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Agency, Human Dignity, and Subjective Well-being

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Abstract

In the last decades, our understanding of human well-being and development has shifted from a traditional focus on income and consumption toward a richer multidimensional approach. This shift has been strongly influenced by a body of research in subjective well-being (SWB) and the capabilities’ approach, which emphasizes the role of freedom, opportunities, and social inclusion on well-being. Using a novel nationally representative survey of Chilean households, this paper explores the relationship between life satisfaction and two “hidden dimensions” of development, agency, and human dignity. Human agency refers to the capability of an individual to control her destiny and make choices to fulfill goals set autonomously. Human dignity is associated with the absence of feelings of shame and humiliation, and is ultimately related to social inclusion. We use a method that allows to isolate the impact of personality traits affecting both SWB and capabilities’ perceptions. Our results show that agency and shame are important predictors of life satisfaction, comparable in magnitude to the effect of income variables. The fact that capabilities that measure freedoms and social inclusion are aligned with well-being measures lends support to the view of human development as integral process. Policies to advance agency, and reduce shame and discrimination are discussed. In the case of shame and discrimination we emphasize the role of interventions that influence stigmatization and group boundaries.

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... The research activities focused on: (1) eliciting the individual and collective WASH experiences of all participants, (2) mapping WASH systems from the household to the city scale (see Rietbergen-McCracken and Narayan-Parker, 1998;Kumar, 2002), (3) revealing capabilities of residents through self-determined initiatives to make changes (Hojman and Miranda, 2018), and (4) bringing residents and non-resident enabling actors together to plan, support and execute actions (Supplementary Information, Table S3). We also employed a range of reflective -and reflexive -research practices throughout the project in order to better understand everyone's experiences of being involved in PAR (including our own). ...
... Research shows that when communities actively take self-determined initiative toward their wellbeing by leveraging their local capabilities, they develop an enhanced sense of local ownership of problems and decisions, which fosters human agency and hence greater control over wellbeing outcomes (Hojman and Miranda 2018). The final objective of this workshop was for the participants to begin brainstorming a WaSH action plan. ...
... The interviews followed an open-ended informal conversational method (Turner 2010 This activity aimed to understand changes in personal agency that may have come about as a direct or indirect result of this project. Personal agency is indicated by a person's felt state of power and a sense of control over everyday decisions and is directly necessary for wellbeing (Hojman and Miranda 2018). ...
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The strength of the 'enabling environment' for development is often considered to be one of the key elements in whether development initiatives fail or succeed. Attempts to strengthen the enabling environment have resulted in a series of checklists and frameworks that imagine it largely to be fixed, static, and separated from 'beneficiaries'. In the Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene (WASH) sector, there is a preoccupation with fostering an optimal enabling environment that will result naturally in 'ideal' and formalised user participation, which will in turn lead to universal access to water and sanitation. In this paper, we challenge this simplistic and linear view of an enabling environment that is perpetuated by checklists and frameworks. We conducted a three-and-a-half-year transdisciplinary participatory action research (PAR) project which sought to foster WASH solutions in impoverished informal settlements in Fiji, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu. In a critical reflection on this project, we analyse the ways in which we both perpetuated problematic checklists and worked collaboratively with our participants to reimagine the enabling environment. We show how individuals challenged the expert–beneficiary dichotomy as they built 'practical authority' from their peers through taking action. Our study demonstrates that conceptualising the enabling environment as a dynamic ecology of actors, relationships and processes that includes the users of WASH as active participants was essential to supporting progress towards universal WASH access. We argue that working within the politics of development rather than seeking to render problems as technical was crucial to fostering WASH improvements that were determined by residents themselves and supported by stakeholders. Such an inclusive approach is essential to fully leveraging the co-productive possibilities of participation. If development practitioners and scholars are to achieve development outcomes in an equitable and participatory manner, they must shift their conceptualisation of the enabling environment as being a checklist of things 'out there' to one where they work to find their place within an ecology of participatory collectives.
... Even when controlling for a broad range of individual-level characteristics and societal conditions, perceived autonomy always strongly positively influences Europeans' life satisfaction, which is consistent with other existing evidence of this relationship (e.g. Hojman and Miranda 2018;Maridal 2017;Ng 2015). Additionally, independently from their level of perceived autonomy, individuals are significantly more satisfied with their lives in countries that provide better economic conditions, offer more civil freedoms, and are characterized by a more tolerant value climate. ...
... Unfortunately, the EQLS dataset does not include any information on personality traits, so these effects could not be considered. However, there is also evidence that autonomy (Hojman and Miranda 2018;Ng 2015), as well as self-evaluated functionings like respect (Ng et al. 2019), friendship (Ng et al. 2019), health (Budría and Ferrer-I-Carbonell, 2019), or financial satisfaction (Ng 2015), have independent effects on life satisfaction when controlled for personality traits. These are shortcomings enforced by the data available. ...
Article
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This paper examines the association of opportunity and choice enhancing societal conditions and perceived autonomy with life satisfaction in Europe. Building on the capability approach, I investigate whether the positive effects of six basic functionings-safety, friendship, health, financial security, leisure, and respect-on people's life satisfaction are weaker when people have more opportunity and choice. This paper addresses two main questions: (1) Are people more satisfied with their life when they have more opportunity and choice? (2) Do basic functionings play a smaller role for life satisfaction in societies that enable more opportunity and choice and for individuals with more perceived auton-omy? The analyses are based on the European Quality of Life Survey (2016), covering 36,460 individuals in 33 European countries and using multilevel linear regressions. My study finds that both choice and opportunity enhancing societal conditions and individual's perceived autonomy are positively associated with on life satisfaction. Further, all six basic functionings are conducive to individual life satisfaction. The positive effects of health, financial security, respect, and friendship are reduced when people experience a great deal of autonomy over their lives. Societal conditions that provide people with more opportunity and choice further lower the positive effects of financial security, leisure, respect, and safety on individual life satisfaction. This corroborates the importance the capability approach attributes to individual opportunities and freedom of choice.
... The concept of community wellbeing is an extension of quality of life and subjective wellbeing research that measure human progress beyond economic growth (Deaton 2008). These notions emerged to address the shortcoming of solely economic-based measures of human development, such as GDP (Hojman and Miranda 2018). In the past two decades, scholars across disciplines such as behavioral, social, economic and health sciences, provided different definitions and indicators to measure quality of life and wellbeing. ...
... The popularity of these ideas in the past decades has led to development of many instruments and tools to measure subjective and objective well-being of individuals (Deaton 2008). Philosopher Martha Nussbaum and economist Amartya Sen developed and promoted a framework known as "capabilities approach" to move away from the focus on psyche of individuals to argue that individual wellbeing increases with the expansion of freedom and opportunities (Hojman and Miranda 2018). Capabilities approach is the center piece of community wellbeing framework as it opens room to account for a diverse range of variables that affect individuals' wellbeing beyond their perception or satisfaction with life and help individuals' capabilities to be realized. ...
Article
Metropolitan suburban communities have become increasingly diverse in the past two decades. Most working-class and lower-income immigrant households settle in the old industrial suburbs of the US metro regions. These newcomers have reversed the declining patterns of many first-ring suburban communities. Policy makers have celebrated the contribution of these newcomers mainly to the labor market and local economy and paid less attention to the health-effect of immigrant revitalization. This study aims to address this gap by focusing on the ways that immigrant food entrepreneurs contribute to the health and wellbeing of a multiethnic working-class suburb (Upper Darby, PA). The research pursues three questions (1) how do immigrant food entrepreneurs contribute to community and economic development? (2) how do they shape the food environment of a diverse community? (3) how do they impact people’s food shopping and consumption patterns? This mixed-method research has three lines of inquiry. The first relies on historical research to examine the ways that immigrant food businesses impacted vacancy and food access over time. The results showed that the persistent operation, ownership and business transfer of ethnic food businesses stabilized the community and provided continuous access to food. The second utilizes interviews, field observation, and a survey of customers at ethnic and non-ethnic food businesses to explore the roles of immigrant-run food stores among immigrant and native-born residents. The findings revealed that ethnic food businesses served both ethnic and non-ethnic clientele, promoted walking, and enhanced community safety and relationships. The third draws on cross-sectional surveys of a purposive sample of residents to understand how residents of different backgrounds navigate their food environment in a diverse setting. The survey demonstrated that ethnic food businesses contributed to the diversity and density of the food environment, enabling residents to navigate the food environment based on their own needs, preferences and food budget. This study carries implications for local governments that seek to achieve the triple goals of creating healthy communities, community and economic development, and integration of newcomers in receiving communities.
... Algunos autores definen agencia como la capacidad de control para alcanzar metas definidas autónomamente (Hojman y Miranda, 2018), otros aluden al direccionamiento para satisfacer necesidades hedónicas (Fernández y Kambhampati, 2017), otros desde la noción de autodeterminación (Ryan y Deci, 2000), algunos resaltan las creencias, motivaciones y estados afectivos (Klein, 2014), otro grupo la aborda desde las relaciones de poder intragrupales (Guerin et al. 2013). Crocker (2008) la tipifica como directa o indirecta en base al nivel de implicancia en las metas. ...
... Sobre empoderamiento, focalizándonos en su expansión efectiva, la evidencia resalta la importancia de la estructura de oportunidades (Víctor et al. 2013), el valor intrínseco de la agencia (Fernández et al., 2015), los disparadores individuales y comunitarios (Priebe, 2017), su rol frente al bienestar subjetivo (Hojman y Miranda, 2018), los espacios de dominación intra-grupal (Guerin et al. 2013) y sus componentes psicológicos (Klein, 2014). También, se identifican algunos determinantes y/o correlatos del empoderamiento, como la educación, el status laboral, la edad, la estructura familiar y la participación comunitaria (Samman y Santos, 2009). ...
Article
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El estudio analizó las relaciones entre la conectividad social, el crecimiento postraumático y el empoderamiento en la búsqueda de justicia y verdad en miembros de una organización de familiares de desaparecidos por la violencia política ocurrida en el Perú. Para este fin, se realizaron entrevistas a profundidad que buscaron tipificar a la justicia y verdad como meta de agencia y los funcionamientos logrados, la aracterización de las relaciones interpersonales al interior del colectivo y la identificación de cambios en el tiempo tras la experiencia de violencia. Los resultados revelaron cambios importantes en lo relacional, pasando de una valoración instrumental a una intrínseca respecto a la organización. Se identificaron también cambios en el crecimiento postraumático, a razón de los vínculos interpersonales y el procesamiento de lo vivido. Finalmente, se revelaron funcionamientos intermedios y finales sobre el dominio de justicia y verdad, siendo los primeros condicionantes del logro de los últimos y en donde lo interpersonal tuvo un valor especial pues facilitó el procesamiento del evento traumático y también el logro de la meta de justicia y verdad. Al respecto, el crecimiento postraumático cumpliría un rol intermediador, dada la particularidad del caso, entre lo relacional y el empoderamiento para lograr justicia y verdad.
... In both high-and lowincome settings, nonmaterial factors are crucial for human happiness (e.g., Narayan et al. 2000, Gough andMcGregor 2007). There are three broad approaches for understanding how to generate the conditions necessary for this good life: welfare, capabilities, and psychological (Hojman and Miranda 2018). ...
... Other approaches build on Sen's (2001) capabilities approach and conceptualize human well-being as the ability to take part in society in a meaningful way. Here subjective well-being results from personal freedoms, human agency, self-efficacy, dignity, and relatedness to others (e.g., Nussbaum 2001, Hojman and Miranda 2018, Markussen et al. 2018. Finally, psychological perspectives focus on individual differences in experiences of subjective well-being based on personality traits, inherited predisposition, and previous experiences (e.g., Diener et al. 2003). ...
Article
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Improving quality of life of farmers in rapidly changing rural economies remains a challenge. In low income settings, agricultural lean seasons lead to a fall in consumption and nutrition that affect longer term well-being trajectories. However, human well-being goes beyond material wealth, and increasingly subjective well-being is measured to reflect whether personal objectives are being met across a range of life domains. However, resource constraints mean surveys are usually carried out once a year, or at most, once a season. Here, we investigate whether life satisfaction reported annually is representative of assessments throughout the year, with a focus on the influence of the agricultural cycle on scores. We do so using data from a novel, mobile phone-based survey that collected 10,032 observations of life satisfaction reported weekly for one calendar year in land-owning farmers in Bangladesh. The data show that most individuals report stable and midrange life satisfaction. Smaller groups show consistently low, consistently high, or fluctuating levels of satisfaction. Using a cluster analysis, we define natural groups based on levels and stability of satisfaction. Social-demographics as well as material wealth predict membership of these groups showing the relative and culturally embedded nature of subjective well-being. Agricultural activities throughout the year are significantly associated with reported life satisfaction, but not always consistent with low seasons: land preparation and harvest are associated with increased life satisfaction; weeding and irrigation are associated with lower satisfaction. Furthermore, we show that the periods of activity during the agricultural cycle most likely to be associated with satisfaction vary depending on whether the individual reports high, low, or variable life satisfaction. Thus, we suggest, to improve well-being in low-income rural areas, analysis should include people's propensity to be satisfied, as this alters sensitivity to changes in other life domains.
... In both high-and lowincome settings, nonmaterial factors are crucial for human happiness (e.g., Narayan et al. 2000, Gough andMcGregor 2007). There are three broad approaches for understanding how to generate the conditions necessary for this good life: welfare, capabilities, and psychological (Hojman and Miranda 2018). ...
... Other approaches build on Sen's (2001) capabilities approach and conceptualize human well-being as the ability to take part in society in a meaningful way. Here subjective well-being results from personal freedoms, human agency, self-efficacy, dignity, and relatedness to others (e.g., Nussbaum 2001, Hojman and Miranda 2018, Markussen et al. 2018. Finally, psychological perspectives focus on individual differences in experiences of subjective well-being based on personality traits, inherited predisposition, and previous experiences (e.g., Diener et al. 2003). ...
Article
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Place attachment is often associated with opposition to infrastructure projects that change the characteristics of locations, including dam construction and removal. It has been suggested that in circumstances in which a project's perceived impacts are compatible with prevailing tangible place meanings, projects can be accepted even where local place attachment is strong. Here, we focus on the role of intangible place meanings in opposition to and acceptance of the potential removal of the Mactaquac Dam in New Brunswick, Canada. Based on interviews with 32 local stakeholders, we identified a range of place meanings related to community and personal identity. Continuity over time, community distinctiveness, and the role of various activities and experiences in developing identity were key themes. Those who wanted to retain the dam and those who wanted to remove the dam shared many meanings and only diverged in two community meanings. We suggest that conflict between the two groups may either be primarily based in different tangible meanings but escalated by the more emotional tangible meanings or that the two diverging community meanings were highly important. Further studies should investigate the specific role of intangible meanings in conflict where place attachment is strong.
... Between 1966 and 1988, they torched, destroyed and appropriated property; raped; tortured; murdered and subjected Rohingya to other forms of violence which forced millions of Rohingya to flee to neighbouring countries including Bangladesh, India, Thailand and Malaysia (Ullah, 2016). Similar violent crackdowns occurred in 1991-2, 1996and, most recently, in August 2017(Ibrahim, 2016Wade, 2017;Ullah, 2011;Ragland, 1994;Pittaway, 2008;Kipgen 2013 andDussich, 2018). Added to this, particularly since 2012, violence towards the Rohingya by Buddhist groups who had previously lived peacefully alongside them in mutual interdependence grew. ...
... According to Hill (1991), to treat people with [Kantian] dignity is to treat them as autonomous individuals able to choose their destiny. It is more than merely unconditional human worth which demands a right to respect from others. ...
... A nivel conceptual, algunos autores definen la agencia en torno a la capacidad de para controlar el propio destino y las decisiones para la consecución de metas establecidas autónomamente (Guerin, Kumar & Agier, 2013;Hojman & Miranda, 2018;Trommlerova, Klasen & Lebmann, 2015;Fernández & Kambhampati, 2017;Fernández, Della Giusta, Kambhampati, 2015). Algunos autores agregan a la agencia la libertad para satisfacer necesidades de tipo hedónico (Fernández & Kambhampati, 2017). ...
... La evidencia empírica sobre los estudios de empoderamiento revelan falencias entre indicadores de resultado y de proceso (Cueva-Beteta, 2007;Garikipati, 2013), la importancia de la estructura de oportunidades para evitar procesos de frustración ante creencias de agencia elevadas (Víctor et al. 2013), el valor intrínseco de la agencia (Fernández et al., 2015), disparadores individuales y comunitarios del empoderamiento (Priebe, 2017), la importancia de la cooperación y la toma de decisiones conjunta en el hogar como alternativa a intervenciones focalizadas en el empoderamiento femenino como única vía de desarrollo (Fernández et al., 2017), el papel de la vergüenza y la agencia en el bienestar subjetivo (Hojman & Miranda, 2018), los espacios de dominación más allá de la diada hombre-mujer en iniciativas vinculadas al micro-crédito (Guerin et al., 2013), los componentes psicológicos de la agencia (Klein, 2014) y el papel de las iniciativas de participación política y reconocimiento de derechos para el empoderamiento femenino (Goldman & Little, 2015). ...
Thesis
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Este estudio tiene como objetivo analizar las relaciones entre la conectividad social, el crecimiento postraumático y el empoderamiento – entendido como expansión de la agencia – en el dominio de búsqueda de justicia y verdad tomando en cuenta el caso de la Asociación Nacional de Familiares de Secuestrados, Detenidos y Desaparecidos del Perú (ANFASEP). Para lograr dicho fin se llevaron a cabo entrevistas a profundidad a miembros de la organización, tanto de la primera como de la segunda generación de asociados. Las entrevistas buscaron que los participantes identifiquen, conceptualicen y evalúen la justicia y verdad como metas de agencia, analicen las características y procesos de las relaciones interpersonales en la organización y finalmente identifiquen cambios experimentados en el tiempo, así como funcionamientos logrados en dicho dominio. Los resultados revelan cambios significativos en el tiempo respecto a las conectividades sociales establecidas en la organización, pasando de lo instrumental, en los primeros años, a lo instrumental y constitutivo en el presente. Así también, se identificaron cambios relacionados al crecimiento postraumático en donde la conectividad social cumplió un papel fundamental. Finalmente, se reportan un conjunto de funcionamientos intermedios y finales logrados en el dominio de justicia y verdad en donde se revela el importante rol que cumplen las relaciones interpersonales para el ejercicio de la agencia de las y los participantes y en donde el crecimiento postraumático funcionaría como un proceso intermedio que permitió mejoras no solo a nivel psicológico, sino también, a nivel de la consecución de metas de agencia. Palabras clave: conectividad social, crecimiento postraumático, agencia, empoderamiento, agencia relacional, capacidades relacionales, justicia y verdad.
... Many previous empirical researches often measured subjective well-being by coding respondents' responses to a single question (e.g., in general, how satisfied or unsatisfied are you with your life overall?), including Hojman and Miranda (2018); Asadullah et al. (2018); Zeng and Yu (2019) and etc. Some large-scale social surveys also take the subjective well-being and related factors into consideration such as European Social Surveys, China General Social Survey (CGSS) and China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS). ...
... While giving more weight to alternative standards (whether moral, critical, educational, aesthetic, spiritual, communitarian or other) does not make insecurity and material constraints disappear, it can diminish their salience and impact on well-being. For instance, it can facilitate maintaining dignity, which has been shown to have a direct impact on subjective well-being (Hojman and Miranda 2018). Alternative standards explain how 'quality of life' can be understood and experienced strikingly differently across social contexts (as shown for instance, in Singh's (2015) surprising study of the life of laborers living in extreme poverty in Rajasthan, India). ...
... The analytical theme emerging from this review is agency; that is an individual's ability to choose whether to continue to exercise based on their own beliefs, experiences and those of society and the environment they are in. [30][31][32] The choice to continue to exercise after participation in a falls prevention exercise programme appears to be a dichotomy; participants either do exercise, or they don't. Although, as a caveat to this and highlighted in the 'I'm already doing enough' theme, after time, some people who do continue initially, stop once they achieve what they perceive to be successful personal goals. ...
Article
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Objectives To review the qualitative literature that explores the barriers and facilitators to continued participation in falls prevention exercise after completion of a structured exercise programme. Design A systematic literature review with thematic synthesis of qualitative studies exploring older adults’ experiences of continued participation in falls prevention exercise. Data sources Comprehensive searches were conducted in MEDLINE, PSYCHinfo, AMED, ASSIA, CINAHL and EMBASE from inception until November 2017. Additional studies were identified via searches of reference lists and citation tracking of relevant studies. Eligibility criteria Qualitative or mixed methods studies exploring experiences of community-dwelling older adults (65 years and over) participation in a falls prevention exercise programme including their experience of ongoing participation in exercise after the completion of a structured exercise programme. Data extraction and synthesis Key characteristics including aim, participant characteristics, method of data collection, underpinning qualitative methodology and analytical approach were extracted and independently checked. Thematic synthesis was used to integrate findings. Results From 14 studies involving 425 participants, we identified three descriptive themes: identity, motivators/deterrents and nature of the intervention and one overarching analytical theme: agency. Conclusions Older people have their own individual and meaningful rationale for either continuing or stopping exercise after completion of a structured falls prevention exercise programme. Exploring these barriers and facilitators to continued exercise is key during the intervention phase. It is important that health care professionals get to know the older person’s rationale and offer the best evidence-based practice and support to individuals, to ensure a smooth transition from their structured intervention towards longer-term exercise-related behaviour. PROSPERO registration number CRD42017082637.
... This is significant within a context in which agency has widely been acknowledged as being important to wellbeing (e.g. Hojman & Miranda, 2018;Welzel & Inglehart, 2010), particularly the wellbeing of children (Fattore, Mason & Watson, 2007). ...
... Here, subjective well-being results from processes such as equality of opportunity, personal freedoms, human agency, self-efficacy, an ability to self-actualise, dignity and relatedness to others (e.g. Nussbaum 2001;Markussen et al. 2017;Hojman and Miranda 2018). Psychological perspectives focus on individual differences in experiences of subjective well-being based on personality traits, inherited predisposition and previous experiences (e.g. ...
Article
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While the benefits humans gain from ecosystem functions and processes are critical in natural resource-dependent societies with persistent poverty, ecosystem services as a pathway out of poverty remain an elusive goal, contingent on the ecosystem and mediated by social processes. Here, we investigate three emerging dimensions of the ecosystem service-poverty relationship: economic contribution of provisioning ecosystem services to the household livelihood mix, social-ecological systems producing different bundles of ecosystem services and material wealth versus reported life satisfaction. We analyse these relationships in Bangladesh, using data from a bespoke 1586-household survey, stratified by seven social-ecological systems in the delta coastal region. We create poverty lines to ensure comparability with traditional poverty measures that overlook environmental factors and subjective measurements of well-being. We find that any contribution of ecosystem service-based income to the livelihood mix decreases the likelihood of the incidence of poverty, and of individuals reporting dissatisfaction. We find no relationship between the incidence of material poverty and the specific social-ecological systems, from agriculture to fishery-dominated systems. However, the probability of the household head being dissatisfied was significantly associated with social-ecological system. Individuals living in areas dominated by export-oriented shrimp aquaculture reported lower levels of life satisfaction as an element of their perceived well-being. These results highlight the need for social policy on poverty that accounts for the diversity of outcomes across social-ecological systems, including subjective as well as material dimensions of well-being. National poverty reduction that degrades ecosystem services can have negative implications for the subjective well-being of local populations.
... In recent times, human equity has evolved rapidly based on two schools of thought: subjective human wellbeing theory, which measures the level of personal disposal to access material resources such as water (Di Tella & MacCulloch, 2006) and the human capabilities theory, which measures access to basic necessities that control human development (Sen, 1992;Hojman & Miranda, 2018). Based on human wellbeing and capabilities theories, Alkire (2002) introduced the concept of human dignity as a description of the absence of discrimination, humiliation and feeling of shame when individuals do not have acceptable access to the basic resources. ...
Article
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Despite the prevalence of theories focused on the human right to water, very little research has been conducted about the implication of personal duties for using the water in informal settlements. Based on the UNESCO water principles the paper aims to evaluate both the rights and personal duties as well as the role that human dignity plays in the provision of better water services. Structural model equation SEM-PLS was implemented on the data provided by 483 informal dwellers at Doornkop (Soweto) in 2019. The model revealed high statistical significance and strong predictive power, which can lead decision-makers to improve the access to water and sanitation in informal settlements. The results indicate that personal duties drawn from the use of water such as participation, report leakages, polluters-pay and users-pay etc., need to be implemented to provide better access to water and sanitation for vulnerable dwellers. Furthermore, the presented results reflect the effect of human dignity on water governance and general principles of water. Conclusions highlight new theoretical and empirical approaches to the spectrum of water management.
... The clearest impact of the lockdown is on personal agency and autonomy, key COVID-19 mental health determinants of psychological wellbeing and self-determination theory [32,33]. Recent research has validated the importance of loss of agency, showing that it may have a significant impact on levels of life satisfaction [34]. Physical activity is another strong determinant of mental wellbeing and distress, and a protective factor against psychological distress, which has been impacted by COVID-related restrictions [35]. ...
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BACKGROUND COVID-19 is expected to have widespread and pervasive implications for mental health, both in terms of deteriorating outcomes and increased health service utilisation, leading to widespread calls for empirical research on mental health during the pandemic. Internet-based psychological measurement can play an important role in collecting much-needed data, thereby helping to guide evidence-based decision making in practice and policy, and subsequently facilitating immediate reporting of assessment results to participants. OBJECTIVE To use an internet-based assessment tool to compare the mental health profile of community members during COVID-19 with community members assessed before COVID-19. METHODS This study used an internet-based self-assessment tool to collect data on psychological distress (depression, anxiety, and stress), mental wellbeing, and resilience in community cohorts during (1 cohort, n=673), and prior the pandemic (two cohorts, n=1264 and n=340). RESULTS Results demonstrated significant lower scores on all measured mental health outcomes for participants measured during COVID-19 compared to those measured before, P<.001 for all outcomes, effect sizes ranging between d=0.32 to d=0.81. Participants who demonstrated problematic scores for at least one of the mental health outcomes increased from 58% before COVID-19 to 79% during COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS The results clearly demonstrate a worsening in the number of participants who have heightened risk of developing serious mental illness. While further research is needed, the current findings indicate serious mental health implications of the pandemic, and it highlights the utility of internet-based data collection tools in providing evidence to innovate and strengthen mental health practice and policy during and after the pandemic.
... The clearest impact of the lockdown is on personal agency and autonomy, key determinants of psychological well-being and self-determination theory [32,33]. Recent research has validated the importance of loss in agency, showing that it may have a significant impact on levels of life satisfaction [34]. Physical activity is another strong determinant of mental well-being and distress, and a protective factor against psychological distress, which has been impacted by COVID-19-related restrictions [35]. ...
Article
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Background: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is expected to have widespread and pervasive implications for mental health in terms of deteriorating outcomes and increased health service use, leading to calls for empirical research on mental health during the pandemic. Internet-based psychological measurement can play an important role in collecting imperative data, assisting to guide evidence-based decision making in practice and policy, and subsequently facilitating immediate reporting of measurement results to participants. Objective: The aim of this study is to use an internet-based mental health measurement platform to compare the mental health profile of community members during COVID-19 with community members assessed before the pandemic. Methods: This study uses an internet-based self-assessment tool to collect data on psychological distress, mental well-being, and resilience in community cohorts during (n=673) and prior to the pandemic (two cohorts, n=1264 and n=340). Results: Our findings demonstrate significantly worse outcomes on all mental health measures for participants measured during COVID-19 compared to those measured before (P<.001 for all outcomes, effect sizes ranging between Cohen d=0.32 to Cohen d=0.81. Participants who demonstrated problematic scores for at least one of the mental health outcomes increased from 58% (n=197/340) before COVID-19 to 79% (n=532/673) during COVID-19, leading to only 21% (n=141) of measured participants displaying good mental health during the pandemic. Conclusions: The results clearly demonstrate deterioration in mental health outcomes during COVID-19. Although further research is needed, our findings support the serious mental health implications of the pandemic and highlight the utility of internet-based data collection tools in providing evidence to innovate and strengthen practice and policy during and after the pandemic.
... This had not yet altered the traditional patriarchal practice, though it was clear that this might be the outcome and proves that dignity is not only cultural, religious and spatial but also contextual, something existing dignity scholarship fails to recognise. Evidently, such views are reminiscent of the arguments of Nussbaum (2000Nussbaum ( , 2009, Hojman and Miranda (2018), and Mattson and Clark (2011), who identified dignity as something that can shape one's own life, facilitate life satisfaction, and promote justice and human entitlement. ...
... Stigmatization, a process that results in the mirror opposite of recognition, is understood (following Goffman (1963)) as a cultural process that consists in qualifying negatively identities and differences Dubet et al 2013). 11 Concomitantly, destigmatization is the 9 A recent survey shows that dignity and agency have an impact on subjective well-being that is comparable to income (Hojman and Miranda 2018). 10 For a philosophical discussion of the concept of recognition, see Mattias (2013). ...
Article
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This Presidential Address offers elements for a systematic and cumulative study of destigmatization, or the process by which low-status groups gain recognition and worth. Contemporary sociologists tend to focus on inequality in the distribution of resources, such as occupation, education, and wealth. Complementing this research, this address draws attention to “recognition gaps,” defined as disparities in worth and cultural membership between groups in a society. Drawing on research I have conducted, I first describe how neoliberalism promotes growing recognition gaps. Then, drawing on research on stigmatized groups across several societies, I analyze how experiences of stigma and destigmatization are enabled and constrained by various contextual factors and actors, including institutions, cultural repertoires, knowledge workers, and social movements activists. I conclude by proposing a research agenda for the sociology of recognition and destigmatization, and by sketching how social scientists, policy makers, organizations, and citizens can contribute in the reduction of recognition gaps.
... The analytical theme emerging from this review is agency; that is an individual's ability to choose whether to continue to exercise based on their own beliefs, experiences and those of society and the environment they are in. [30][31][32] The choice to continue to exercise after participation in a falls prevention exercise programme appears to be a dichotomy; participants either do exercise, or they don't. Although, as a caveat to this and highlighted in the 'I'm already doing enough' theme, after time, some people who do continue initially, stop once they achieve what they perceive to be successful personal goals. ...
... He argues that the capability approach is based on human agency, meaning that a person is responsible for their own life and goals that matter to them; in this way, the process of identifying capabilities should entail some form of participatory and inclusive dialogue, however conceptualised [45]. This is significant within a context in which agency has widely been acknowledged as being important to wellbeing (e.g., [46]), particularly the wellbeing of children [47]. The belief that capabilities influence wellbeing has been tested in a number of studies: for example, Van Ootegem and Verhofstadt [48] found capabilities to be a successful alternative measure for wellbeing (using life satisfaction as an interpretation of wellbeing); and Muffels and Headey [49] suggest that both subjective and objective wellbeing are the outcome of the interaction process between capabilities and choices. ...
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Eco-Capabilities is an AHRC funded project situated at the intersection of three issues: a concern with children’s wellbeing; their disconnect with the environment; and a lack of engagement with arts in school curricula. It builds on Amartya Sen’s work on human capabilities as a proxy for wellbeing, developing the term eco-capabilities to describe how children define what they feel they need to live a fully good human life through environmental sustainability, social justice and future economic wellbeing. A total of 101 children aged 7–10 from schools in highly deprived areas participated in eight full days of arts in nature practice. The study drew on arts based research methods, participatory observations, interviews and focus groups with artists, teachers and children. Findings suggest that arts in nature practice contributed towards eight (eco-)capabilities: autonomy; bodily integrity and safety; individuality; mental and emotional wellbeing; relationality: human/nonhuman relations; senses and imagination; and spirituality. This was facilitated through four pedagogical elements: extended and repeated arts in nature sessions; embodiment and engaging children affectively through the senses; ‘slowliness’, which envelops children with time and space to (re)connect; and thoughtful practice, which facilitates emotional expression. We suggest that, through these elements, arts in nature practice supports children’s wellbeing, and guides them towards a more entangled relationship with nature and a clearer understanding of themselves as part of it, thereby motivating them to take better care of it.
... Achieving this is nontrivial, given that many manauaras now perceive social interactions as risks instead of empowering. Evidently, the real and perceived risks of violence impinge on the capacity of individuals to control their destinies (Hojman and Miranda 2018). Our field interviews repeatedly demonstrated how violence shapes everyday decisions in Manaus. ...
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Governments continue to narrowly equate improved well-being with economic growth, contrary to decades of development scholarship. The capabilities approach, instead, emphasizes freedom and what individuals are able to do and to be within society. However, it underplays structural determinants of social inequities and says little about violence, a dominant problem in metropolitan areas of Latin America. Framing our analysis around capabilities and theorizing on disadvantage, we examine experiences of inequity and violence in Manaus, a metropolis in the Brazilian Amazon. We show how the threat of physical violence is highly corrosive because it underpins a cluster of disadvantage that profoundly impacts central capabilities, including emotions, bodily integrity, and affiliation. Social isolation is commonplace because interactions are perceived as risks rather than pathways to mutual recognition. Violence begets violence in low-income neighborhoods and this constrains capabilities, causes shame and indignity, and limits potential for self-realization. Policy makers should address how disadvantaged people feel about themselves, relate to others, and are able to decide how to conduct their daily lives.
... The clearest impact of the lockdown is on personal agency and autonomy, key COVID-19 mental health determinants of psychological wellbeing and self-determination theory [32,33]. Recent research has validated the importance of loss of agency, showing that it may have a significant impact on levels of life satisfaction [34]. Physical activity is another strong determinant of mental wellbeing and distress, and a protective factor against psychological distress, which has been impacted by COVID-related restrictions [35]. ...
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BACKGROUND During COVID-19, the mental health of the general population has been precarious, making it pivotal to determine the impact of complementary internet-based psychological interventions on psychological distress and mental wellbeing. Both types of outcomes represent distinct dimensions of our mental health and congruent changes in outcomes of distress and wellbeing do not necessarily co-occur within individuals. When testing intervention impact it therefore is important to assess change on both outcomes on the individual-level, rather than solely testing group differences in average scores on the group-level. OBJECTIVE The current study set out to investigate the differential impact of an internet-based group mental health intervention on outcomes of wellbeing (i.e., wellbeing, life satisfaction, resilience) and indicators of psychological distress (i.e., depression, anxiety and stress). METHODS A 5-week mental health intervention was delivered to 90 participants using the Zoom platform. Impact on outcomes of distress, wellbeing and resilience was assessed at the start and the end of the program, with MANOVA and Reliable Change Indices (RCI) being used to determine program impact on the group and the individual level respectively. RESULTS The intervention significantly improved all mental health outcomes measured, showing small to moderate effects sizes. Larger effect sizes could be noted for those with problematic mental health scores at baseline. A total of 92% of participants demonstrated reliable change in at least one mental health outcome. Differential response patterns using RCI revealed that more than half of the participants showed improvement in both mental wellbeing and psychological distress, almost one third in outcomes of wellbeing only, and almost a quarter in distress only. CONCLUSIONS Results provide evidence for the significant impact of an internet-based mental health intervention during COVID-19 and indicates the importance of assessing dimensions of wellbeing and distress when determining intervention effectiveness. CLINICALTRIAL Not applicable
... In the last decades, the understanding of health has shifted from a traditional focus on income and consumption toward a richer multidimensional approach. This shift has been strongly influenced by a body of research in the capabilities' approach, which emphasizes the role of freedom, opportunities, and agency [4,[6][7][8][9][14][15]. ...
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The understanding of determinants of health in health policy and health promotion has shifted from a traditional focus on lifestyle (nutrition, exercises, addiction), toward a richer multidimensional approach. This shift has been strongly influenced by a body of research in the human capabilities’ approach, which emphasizes the role of person’s agency, freedom, and opportunities. Using survey data on 18–52 years old Lithuanian representatives, this paper explores the relationship between personal agency and subjective health perception as well as how it varies depending on the age and post-materialistic values. Human agency refers to the capability of an individual to control personal destiny and make choices to fulfill goals set autonomously (A. Giddens). The results show that agency is important factor of subjective health perception in Lithuania. The fact that capabilities that measure agency are aligned with subjective health measures support the view of human development as an integral process.
... Following Syme's (1989) observation that "control over one's destiny" is a key determinant of health and wellbeing, the public health literature has variously explored concepts related to agency such as "mastery," "self-efficacy," "locus of control" and others (Whitehead et al., 2016). A recent survey reveals that dignity and agency have an impact on subjective wellbeing comparable to income (Hojman and Miranda, 2018). Closely related to agency, hope also positively impacts psychosocial wellbeing (Eggerman and Panter-Brick, 2010;Hobfoll et al., 2007). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic and crisis around racial injustice have generated compounded macro-level stressors for American society that negatively impact mental health and wellbeing. We contribute to understanding the impact of these crises by examining the process of developing social resilience, which we conceptualize as a temporally-embedded process of sense-making through which actors activate a sense of dignity, agency, and hope in the face of challenges to sustain wellbeing based on available resources. We interviewed 80 college students (aged 18–23) living in the American Northeast and Midwest before (September 2019–February 2020) and during (June–July 2020) the pandemic to analyze how they make sense of crises, respond to challenges, and project themselves into the future. We compare “privileged” upper-middle class youth who have families with more resources to buffer themselves against growing uncertainty, with “less privileged” youth from lower-middle and working-class families. Efforts to achieve a sense of dignity, agency, and hope amidst widespread uncertainty illuminate opportunities and constraints in the process of building social resilience, which take different temporal forms across the two class groups given their experiences and resources.
... As debates have continued around the ability of various measures to provide insights into the lived existences of the poor, academic perspectives on development have been changing; in recent decades, there has been a fundamental shift from income and consumption-based approaches to multidimensional concepts (Hojman & Miranda, 2018). Development is increasingly seen as the ''organised pursuit of human wellbeing" (Gough & McGregor, 2007, p. 4) which is best measured through a combination of both objective and subjective indicators. ...
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Numerous low-income countries foster the commercialization of smallholder agriculture to achieve development outcomes and improve the lives of the rural population. The effects of commercialization policies, however, are measured using a limited set of indicators. This paper exemplifies a new approach to the study of agricultural change: analyzing commercialization effects through a local concept of the Good Life. In our case study of East Nepal, we first elicited a local concept of the Good Life through qualitative interviews and participatory photography. In the analysis, we disaggregated the data between men and women, elderly and young, farmers and laborers as well as members of different castes. Second, we applied the resulting Good Life concept to the evaluation of agricultural commercialization. Our results show that the local concept of the Good Life is multidimensional and includes both subjectively and objectively measurable dimensions. Respondents across all socio-economic groups consistently emphasized the notion of hardship (dukha) in both their Good Life concepts and their perspectives on agricultural change. Commercialization was evaluated positively predominantly because it reduced physical and financial hardship, in addition to tangible improvements in other domains. However, respondents also pointed to the limitations of commercialization in contributing to the Good Life: the ultimate reduction of hardship was associated with the prospect of non-agricultural employment. The notion of hardship elicited through the perspectives of the Good Life offers a nuanced perspective on commercialization. Including local views in analyses of agricultural change enables researchers and policy makers alike to direct their efforts to those aspects of agricultural change that are most meaningful to the local population.
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The vision that Richard Easterlin had back in the 1970s with its “Does economic growth improve the human lot? Some empirical evidence”, that subjective well-being might be the variable economics should look at to assess the welfare gains from economic growth was a “Columbus’ egg”: no matter how obvious could it be, mainstream economics completely neglected that line of research throughout the twentieth century. This chapter tries to analyse how important is the usage of happiness for the betterment of welfare analysis in economics, contrasting it with both the tools and theoretical apparatus form orthodox welfare economics and the capabilities approach.
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The article aims to integrate agency theory, stewardship theory and intellectual capital in minimizing agencies conflict. The theories were approached by identifying organizational principles according to perspective of shareholders, then comparison of applications of agency theory, stewardship theory and intellectual capital contributing to the principal relationship with the agent in minimizing agencies conflict in order to contribute to enhancement of corporate value was discussed and empirical studies on perspectives of agency, stewardship and intellectual capital perspective specialized in human capital and structural capital were examined. The deep study of the theories concluded, it is necessary to integrate agency theory and stewardship theory and intellectual capital in effort of minimizing agencies conflict and enhancing corporate value. Further, it can be suggested that perspective of agency theory explains the importance of multi-principles framework, with perspectives of stewardship theory and intellectual capital showing a situation in which agent has the same interest as principle or to be motivated to make action for the sake of the best interest of the principal in minimizing agencies conflict and enhancing value of the company. Empirical literature can add more thoughts on agency issues integrated with stewardship theory and intellectual capital that can contribute to the study of the issues.
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México es un país con una vasta biodiversidad de especies que incluyen animales, plantas, hongos, bacterias y demás organismos (Bye y cols., 1993). Estas especies en conjunto aportan beneficios ecológicos que mantienen en equilibrio los ecosistemas (Waring y col., 1985; Rusch y col., 2010). Las interacciones bióticas han coexistido desde hace millones de años, mientras que el humano como especie homo sapiens no tiene no más que un par de miles de años interaccionando con otros organismos, tiempo tras el cual ha llegado a afectar los ecosistemas de manera radical. La actitud y conducta de la humanidad influyen en las condiciones ambientales y en la propia calidad de vida humana (Palupi & Sawitri, 2018). En ese sentido, la conservación de especies y ecosistemas es fundamental para la subsistencia del humano. El entorno escolar constituye una oportunidad de formación y sensibilización en materia ambiental en los estudiantes, dado que tienen el potencial de influenciar decisiones futuras sobre la utilización de los recursos naturales (Talens, 2016). Por ello, en el presente trabajo desarrollamos una propuesta de educación ambiental a nivel bachillerato, basada en el trabajo en campo y la conservación de especies nativas del municipio de Querétaro. En el proyecto se involucró un total de 116 alumnos de tres grupos de cuarto semestre, quienes colectaron y germinaron semillas de la especie Vachellia farnesiana probando diferentes métodos de germinación. Se determinó una tasa de germinación del 86% para el mejor tratamiento, y una tasa de sobrevivencia a 4 meses del 46%. Además del desarrollo de la vegetación, el proyecto fomentó el aumento de la conciencia ambiental de los alumnos; lo que indica que la integración de este tipo de herramientas en la planeación curricular a nivel bachillerato, resultaría útil para motivar la conservación del medio ambiente.
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Despite the centrality of shame and stigma within research on welfare in high-income countries, these issues only exist within the periphery of rapidly expanding practice in and research on social assistance in low- and middle-income countries. This oversight undermines social assistance’s potential in breaking the poverty-shame cycle and ignores its role in the (re)production of shame and stigma. This article offers a critical exploration of the role of social assistance in alleviating or reinforcing shame and stigma in low- and middle-income countries. Findings indicate that positive and negative effects co-exist but that far too little evidence is available to judge whether social assistance receipt overwhelmingly negates or plays into shame and stigma, particularly in low-income countries. Greater awareness of the interface between social assistance, shame and stigma, explorations of policy options that minimise or counter stigmatisation, and critical engagement with ideological and political discourse underpinning design and delivery of interventions represent crucial steps to move towards ‘shame proofing’ social assistance in low- and middle-income countries.
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The cultural turn in international development can be traced back to the 1980s. Critiques from social scientist and the rise of participatory development practices have now brought culture to the fore of development. This essay analyses two important aspects of the culture and international development: (1) notions of human well-being that are fundamental to both involving people in development efforts and in thinking of how they may participate in improving their lives, (2) cultural expressions require sustainable cultural infrastructures that allow for cultural creation, production, distribution, archiving—the value chain of cultural expressions. The essay is divided into three parts: (1) a survey of the literature on culture and development, (2) human well-being and culture, and (3) a cultural infrastructure and value chain perspective with empirical examples. The review is interdisciplinary drawing from anthropology, cultural studies, economics, post-colonial history and literatures, international relations, political science, and sociology.
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México es un país con una vasta biodiversidad de especies que incluyen animales, plantas, hongos, bacterias y demás organismos (Bye y cols., 1993). Estas especies en conjunto aportan beneficios ecológicos que mantienen en equilibrio los ecosistemas (Waring y col., 1985; Rusch y col., 2010). Las interacciones bióticas han coexistido desde hace millones de años, mientras que el humano como especie homo sapiens no tiene no más que un par de miles de años interaccionando con otros organismos, tiempo tras el cual ha llegado a afectar los ecosistemas de manera radical. La actitud y conducta de la humanidad influyen en las condiciones ambientales y en la propia calidad de vida humana (Palupi & Sawitri, 2018). En ese sentido, la conservación de especies y ecosistemas es fundamental para la subsistencia del humano. El entorno escolar constituye una oportunidad de formación y sensibilización en materia ambiental en los estudiantes, dado que tienen el potencial de influenciar decisiones futuras sobre la utilización de los recursos naturales (Talens, 2016). Por ello, en el presente trabajo desarrollamos una propuesta de educación ambiental a nivel bachillerato, basada en el trabajo en campo y la conservación de especies nativas del municipio de Querétaro. En el proyecto se involucró un total de 116 alumnos de tres grupos de cuarto semestre, quienes colectaron y germinaron semillas de la especie Vachellia farnesiana probando diferentes métodos de germinación. Se determinó una tasa de germinación del 86% para el mejor tratamiento, y una tasa de sobrevivencia a 4 meses del 46%. Además del desarrollo de la vegetación, el proyecto fomentó el aumento de la conciencia ambiental de los alumnos; lo que indica que la integración de este tipo de herramientas en la planeación curricular a nivel bachillerato, resultaría útil para motivar la conservación del medio ambiente
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Purpose This paper aims to relate conceptually decent work and the economy for the common good describing the main contributions of the former to the latter. Design/methodology/approach This conceptual paper analyses the relationships between the values of the economy for the common good that have been explicitly stated and the psychological dimensions of the decent work concept. Findings Four conceptual propositions concerning the contributions of decent work to the economy for the common good are presented. Research limitations/implications Because the four conceptual propositions were not submitted to empirical research, future studies are suggested. Practical implications The pursuit of decent work is aligned with the economy for the common good, which contributes to reinforcing both proposals. Social implications Both decent work and the economy for the common good are synergistic and values-based approaches that consider the social system as a whole instead of proposing strategies to improve the competitive advantage of one over the other. This synergistic idea through cooperation contributes to overcoming the limitations of “business as usual”. Originality/value This is the first paper discussing the relationships between decent work and the economy for the common good.
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The link between culture and social structure is a prominent theme in cultural sociology, and food consumption and taste are a less popular but no less interesting dimension of this debate. Large‑N studies show that there is a link between dietary patterns and social class background in general, and between meat consumption and socioeconomic position in particular. Albeit mixed evidence, it is suggested that in many Western countries, consumers in lower socioeconomic positions tend to eat more meat and purchase cheaper meat products than consumers in higher social class positions. There is a need to understand the mechanisms behind this link to design more effective policy measures and to address the dietary needs of different consumer groups. Maximum variation sampling was used to cover a wide range of meat consumption habits, and 46 individual face-to-face semi-structured interviews with consumers from urban areas in Germany were conducted. The goal was to inquire how financial and educational resources shape meat consumption patterns. Against the background of a meat-heavy culinary tradition, meat-reduced or meat-free diets require dietary changes, and consumers’ attitudes towards and capabilities for dietary change are strongly influenced by their socioeconomic position. These findings are discussed in the context of other studies and with reference to social-psychological literature on behavioral change.
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Traditionally, studies on dignity at work have been developed a qualitative approach. For this reason, little is known about the relationship between dignity in the workplace and other constructs. In 2018, Thomas and Lucas developed a workplace dignity measurement scale, which allows investigating the following issue: what is the influence of dignity at work and personal organizational well-being? To answer this research question, the study had to identify the influence of dignity at work on employees’ personal organizational well-being. Dignity at work consists in own and others’ acknowledgement of the value acquired by the individuals engaging in work in a setting of interaction with other people. Personal organizational well-being is a dynamic process in connection with work that presupposes reciprocal relationships between workers and organizations. The investigation was carried out with 211 Brazilian workers from different business segments. The results pointed out that organizational dignity influences the personal well-being significantly. The greater the breadth of the employees’ dignity perception, the greater their level of well-being in the organization. If managers want to improve the employee’s well-being, it is important to improve organizational dignity.
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Purpose Based on self-determination theory, the paper investigates the link between environmentally specific transformational leadership (ETFL) and subjective well-being (SWB) of employees working in an energy intensive industry. The paper also aims to examine pro-environmental behavior (PEB) as a mediator mechanism between ETFL and SWB relationship. Design/methodology/approach An empirical research design was used for the analysis. In total, 293 respondents working in different energy intensive Indian companies filled the questionnaire for the study. The data were analyzed using structural equation modeling SMART-PLS 3 software which is a graphical user interface for variance-based structural equation modeling using the partial least squares path modeling method. Two stages of analysis were conducted: the measurement model and the structural model. Findings The results indicate that (1) ETFL has a significant positive impact on PEB. (2) PEB is positively correlated to SWB. (3) ETFL has a significant impact on SWB. (4) The underlying mechanism process of ETFL and SWB relationship is explained by mediation of PEB. Practical implications Overall, the study insinuates that PEB act as underlying mechanism in environmental leadership and SWB of employees. The study further suggests that the management should promote green leaders for enhancing the overall SWB of the managements' employees especially in energy intensive sector. Doing so helps the managers to enhance managers' environmental conscious behavior for inducing SWB of employees. Originality/value The study contributes to novel findings in existing literature particularly to determine ETFL and PEB as predictors of SWB especially in energy intensive sector. The study also leads the ways for organizations by promoting green conscious leaders, which stimulates PEB among employees that ultimately contributes to SWB of employees. Furthermore, the research methodology can be used in other studies for variation of contextual variables such as size of the industry, developed or underdeveloped country and manufacturing or service industry.
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Background This paper studies the socioeconomic disparities in self-perceived oral health among Chilean adults and in the perceived physical, functional, psychological and social consequences of oral health. Methods In February 2011, 1,413 residents of Metropolitan Area of Santiago, Chile, were interviewed using a standardized questionnaire and examined by dentists for dental status and oral health conditions. Only adults 18 to 60 years old affiliated with the public healthcare system were eligible to participate. We estimate socioeconomic gradients in self-perceived oral health and its distinct dimensions. We use the Heckman two-step procedure to control for selection bias given the non-random nature of the sample. In addition, we use a two-equation ordered response model given the discrete nature of the dependent variable. ResultsThere is a non-linear socioeconomic gradient in self-perceived oral health even after controlling for oral health status. The gradient is steep at the lower end of the income distribution and constant at mid-income levels. These socioeconomic disparities are also found for the psychological and social dimensions of self-perceived oral health, but not for the functional limitations and physical pain dimensions. Conclusions The findings are consistent with inequities in the access to oral health services due to insufficient provision in the public sector and costly options in the private sector.
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Approaches to determining the number of components to interpret from principal components analysis were compared. Heuristic procedures included: retaining components with eigenvalues (Xs) > 1 (i.e., Kaiser-Guttman criterion); components with bootstrapped Xs > 1 (bootstrapped Kaiser-Guttman); the scree plot; the broken-stick model; and components with Xs totalling to a fixed amount of the total variance. Statistical ap- proaches included: Bartlett's test of sphericity; Bartlett's test of homogeneity of the cor- relation matrix, Lawley's test of the second X; bootstrapped confidence limits on successive Xs (i.e., significant differences between Xs); and bootstrapped confidence limits on eigen- vector coefficients (i.e., coefficients that differ significantly from zero). All methods were compared using simulated data matrices of uniform correlation structure, patterned ma- trices of varying correlation structure and data sets of lake morphometry, water chemistry, and benthic invertebrate abundance. The most consistent results were obtained from the broken-stick model and a combined measure using bootstrapped Xs and associated eigen- vector coefficients. The traditional and bootstrapped Kaiser-Guttman approaches over- estimated the number of nontrivial dimensions as did the fixed-amount-of-variance model. The scree plot consistently estimated one dimension more than the number of simulated dimensions. Bartlett's test of sphericity showed inconsistent results. Both Bartlett's test of homogeneity of the correlation matrix and Lawley's test are limited to testing for only one and two dimensions, respectively.