical procedures for the stimulation of learning processes in education (Meijers & Hermans, 2018) and for the reorganisation of the self in psychotherapy (Konopka, Hermans, & Goncalves, 2019). ...
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Two main forms of well-being are outlined: hedonic and eudemonic happiness as viewed from the perspective of Self-Determination Theory and from narrative psychology. Two limitations of these approaches are discussed: the lack of the other in the self and the neglect of reason. Taking these limitations into account, a model of multiple well-being is presented with four levels of inclusiveness: individual, social, human, and ecological, each with associated forms of well-being and responsibility. For each of these levels, research findings and related theoretical concepts are presented. At the collective level, the chapter summarizes the reflections of colleagues who applied Dialogical Self Theory in their own culture: African, Japanese, Chinese, and indigenous American. A comparison results in the conclusion that all of them show more open boundaries between self and nonself, more intimacy with others and nature, and less emphasis on control and manipulation of the environment.
The present chapter discusses the close relations between creativity and human values, based on a dialogical paradigm and the study of moral development from a cultural semiotic perspective in Psychology. Conventional approaches to creativity tend to consider creativity as a phenomenon that mainly belongs to the realms of intellectual or artistic achievements and innovative productions. In this chapter, drawing on a dialogical and cultural perspective, I argue for a cultural approach to creativity and analyze the motivational roots of creativity and its role in the promotion of human development as a whole. I also explore the existing interconnections between creativity, the development of the dialogic self and the psychological dimension of ethics and morality). The text contemplates the elaboration, from a cultural and dialogical psychology perspective, of three intertwined issues that I see as necessary to provide the grounds for the arguments I put together in the chapter. In short, I theoretically elaborate on the concepts of value, creativity, dialogical self development, and their systemic interconnections along human ontogenesis, explaining how this may foster democratic relations among people concept.
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Existing research shows that in South Africa, there are reasons for concern regarding the achievements of a large proportion of Grade 6 learners in language learning. The impact of this poor language achievement affects their success rates across learning areas and in higher grades. It has also been found that historically, Grade 6 boys have achieved and continue to achieve lower results than their female peers in national and international language assessments. However, boys’ language learning in the Intermediate Phase in South African schools is surprisingly under-researched, particularly their writing skills development. This study uses positioning theory to understand Grade 6 boys’ writing development. A cycle of the Grade 6 writing programme, as prescribed by the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement (CAPS) (DBE, 2011), was observed and analysed. Although the teachers followed the same policy statement (the CAPS), it was found that their scaffolding approaches within the stages of the writing cycle differed significantly. It was concluded that there are significant links among three key elements: teacher knowledge, teachers’ and learners’ positioning in the writing process, and learners achieving the object of cognition in the stages of the writing cycle.
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This case study aims to analyze the change of identity of a student in the last year of the psychology course. That is, the transition from a student position to new professional identity positions. This preliminary study allows us to contrast the used analysis tools, for the purpose of apply them to a larger group in another research, in which we are studying other five members of the group class.
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The objective of this paper is to explore mothers’ psychological adaptation related to separation from their newborn children immediately after birth. Mother and child separation has traditionally received attention from the child’s perspective, but given that the bond is dyadic, the mother’s wellbeing should also be considered. This qualitative study is based on interview data with mothers of premature infants. From the analysis, three themes emerged: concerns during pregnancy about premature birth; emotional strain caused by separation; and the need to protect and to be close to the newborn. Drawing on the perspectives of dialogical self theory and semiotic regulation model, the paper will focus on intra-psychological dynamics and will analyze the adaptation process in terms of I-positions. Based on the analysis, the maternal bond represents the integration of the I-position I-as-mother and My child, which is integrated during the pregnancy into the core of the self. It can be assumed that rupture of the self-continuity is activated by the birth of the child, which is then compounded if the child leaves. The maternal superordinate viewpoint (meta-I-position) directs a woman’s behavior and allows for a sense of coherence under dynamic organization related to the birth of the child. The potential for psychological adaptation is presented as an ability to establish self-continuity.
In this volume, Dialogical Self Theory is innovatively presented as a guide to help elucidate some of the most pressing problems of our time as they emerge at the interface of self and society. As a bridging framework at the interface of the social sciences and philosophy, Dialogical Self Theory provides a broad view of problem areas that place us in a field of tension between liberation and social imprisonment. With climate change and the coronavirus pandemic serving as wake-up calls, the book focuses on the experience of uncertainty, the disenchantment of the world, the pursuit of happiness, and the cultural limitations of the Western self-ideal. Now more than ever we need to rethink the relationship between self, other, and the natural environment, and this book uses Dialogical Self Theory to explore actual and potential responses of the self to these urgent challenges.
Transitioning from a student to a professional position is a complex process that requires the involvement of different learning experiences based on facing authentic problems of professional practice. In this study, we explore the evolution of a group of five students in the context of an context of an innovative psychology degree programme at training future professionals in educational psychology. The students carried out a professional project that involved helping schoolteachers in dealing with some of the difficulties they face in their daily work. For this purpose, they collected in situ information, made joint decisions, discussed those decisions in a digital forum with other students and professionals and prepared a proposal, which they subsequently presented for evaluation. Data obtained from mapping, individual interviews, the Personal Position Repertoire, the community identity plot and the focus group were analyzed. Through content analysis, the participants’ positions as students or professionals and the transitions between them were identified. The results show reciprocal changes in the I-positions and We-positions which influence individual and group construction of professional identity. Furthermore, these changes informed us of the educational potential of some teaching activities.
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In this chapter I explore how Dialogical Self Theory and Maternal Theory can be mutually enriching in understanding the maternal self (pp. 351-358). It is a chapter of the book 'Dialogicality. Personal, local, and planetary dialogue in Education, Health, Citizenship, and Research', edited by Carles Monereo, Crista Weise and Hubert Hermans, which includes all lectures and papers of the conference of the International Society of Dialogical Self (June 2021), and represents a state of the art of much of the current research on DST.
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In this article we propose a development of the Dialogical Self Theory by introducing the notions of borders, cogenetic logic and tensegrity that we have elaborated during the last 5 years, in order to introduce a stronger developmental and dynamic perspective within the theory. We start from the discussion of some recent advancements of the model proposed by Hermans et al. (Integrative Psychological and Behavioural Science, 51(4), 2017), who refer to the metaphor of democratic society of the Self to understand the challenges and possible directions of adaptation that the persons can face in those border-crossing processes characterizing contemporary western societies. We conceptualized the Self as a dynamic semiotic system in constant evolutive tension, rather than a system in equilibrium adapting to the environmental changing conditions. Then, we propose to replace the concept of stability and continuity of the Self with the more fruitful idea of tensional integrity.
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Disruptive behavior is a major concern for most educational systems. Schools often respond to disruptive students with exclusionary and punitive approaches that have limited effect or value. Moreover, recent neoliberal trends with increased focus on student learning outcome change the attitudes towards disruptive student behavior and also narrow down and homogenize the range of what is considered as “acceptable student behavior”. In this article we discuss the interrelationship between an outcome-based, neoliberal school approach and notions of disruptive behavior. We claim that the outcome-based and neoliberal approach to education basically promotes an un-educational way of thinking about education that also has a huge influence on perceptions of and tolerance towards all kinds of disruptions in schools - whether they come from students, parents, teachers or researchers.
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One of the central concerns in Bruner’s psychology is the complex, apparently contradictory nature of human behavior. In his view, the cognitive revolution was meant to grasp the actual experience of people dealing with everyday dilemmas, finding their way in the difficult task of choosing what it is ought to do, rather than an orthodontic of thinking as later it turned to be. In this chapter I try to discuss the relationship between imagination, ambivalence and dilemmatic nature of experience as a theme that transversally crossed Bruner’s thought along his work. Ethic and aesthetic dimensions are fundamental to understand his rich theorizing both in developmental, educational and general psychology.
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The influence of globalization on psychological functioning is examined. First, descriptions of how globalization is occurring in various world regions are presented. Then the psychological consequences of globalization are described, with a focus on identify issues. Specifically, it is argued that most people worldwide now develop a bicultural identity that combines their local identity with an identity linked to the global culture; that identity confusion may be increasing among young people in non-Western cultures as a result of globalization; that some people join self-selected cultures to maintain an identity that is separate from the global culture; and that a period of emerging adulthood increasingly extends identity explorations beyond adolesence, through the mid- to late twenties.
This book celebrates the 100th birthday of Jerome S. Bruner, one of the most relevant scholars in contemporary psychology. It shows how Bruner’s oeuvre and contributions to psychology, education and law are still applicable today and full of unexplored possibilities. The volume brings together contributions from Bruner’s students and colleagues, all of whom use his legacy to explore the future of psychology in in Bruner’s spirit of interpretation. Rather than being a mere celebration, the volume shows a “genuine interest for the emergence of the novelty” and examines the potentialities of Bruner’s work in cultural psychology, discussing such concepts as ambivalence, intersubjectivity, purpose, possibilities, and wonderment. Combining international and interdisciplinary perspectives, this volume tells the tale of Jerome Bruner’s academic life and beyond.
The cultivation of intrinsic motivation is key in the twenty first century, but most students in Dutch vocational education lack this quality. To foster intrinsic motivation, a strong career-learning environment is needed that enables students to develop career competencies and a career identity. However such an environment is absent in much of vocational education in The Netherlands. Research shows that desired learning must be practice based (real life experiences are key), enable a dialogue (in order to attach personal meaning to real life experiences) and give students more autonomy in making choices in their school careers. Although there has been an increase in the use of portfolios and personal-development plans, these instruments are used mainly for improving success at school but are not in career and work. In addition, research on the conversations between student and teachers/work-place mentors shows that the latter talk primarily to (65%), and about (21%), but rarely with (9%) them. The culture in schools is still predominately monological. Most teachers feel uncertain about their abilities to help students in developing career competencies and a career identity, though a growing number of teachers want to be trained in initiating meaningful career dialogues. In order to make such training successful in terms of promoting new guidance behaviours, it is essential that school managers create a strong career-learning environment for teachers. The Standards Era policies (Gatto JT, Weapons of mass instruction. New Society Publishers, Gabriola, 2009) that dominate Dutch vocational education at the moment, however, leaves managers little space to do so.
In post-industrial societies, careers are to a large extent unpredictable. Therefore, individuals are expected to demonstrate more and more self-directedness. Universities in general embrace the idea of developing more self-directedness among their students but mostly fail to create the learning environment needed to foster this. In this article, an explorative and qualitative analysis is given of underlying innovation processes in three university departments that successfully implemented a careers guidance programme based on non-traditional (i.e. narrative) methods. We argue that for a successful implementation collective learning of teachers is essential, while on a management level transformational leadership is necessary to support the collective learning process of teachers. First, the connections between collective learning and transformational leadership are studied. Second, by combining the results of all three cases, we explore what daily practices constitute collective learning and transformational leadership. The study aims to contribute in an explorative and descriptive way to the extant literature, by mapping the variety and richness of the concepts collective learning and transformational leadership as they pertain to realising strong career-learning environments in higher education.
In a boundary-crossing and globalizing world, the personal and social positions in self and identity become increasingly dense, heterogeneous and even conflicting. In this handbook scholars of different disciplines, nations and cultures (East and West) bring together their views and applications of dialogical self theory in such a way that deeper commonalities are brought to the surface. As a 'bridging theory', dialogical self theory reveals unexpected links between a broad variety of phenomena, such as self and identity problems in education and psychotherapy, multicultural identities, child-rearing practices, adult development, consumer behaviour, the use of the internet and the value of silence. Researchers and practitioners present different methods of investigation, both qualitative and quantitative, and also highlight applications of dialogical self theory.