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The Anti-viral and Immunomodulatory Activity of Cinnamon zeylanicum Against "NDV" Newcastle Disease Virus in Chickens

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  • Beni-Suef University, Egypt.

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Experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of cinnamon zeylanicum oil as biochemical, immunostimulant and antioxidant activity. One hundred and fifty one day-old chickens were fed by five diet supplements with 0%,0.1%,0.3% of essential oil, and 1%,3% of cinnamon powder for 30 days serum and whole blood were collected for evaluation of T.protein, S.albumin, S.globulin, total antioxidant, lysozyme activity ,phagocytic percent and phagocytic index. The Total .protein showed significant (P-value <0.05)in day 14,21 and 28 while the s.globulin was siginificant at day 14,21 and 28 with (P-value<0.05) when compared with control group while s.albumin showed no-significant ,while total Anti-oxidant capacity (TAC) was high significant (P-value<0.01) at day 14,21 and 28.the challenge test with 10-6 velogenic NDV challenged chicken with mortality (100%) in control group and protection percent (80,86,76 and 50%) in group (2,3,4and 5). Blood phagocytic activity and phagocytic index significantly increased at (P-value<0.01,P-value <0.05) the present investigation showed that cinnamon zeylanicum essential oil and powder exhibits antioxidant ,immunostimmulat and antiviral activity in chickens because of antioxidant dietary supplementary feeding.
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International Journal of Sciences:
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(IJSBAR)
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251
The Anti-viral and Immunomodulatory Activity of
Cinnamon zeylanicum Against "NDV" Newcastle Disease
Virus in Chickens
Tamam S. Ma*, Abd el Hamid M. Sb, Samah M. Helmyc, Marwa A. Nakhriryd
a professor of virology, faculty of veterinary (BNS)
b professor of physiology faculty of science(BNS)
c associate professor at Animal Health center ( Dokki , Giza)
dM.SC student, faculty of science(BNS)
Abstract
Experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of cinnamon zeylanicum oil as biochemical,
immunostimulant and antioxidant activity. One hundred and fifty one day-old chickens were fed by five diet
supplements with 0%,0.1%,0.3% of essential oil, and 1%,3% of cinnamon powder for 30 days serum and whole
blood were collected for evaluation of T.protein, S.albumin, S.globulin, total antioxidant, lysozyme activity
,phagocytic percent and phagocytic index. The Total .protein showed significant (P-value <0.05)in day 14,21
and 28 while the s.globulin was siginificant at day 14,21 and 28 with (P-value<0.05) when compared with
control group while s.albumin showed no-significant ,while total Anti-oxidant capacity (TAC) was high
significant (P-value<0.01) at day 14,21 and 28.the challenge test with 10-6 velogenic NDV challenged chicken
with mortality (100%) in control group and protection percent (80,86,76 and 50%) in group (2,3,4and 5). Blood
phagocytic activity and phagocytic index significantly increased at (P-value<0.01,P-value <0.05) the present
investigation showed that cinnamon zeylanicum essential oil and powder exhibits antioxidant
,immunostimmulat and antiviral activity in chickens because of antioxidant dietary supplementary feeding.
Keywords: Cinnamon zeylanicum; NDV;antioxidant activity; immunomodulatory.
------------------------------------------------------------------------
* Corresponding author.
International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) (2017) Volume 32, No 2, pp 251-262
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1. Introduction
Newcastle disease is one of the most important avian viral diseases because of its economic impact on the
poultry industry. The causative agent, Newcastle disease virus (NDV), is synonymous with avian
paramyxovirus type1 [1] It has been classified in the order Mononegavirales, family Paramyxoviridae
,subfamily Paramyxovirinae , and genus Avulavirus [24] NDV infects approximately236 species of pet and
free-living birds in addition to domestic avian species (chicken, turkey, goose, duck, and pigeon) [19] Among
poultry, chickens are the most susceptible, whereas ducks and geese are the least susceptible. Reference [2]
Velogenic NDV is endemic in many countries of Central and South America, the Middle East, and most of
Africa and Asia [11]. ND is so virulent birds may die without showing clinical signs [1]) A death rate of almost
100% can occur in unvaccinated poultry flocks. Exotic NDV can infect and cause death even in vaccinated
poultry [11]. Cinnamomum zeylanicum blume (family lauraceae) which is popularly known as cinnamon is
classified in the botanical division Magnoliophyta, class Magnoliopsida [6]. Cinnamum zeylanicum originates
from island of sriLanka (called Ceylon) south east of India cinnamon spice is obtained by drying the central part
of the bark and is marketed as quills or powder [6]. Different parts (bark, roots, leaves, flowers, fruit ,stalks,
buds) of the plant, cinnamon zeylanicum blume give essential oil with variation in the composition. the active
phytochemical constituents of cinnamon are cinnamonaldhyde and eugenol [13]. Cinnamon is herb which is
used as a spice in almost all the food preparations. Chemical constituent of cinnamon make it rich in many
health beneficial properties like anti-oxidative, antimicrobial, insulin Sensitivity, anti-ulcer, anti-diabetic, anti-
inflammatoryetc. Cinnamon bark contains essential oils, resinous compounds, cinnamate, cinnamic acid and
cinnamaldehyde[40]reported transcinnamaldehyde,L- borenol, L- bornyl acetate,caryophyllene oxide, eugenol,
bcaryophyllene, Enerolidoland cinnamyle acetate. Chemically cinnamon bark also contains terpinolene, -
terpinol, - cubebeneand - thujene [40]. This work aims to study the antiviral and immunomodulatory effect of
cinnamon powder / cinnamon oil in chickens .
2. Material and Methods
Experimental design: A total of 150 one day old baladi chickens are divided into 5 groups. Table (1) showed
the groups fed on cinnamon oil/or powder. Evaluation of total protein ,S.albumin, s.globulin , total antioxidant
capacity (TAC), lysozyme activity done at day 7,14,21 and 28. Phagocytic activity and phagocytic index also
done, protection percent calculated due to challenge with 106velogenic NDV.
Table 1: showed the groups fed on cinnamon oil/or powder
Challenged with NDV
Powder Treatment
Oil Treatment
Vaccination
Group
(+)
-
-
-
Group(1)
+
-
0.3+
-
Group(2)
+
-
0.1+
-
Group(3)
+
3%+
-
-
Group(4)
+
+1%
-
-
Group (5)
Newcastle Disease virus strain:
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253
NDV isolate was kindly obtained from veterinary serum and vaccine research institute VSVRI, ND department ,
Abbassia ,Cairo, Egypt and spropagated in allantoic cavity of 9-day old SPF-ECE, and titrated according to [35]
was used in challenge test performed after feeding chicken with cinnamon oil &powder for 30 days.
-Cinnamon zeylanicum oil & powder:
Cinnamon quills was purchased from commercial sources and obtained cinnamon oil extract by steam
distillation and diluted in sun flower oil with final concentration (0.3%,0.1% ) [37].
Cinnamon powder obtained from commercial sources was crushed and thoroughly mixed with ration at final
concentration (3% &1%) of diet.
-Challenge test: according to [44]
-Measurement of Phagocytic activity and percentage of Chicken peripheral monocyting using C.albicans:
The test was carried out according to [33] as modified by [19].
-Measurement of Lysozyme activity by agarose cell lyses Assay:
The lysozyme in the serum was measured according to method described by [45].
Determination of Total Antioxidant Capacity:
It used for colormetric determination of total antioxidant capacity serum or plasma; this is to according
Koracevic G and his colleagues in 2001.
-Estimation of T.protein:
Purchased from spin-react. It used for Quantative colorimetric determination of T.protein. According [46,42,12].
-Estimation of S.Albumin:
Purchased from spin-react. It used for Quantative colormetric determination of S.Albumin. According to
[46,42,12].
-Estimation of s. Globulin:
The proteins of the serum are divide in two fractions, al bumin and globulins [46,12]so,
s. Globulin= T.protein- s.Albumin= g/dl
Statistical analysis: data are presented as mean ± SEM. Statistical
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Differences among the means of multiple groups were determined by using one-way ANOVA..Calculations
were carried out using SPSS. P values P-value < 0.05 (Significant); **: P-value < 0.01 (High significant); P-
value > 0.05 (Non-significant
3. Results
Table 2: protection percent against challenged with NDV for chickens non-vaccinated with NDV vaccine and
fed with cinnamon zeylanicum powder or Cinnamon zeylanicum
Protection %
Challenge test at 30 day post feeding
No of birds
Group
0
0
30
30
Group 1
86
26
4
30
Group2
80
24
6
30
Group3
76
23
7
30
Group4
50
15
15
30
Group 5
The Results showed 86 %protection percent in group 2(while group 3,4 and 5 showed protection(80,76 and
50).while group (1) control group showed 100% mortalities.
SD: Standard deviation; *: P-value < 0.05 (Significant); **: P-value < 0.01 (High significant); P-value > 0.05
(Non-significant),a,b,c,d e,f,g and e p value is significant between group and anther group
Group(1): control group
Group (2): fed on( 0.3 oil of cinnamon zeylanicum) from one day –old
Group(3): ): fed on( 0.1 oil of cinnamon zeylanicum) from one day old
Group (4): fed on(3% powder of cinnamon zeylanicum) from one day old.
Group(5): ): fed on(1% powder of cinnamon zeylanicum) from one day old
t.protein has no significant at day 7 and showed high significant(P-value<0.01) at day14 and significant (P-value
<0.05) at day 21,28.in albumin wasn't show any significant at day 7,14 and 21 but had significant (P-value
<0.0) at day 28.s.globulin don’t show any significant at day 7, but showed significant (P- value<0.05) at day
14,21 and 28 of feeding.
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Table 3: Results of T.protein , S.Albumin,and S.Globulin (g/dl) in non-vaccinated chickens and fed with cinnamon zeylanicum powder or CZ oil
groups
7 day
14 day
21 day
28 day
T.protei
n
s.albumi
n
s.globuli
n
T.protei
n
s.albu
min
s.globu
lin
T.prot
ein
s.albu
min
s.glo
bulin
T.prot
ein
s.albumi
n
s. glob
ulin
Group (1)
3.2±0.2
1.6±0.3
1.6±0.3
3.3±0.3
1.8±0.2
1.5±0.5
3.3±0.7
1.9±0.4
1.4±0
.6
2.8±0.4
1.3±0.2
1.5±0.5
Group (2)
3.2±1.0
1.9±0.1
1.3±0.9
4.3±0.3a
1.9±0.1
2.6±0.3
a
4.7±0.8
a
1.6±0.1
2.8±0
.9a
3.8±0.2
a
1.5±0.0
2.6±0.1a
Group (3)
3.4±0.3
2.0±0.2
1.4±0.3
4.5±0.6a
2.1±0.3
2.4±0.8
a
4.7±0.6
a
1.7±0.2
3.1±0
.8a
3.3±0.6
e
1.5±0.1
1.8±0.6f
Group (4)
3.3±0.3
2.1±0.7
1.2±0.7
4.2±0.2a
2.1±0.4
2.1±0.2
5.0±0.5
a
1.8±0.1
3.2±0
.5a
4.0±0.5
ag
1.5±0.1
2.5±0.5ag
Group (5)
3.0±0.3
1.4±0.3h
1.6±0.5
3.3±0.4fg
h
2.4±0.1
af
0.9±0.5
bfgh
3.4±0.5
fh
1.7±0.2
1.6±0
.4fgh
2.8±0.3
fh
1.9±0.3afg
h
1.2±0.4fh
P value
0.869
0.125
0.841
0.007**
0.092
0.013*
0.015*
0.630
0.019
*
0.016*
0.011*
0.017*
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Table 4: Results of total anti-oxidant capacity (mM/L) in non-vaccinated chickens and fed with cinnamon
zeylanicum powder or cinnamon zeylanicum oil
Group Total antioxidant capacity (mM/L)
1st week 2nd week 3rd week 4th week
Group (1)
0.1±0.0
0.1±0.1
0.01±0.0
0.1±0.1
Group (2)
0.5±0.3a
2.3±0.4a
2.4±0.5a
2.8±0.1a
Group (3)
0.6±0.4a
2.0±0.8a
2.8±0.1a
2.7±0.1a
Group (4)
0.3±0.1g
1.6±1.0a
2.6±0.1a
1.4±1.1afg
Group (5)
0.2±0.1g
0.3±0.1fgh
0.2±0.1fgh
0.2±0.1fgh
P value
0.081
0.003**
0.001**
0.001**
The total anti-oxidant capacity revealed a high significant(P- value<0.01) at day 14,21 and 28 while the values
don’t show any significant at day 7 of feeding chickens on cinnamon oil/ cinnamon powder.
Table 5: Results of phagocytic activity and phagocytic percent in non-vaccinated chickens and fed with
cinnamon zeylanicum powder or cinnamon zeylaNICUM oil
Group Phagocytic %
Phagocytic index
Group (1)
Mean±SD 63.3±4.0
0.2±0.1
Group (2)
Mean±SD 89.3±4.6a
0.5±0.2
Group (3)
Mean±SD 87.3±9.0a
0.5±0.1
Group (4)
Mean±SD 80.3±2.1af
0.4±0.0a
Group (5)
Mean±SD 79.3±1.5af
0.4±0.1a
P value
0.001**
0.044*
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The phagocytic activity SHOWED high significant (P-value<0.01) (which INgroup 2 and 3 showing (89.3±4.6
and (87.3±9.0) when compared control group (63.3±4.0) . group (4, and 5) showed (80.3±2.1, 79.3±1. 5), while
PI showed significant (P-value<0.05).
Figure 2: phagocytic cells engulfed candida albicans
Figure: Normal cells and Phagocytic cell engulfed Candida albicans (stained with Giemsa , Image: 100X)
Table 6: Results of Lysozyme activity (µg/ml) non-vaccinated chickens and fed with cinnamon zeylanicum
powder or cinnamon Oil
Group Lysozyme activity (ug/ml)
7 day 14 day 21 day 28 day
Group (1)
Mean±SD
34.2±18.5
56.1±25.4
68.3±45.4
75.6±37.9
Group (2)
Mean±SD
56.2±25.5
138.7±67.7e
148.5±25.3
94.9±21.1
Group (3)
Mean±SD
56.2±25.5
99.9±56.7
153.3±66.2
56.2±25.5b
Group (4)
Mean±SD
48.9±29.3
112.1±55.2
136.3±46.4
97.4±37.9
Group (5)
Mean±SD
27.0±8.7
56.2±25.5
63.4±16.8cg
24.5±26.3bfh
P value
0.182
0.049*
0.024*
0.103
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Lysozyme activity showed significant values (P-value <0.05) at day 14 and 21 while there wasn't any significant
at day 7 and 28. The group (2,3 and 4 ) revealed an increased in mean values at day 14 and 21 (138.7±67.7,
99.9±56.7 and 112.1±55.2) and (148.5±25.3, 153.3±66.2 , 136.3±46.4) when compared control group.
4. Discussion
nowadays natural products such as pure compounds and also plant extract scan provide unlimited opportunities
for new antiviral drugs [32]infectious viruses disease has remained important global issues for animal and
humans. According to the dependency of viruses on host cells, only a few effect antiviral drugs are available to
treat viral disease. Nowadays finding new substances with intercellular and also intracellular antiviral activity is
need. These substances must affect viruses without harming the host cell. In ovo injection method was designed
because studying the plant in vitro and in vivo is time consuming and expensive (Rezatofighi and his colleagues
2014). In this study, dietary supplementation of different levels of essential oil and powder for their effect on
biochemical ,immunological and antioxidant parameters, measurement of the results showed that
supplementation of chickens diets with cinnamon essential oil and cinnamon powder for 30 days. On results of
T.prorein , S.albumin and S.globulin. The data of effects of dietary supplementation of cinnamon oil
concentration and cinnamon powder effect effect on t.protein values in table (3) of chickens showed no
significant effect at 1st week and 2nd week ,but revealed a significant at 3rd and 4th week (P-value<0.05) when
compared with Negative control. Results proved that cinnamon oil at 0.1 more effective than 0.3 in 2nd and 3rd
week ,t.protein had effect when chickens fed on cinnamon powder(3 %) increased at day 21(5.0±0.5) when
compared with cinnamon oil at (0.1,0.3). These result agree with [17] that revealed that supplementation with
C.verum and Z.officinale increase numerically in T.protein compared to the control. Also, The results agree
with [4] who reported that when added 200ppm of essential oil derived from C.verum were added to at protein
was observed compare to control group[27] conducted that plasma total protein increase in healthy group and
treated groups compared to the untreated diabetic group in study effects cinnamon extract on liver biomarker.
The elevated serum T.P levels in spice treated groups may be due to nutritional potential effect of the the treated
diets and an increase in body weight gain [24].
The results of measurement S.globulin table (3) showed that supplementation of cinnamon and cinnamon
powder had significant effect (P-value<0.05) at day 14,21and 28 when compared with control group. The
concentration of cinnamon oil (0.1) and C. powder (3%) had highest values on s.globulin at day21 with (3.1±0.)
and (3.1±0.5) when compared witn other groups and control group. (Tolba and his colleagues 2010) found that
mixture volatile oils including thyme. oregano , C.verum and capsicum added to two groups of chicks diets at 1
and 2 g/ Kg fed in experimental period which lasted for 12 weeks increased significantly the serum globulin
compared to un supplemented control group. It is believed that protective effect of cinnamon verum is the result
of combination between the antimicrobial effect of C.verum and stimulated immune system and as result of
C.verum administration [17].
On the other hand the cinnamon hadn't any significant effect on serum albumin in table (3)except at day 28.
These finding agree with previous studies when spices used as treatment and show no effect on levels of
S.albumin [5] Found that rat administration with C.verum orally they showed no significant effect on plasma
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albumin concentration compared to rats used as control, other studies suggested increased serum t.Protein,
Albumin and Globulin that prevent further accumulation of proteins in kidney tissues resulted in reduction of
renal damage. The reduction in albuminurea by cinnamon resulted in improvement of renal function [20].
Cinnamon extract has increased the level of T.protein towards the respective normal value which indicates
hepatoprotective activity. Stimulation of Protein synthesis has been advanced as contributory hepatoprotective
mechanism which accelerates the regeneration process and production of liver cells[34,38].
Data in table (4) showed the results of Antioxidant activity: the effect of cinnamon powder /or cinnamon oil of
different concentration and proved that cinnamon oil/ powder has Highly significant (P-value <0.01) and has
antioxidant activity in serum of chick through 14,21 and 2 8days of feeding . from results the cinnamon oil at
(0.1) and cinnamon powder (3%) had high values when compared with control group at day 21and other groups
the (1%) cinnamon powder from dietary supplementation has numerically increase when compared with control
group. These findings accepted with [14] which revealed that supplementing healthy rats with CBE decreased
oxidative damage induced by exhaustive exercise as indicated by MDA serum level and thiol in sup/EX group.
Elevated TAC(total antioxidant capacity) for Sup/EX group showing that CBE supplementation increased the
amount of antioxidant available to animals. Several studies have indicated that cinnamon has protective effects
against many oxidative stress related disease in humans [31]maintained that regular consumption of cinnamon
tea decreased the lipid peroxidation and increased TAC in human subjects [26] it was shown that elevation of
antioxidant defense in high cholesterol fed rats was subject to cinnamon supplementation . Many studies have
reported extracts from bark ,leaves and fruits of cinnamon to have high phenol contents and excellent potential
in scavenging free radicals .cinnamon possess anti-oxidant activity in rat fed with high fat diet[15] Cinnamon
essential oil has antioxidant properties (Case and his colleagues 1995;lee and his colleagues 2001; Yu and his
colleagues 2002; Lee and his colleagues 2007). For studying Immunostimulatory effect of cinnamon data
presented in table (2) showed that group (2) fed on cinnamon oil (0.3) with highest protection percent (86%)
when compared with control group (0%) and compared other group (3,4 and 5) which showed (80,76 and 50)
protection when challenged with 10-6 velogenic NDV strain .
Data presented in table (5) illustrated phagocytic activity and PI)).the phagocytic percent (Phagocytic activity)
in chickens fed with cinnamon oil/ or powder high significant (P-value <0.01) the highest phagocytic % of
0.3,0.1 is (89.3±4.6,87.3±9.0) when compared control group while of 3%,1 % revealed (80±2.1/79.3±1.5) when
compared control group.PI values d increased significant (P-value<0.05).
The data of lysozyme activity is presented in table (6) was revealed cinnamon oil / or powder dietary
supplementation effect on chicken with significant effect(P-value<0.05) an chickens at day 14,21 and 28.
In this study the evaluation immunmodulatory effects of cinnamon zeylanicum oil /or powder against normal
and challenged in chickens. The response of cinnamon powder or oil on multiple types of immunity (humor and
innate immunity) responses(phagocytosis and lysozymal activity, host resistances mortality) was investigated
[8].suggested that PP-CZ (polyphenol) treatments was found to be immunostimulant in multiple arms in
immune system in dose dependent manner .PP-CZ treatment increased peripheral PMN and phagocytosis
activity in mice, treatment increased the number of resident peritoneal in mice, the results suggest pp-CZ
International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) (2017) Volume 32, No 2, pp 251-262
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stimulates non-specific immunity by increasing the number of macrophages and phagocytic activity in mice on
sub-acute treatment .there was adose depedent trend for increased numbers of peritoneal macrophages and
increased survival rate in mice .there are specialized phagocytic cells that cells attack foreign substnces
,infectious microbes through destruction and ingestion [30]. Reference [8] demonstrated sub-acute treatment of
PP-CZ showed increased peritoneal macrophage and PI.increased PMN by PP-CZ treatment observed in their
study indicated potential PP-CZ in stimulating adaptive immunity against infectious pathogens.
Reference [7] demonstrated significant increase in TLC can be considered as indicator for improvement in
general resistance, increase in neutrophil in control fed fishes may be non-specific immune respond and increase
in lymphocytes counts in cinnamon diet fish can be attribute to specific immune response . cinnamon verum
essential oil showed stimulator effect on macrophages, phagocytosis and killing of invading microorganisms by
macrophage constitute the body's primary line of defense against infection [41]
5. Conclusion
The present study investigation showed that cinnamon zeylanicum essential oil and powder exhibit significant
T.protein , Globulin and albumin and total ant-oxidant activity in chickens. Findings of the study establish
cinnamon zeylanicum essential oil and powder had antiviral activity by appreciable immunostimulatory activity
by increasing survival percent (challenge test) lysozyme ,PI and phagocytic activity.
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... [8] Dalchini In a clinical study, anti-inflammatory action of the C. zeylanicum bark extract was revealed. It was found that the extract inhibited tumor necrosis factor (TNF). [9] Cytokines storm, i.e., upregulation of proinflammatory cytokines in the blood, [interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, TNF, and interferon-γ] is associated with severe COVID-19. ...
... [11] Essential oil and powder of C. zeylanicum possess antiviral activity by virtue of its immune stimulatory property. [9] Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitory activity of cinnamon is documented in studies. The efficacy of this class of drugs along with angiotensin receptor blockers in treating COVID-19 is under trial. ...
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Background: Public health crises threatening the world have emerged as Covid pandemic. The present analysis is aimed to analyze and summarize the therapeutic potential of the herbal formulae-Ayush Kwath as a preventive, curative, and restorative intervention. The treatment for COVID-19 should primarily aim for the resolution of symptoms, arresting the pathogenesis at the earliest and shortening the recovery phase. With these objectives, the clinical efficiency of Ayush Kwath is being traversed in this study. Materials and Methods: A thorough search of classical text and databases was done using key terms Ayurveda, Jwara, Tulsi, Sunthi, Dalchini, and Krishna Marich. Results: The study found that Ayush Kwath can serve as an empirical drug for the disease. Our findings are categorized under (1) clinical perspectives of Ayush Kwath, (2) pharmacology and reverse-pharmacology of the formulation-its role in therapeutics of COVID-19, (3) psychoneuroimmunological mechanism of the formulation w.r.t. each of the constituents' drugs, (4) therapeutic potential of the formulation-levels of prevention. Conclusion: From this review, efficacy of traditional medicines in Covid pandemic might be evidenced. This can back the clinical evidence of Ayurveda management of COVID-19. The drug can be labeled under "Vyadhiviprita chikitsaupakrama" and its application is a function of a Vaidya's rationality. Considering lower economical value, therapeutic efficacy, and good availability of the drug makes it a potent entity to deal with a public health concern such as coronavirus disease.
... New castle virus [132,133] • Increased number of granulocyte receptor-1 expressing IFN-γ • Increased phagocytic responsiveness of macrophage [134][135][136][137][138][139] • Toothache and dental problem • Improve colon health [130,131] TNF-α. This indicates the ability of black pepper and cardamom combination to stimulate proinflammatory responsiveness of macrophages [47]. ...
... Tamam S M et al. in 2017 reported antiviral as well as immunostimulatory effects of cinnamon against Newcastle disease virus in chicken. The study showed that dietary supplements containing cinnamon powder exhibited profound antiviral effects and immunostimulant effects with increased phagocytic activity and phagocytic index [134]. In another study, another variety of cinnamon, Cinnamomumburmanni is evaluated for immunomodulating activity and they found that oral administration of alcoholic extract of C.burmanni in mouse infected by Salmonella enteritidis resulted in a 97 % increase in Granulocyte receptor-1 expressing IFN-γ and 98% increase in macrophage phagocytic activity [135]. ...
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Months after WHO declared COVID-19 as a Global Public Health Emergency of International Concern, it does not seem to be flattening the curve as we are still devoid of an effective vaccine and treatment modality. Amid such uncertainty, being immune is the best strategy to defend against corona attack. As the whole world is referring back to immune-boosting grandma remedies, interest is rekindled in the Indian system of Medicine, which is gifted with an abundance of herbal medicines as well as remedies. Among them, spices (root, rhizome, seed, fruit, leaf, bud, and flower of various plants used to add taste and flavors to food) are bestowed with immense medicinal potential. A plethora of clinical as well as preclinical studies reported the effectiveness of various spices for various ailments. The potential immune-boosting properties together with its excellent safety profile are making spices the current choice of Phyto-research as well as the immune-boosting home remedies during these sceptical times. The present review critically evaluates the immune impact of various Indian spices and their potential to tackle the novel coronavirus, with comments on the safety and toxicity aspects of spices.
... The Ministry of AYUSH, Government of India recommended four medicinal herbs, Tulsi (Ocimum sanctum), Dalchini (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), Sunthi (Zingiber officinale), and Krishna Marich (Piper nigrum) to boost the body's first line of defence against COVID-19 [11]. Tamam, Abd-el-Hamid, Samah, & Marwa [12] reported antiviral and immunomodulatory activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum oil against Newcastle disease virus (NDV). Aqueous extract of medicinal plants are enriched with several chemical compounds among which polysaccharides are the most active elements [13]. ...
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The emergence of the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2 has pushed forward the world to experience the first pandemic of this century. Any specific drug against this RNA virus is yet to be discovered and presently, the COVID-19 infected patients are being treated symptomatically. During the last few decades, a number of polysaccharides with potential biological activities have been invented from Indian medicinal plants. Many polysaccharides, such as sulfated xylomannan, xylan, pectins, fucoidans, glucans, glucoarabinan, and arabinoxylan from Indian medicinal plants, have been shown to exhibit antiviral and immunomodulating activities. Plant polysaccharides exhibit antiviral activities through interference with the viral life cycle and inhibition of attachment of virus to host cell. Intake of certain immune stimulating plant polysaccharides may also protect from the virus to a certain extent. In process of continuous search for most potent drug, Indian plant polysaccharides may emerge as significant biomaterial to combat COVID-19. This review explores a number of polysaccharides from Indian medicinal plants which showed antiviral and immunomodulating activities. It is aimed to provide an overview about the composition, molecular mass, branching configuration and related bioactivities of polysaccharides which is crucial for their classification as possible drug to induce immune response in viral diseases.
... cinnamon zeylanicum essential oil and powder exhibit significant T. protein, Globulin and albumin and total ant-oxidant activity in chickens. Findings of the study establish cinnamon zeylanicum essential oil and powder had antiviral activity by appreciable immunostimulatory activity by increasing survival percent (challenge test) lysozyme, PI and phagocytic activity [7] . ...
... Cinnamon improves body sensitivity toward foreign particles. Cinnamon essential oil and powder had antiviral activity by appreciable immuno stimulatory activity [11] . ...
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The COVID-19 is mainly considered as an inevitable pandemic, in resent scenario and scientists are very concern about how to provide the best protection to the public before a vaccine can be made available Herbal medicine is a class of medicine derive from nature so that Traditional plant based compounds are seeking more attention to treat incurable diseases as they causing fewer side effects because of less use of additives, preservatives. The aim of writing a review over the use of spices and herbs for boosting immunology against this deadly viral infection because of the rapid spread of the infection, unavailability of knowledge regarding the treatment. Providing some recollecting and gathering informatics details of Ayurveda for the public to protect themselves from the effect of viral infection.
... There are two important varieties of cinnamon: Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Cinnamomum cassia. Cinnamomum zeylanicum (family-Lauraceae) is reported to have numerous pharmacological activities which includes anti-diabetic, 8 hepatoprotective, 9 anti-oxidant, 10 antiinflammatory, 11 anti-nociceptive, 12 anti-fungal, 13 antimicrobial, 14 anti-viral, 15 and anti-fertility. 16 Literature unveils the lipid lowering effects of C. zeylanicum [17][18][19] and C.cassia 20 were carried out with different doses in diabetic (streptozotocin and alloxan) and hyperlipidemic (high fat or and fructose diet) models. ...
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Introduction: Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark used in Indian traditional medicine to treat hyperlipidemia and cardiovascular diseases. Hyperlipidemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease and metabolic syndrome. Objective: The present study was to evaluate the antihyperlipidemic effect of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Cinnamomum zeylanicum bark against Triton induced hyperlipidemia in Wistar albino rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty rats (200-230gm) were randomly divided into five groups of six rats in each, received standard diet and water daily. Normal control (5% CMC), positive control (Triton 400mg/kg), standard control (atorvastatin 40mg/kg), ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Cinnamon groups (CZEE and CZAE 500 mg/kg of each) were assigned and treated respectively. All the groups except normal control were administered triton to induce hyperlipidemia. Both the standard and plant extracts were administered for seven days orally. At the end of the study, fasting blood was collected and serum was separated out to estimate the lipid profile and various markers of coronary heart diseases. Results: Post supplementation of atorvastatin, CZEE and CZAE significantly (P<0.05) ameliorated the hyperlipidemia and decreased the risk of cardiovascular diseases in triton induced hyperlipidemic rats. Conclusion: From the observations, it can be concluded that supplementation of Cinnamon extracts can significantly decline the lipid abnormalities and ameliorate the markers of coronary heart disease and provides the scientific evidence for their traditional claims. Further molecular studies are warranted to evaluate the causative molecule for antihyperlipidemic effect.
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The novel coronavirus or severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS‐CoV‐2) is a deadly virus which has spread globally and claimed millions of lives. This novel virus transmits mainly through droplets and close human contact. It’s impact in different countries varies depending on geographical location, climatic conditions, food habits, and cultural activities. Several precautionary measures, as well as many medicines, are applied in different combinations to limit the spread of infection. This results in a preliminary relief of people infected in the first stage of infection. An alternative approach has been introduced which proposes natural herbs, which have minimal or no side effects, and improve overall immunity. Some essential herbs with their immunomodulatory effects are mentioned in this article along with suggestions for improved immunity and protection.
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Immunity plays a key role in disease susceptibility. Immunomodulators are agents which specifically modulate immune system regulating immunity and disease resistance. In poultry it is specifically important as the growth, disease resistance, FCR, body weight gain production output mainly depends on the health and immunity of the chickens. Different types of immunomodulators are prebiotics, probiotics, vitamins, adjuvants, polysaccharides, herbs etc. Immunology has great potentials in prevention and treatment of various range of disorders for instance the various inflammatory diseases of skin, respiratory tract, gut, central organs and joints. The preliminary objective of immunomodulation is to improve host resistance to external and internal attacks by the microbes or other infectious agents. Immunomodulators can substitute many agents like antibiotics, antimicrobials etc. for the improvement of the immune system. They also enhance the qualities of feed and immune molecules enhancing all possibilities to fight diseases and maintain health homeostasis. Since, they are not popular and not included in the poultry feed on routine basis, more efforts should be made to popularize it.
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The Newcastle disease virus isolated from healthy turkeys in outbreak GB 97/6 was used to challenge 4-week-old turkeys and chickens, which were either not vaccinated or had received a single dose of Hitchner B1 live vaccine 14 days earlier, by one of the intramuscular, intranasal or contact routes. Similar experiments were done in 38-day-old turkeys and chickens using virus isolated from severely sick chickens in outbreak GB 97/1. All vaccinated chickens showed low but measurable immune responses 14 days after vaccination, but only three of the turkeys had detectable antibodies. No vaccinated turkey or chicken showed any clinical sign after challenge with either virus. The virus from healthy turkeys in outbreak GB 97/6 induced clinical signs in 12/30 unvaccinated turkeys after challenge and 7/30 died. In unvaccinated chickens, challenge with this virus produced clinical signs in 25/30 birds and 21/30 died. In challenge experiments with the virus from outbreak GB 97/1 in chickens, 3/30 unvaccinated turkeys showed clinical signs and all three subsequently died. In contrast, 30/30 unvaccinated chickens challenged with this virus showed clinical signs and died. Vaccination did not prevent infection and excretion of either challenge virus. However, when compared with unvaccinated birds, vaccination reduced significantly the length of time virus was excreted and the overall proportion of swabs that were positive.
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Background: Cinnamomum zeylanicum is an important spice and aromatic crop used in folk medicine. Cinnamon is usually regarded as the bark of the C. zeylanicum tree. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the antioxidative stress capacity of cinnamon in humans when administered in a regular and controlled manner. Methods: A total of 54 normal subjects were divided into three groups, receiving water, regular tea or cinnamon tea for 2 weeks. Blood samples were obtained before and after treatment and analyzed for lipid peroxidation levels, total antioxidant power and total thiol groups by standard methods. Results: The results indicated increased total antioxidant power and total thiols but a decrease in lipid peroxidation levels in individuals who received regular or cinnamon tea compared with controls. The extent of increase in total antioxidant power and decrease in lipid peroxidation levels were more evident in individuals who received cinnamon tea compared with those who received regular tea. Conclusion: Cinnamon has a marked antioxidant potential and may be beneficial in alleviating the complications of many illnesses related to oxidative stress in humans.
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The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil on antioxidant status of chickens. Thirty-two female Ross 308 hybrid broilers were fed one of four diets supplemented with 0%, 0.1%, 0.05% and 0.025% of essential oil for 38 days. Blood, liver, kidney and duodenal epithelium were collected for the subsequent evaluation of antioxidant status. Feeding of adiet supplemented with 0.1% of essential oil significantly decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) in plasma and duodenal mucosa in comparison with the control group (0%). The activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were significantly higher in blood of chicks fed the diet containing 0.1% of essential oil. Diets containing 0.05% and 0.025% of essential oil reduced alanine amino transferase (ALT) activity in plasma in comparison with the control group. Blood phagocytic activity significantly increased in chickens fed the diet supplemented with 0.1% and the index of phygocytic activity was affected by the diet containing 0.025% of essential oil in comparison with the control group. The present investigation shows that Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil exhibits a significant antioxidant activity in fattening chickens and can be used as a source of antioxidant in dietary supplement.
Chapter
Newcastle disease (ND) has economic and ecologic impact on pet and free-living as well as on domestic birds. Virtually all of the approximately 8,000 species of birds seem to be susceptible to infection with Newcastle disease viruses (NDVs).
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Originally recognized as an essential part of the innate and acquired immune systems, macrophages emerged as omnipresent and influential regulators of embryo- and organo-genesis, as well as of tissue and tumor growth. Macrophages are present essentially in all tissues, beginning with embryonic development and, in addition to their role in host defense and in the clearance of apoptotic cells, are being increasingly recognized for their trophic function and role in regeneration. Some tissue macrophages are also found to posses a substantial potential for autonomous self-renewal. Macrophages are associated with a significant proportion of malignant tumors and are widely recognized for their angiogenesis-promoting and trophic roles, making them one of the new promising targets for cancer therapies. Recent expression profiling of embryonic macrophages from different tissues revealed remarkable consistency of their gene expression profiles, independent of their tissue of origin, as well as their similarities with tumor-associated macrophages. Macrophages are also capable of fusion with other cells in tissue repair and metastasizing tumors, as well as with each other in the immune response and osteoclastogenesis. genesis 46:447–462, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.