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The Importance of Search Engine Optimization for Tourism Websites



In this paper we initially present the importance of search engine optimization (SEO) for tourism Websites. We present the most important metrics that affect SEO such as display speed, quality and quantity of content, mobile responsiveness, inbound links and the technologies that they use. All these metrics greatly affect search engine rankings and consequently online bookings. To assess how SEO is implemented on a tourism related domain we examine a sample of almost 400 Tourism business websites on the island of Kefalonia in Greece. We provide cumulative results for more than 20 important SEO metrics for these Websites. Our case study shows that SEO metrics have been optimized for about 25% of these Websites and need extensive optimization for the rest. Τhe basic idea in this paper is to study and evaluate the state of SEO on a specific tourism destination (Kefalonia) and provide insights for the next steps that need to be implemented in order to improve search engine rankings. We also correlate SEO optimization to search engine position. This has been done by introducing a general SEO grade as a combination of important SEO metrics for every Website, taking into account their relative significance. This correlation proves that more optimized websites rank better for generic queries in their category. SEO is very important in Tourism since it helps search engines figure out what each page is about, and how it may be useful to users. This paper proves that SEO plays a significant role for tourism website rankings and that there is a lot of room for improvement for a large number of tourism websites.
International Journal of Cultural and Digital Tourism
Volume x, Number x
Copyright © IACUDIT
ISSN (Online): 2241-9705
ISSN (Print): 2241-973X
The Importance of Search Engine Optimization for Tourism Websites
Agisilaos Konidaris1*, Erato Koustoumpardi2
1 Lecturer, Department of Digital Media and Communication, Technological Educational Institute of the
Ionian Islands
2 Adjunct Lecturer, Department of Digital Media and Communication, Technological Educational Institute
of the Ionian Islands
In this paper we initially present the importance of search engine optimization (SEO) for tourism Websites.
We present the most important metrics that affect SEO such as display speed, quality and quantity of content,
mobile responsiveness, inbound links and the technologies that they use. All these metrics greatly affect
search engine rankings and consequently online bookings. To assess how SEO is implemented on a tourism
related domain we examine a sample of almost 400 Tourism business websites on the island of Kefalonia in
Greece. We provide cumulative results for more than 20 important SEO metrics for these Websites. Our case
study shows that SEO metrics have been optimized for about 25% of these Websites and need extensive
optimization for the rest.
Τhe basic idea in this paper is to study and evaluate the state of SEO on a specific tourism destination
(Kefalonia) and provide insights for the next steps that need to be implemented in order to improve search
engine rankings. We also correlate SEO optimization to search engine position. This has been done by
introducing a general SEO grade as a combination of important SEO metrics for every Website, taking into
account their relative significance. This correlation proves that more optimized websites rank better for
generic queries in their category.
SEO is very important in Tourism since it helps search engines figure out what each page is about, and how
it may be useful to users. This paper proves that SEO plays a significant role for tourism website rankings
and that there is a lot of room for improvement for a large number of tourism websites.
Keywords: Search Engine Optimization, Web Performance, Tourism Websites, Google ranking, Tourism
JEL Classification: Z33
1. Introduction
The Tourism Industry today relies heavily on search engines. The results of a Google study (Think with
Google 2015) show that online search engines continue to dominate the travel industry with 60% of leisure
travelers and 55% of business travelers using them to research and plan travel. Other studies (Chitika 2013)
show that around 92% of natural clicks come from page one of Search Engine Result Pages (SERPs), 4.8%
of clicks come from page two and only 1.1% come from page three. Also, 41% of unsuccessful searches
after the first SERP choose to refine their keyword/search phrase or their chosen search engine (O’Neill and
Curran, K. 2011). Finally, 80% of completely unsuccessful searches are followed by a keyword refinement
(O’Neill and Curran 2011). Users also seem to trust the first SERP results, even in cases where an unknown
brand appears before than a well-known one (Dou et al. 2010).
International Journal of Cultural and Digital Tourism
Volume x, Number x, pp. xx-xx
Most tourist bookings today start on a search engine (Think with Google 2015). As a result, more and
more tourist businesses pursue an effective presence on search engines. The success of a website on SERPs
is a result of various coexisting factors such as: page speed, quality and quantity of content, clarity, accuracy
of page titles/descriptions and page refresh rate. Better SERP positioning leads to more website visitors
which in general leads to an increase in online sales (Heinze et al. 2010; Hsing et al. 2010). SEO is a
marketing discipline focused on growing visibility in organic (non-paid) search engine results (
2016-2). Search Engine Optimization (SEO) should be a main component of any industry’s marketing plan,
but for the travel industry it’s absolutely essential (Pan et al. 2011). Usually, an optimized Website is
rewarded by a good position on SERPs (Parkinson, G. 2016). SEO techniques require a number of constant
actions in order to improve SERP rankings. In this paper we study SEO optimization and its implications for
tourism related websites on a well known Greek destination, the island of Kefalonia. We have studied a
sample of over 400 tourism business websites belonging to businesses on the island and report on the results
concerning SEO adoption and implementation on these websites. We argue that the online visibility of a
tourism destination relies on the quality and rankings of the destination's websites. A destination doing well
in terms of tourist flows must be doing well in online visibility and tourism business websites. Furthermore,
based on the data collected from these websites, we attempt to create a new cumulative SEO metric that
relies only on technical SEO factors in order to research the correlation between technical SEO and SERP
rankings. In this paper we focus on the largest web search engine which is Google and provide a novel
methodology to evaluate tourism destination websites.
2. Related Work
The tourism industry is one of the world's largest industries (Statista 2017). In travel and tourism, search
engines have become one of the important sources for Internet users to access travel products (TIA 2008).
The essential factors for any e-business include website design as well as techniques that increase website
visitors. SEO is nowadays more important than ever and it is necessary for every webmaster to understand its
true meaning as well as its potential. Many researchers have extensively studied the effect of SEO on search
engine rankings and its influence in increasing website visitors.
An overview of search engine optimization strategies and pitfalls are described in (O’Neill and Curran
2011). Optimized websites obtain better rankings, and typically get a higher number of visitors (Yalcin and
Kose 2010).
Other authors (Wang, et al. 2011) suggest the creation of profiles for user’s behaviors while searching
information on the Internet, and then optimizing websites based upon the characteristics collected through
the profiling in order to acquire the desired results of achieving higher page rankings. This approach helps in
grabbing attention of web surfers.
In (Cui and Hu 2011) the authors highlight the specific requirements for optimizing search queries, and
present novel website building and design concepts based on empirical research. Another research study
(Zhu and Wu 2011) proposed a research analysis on SEO by using reverse engineering factors and built a
system that automatically crawled 200,000 web pages. For that the authors used five factors of SEO: URL
length, keyword that appears in URL domain, keyword density in HI, keyword density in title and URL
The use of SEO plug-ins and its positive impact on increasing the number of visitors to a website is
discussed in (Hidayanto et al. 2012). In (Rimbach et al. 2007) the authors examine various page ranking
techniques and their impact on marketing and sales. They conclude that various strategies should be used in
order to attract potential customers. The pros and cons of using SEO techniques on websites is described in
(Akram 2010). The authors have concluded that they are essential to increasing profits.
The identification of the SEO techniques that have the most impact on search engine ranking has been
discussed in (Duklan 2015) with the use of k-means cluster analysis for clustering various SEO techniques.
A very interesting white paper (Tober 2014) deals with the definition and evaluation of factors that
have a high rank correlation-coefficient with organic search results, a methodology similar to ours. They
found that content is the most important factor for ranking which is the same result that we have concluded
in this paper.
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Volume x, Number x, pp. xx-xx
3. Methodology
In this paper we present the results that were the outcome of a study of over 400 local tourism business
websites on the island of Kefalonia in Greece. We evaluate the state of SEO on a specific tourism destination
(Kefalonia island in Greece) during the period between September 2016 and January 2017. The websites
were selected based on specific criteria (presented below) and the goal was to evaluate them in terms of
successful SEO practices and conclude on what was done right and what still needed to be implemented. We
selected the websites based on the following criteria:
1. The websites should represent individual tourism related businesses (e.g. hotels, restaurants,
villas etc) of local interest. This means that web travel portals and websites belonging to large
international brands were not included. We aimed to evaluate websites that actually belong to
local small businesses.
2. The websites should be present in the 100 first results on Google for a popular keyword in their
category. We used Google Trends to identify the most popular keywords for every tourism
business category we included in our study.
3. The tools that we used to evaluate more than 50 metrics that affect SEO were the following:
Seoptimer, Seoprofiler, Website Grader, W3techs, Builtwith and Wappalyzer.
The methodology that we followed is summarized in the following steps:
1. Identify tourism related categories. Initially we identified 24 business categories broadly related to
tourism that we aimed to include in our study. These were: Activities, Boat rentals, Yacht rentals,
Cruises, Café-bars-clubs, Civil engineers, Construction, Ferries-tickets, Hotels, Lawyers, Real estate,
Rent a car, Pastry shops, Restaurants, Shopping-gifts, Local products, Services, Suites-apartments,
Studios-rooms, Super market, Grocery stores, Travel agencies, Villas, Weddings-Catering-Flowers-
Wedding services.
2. Use Google Trends to identify the most popular keywords used in every category. This process
was not straightforward because we were studying a very niche market (tourism in Kefalonia) that
does not experience a substantial amount of web searches in many of the identified categories. Thus
it was a difficult task to identify the most popular keywords in some of the aforementioned
3. Use Google Search to research the identified most popular keywords in every category. During
this step we were cautious so that personal browsing preferences would not interfere in the SERP
rankings. To ensure that browsing preferences would not interfere in the ranking process we always
used anonymous browsing. Our research was conducted on because the basic travel
market of Kefalonia island is the UK.
4. Analyze every identified Website URL homepage. We used Seoptimer, Seoprofiler, Website
Grader, W3techs, Builtwith, Wappalyzer to analyze the identified domains for more than 50 SEO
3. SEO Metrics
In the following paragraphs we present and analyze the most important metrics that were documented and
then summarize our key findings for every metric in Table 1. The key SEO metrics that we evaluated for the
400 websites that were in our sample were the following:
Top Level Domain (TLD). The TLD selection should rely on the website target audience and the type of
business. For example a ".gr" TLD gives a signal to a search engine that the websites content is targeted
towards users in Greece. This is not true for a tourism related business. Every domain name has a suffix that
indicates which top level domain (TLD) it belongs to. Nowadays there are many TLD options. It can be a
country suffix or ccTLD (such as .gr, it, .zm, .de), a generic suffix or gTLD, indicating a business or
organization category (such as .com, .net, .org) or even one of the new TLDs (.holiday, .villas, .apartments,
.blog etc).
Second-level domain (SLD). The SLD is the portion of the domain name that is located immediately to
the left of the dot of the domain name suffix (TLD). Research has shown that the average SLD characters for
International Journal of Cultural and Digital Tourism
Volume x, Number x, pp. xx-xx
the 100,000 top domains worldwide are 9 and domains with up to 10 character SLDs are considered easy to
memorize ( 2009; Search Engine Journal 2013). Also we study the use of dashes in the SLD
which has proved not to be necessary for word separation in search engines.
Page title tag and the meta-description. These are some of the most important factors when it comes to
On Page optimization. These elements work together and can influence a Web page's CTR (Click Through
Rate) on a SERP since this is the information about a page that search engine users first see when searching.
The content of the title and description tags is very important as is their length, since Google has a uniform
SERP structure providing a very specific space for every result. This space is about 60 characters for the title
and about 155 characters for the description. This space should be fully taken into advantage and used in the
best way as to get users to click on it.
The content of the title. This is another important SEO metric. The title summarizes what a user will
expect to find on a website and must be completely relevant to the content. In our case we have researched
the presence of the toponym "kefalonia" which is the name of the island all of the websites in our study refer
to. It is a good practice to include the toponym in the title of a tourist business website because the toponym
is almost always among the most popular keywords that a user searches for according to our Google Trends
Use of Heading tags. The existence of heading tags in website pages provides a visible structure to a
page. It is extremely useful to have heading tags on a page since they make the content stand out and more
legible. For search engines, headings provide a good signal about the quality of a page. They also use them
to "understand" what the webmaster thinks is important on that page.
Multiple occurrences of a key term in page text. The multiple occurrence of a key term implies that a
page is related to this term. In the case of this study it seems logical for a website to include several
occurrences of the term Kefalonia. The occurrence of a term (not the abuse) is an important SEO factor.
Availability of a Sitemap. The availability of a sitemap helps search engines determine the structure of a
website and visit its pages.
Hosting. Every website is hosted on a Web server. There are many companies that provide hosting
around the world. Depending on the technologies used by a Website and their requirements, an appropriate
hosting package must be selected. In terms of SEO, hosting is mostly related to page load speed. The hosting
country of a Website is generally suggested to be as close as possible geographically to the target group of
the Website because this increases their access speed. The geographic location of a company's servers
hosting, interconnection speeds and other factors affect the speed of serving requests to sites which they host.
Content Management System (CMS). A CMS is online software that can be used for website
management. It is usually available for free and removes much of the technical details when implementing
and managing a website. Two of the most popular CMS are Wordpress and Joomla. The use of a CMS
nowadays is suggested in order to reduce website design, implementation and management cost and time. At
the same time the use of a CMS provides expandability with the use of plug-ins and security through
constant updates.
Webpage loading speed and overall performance. The loading speed of a Webpage is the time it takes
for a page to fully load in a browser after a user request is initiated. Studies have estimated that if a page
takes longer than 3 secs to load the user is more likely to bounce (Schwartz 2016). Webpage overall
performance takes into account several performance factors such as the volume of data, the number of
additional files required by a page, loading speed and others.
Mobile optimization. Nowadays more than half of Internet users access the web through a mobile
device. Mobile optimization of Web pages is the process of ensuring that users will have the optimal mobile
experience when accessing a Webpage. This is many times referred to as responsiveness, meaning that a
Website should be able to respond and transform its design features according to the user's device
specifications. Google is obviously interested in improving user experience and that is why mobile
optimization is considered a major factor for SEO.
SSL and data security. Data security is one of the most important parameters for internet users,
especially when personal data or credit card data are exchanged. SSL (Secure Sockets Layer) is a standard
security protocol for establishing encrypted links between a web server and a browser in an online
communication. A website may use an SSL certificate to encrypt the data it exchanges with its users
something that is considered essential by search engines today (Murray 2017)
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Volume x, Number x, pp. xx-xx
Analytics tool availability. Even though this is not considered to be SEO metric we have measured it in
our sample of websites to get an idea on how many of the websites are really providing useful feedback to
their owners. If a website uses a traffic analytics tool the webmaster can find out how many users visit the
website, which country they came from, what pages are visited frequently and a lot of other useful
information. The most popular traffic measurement tool is Google Analytics which is free to use.
Social Media connectivity. Social Media connectivity is the link between a website and its social media
profiles. Since social media is a great way to refer traffic to a website, social media connectivity is
considered a SEO factor. In our study we measured the connectivity of Websites to the largest social media
network which is Facebook.
Availability of a SEO plugin. The most popular CMS software can take advantage of guided SEO
software that enables website owners to easily optimize pages. This software is available in the form of plug-
ins. The most popular SEO plug-in for Wordpress is Yoast SEO.
Inbound Links. Inbound links are considered to be the epitome of Off Page website optimization going
back to the Pagerank Algorithm days of Google. More incoming links to a page are a good indication of the
value of its content. To evaluate this SEO metric we initially examined the number οf links to the homepage
of the websites in our sample.
4. SEO Results
There are several challenges that websites face in order to improve their SERP presence and position. As
far as Kefalonia is concerned, in our sample we observe that there is a group of Web sites (about 25%) that
are quite good at SEO. The rest of the websites (about 75%) have many problems in terms of SEO. In Table
1 we present our results in detail and also propose best practices that websites should follow.
Best practice proposed
Top Level Domain
57% of Websites use the .gr suffix
39% use the .com suffix
4% use the other ending
Use of .com domain
Second-level domain
18% 3-10 char
69% 11-20 char
13% 21-34 char
9 characters max
Use of Dashes in SLDs
73% of websites do not use dashes in
27% of websites use dashes in SLD
Dashes are not necessary
for word separation
Generic Keyword
(toponym) in SLD
(Study toponym:
31% of SLDs contained the term
kefalonia in some spelling variation
97% of those using the term used the
exact spelling (kefalonia)
Google prefers branded
Title tag
64% of the websites had up to 60
characters in their title
36% of the websites had more than 60
60 characters max
Meta description
40% had descriptions up to 155
60% had descriptions longer than 155
150-160 characters max
Toponym in Title
65% had the term "kefalonia" in the title
35% did not have the term "kefalonia" in
Use toponym
Toponym in
description tag
52% use the term "kefalonia"
48% of the websites do not use the term
Use toponym
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Use of Heading tags
29% of the websites do not use any
8% of use the H1 heading
Use headings
Multiple occurrences of
a key term
Kefalonia (1264 occurrences)
villas (606 occurrences)
hotel, studio, apartments (220-250
Use important keywords
with caution not to
overuse (write for users
not search engines)
35% were hosted in Greece
25% hosted in Germany
18% hosted in the US
22% hosted in other countries.
Host your website in a
country or as close to a
country where your target
audience resides
Content Management
System (CMS).
23% of the Websites use Wordpress
20% Joomla
51% did not use a CMS or a CMS could
not be detected
6% use another CMS
Use a CMS
Page speed
25% had a loading speed between 0.5
and 3 sec
40% had a loading speed between 3.1
and 6 sec
35% had a loading speed greater than 6
3 sec max loading speed
Overall Performance
28% of the Websites scored between 0.1
and 0.49
35% scored between 0.5 and 0.69
37% scored between 0.7 and 0.96
Scale of 0 (worst) to 1
Mobile optimization
45% scored an overall mobile grade
between 0 and 0.59
0.5 scored an overall mobile grade
between 0.6 and 0.79
54.5% scored an overall mobile grade
between 0.81 έως 1
Scale of 0 (worst) to 1
SSL and data security
79% do not have an SSL certificate
21% have an SSL certificate.
Add an SSL certificate to
every website
Wordpress version
96% of Websites using Wordpress were not
running the latest version of the CMS
Always update to latest
version of CMS
Analytics tool
52% of the websites were not connected
to any traffic measurement tool
48% used Google Analytics
Connect your site to an
Analytics tool
Social Media
24% of websites linked to Facebook
76% did not link to Facebook
Create a Facebook
business page and link to
it from Website
SEO plugin
96% of websites didn't use a SEO plugin
4% used Yoast SEO
Use a SEO plugin
Inbound Links
1% had over 70 inbound links
4% had inbound links between 41 and 70
7% had inbound links between 21 and 40
88% had inbound links between 0 and 20
Increase quality (high
MDA) links
Moz Domain Authority
All websites had an MDA lower than 40
The vast majority had an MDA ranging
from 10 to 15
Scale of 0 (worst) to 100
(best). Higher MDA is
better ( 2016-1)
Table 1. SEO results and best practices
International Journal of Cultural and Digital Tourism
Volume x, Number x, pp. xx-xx
The Table above shows that most of the websites in our sample need a lot of work in order to optimize
their pages in terms of SEO. The most important factors that they need to look into are:
1. Increasing inbound links
2. Adding SSL certificate
3. Constant renewal of CMS versions (Wordpress or Joomla)
4. Loading time performance
5. Mobile optimization
6. Using the correct keywords in titles and descriptions of Websites as well as keeping title and meta
description length within proposed character limits
7. Using headers in text
5. SEO and Search Engine Rankings
After presenting the results in our website sample, in this paper we also investigate the correlation of
technical SEO factors to Google rankings. There have been other studies that correlate Google rankings to
various factors as the number of referring domains , the domain link authority or the length of content (Dean
2016-2). This study was conducted on a large website sample of 1 million websites. In our case we wanted to
study the correlation of technical SEO parameters to the rankings of Tourism related websites in a much
smaller domain. The basic question that we wanted to answer is whether there can be a correlation between
specific technical SEO factors and Google rankings for travel related websites and if by looking at these
technical SEO factors one can have a good idea of where a website will rank compared to another website.
Of course this is not an easy task because there are so many factors that play a role in Google rankings. In the
context of this paper we narrowed down our travel website sample that we had collected data for to the hotel
industry. This is because hotel websites showed a better overall score compared to other categories. Our
methodology was the following:
1. We initially collected Google rankings for hotels in Kefalonia by using the most popular search
term: "kefalonia hotels". This search term was the result of Google Trends research.
2. We narrowed the research to the 100 first results in Google search and included only the hotel
websites that ranked on Google for the selected search term.
3. We then selected 3 key technical SEO metrics based on (Dean 2016-1) and the knowledge that 3 of
the most important ranking factors in Google are Content length, Inbound Links and technical SEO
factors. The only metric that we had to depict content length was Text to HTML ratio. Of course this
is not a metric of content quality which plays a significant role in rankings. It is just an indication
that there is significant content on a web page. The second metric selected was Moz Domain
authority which is a metric that depicts the probability of a web page to rank well on search engines.
The third metric selected was a cumulative SEO grade provided by Hubspot's Website Grader.
First we analyzed each factor independently in order to find the correlation between Google rankings
and each of the selected metrics. In order to do this we created the scatter plots of Google ranking vs each
selected metric and found the correlation coefficient R for each metric.
International Journal of Cultural and Digital Tourism
Volume x, Number x, pp. xx-xx
Figure 1. Scatter plots of selected SEO metrics vs. Google rank
The results for the correlation coefficient are shown in the following table (Table 2).
Text to HTML ratio vs
Google Rank (THTML)
Moz Domain authority
vs Google rank (MOZ)
coefficient (R)
Table 2. Correlation coefficient of selected metrics to Google rankings
The results above show that the most correlated technical SEO metric to Google rankings is Text to
HTML ratio. We found a moderate relationship between Text to HTML ratio and Google rankings. Moz
Domain authority and Cumulative SEO grade show a very weak relationship to Google rankings.
Even though the three metrics show moderate to weak correlation to Google rankings for hotel websites
for our sample we then try to create a cumulative weighed new metric. We call this metric TMS and
calculate its value through the following formula:
TMS = a1*THTML + a2*MOZ + a3*CSEO
The idea behind this formula is that we can create a new technical SEO metric which is the product of
three other SEO metrics but each does not hold the same weight in its calculation. We include a1, a2 and a3
as weighing constant values which are proportional to the correlation coefficient that was calculated for each
of these factors and normalized. This means that a more correlated value to Google rankings should hold
more weight in the calculation of the new TMS metric. By normalizing the correlation coefficients shown in
Table 2 and then normalizing them we calculated a1, a2 and a3 as follows:
y = -0,204x + 21,813
R² = 0,2385
0 20 40 60 80 100
Text to HTML ratio vs Google rank
y = -0,0652x + 22,277
R² = 0,058
0 20 40 60 80 100
Moz Domain Authority vs Google rank
y = -0,0551x + 19,062
R² = 0,0158
0 20 40 60 80 100
Cumulative SEO grade vs Google rank
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After the definition of a1, a2 and a3 we went on to calculate the new TMS values for all the websites in
our sample and created the scatter plot for TMS vs Google rankings shown below.
Figure 2. Scatter plot of TMS vs. Google rank
The scatter plot above shows that the correlation coefficient for the TMS to Google Rank (R) is 0.622
which proves a strong relationship between the new TMS cumulative metric to Google rankings. This
technique was then used for all other website categories in our sample and showed that TMS improved the
actual correlation between technical SEO and Google rankings.
The calculation of the TMS metric relies on the concept that content is the most important factor for
improving Google rankings. This seems logical and has been the result of numerous other studies. In this
paper though we correlate pure technical SEO factors that can be easily be extracted with the use of free
tools with Google rankings. Even though the actual position on Google cannot be calculated this concept can
have very positive results in comparing websites and concluding on how they would rank comparatively on
6. Conclusion
In this paper we analyzed over 400 travel related business websites on a well known Greek travel
destination which is the island of Kefalonia. Our analysis has shown that these websites need more work on
SEO and that they need to especially improve specific SEO factors. Correlating SEO to Google rankings is
not easy because it is well known that Google ranking takes into account more that 200 parameters.
Furthermore quality content is a major factor for better Google rankings and this is not a technical SEO
issue. In this paper we have attempted to correlate Google ranking to 3 key technical SEO metrics through
the creation of a new cumulative and weighed metric called TMS. We have shown that Text to HTML ratio
is a significant factor in Google rankings and TMS has a strong relationship to Google rankings. Of course
our research can be extended much further to other website categories besides travel and it would be
interesting to compare Website TMS between samples of different travel destinations to conclude on
destination online reputation based on Google rankings.
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... Dewasa ini, internet mengalami kemajuan yang sangat cepat, terutama pada aspek mesin pencarinya. Penelitian [2] menyimpulkan mesin pencari itu sendiri merupakan algoritma komputer yang dirancang sedemikian rupa untuk membantu pengguna menemukan informasi yang ingin dicari, misalnya dalam komputer sendiri atau di dalam website. Mesin pencari tidak hanya dapat memungkinkan kita untuk meminta data informasi dengan cara mencari dari hal khusus ke umum namun juga dapat mencari dari hal umum ke khusus. ...
... Sebagai contoh dalam kategorisasi teks, penyandian teks lengkap yang diberikan sebagai data mentah ke dalam vektor numerik mengarah ke dua masalah utama, yaitu dimensi besar dan distribusi jarang. Merujuk pada jurnal [16], penulis menyandikan teks lengkap menjadi korelasi antara dua vektor yang sesuai menggunakan Persamaan Cosinus Similarity (2). ...
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Mobil merupakan kendaraan yang sangat dibutuhkan pada masa ini. Banyak dari pengguna ketika ingin memilih mobil hanya mengetahui sebagian dari informasi mobil yang disukainya tanpa mengetahui informasi mobil lain yang sejenis. Rekomendasi sistem pemilihan mobil merupakan sistem yang dapat digunakan oleh pengguna dalam memilih mobil. Dengan diterapkannya rekomendasi sistem pemilihan mobil, pengguna akan mendapatkan informasi lebih mengenai mobil yang ingin dipilih, dan mobil lain yang mungkin mobil tersebut sama sekali belum diketahui oleh pengguna. Dalam rekomendasi sistem pemilihan mobil, penulis menerapkan metode K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN) Collaborative Filtering yang dilakukan berdasarkan jarak kedekatan Data Testing dengan Data Training. Kedekatan data (kemiripan data) tersebut digunakan untuk merekomendasikan mobil ke pengguna. Hasil yang diperoleh dalam penelitian ini adalah jika ingin mendapatkan 10 mobil terbaik maka jarak maksimal yang digunakan adalah 5%, dan akurasi terbaik didapatkan ketika K = 10 yaitu sebesar 95,15%.
... Search engines class websites regarding search results based on criteria for specific words or key phrases that are inserted by the user in the search bar, such as Page Size, Website Loading Time, SSL Certificate, Keyword Density in Text, Keyword in H1/H2/H3 Tags, Quality and Quantity of Backlinks, Text to Code Ratio, Unique -High Quality Content, Image Alt Text, Internal Linking, Responsive layout (Ziakis et al., 2019). Tourism websites administrators should take classification criteria into consideration and apply them to their pages in order to generate valuable traffic (Konidaris and Koustoumpardi, 2018). ...
Digital marketing is an integral part of any business. The increasing popularity of digital channels has changed the way businesses market and interact with their customers. Due to the rapid emergence of new marketing techniques, the tourism industry has undergone significant changes. This paper consists of a manually performed analysis regarding the digital presence of 3016 travel companies in Greece and, more specifically in the Halkidiki region, and a survey conducted to recognize the perceived benefits and the use of digital marketing by these companies. Results indicate that travel companies in Greece do not implement a comprehensive digital marketing strategy and highlight an increased need for digital marketing solutions in the travel sector.KeywordsDigital marketingTourism industrySocial mediaWebsitesSearch engine optimization
... Accordingly, using labels can trigger both cognitive systems, whereas processing converted information for the decision-making requires reflective thought. Sorting flight booking results by default draws on status quo bias and framing, two psychological effects that have been proven to be highly effective (Thaler and Sunstein, 2008), as they benefit from inertia as well as the selective nature of attention, which are often caused by automatic and instinctive processing (Konidaris and Koustoumpardi, 2018). Social comparison nudges are typically based on descriptive norms and provide individuals with information about the behavior of a relevant reference group (Bartke et al., 2017). ...
Purpose Online flight booking websites compare airfares, convenience and other consumer relevant attributes. Environmental concerns are typically not addressed, even though aviation is the most emission-intensive mode of transportation. This article demonstrates the potential for digital nudges to facilitate more environmentally friendly decision-making on online flight booking websites. Design/methodology/approach The authors used the digital nudging design process to implement two nudging interventions in an experimental setting on a fictitious flight booking website. The two nudging interventions are (1) an informational nudge, presented as an emission label, and (2) an understanding mapping nudge, presented as an emission converter. Findings This article finds that both digital nudges are useful interventions in online choice environments; however, emission labels more effectively encourage sustainable booking behavior. Originality/value The contributions of this article are twofold. In contribution to research, this article builds on existing research in sustainability contexts and successfully evaluates the effectiveness of anchoring and understanding mapping heuristics to influence sustainable decision-making in virtual environments. Furthermore, in contribution to practice, this article contributes knowledge to nudge design and provides hands on examples for designers or website operators on how to put nudge designs to practice in virtual choice environments. Additionally, this article contributes relevant considerations in a high-impact research field with growing importance given the global climate crisis.
This paper discusses the importance of economic diversification for the Natural resource rich nations with a special focus on Saudi Arabia. The paper will concentrate on Saudi Arabia’s efforts to achieve diversification by investing in tourism industry. Natural resources are the real wealth of nations. The availability of resources can directly influence a country's ability to grow. But at the same time a nation's economy may suffer significant and unfavourable repercussions if it is overly reliant on one or two resources, this phenomenon is called as “resource curse”. Economic diversification must therefore be successfully implemented for an economy to enjoy long-term prosperity. Saudi Arabia has made notable efforts in diversifying its economy to reduce its reliance on oil and mitigate the resource curse. With tourism industry being one of the largest non-oil contributors and one of the biggest jobs creating sector, the Saudi Arabian government recognizes the importance and ability of the tourism industry and considers it as one of the prime drivers in efforts of diversifying the economy. The paper will analyse role of tourism marketing in establishing a growing and glowing tourism sector. Finally, we examine the Saudi Arabian government's tourism marketing initiatives and the results it yielded.
Machine learning application areas have increased greatly compared to the recent past. New computer technologies such as smart and cloud computing have changed the way of doing things by using computer algorithms. However these systems are not intelligent-based but they deploy keyword search and filtering techniques and they neither learn nor improve themselves through experience. Equally important, computer algorithms provide different classifiers which can be weak, unstable and diverse. The aim of this study was to analyze the performance of three machine learning algorithms and propose a strong and stable machine learning ensemble model for use in the recruitment process. The model developed attained a predictive accuracy of 96.87% when used to classify the recruitment data into classes.KeywordsMachine learningArtificial intelligenceEnsemble modelRecruitment process
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In urban metabolism, attaining sustainability includes viewing urban areas as organisms and manipulating urban stock flows from linear to circular systems to mimic natural ecosystems. Thus, quantitative studies such as material flow analyses are common but criticized as excluding of non-quantifiable factors like culture. This study sees urban areas as biological organisms and aims to defend it through a constructive analysis based on ethnographic data collected. Here, ASEAN Night Markets (ASM) are seen as microcosms of complex urban areas. The concept of urban areas as living organisms is explored by contextualizing stock flows in Night Markets (NM) of Bangkok (Thailand), Davao (Philippines), and Ho Chi Min City (Vietnam) parallel to biological principles of metabolic exchange. In biology, metabolism is the molecular exchange patterns occurring within organisms to sustain life. The discourse includes epistemological correlations of biological macromolecules to urban stocks, comparisons of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production to economic activity in ASMs, and commonalities in factors that sustain the organism and the ASMs. The abduction is that night markets are stem cells of cities, where non-quantifiable factors such as culture and policy are nucleic acids that carry instruction molding its spatiotemporal configurations. The findings expound on the impact of the paradigm to the development of urban areas.
Search Engines are an indispensible platform for users all over the globe to search for relevant information online. Search Engine Optimization (SEO) is the exercise of improving the position of a website in search engine rankings, for a chosen set of keywords. SEO is divided into two parts: On-Page and Off-Page SEO. In order to be successful, both the areas require equal attention. This paper aims to explain the functioning of the search engines along with the role and importance of search engine optimization.
Conference Paper
Due to the presence of a vast number of websites, the Search Engine has a crucial job of providing the relevant pages to the user, Search Engines such as Google, use Page Ranking Algorithm to rank web pages according to the quality of their content and their presence over the world wide web. Search Engine Optimization is a process of increasing the chances of a webpage to appear in the first page of the search result. Since, whenever the consumer searches for information, they provide a particular phrase or a keyword instead of the complete web address, then the search engine use that keyword to find the relevant web pages and show it in a list with the most relevant page at the top. So, an organization could use Search Engine Optimization techniques to reach up to its potential consumer by appearing at the top of the search results. In this paper, we will be classifying and reviewing different technologies for search engine optimization based on their importance and their usage. Keywords— SEO, File Transfer Protocol, Page Ranking Algorithm, Crawler, Search Engine.
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Web spammers used Search Engine Optimization (SEO) techniques to increase search-ranking of web sites. In this paper we have study the essentials SEO techniques, such as; directory submission, keyword generation and link exchanges. The impact of SEO techniques can be applied as marketing technique and to get top listing in major search engines like Google, Yahoo, and MSN. Our study focuses on these techniques from four different companies' perspectives of United Kingdom and Pakistan. According to the these companies, these techniques are low cost and high impacts in profit, because mostly customers focus on major search engine to find different products on internet, so SEO technique provides best opportunity to grow their business. This paper also describes the pros and cons of using these searh engine optimization techniques in above four companies. We have concluded that these techniques are essential to increase their business profit and minimize their marketing cost.
Conference Paper
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Data mining is the application of sophisticated analysis to large amounts of data in order to discover new knowledge in the form of patterns, trends, and associations. For finding suitable information Search engines play an important role in retrieval of information on the web as they had become the entry point for accessing the web. Search engines analyse various aspects of the web page like its content and other attributes and display them accordingly .So it is important for the webmasters to develop and create those webpage's that fulfill the requirements of search engine but there is no such standard for ranking the webpage as it vary from one search engine to another. So webmasters uses different search engine optimization techniques like Keyword selection, Directory submission, Social bookmarking, Target market, Content, Keyword density in contents etc. to promote their webpage's. This paper focuses in analysing different search engine optimization techniques and finding those techniques that makes maximum impact in the ranking of the web page for this purpose researcher had used k-means cluster analysis for clustering various SEOT.
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This research aims to explore free search engine optimisation (SEO) and social media plug-ins and compare their performance in increasing incoming web traffics. We create three publisher websites: the normal website without any SEO installed on it, the customised website with basic SEO configuration and social media plug-in, and the customised website with advanced SEO configuration and social media plug-in. We run and trace the website log for four and seven months. Our findings show that SEO plug-ins is capable to increase traffic to publisher website. Social media plug-in provides additional benefit to bring traffic, however, the traffic is less significant compared to the one from search engine. These findings have implications to the following: 1) the organisations need to pay attention on the way they organise information in their website; 2) the introduction of search ability aspect for measuring service quality for web application.
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Web sites, which index and class other web sites according to their keywords, explanations and contents and make it easier and faster to reach obtained site-search results, are called as search engines. SEO "Search Engine Optimization" is the one of the widely used technique that provides web sites fast reachable. In this work we explained required information to make a web site more indexed by search engines and considering their keywords make them first listed. (C) 2010 Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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Search engine marketing (SEM) has become an important strategic tool for online destination marketing. Because of the dynamic relationships among travelers as information searchers, search engines, and the online tourism domain, the authors argue that a new dynamic model must be developed that captures these relationships to better inform SEM practices. The goals of this paper are twofold: (1) to synthesize research related to SEM in tourism and related fields and (2) to present a model that describes the evolving dynamics in search engine marketing. The implications of the model for tourism marketing and research are discussed.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine the marketing and sales implications of page ranking techniques, in terms of how companies may use knowledge of their operation to increase the chances of attracting custom. Design/methodology/approach – Explaining the calculation, implementation and impact of the PageRank and Topic Sensitive Page Ranking is the prerequisite to recapitulating existing search engine optimization strategies and to identifying new methods for leveraging the Internet for sales and marketing purposes. Findings – Different strategies have to be adapted to effectively attract potential customers. Originality/value – This paper aligns the complex calculations of the two concepts to enable a comparison. The changing technology of search engines means that they are getting ever more complex – this article offers a snapshot of major developments.
Conference Paper
In order to make the search engine transfer information efficiently and accurately and do this optimization to improve the web search ranking, beginning with understanding the principle of search engine, this paper exports the specific explanation of search engine optimization. And then it introduces the new website building concepts and design concepts for the purpose of the construction of search engine optimization. Through an empirical research from the fields of the internal coding method, the website content realizable form and website overall architecture, the paper expounds search engine optimization tools, strategies and methods, and analysis the new thought that the enterprise and e-commerce sites with the search engine do the effective website promotion. And when the user through the search engine to search, the website can get a good rankings position in the search results, so as to improve the site traffic and finally enhance the website sales ability or advocacy capacity.
Conference Paper
Search engine optimization (SEO) is a process of improving the prominence of a website. Following a reverse engineering approach, in this paper, we study and analyze the key influence factors in the process of web search. We firstly build a system to automatically crawl all factors of 200 thousand web pages. Then we make a content analysis including Page Rank, URL and HTML analysis based on top 20 positions of Google search result pages. Finally we derive top five factors for search engine optimization. It turns out that although SEO factors vary for different websites, the core SEO factors are similar. Therefore, in the common SEO, it is enough to focus on these core factors.
Conference Paper
Techniques of Search Engine Optimization (SEO) are observed from four aspects: structure optimization, keywords optimization, content optimization, and link optimization. This paper seeks to analyze the impact of SEO techniques on the effectiveness of SEO, to figure out which technique strategy is most effective, and furthermore, to test the possible influence of SEO techniques on Page Interest. Different from previous relevant research, this paper attempts to evaluate the techniques of SEO by means of the third-party measuring tool based on the data collected from 116 websites.
According to the report of the world Travel & Tourism Council in 2007, half of the American travelers make their accommodations reservations through the internet. Therefore, the rankings in the search engine results become more important. In order to understand the feasibility of applying the techniques of search engine optimization (SEO) to tourism industry as well as its influences and marketing efficiency. This study takes a motel website as an example, to propose the specific methods of the SEO. The conclusion of this research indicates that the bandwidth and the ranking of the motel websites obviously have increased after applying SEO. Furthermore, the inquiry telephones and the accommodation amounts present significant increases. This research shows that SEO might well be applied in tourism industry.