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The utilization of arenga pinnata ethanol in preparing one phase-aqueous gasohol

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The arengapinnata tree, which grows abundantly in North Sulawesi Indonesia, produces a simple sugar (Brix 14 percent) at a rate 20-35 litre per day that is fermented directly into ethanol without adding an enzyme. Generally, a high purity ethanol (99.5 percent) is blended with gasoline to be gasohol in one phase as an alternative energy for a heat machine fuel. To prepare the dehydrated ethanol, however, is very difficult and costly. This study was aimed to analyse the possibility of mixing the gasoline and impure ethanol becoming one phase substance, or aqueous gasohol, in which ethanol concentration was below 99.5 percent. Firstly, the ethanol was prepared through a natural yeasting of arengapinnata juice and then was separated from water using reflux distillation filled by packing materials. It was found that ethanol purities obtained were 90-96 percent depending on column temperatures. The range of 78.00-78.50 o C was the best condition whereby the product purities obtained were of 95-96 percent. By applying molecule sieves, ethanol purity could be improved to 99 percent. This work discovered that an aqueous gasohol (gasoline+ethanol+water) in one phase could be formed from various purities of ethanol from 80 until 99 percent. A gasohol E90 meant that fractions of gasoline and ethanol were 0.1 and 0.9 of gasohol, respectively. To blend E90, the ethanol purity at least was 83 percent whose water concentration was 15.30 percent of a gasohol. Meanwhile, an E23 was a 23 part of ethanol and 77 part gasoline of gasohol whereby ethanol purity should be above 96 percent. An E28 could be blended into gasoline and ethanol whose purity was 95 percent and water content was 1 percent. It was discovered if a content of ethanol of gasohol was reduced, the components directly were separated. Since the dehydrated ethanol was very expensive, this study recommended that the aqueous gasohol blended from gasoline and ethanol, which purity was below 96 percent, should be considered for a modified heat machine fuel.
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VOL. 12, NO. 24, DECEMBER 2017 ISSN 1819-6608
ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
©2006-2017 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.
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7039
THE UTILIZATION OF ARENGA PINNATA ETHANOL IN PREPARING
ONE PHASE-AQUEOUS GASOHOL
Hanny F. Sangian, Gerald H. Tamuntuan, Handy I. R. Mosey, Verna Suoth and Beni H. Manialup
Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Sam Ratulangi University, Jalan Kampus Bahu Unsrat
Manado, Indonesia
E-Mail: hannysangian@yahoo.co.id
ABSTRACT
The arengapinnata tree, which grows abundantly in North Sulawesi Indonesia, produces a simple sugar (Brix 14
percent) at a rate 20-35 litre per day that is fermented directly into ethanol without adding an enzyme. Generally, a high
purity ethanol (99.5 percent) is blended with gasoline to be gasohol in one phase as an alternative energy for a heat
machine fuel. To prepare the dehydrated ethanol, however, is very difficult and costly. This study was aimed to analyse
the possibility of mixing the gasoline and impure ethanol becoming one phase substance, or aqueous gasohol, in which
ethanol concentration was below 99.5 percent. Firstly, the ethanol was prepared through a natural yeasting of
arengapinnata juice and then was separated from water using reflux distillation filled by packing materials. It was found
that ethanol purities obtained were 90-96 percent depending on column temperatures. The range of 78.00-78.50oC was the
best condition whereby the product purities obtained were of 95 - 96 percent. By applying molecule sieves, ethanol purity
could be improved to 99 percent. This work discovered that an aqueous gasohol (gasoline+ethanol+water) in one phase
could be formed from various purities of ethanol from 80 until 99 percent. A gasohol E90 meant that fractions of gasoli ne
and ethanol were 0.1 and 0.9 of gasohol, respectively. To blend E90, the ethanol purity at least was 83 percent whose water
concentration was 15.30 percent of a gasohol. Meanwhile, an E23 was a 23 part of ethanol and 77 part gasoline of gasohol
whereby ethanol purity should be above 96 percent. An E28 could be blended into gasoline and ethanol whose purity was
95 percent and water content was 1 percent. It was discovered if a content of ethanol of gasohol was reduced, the
components directly were separated. Since the dehydrated ethanol was very expensive, this study recommended that the
aqueous gasohol blended from gasoline and ethanol, which purity was below 96 percent, should be considered for a
modified heat machine fuel.
Keywords: aqueous ethanol, distillation, gasohol, gasoline, reflux, yeasting.
INTRODUCTION
Currently, many reports revealed that the
scientists are giving an attention on renewable resources
[1-2]. The biomass as a renewable material is an important
substance and has been developed into sugars, ethanol and
bio hydrogen as alternative energy for coming years to
substitute fossil based fuels [3-5]. Tropical countries are
the biggest producer of biomass, or lignocellulose in
which many investigators have been successfully
converting them to be more valuable materials, such as
composites, sugar, and bio fuel [6-7].
The biomass is generally found in many types of
trees whose their compositions consist of cellulose,
hemicellulose and lignin that can be hydrolyzed into sugar
and then fermented becoming ethanol [9-11]. To obtain
ethanol from biomass, however, should follow many steps,
such as milling, drying, pretreating, washing, hydrolyzing
and fermenting. Prior to enzymatic hydrolysis, the
substrate was treated firstly using chemical and physical
techniques [12]. After pretreatment, treated biomass was
converted into simple sugars using cellulase [13]. The
reducing sugars were yeasted into beer and then it was
distilled becoming bioethanol [14-15]. To obtain ethanol
from lignocellulosic materials is a long path, complicated
and very expensive.
The biomass of Arengapinnata, a renewable
resource, is the most important palm tree in the South East
Countries, Indonesia, Philipina, Malaysia and Thailand
[16]. Unlike other trees which only produce cellulose, the
arengapinnata produces a simple sugar directly after
special treatments and also produces many products, such
as, starch, wood, fruit, fibre and ethanol [17]. After
tapping process, palm juice starts fermenting naturally
without adding a synthetic enzyme that it was an important
characteristic of sugar produced by arenga palm [18].
Prior to defining the present work, it would be
explained briefly the blended fuels. The story producing
the blended fuel including gasohol, whereby ethanol was
derived from starch and lignocelluloses, has been
conducted for years. Pure ethanol has been blended with
diesel and then the mixed fuel was applied on a heat
machine [19-20]. Even though, the gasoline (non-polar)
and ethanol (polar substance), investigators have
succeeded blending them to one phase substances in some
combinations, E5, E10, E15, E20 and so forth [21]. One of
many investigations had been reported about how to
prepare gasohol [22]. Authors [23] prepared an ethanol
that was produced from corn and used it for biofuels. The
cassava has been successfully converted into ethanol and
then it was blended with gasoline becoming gasohol [24].
To prepare the gasohol for engine fuel, ethanol should be
purified until 99.5 percent and according to US Patent
report that to blend gasohol in one phase, ethanol should
be purified approaching dried ethanol [25-26].
However, the preparation of pure ethanol is very
difficult and the production cost is expensive if compared
with that of petroleum [27]. The question is what gasohol
can be prepared from gasoline and ethanol becoming one
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
©2006-2017 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.
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phase in which purity of ethanol is below 99.5 percent?
This work tried to study the possibility of mixing of
gasoline and ethanol to be one phase whereby the ethanol
was not pure. The procedures are as follows: the natural
yeasting of palm juice, a distillation of ethanol, molecular
sieve and gasohol preparation. The ethanol was prepared
from palm juice (tapped from arengapinnata tree) and was
distilled using a home constructed reflux apparatus.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Many works have been reported how to prepare
sugar and ethanol from biomass treated by many
techniques [28-29]. The technology used was complicated
and followed many steps [30-31]. However, there is a
blessed tree, which grows abundantly in Indonesia
whereby it can produce a simple sugar (palm juice) after
treatment. The sugar whose Brix is a 14 percent can
produce a 20-30 litre per day and can be yeasted naturally
without adding enzymes.
This study, the palm juice locally called saguer,
was obtained from a farmer in the South Minahasa
Regency, North Sulawesi Indonesia. One hundred litres of
juice was put in the plastic fermenter and kept for 4-5
days. After yeasting was finished, beer was poured into the
boiler which was connected to reflux distillation as shown
in Figure. 1 that was adapted from previous work [32].
The temperature of the boiler was increased until
beers boiling point that it depended on ethanol
concentration of beer. For example, if the ethanol was 5
percent, beer would boil at 95 oC. The vapour flowed into
a reflux column filled by thousands of packing materials
where stripping of ethanol was occurred thousand times
until on the top of the column. The vapour which was rich
of ethanol was directed to condenser equipped by a cooler
as shown in the figure. The water was circulated by a
pump powered by electrical energy. Finally, ethanol
reached the collector container after transforming its phase
from vapour into liquid. By applying this reflux
distillation, ethanol obtained can reach purity 96 percent
and depends on the column temperatures.
To increase the product purity above 96 percent,
the ethanol was mixed with particles which could absorb
water [33-34]. The weight ratio of ethanol and particle was
set from 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 and so on. Prior to purification,
particles were activated thermally using furnace (Oven
Moloney) for an hour. When mass was constant, particles
were removed from the oven and then mixed with ethanol
under stirring for hours. The ethanol and particle were
separated with using simple distillation and ethanol
concentration obtained was a range of 97 until 99 percent.
The final step was to blend the gasoline and ethanol in
many ratios without using a complicated technology. In
this step, the ethanol was just mixed with gasoline inside
flask in which their volumes were measured correctly.
Finally, the aqueous in which ethanol concentrations were
altered from 80 until 99 percents.
Figure-1.The reflux distillation design used in this study.
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Natural yeasting
Until now, local investigators are conducting
experiments to find why palm sugar directly is fermented
into ethanol even though without adding synthetic
enzymes. It may have natural microorganisms producing
proteins functioning as an enzyme. Figure-2 shows the
decreasing of sugar (in Brixpercent) toward yeasting time
(h). The average percentage of sugar inside palm juice
before the yeasting process was around 12-14 percent
[35]; it means that 140 grams pure sugar can be obtained
in one-kilogram palm juice. An arengapinnata tree can
produce 20-25 kilograms palm juice per 24 hours. When
juice was tapped from the tree, it was directly fermented
into beer (liquor), whereby the initial conversion rate in
the range 0-6 hours, was very low. According to
observation, the high conversion rate was occurred in 6
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ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences
©2006-2017 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.
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7041
hours and stopped at 105 hours. In some experiments, the
final sugar content (in percent) was around 3- 4 percent
that yeasting was stopping working. In this stage
microorganisms gradually died and enzymes were not
produced anymore [36].
Figure-2.The sugar content (%) with respect to yeasting time (h) in room temperature.
Distillation/separation
The ten litres beer was removed and poured into
the boiler for separation using reflux distillation. The
liquor was boiled by using the gas stove equipped with
regulator. It was found that the ethanol concentration
obtained was very sensitive to column temperature [37].
Table-1 shows the ethanol purity as a function of column
temperature conducted in triplicate. The temperature was
measured on the summit of a column by being inserted the
sensor inside the pipe.
Table-1.Relation of the purity of ethanol with respect to
column temperature.
Column temperature
(oC)
Ethanol purity (percent)
78.40
96.00
78.50
95.00
78.90
93.00
79.00
93.00
80.00
92.00
81.00
91.50
83.00
89.00
87.70
80.00
95.00
60.00
97.00
50.00
98.00
55.00
98.70
35.00
99.90
30.00
99.40
25.00
00.00
00.00
The quality of product depended on heat supplied
to the boiler, column temperature, packing materials and
room temperature. To obtain 96 percent ethanol, the
system must be adjusted until it attained a balance
condition and column temperature was 78.4 oC. While the
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
020 40 60 80 100 120 140
Sugar Content (%)
Yeasting Time (h)
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purity was at 95 percent, the column temperature increased
slightly to 78.50 oC that was comparable with previous
work [38]. When ethanol content in beer went down, the
amount of water vapour increased entering column and
reached condenser. The purity of ethanol started
decreasing as column temperature inclined which was
indicative that beer is going to mostly water. The purity of
ethanol that was measured in range temperature from 78 to
100 oC was obtained around 87-90 percent.
Particles Activation
The work was continued with dehydration of
ethanol using particles (molecule sieve) adapted from
other work [39]. Prior to dehydration, particles were
activated thermally using the furnace for hours as previous
work [40]. Table-2 shows the amount of water (in gram)
that vaporized from particles towards activation times and
initial mass of particles was 103.80 grams. The particles
were removed periodically from furnace to measure their
mass. To find the mass of water vaporized was that the
initial mass was subtracted by the mass at the time.
The mass of water vaporized was 5.80 grams
when the heating took 30 minutes and increased to be 8.40
grams at 120 minutes. When heating time was 240 minute,
the total mass of water vaporized was 11.50 grams or
11.08 percent of the initial mass of particles. This process
was costly since it used very much electrical energy to
power the furnace. The gasohol, which was not feasible
for fuel was caused by activation of particles used to
dehydrate ethanol. This process consumed time and
electrical energy and ethanol so it was very expensive.
Table-2. The amount of water that vaporized during particles activating (furnace temperature was of 700 oC).
No
Time (minute)
MH2O (gr)
% of H2O
1
30
5.80
5.59
2
60
7.40
7.13
3
90
7.70
7.42
4
120
8.40
8.09
5
150
9.00
8.67
6
180
9.60
9.25
7
210
10.40
10.02
8
240
11.50
11.08
Preparation of Ethanol above 96 percent
After particles activation finished, the work was
continued with dehydration of ethanol using molecule
sieve to catch water, which was still remained and bonded
electrically between O and H atoms on both H2O and
C2H5OH. Table-3 presents the ethanol purity obtained
after dehydration process. Ethanol has been obtained
successfully with purities above 96 percent, such as 97, 98
and 99 percent. The initial volume and ethanol purity were
300 mL and 95 percent that were obtained from distillation
as previously presented. The data show that the ethanol
purity depends on activation time of particles and heating
temperature, and added with two variables, reaction time
and mass of activated particles, which has been published
by authors [41]. When 30 grams particles were added to
95 percent ethanol and were stirred for one day, ethanol
purity improved to 97 percent.
Table-3.Improvement of ethanol purity toward reaction time and mass of activated particles.
Volume of
ethanol (mL)
Purity of ethanol
(%)
Mass of ethanol
(gr)
Decrease
Duration of
reaction time
(h)
Mass of
activated
particles
(gr)
(%)
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Initial
Final
Vol.
Mass
300
215
95
97
231.6
208.6
28.3
9.9
24
30
300
180
95
98.2
231.6
172.9
40.0
25.3
48
37.5
300
160
95
99
231.6
160.2
46.7
30.8
72
45
The purity inclined to 98.2 percent when ethanol
was added with 37.5 grams of activated particles and
reaction time increased to 48 hours. But the decrease
percentages of the product increased to 40 (volume) and
25.3 percent (mass). Meanwhile, The purity inclined to 99
percent but the decreases were 46.7 and 30.8 percent for
the mass of particles 45 grams and duration of reaction 72
hours. The disadvantage of this method was that the mass
or volume of product was reduced significantly as shown
in the table and this finding was comparable with a
previous study [40]. The data in the first row presents that
the percentages of product reduction in volume and mass
are 28.3 and 9.9 percent, respectively. Even though the
VOL. 12, NO. 24, DECEMBER 2017 ISSN 1819-6608
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7043
purity improved as reaction time and mass of particles
increased, the mass and volume of product decreased.
Aqueous gasohol blending
The final process was to blend gasohol (in one
phase) in which gasoline and arengapinnata ethanol that
has many purities, were mixed until they become one
phase. The term of gasohol uses Ex, it means ethanol with
x part, while gasoline part is (100-x) of gasohol. An E25
gasohol is a mixture between 25 unit of ethanol and 75
unit of gasoline and in this study used unit in volume.
Many investigations have been conducted to
prepare gasohol for heat machine fuel and most
publications reported that ethanol purity should be
approaching 99.9 percent [42-43]. Ethanol is a polar
molecule, while gasoline is a nonpolar substance in which
they are separated into two phases if mixed. However,
according to many studies, gasoline and ethanol, which
has relatively high purity, could be blended becoming one
phase [44].
Ethanol purity should be increased to be higher
than 95/96 percent if we blended gasohol E5-E15. In this
stage, despite gasohol E5-E15 used a small part of ethanol,
to make pure alcohol was very complicated and expensive
[45]. It was seen that gasohol E5-E15 was not feasible to
produce in industrial scale since it used huge electrical
energy for activating of particles and the amount of
ethanol was reduced significantly after mixing as
previously described. However, lower purity ethanol
(<95/96%) could be blended becoming one phase gasohol.
The problem is that all heat machines operating around the
world are not suitable with aqueous gasohol and a higher
part of ethanol [46].
Table-4. The volume data of gasoline and ethanol until one phase aqueous gasohol formed.
Ethanol Con.
Vol. Gasoline
(ml)
Ethanol
added (ml)
Part of Ethanol in
Gasohol
Vol. of water in
Ethanol(ml)
% H2O
in Gasohol
80%
15
175
175/190= 0.92E92
35
18.42%
81%
10
110
110/120=0.916
E91.6
20.9
17.42%
82%
10
100
100/110 =0.909
E90.9
18
16.36%
83%
10
90
90/100 = 0.90E90
15.3
15.30%
84%
10
85
85/95 = 0.89E89
13.6
14.32%
85%
10
80
80/90 = 0.85E85
12
13.33%
90%
10
30
30/40 = 0.75E75
3
7.50%
91%
10
28
28/38 = 0.37E73
2.52
6.63%
92%
10
21
21/31 = 0.67E67
1.68
5.42%
93%
10
12
12/22 = 0.54E54
0.84
3.82%
94%
10
9
9/19 = 0.47E47
0.54
3%
95%
10
4
4/14 = 0.28E28
0.20
1%
96%
20
6
6/26 = 0.23E23
0.24
1%
Table-4 displays about gasohol, Ex, which was
blended with gasoline and ethanol with different purity.
The gasohol E23 and E28, ethanol purities were at least 96
and 95 percent, respectively whereby water concentration
was close to 1 percent. If ethanol concentration was below
95, or 96 percent, the gasoline and ethanol were separated
directly. When concentration decreased at 94.5 percent, a
part of ethanol dissolved with gasoline was 0.37 assigned
by gasohol E37. The ten ml gasoline was added into 9ml
of 94 percent ethanol, E47 was mixed completely whose
water content was 3 percent. The gasohol E85 needed
ethanol that its purity was bigger than 85 percent and
water was 13.33 percent (12ml). When ethanol
concentration was at 90 percent (30ml), gasoline added to
form gasohol E75 was 10ml and water concentration was
7.50 percent. Gasohol E90, which was formed in one
phase, needed ethanol purity only at least 83 percent.
As described previously that gasohol E23 could
be blended with gasoline and ethanol which has the purity
minimum at 96 percent. It meant that if a part of ethanol in
gasohol decreased, components would be separated, while
if increased, the one phase gasohol existed. Thus, ethanol
which its concentration was 95 percent could be forming
gasohol E28-E99. The minimum ethanol concentration
that was still formed one phase gasohol was 80 percent in
which water content 18.42 percent. This measurement was
conducted duplicate and at room temperature.
If part of ethanol decreased to 10 unit or E10, the
ethanol concentration should be increased to around 98.0-
99.0 percent. According to authors findings, the gasohol
E5-E10 was very expensive because the activating of
molecule sieve used very much energy. This work
recommended that it is time to produce heat machine
which could be consuming aqueous gasohol and could be
VOL. 12, NO. 24, DECEMBER 2017 ISSN 1819-6608
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7044
occurred perfect combustion with little amount of water
and higher part of ethanol.
CONCLUSIONS
It has known for years that ethanol and gasoline
can be blended becoming one phase gasohol if ethanol
purity is at least 99.5 percent. This work found that
gasohol in one phase could be blended whose ethanol
purity was lower than 96 percent which the preparation
was very simple and cheap if compared to that of an
absolute ethanol. The problem is that all heat machines
working now were not suitable with aqueous gasohol
whose water contents were 1-20 percent. The aqueous
gasohol is promising to develop as a fuel for a heat
machine in the coming years because of cheap preparation.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to acknowledge the
Higher Education Department of Indonesia Government
for financial assistance and the Rector of Sam Ratulangi
University, Prof. Ellen Joan Kumaat and Dean of School
of Mathematics and Sciences, Prof. Benny Pinontoan for
encouragement and support on the work.
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... The aqueous ethanol was processed from a palm tree (Arenga Pinnata) sugar. The sap was fermented to be liquor and then distilled using a tool called reflux column filled with pores packing materials as used previously [23]. By using that technique yielded bioethanol with concentrations of 94-96%. ...
... The work invented the addition of biodiesel continually after Aq.Et-BD substance was formed a stable emulsion, would not occur a separation of components. It was different in creating a stable emulsion of the aqueous gasohol in which it would not be separated by adding aqueous ethanol continually, as reported by authors [23]. ...
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This work aims at preparing the blended fuels in a stable emulsion in which the biodiesel was obtained from palm oil with applying the near isochoric subcritical trans-esterification. The work procedures are the following: the preparation chemicals needed; the synthesis of the biodiesel; POME (palm oil methyl ester) analysis; the blending process of the aqueous ethanol-biodiesel (Aq.Et-BD) and ethanol-diesel-biodiesel (Aq.Et-BD-D) whereby they formed in a stable emulsion. It was obtained that the compositions of water, ethanol, and biodiesel using ethanol 94-97% were ranged from 0.69-1.60, 10.74-38.40, and 69.57-88.57%. By employing ethanol with concentration 94-95%, the emulsion appeared many droplets distributed throughout the substance. It was observed by increasing biodiesel composition after a stable emulsion attained the phase did not change. After emulsions blended, the work was proceeded with the measurement of the fuel parameters such as density, SG, API, RPV, flash and pour points, cetane number, and distillation properties.
... The liquor obtained by a farmer contained ethanol with concentration ranged from 30 to 45% (v/v). The alcohol then was purified by employing a reflux distillation whose column was filled by the thousands of packing materials as a previous report [13]. In this work, ethanol engaged had 94-96% concentrations, while 97% was obtained from an aqueous ethanol absorption process using lime particles. ...
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The present study investigates the compositions and fuel parameters of the aqueous ethanol-diesel-biodiesel emulsion fuel in a stable emulsion. The biodiesel obtained was characterized by employing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry measurement. The palm oil methyl esters were dominated by the Hexadecanoic Acid and 9-Octadecenoic Acid (Z)-), while coconut oil methyl esters have mainly consisted of Dodecanoic Acid and Tetradecanoic Acid. The biodiesel was blended with aqueous ethanol and diesel until a stable solution was formed with specific compositions. The range compositions of water, ethanol, and palm oil biodiesel in the stable emulsion were 0.81-1.25, 12.70-40.42, and 58.33-86.49 %, while water, ethanol, and coconut oil biodiesel were 0.70-0.88, 13.71-22.63, and 76.67-85.42%. The sample prepared showed that the droplet appeared in the emulsion, which employed ethanol 94-95% but was distributed uniformly throughout the substance. The fuel parameters investigated were the density, viscosity, flash point, Reid vapor pressure, pour point, distillation properties, and the cetane number.
... Recently, scientists have been giving more attention to the development of renewable resources, such as starch, lignocellulose, and ethanol [4][5][6][7]. Those materials could be improved, becoming the IOP Publishing doi: 10.1088/1757-899X/1115/1/012052 2 bioplastics that can be decomposed by microorganisms [8]. ...
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This study aims at preparing and characterizing of bioplastics that utilized cassava biomass which was available abundantly in Indonesia. The bioplastic synthesis was conducted with two variations of the reactant, namely cassava + starch + glycerol + water + acetic acid (vinegar) and cassava + starch + glycerol + water + acetic acid + ethanol. Bioplastic obtained was characterized by employing scanning electron microscopic (SEM), X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetric (DSC). The results show that bioplastics with the second combination have a high degree of degradation, whereby they were consistent with XRD analysis, appearing a low crystallinity value. The functional groups have shown IR spectra presented the existence of C-H alkanes, C = O esters, and C-H alkene groups. While the surface morphology displayed a flat surface, which was relatively comparable to both samples and the reduction of sample mass during heating was at 2.32 mg.
... In another study of the emulsion, aqueous ethanol and gasoline showed a different state. After the stable emulsion was attained, and then ethanol volume kept adding, the stable solution was not changed [22]. ...
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The biodiesel blended with aqueous ethanol and diesel was successfully prepared to employ a near isochoric subcritical in which methyl esters were derived from coconut oils. Procedures are as follows: Fermentation of Arenga pinnata sap, a distillation of ethanol using a reflux column, preparation of biodiesel, characterization of biodiesel by GC/MS, blending of aqueous ethanol-biodiesel and aqueous ethanol-diesel- biodiesel, measurement of composition, and analysis of fuel parameters with ASTM standard. The maximum yields of biodiesel obtained were 98.82 % (v/v) and 96.67 % (w/w). The coconut oil methyl esters (COME) degraded from triglycerides were dominated by the short carbon chains, such as C9H18O2, C11H22O2, C13H26O2, C15H30O2, and C17H34O2. It was found that the aqueous ethanol-biodiesel and aqueous ethanol-biodiesel- diesel formed an equilibrium line in a triangular graph in specific compositions. The aqueous ethanol concentrations using in the present work were 94-97 %. Components pure ethanol-biodiesel-water, which were in the stable blends, had a range of 13.16 - 33.95, 65.00 – 86.00, and 0.84 – 1.05%. Meanwhile, the blends aqueous ethanol-diesel-biodiesel were 7.45 – 21.88, 10.64 – 25.97, and 56.25 – 81.91%, respectively. It was discovered that droplets appeared in solution when using ethanol with purity below 95% but were distributed uniformly. The addition of biodiesel continually after a stable emulsion formed, the phase separation would not have occurred. Keywords: Biodiesel, Blending, Droplet, Emulsion, Methyl Ester, Subcritical
... In another study of the emulsion, aqueous ethanol and gasoline showed a different state. After the stable emulsion was attained, and then ethanol volume kept adding, the stable solution was not changed [22]. ...
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The biodiesel blended with aqueous ethanol and diesel was successfully prepared to employ a near isochoric subcritical in which methyl esters were derived from coconut oils. Procedures are as follows: Fermentation of Arenga pinnata sap, a distillation of ethanol using a reflux column, preparation of biodiesel, characterization of biodiesel by GC/MS, blending of aqueous ethanol-biodiesel and aqueous ethanol-diesel-biodiesel, measurement of composition, and analysis of fuel parameters with ASTM standard. The maximum yields of biodiesel obtained were 98.82 % (v/v) and 96.67 % (w/w). The coconut oil methyl esters (COME) degraded from triglycerides were dominated by the short carbon chains, such as C9H18O2, C11H22O2, C13H26O2, C15H30O2, and C17H34O2. It was found that the aqueous ethanol-biodiesel and aqueous ethanol-biodiesel-diesel formed an equilibrium line in a triangular graph in specific compositions. The aqueous ethanol concentrations using in the present work were 94-97 %. Components pure ethanol-biodiesel-water, which were in the stable blends, had a range of 13.16-33.95, 65.00-86.00, and 0.84-1.05%. Meanwhile, the blends aqueous ethanol-diesel-biodiesel were 7.45-21.88, 10.64-25.97, and 56.25-81.91%, respectively. It was discovered that droplets appeared in solution when using ethanol with purity below 95% but were distributed uniformly. The addition of biodiesel continually after a stable emulsion formed, the phase separation would not have occurred.
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The present work is aimed at analysing the compositions of the water, ethanol, and gasoline which has Research Octane Number/RON was 88 forming a stable emulsion (one phase) employing a ternary graph. When the mixture process, the blended fuels consisted of water-ethanol-gasoline were successfully prepared in which they were formed in one phase. Ethanol was derived from Arenga pinnata liquor which is locally called cap tikus using a home-made reflux distillation filled by packing materials. Ethanol obtained were differing their concentration that depended on the column temperature set. It was found that the purities were ranged from 80 to 96% and the higher column temperature was chosen the lower concentration was obtained. Each aqueous ethanol was blended with gasoline to obtain a homogenous solution. For ethanol 80%, compositions of water, pure ethanol, and gasoline were observed at 18, 74, and 8 (%v/v), and 22, 70, and 7 (%w/w). While ethanol 96%, the compositions ratios were 1:22:77 (%v/v) and 1:23:76 (%w/w). The ranges of pure ethanol, gasoline, and water in which they formed one phase solution were recorded at 23-70%, 7-76%, and 1-22%. The work found that substance was in one phase if the wet ethanol keeps being added. When the ethanol composition has decreased the substance was separated into wet ethanol and gasoline. The minimum ethanol dissolved completely into gasoline was of 80%.
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis hubungan perubahan struktur pati singkong terhadap produksi gula sebelum dan sesudah pretreatment gelombang mikro dan larutan ion. Pretreatment gelombang mikro dilakukan dengan meradiasikan gelombang elektromagnetik daya tertentu dengan tiga durasi yang berbedat pada substrat. Pretreatment larutan ion dilakukan dengan merendam substrat dalam larutan ion dengan dua konsentrasi garam selama empat hari dan kemudian dibandingkan dengan non-pretreatment. Substrat dikarakterisasi dengan XRD, FTIR dan SEM untuk menganalisis perubahan strukturnya. Produksi. Hasil karakterisasi menunjukkan bahwa struktur kristal pati menjadi lebih amorf dan ikatan antar molekulnya semakin lemah setelah dilakukan pretreatment. Morfologi permukaan bahan menjadi lebih kasar setelah terpapar radiasi microwave. Disisi lain, jumlah fiber pada substrat semakin berkurang setetelah direndam dalam larutan ion. Ketika substrat dihidrolisis, kandungan gula yang didapatkan lebih tinggi daripada tanpa pretreatment.This research aims to analyze the correlation of the structural change on sugar production of cassava starch before and after microwave and ionic liquid pretreatments. A microwave pretreatment was carried out by radiating electromagnetic wave with fixed power with three different durations on the substrate. The ionic liquid pretreatment was conducted by soaking the substrate in to saline water with two salt concentrations for four days and the results were compared to non-pretreatment. Then, the substrates were measured by XRD, FTIR and SEM to analiyze the structural changes. The characterization result showed that the starch crystal structure became more amorphous and molecules bonds were weaker after pretreatment. The surface morphology was rougher after being radiated by microwave. On the other hand, the fiber contents of substrate decreased after soaked on ionic liquid. When substrate were hidrolized, the sugar obtained were higher than without pretreatment.
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Ethanol is an alternative to fossil fuel. Current ethanol production processes using crops, such as, sugarcane and corn are well-established. However, utilization of a cheaper substrate, such as, lignocellulose makes bioethanol more purposeful. Biologically mediated processes are promising for energy conversion, in particular, for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass into fuels. In the present study, optimized cellulosic ethanol production from bagasse and sorghum using Ruminococcus albus isolated from rumen of herbivores animals was attempted. R. albus could depolymerise cellulose and hemicellulose as well as could tolerate stress conditions (variable substrate concentration, pH, and temperature). Optimum temperature, pH and substrate concentration for hydrolyses of both bagasse and sorghum by R. albus were found to be 39°C, 8.8 and 3.5%, respectively. For the feed stock (3.5%) of bagasse and sorghum, ethanol yield of 19.8 g/L and 17.42 g/L, respectively was obtained.
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Recently fossil fuel still become a main source for energy and chemical platforms. In order to substitute fossil fuel with renewable resources, biomass conversion become a promising technology to convert biomass into bio-energy and bio-chemicals. Sugarcane bagasse (SCB), as one of potential biomass, available abundant in Indonesia and its economic value can be improved with conversion of sugarcane bagasse into syngas using gasification process. This process consists of four steps: drying, pyrolysis, oxidation-reduction and oxidation reactions. The aim of this paper is to study experimental work of pyrolysis-gasification of sugarcane bagasse interpreted using model of one-step global single reaction to obtain reaction kinetics of pyrolysis in the mechanism of pyrolysis-gasification of sugarcane bagasse .Before used as raw material in gasification, sugarcane bagasse will be treated with dry-torrefaction at a temperature of 150 ⁰C. And from this study, there are found two steps of pyrolysis in SCB, the first step is pyrolysis reaction in rapid zone and the second is slow zone of pyrolysis. Rate of pyrolysis reaction, both rapid and slow pyrolysis, are influenced by the composition of biomass i.e., composition hemicelluloses, cellulose and lignin. While, dry torrefaction of SCB gives better thermal decomposition than raw SCB, increasing composition of lignin in SCB, reducing endothermic phase of celullose decomposition and increasing exothermic phase of lignin decomposition. Torrefaction of SCB also gives better kinetic reaction of pyrolysis than SCB0 which stated in constanta of reaction and order of reaction of pyrolysis. In rapid pyrolisis, value of constanta of reaction (K) of torrified-SCB is 17.167 while K of raw-SCB is 15.348 and order of reaction n is 5.245 for raw SCB and 5.040 for torrified-SCB. In slow pyrolysis, value of K is 0.065 for raw-SCB and 0.145 for torrified-CBT while order of reaction is 0.356 for raw-SCB and 0.553 for torrified-SCB. © 2006-2016 Asian Research Publishing Network (ARPN). All rights reserved.
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Coconut fibre can be potentially used as one of the most crucial resources in the development of biodegradable polymer composites due to its excellent renewability and environmental friendliness. In this study, the coconut fibre was modified through alkali treatment (mercerization), and was integrated with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) via solution casting method. The modified composites film produced was compared with the non-modified composites film in the aspect of tensile properties, hardness, thermal properties, morphology, as well as the moisture sensitivity. Besides, the effect of the composition of the treated and untreated fibre on the composites was investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) micrographs suggested that, the treated fibre which had better adhesion with the polymer matrix produced stronger composites. Tensile test results proved that the Young's modulus of the composites could be improved with the increase of fibre loading, and the enhancing effect was greater with the treated fibre. Hardness test showed that the increase of fibre increased the hardness, but high degree of alkalinity of the composites reduced its hardness. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) verified that the degradation temperature of the composites could be improved by increasing the filler content, but its thermal properties could be degraded with the presence of voids and pores in the matrix. Moisture experiment suggested that, the increment of treated fibre reduced the moisture sensitivity of the composites. Thus treated coconut fibre reinforced poly(vinyl alcohol) exhibited better properties than untreated fibre.
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This study concern sugars hydrolyzed from the high-lignin coconut coir dust using moderate subcritical water (SCW) hydrolysis at pressures 20-40 bar for 1 h and to evaluate the consumable costs driver generated. The SCW method produced two products, sugar liquid and solid (SCW-treated substrate). The solid was proceeded to prepare the sugar via enzymatic hydrolysis using pure cellulase. Yield of sugar hydrolyzed from lignocellulose by SCW technique was 0.25 gram sugar/gram cellulose +hemicellulose, or 0.09-gram sugar/gram lignocellulose at 160 °C and 40 bar. While, the maximum yield of sugar liberated enzymatically from SCW-treated solid was 0.35-gram sugar/gram cellulose+hemicellulose, or 0.13-gram sugar/gram SCW-treated solid. It was found that carbon dioxide gas was the highest cost driving in SCW hydrolysis. © 2015 ALMA MATER Publishing House, “VASILE ALECSANDRI” University of Bacău. All rights reserved.
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Energy has a major impact on every aspect of our socio-economic in every country. However, the limited reserve of fossil fuel which constitutes the major energy sources has drawn the attention of many researchers to search for alternative fuels. In this study, the potential use of Jatropha curcas stem to produce ethanol was investigated. J. curcas stem is a lignocellulosic biomass which primarily consists of lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose. The materials were hydrolysed into fermentable monomeric sugars from hemicellulose and cellulose content of lignocellulosic biomass, in the medium of dilute tetraoxosulphate (VI) acid (1.5% H2SO4) at 100 oC for 15 minutes; followed by fermentation using a broth containing Saccharomyces cerevisiae supplemented with 22% (w/v) sugar, 1% (w/v) of each of ammonium sulfate and potassium dihydrogen phosphate, at pH 5.0 and 30°C for 4 days. During this process, both pentose and hexose sugars are fermented to ethanol under aerobic conditions; and ethanol was distilled from the fermented broth solution. The production of renewable fuels, especially ethanol from lignocellulosic biomass, holds remarkable potential to meet the current energy demand.
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The potential of Phanerochaete chrysosporium in ethanol fermentation was evaluated. During the initial submerged cultivation, 1.76 g/L ethanol was obtained using glucose as substrate. After mutation, the ethanol concentration of an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) mutant reached 5.02 g/L. Both base transition and nine-base frame shift mutation occurred in the ADH gene of the mutant, changing the secondary and tertiary structures of ADH, as well as increasing the ADH activity during cultivation. Moreover, P. chrysosporium converted corn stalk to ethanol by a one-step process. After statistical optimizations, 0.26 g/g • substrate of ethanol yield was obtained on day 10. During the fermentation, the maximum lignin peroxidase, Mn-dependent peroxidase, and cellulase activities were 29.0 U/L, 256.5 U/L, and 40 U/mL, respectively, thus explaining why the fungus directly ferments corn stalk to ethanol. This study is the first report of the conversion of corn stalk without pretreatment to ethanol using a white-rot fungus.
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The increase prices of conventional energy sources particularly fossil fuels are usually based on the needs to match the energy demands which consequently accelerating the depletion of fossil fuels. Therefore, a renewable energy provides an attractive alternatives to replace the fossil fuels. One of the widely used renewable energy source is biomass waste such as wood sawdust due to its abundances and availabilities. This biomass waste can be used in gasification process in order to produce the hydrogen gas which is useful for energy production. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to develop a comprehensive integrated gasification and proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) framework for a wide range of gasification process. The application of the integrated framework is highlighted through biomass gasification using fluidized bed by utilizing sawdust as biomass input. The biomass gasification model is developed in Aspen Plus and it is also considering the hydrodynamic and reaction rate kinetics simultaneously. The developed biomass gasification using pine sawdust is tested and the results obtained are in good agreement with literature data where the slight relative mean square erros of 0.018, 0.226, 0.726 and 0.317 for the H2, CO2, CH4 and CO respectively are achieved indicating a reliable gasification model is obtained. Subsequently the wood sawdust is used as an input and the results show 23.47% hydrogen gas has been produced from wood sawdust which is relatively higher than 20.86% of hydrogen gas produced using pine sawdust. Finally it has been shown through sensitivity analysis the hydrogen gas can be produced up to 47.37% when the temperature is operated at 900 °C and up to 34.96% when equivalence ratio is at 0.205 indicating an improved better gasification performance.