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The practice of sport and medium-high intensity exercise increases the needs of energy and nutrients. Proper nutrition is very important for reaching the maximum performance, reducing the risk of injury, and ensuring the best recovery. It must also ensure the achievement of optimum nutritional status and prevent health problems at the present and in the future time. Eggs are a very nutritious food that can help athletes to achieve a correct diet. It contains proteins of high quality and bioavailability, a profile of fatty acids very favorable from the cardiovascular point of view, and vitamins and minerals involved in energy and protein metabolism, in defense against oxidative stress and inflammation, in cell growth and tissue repair. However, it is also a food subject to numerous myths that should be corrected, especially in relation to its cholesterol content. The egg, consumed in moderate amounts and properly handled, is a safe and adequate food for more active athletes and groups.
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Correspondencia:
Ana M. López-Sobaler. Departamento de Nutrición
y Bromatología I (Nutrición). Facultad de Farmacia.
Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Plaza de Ramón
y Cajal, s/n. 28040 Madrid
e-mail: asobaler@ucm.es
López-Sobaler AM, Aparicio Vizuete A, Ortega RM. Papel del huevo en la dieta de deportistas y personas
físicamente activas. Nutr Hosp 2017;34(Supl. 4):31-35
DOI:http://dx.dpi.org/10.20960/nh.1568
Palabras clave:
Huevo. Deporte.
Actividad física. Valor
nutricional. Dieta
equilibrada.
Key words:
Eggs. Sport. Physical
activity. Nutritive
value. Balanced diet.
Abstract
The practice of sport and medium-high intensity exercise increases the needs of energy and nutrients. Proper nutrition is very important for
reaching the maximum performance, reducing the risk of injury, and ensuring the best recovery. It must also ensure the achievement of optimum
nutritional status and prevent health problems at the present and in the future time. Eggs are a very nutritious food that can help athletes to
achieve a correct diet. It contains proteins of high quality and bioavailability, a profile of fatty acids very favorable from the cardiovascular point of
view, and vitamins and minerals involved in energy and protein metabolism, in defense against oxidative stress and inflammation, in cell growth
and tissue repair. However, it is also a food subject to numerous myths that should be corrected, especially in relation to its cholesterol content.
The egg, consumed in moderate amounts and properly handled, is a safe and adequate food for more active athletes and groups.
Papel del huevo en la dieta de deportistas y personas físicamente activas
Role of the egg in the diet of athletes and physically active people
Ana M. López-Sobaler1,2, Aránzazu Aparicio Vizuete1,2 y Rosa M. Ortega1,2
1Departamento de Nutrición y Bromatología I (Nutrición). Facultad de Farmacia. Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Madrid. 2Grupo de investigación VALORNUT-UCM
(920030). Universidad Complutense de Madrid. Madrid
Resumen
La práctica de deporte y ejercicio de cierta intensidad hace que aumenten las necesidades de energía y nutrientes. Una alimentación adecuada
es muy importante para conseguir el máximo rendimiento, reducir el riesgo de lesiones, y asegurar la mejor recuperación. Pero también debe
garantizar la consecución de un estado nutricional óptimo y prevenir problemas de salud en el momento actual y en el futuro. El huevo es un
alimento de gran valor nutricional que puede ayudar a los deportistas a seguir una dieta correcta. Contiene proteínas de elevada calidad y muy
biodisponibles, un perfil de ácidos grasos muy favorable desde el punto de vista cardiovascular, y aporta vitaminas y minerales implicados en
el metabolismo energético y proteico, en la defensa ante el estrés oxidativo e inflamación, en el metabolismo celular, y en el crecimiento y
reparación de tejidos. Sin embargo, también es un alimento sujeto a numerosos mitos que conviene corregir, especialmente en relación a su
contenido en colesterol. El huevo, consumido en cantidades moderadas y manipulado adecuadamente, es un alimento seguro y adecuado para
deportistas y colectivos más activos.
Nutrición
Hospitalaria
Nutr Hosp 2017; 34(Supl. 4):31-35 ISSN 0212-1611 - CODEN NUHOEQ S.V.R. 318
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A.M. López-Sobaler et al.
[Nutr Hosp 2017;34(Supl. 4):31-35]
INTRODUCCIÓN
La alimentación de deportistas y personas físicamente activas
debe permitir no solo que se consiga el máximo rendimiento físico
sino también garantizar una situación nutricional correcta en el
presente y en futuras etapas de su vida. Las personas más activas
tienen requerimientos nutricionales superiores, y la incorporación
en su dieta de alimentos de elevada densidad nutricional, como
el huevo, puede ser muy conveniente.
NECESIDADES NUTRICIONALES DE LAS
PERSONAS FÍSICAMENTE ACTIVAS
Es importante seguir una dieta adecuada que permita la recu-
peración tras el ejercicio y prevenga las lesiones (1). Los depor-
tistas necesitan más energía y nutrientes por su mayor gasto
energético y el desgaste asociado al estrés físico del ejercicio.
Sin embargo, las necesidades nutricionales de las personas acti-
vas son muy heterogéneas, ya que dependen de la edad, sexo,
y tamaño y composición corporal, así como de la intensidad de
la actividad física (recreacional, deporte amateur o de élite) (1).
NUTRIENTES DEL HUEVO DE INTERÉS PARA
LAS PERSONAS ACTIVAS Y DEPORTISTAS
El huevo es un alimento con un elevado valor nutricional. Con-
tiene proteínas, vitaminas y minerales, y otras sustancias con
efectos positivos sobre la salud, en el contexto de un bajo con-
tenido calórico (un huevo de tamaño medio aporta unas 70 kcal)
(2,3), por lo que en general es considerado un alimento altamente
recomendable en el marco de una dieta variada y equilibrada.
Esto es de especial interés para cualquier deportista, pero más
para aquellos que practican disciplinas en las que hay un estricto
control del peso corporal y debe vigilarse la ingesta calórica.
PROTEÍNAS DEL HUEVO
Por las proteínas que aporta y su elevada calidad, el huevo
siempre ha sido bien valorado, especialmente en el colectivo de
deportistas. Dos huevos de tamaño medio (equivalente a 100 g de
porción comestible) proporcionan proteína suficiente para cubrir
más de un 30% de las ingestas recomendadas (IR) de proteínas
de un adulto medio (4). La proteína del huevo contiene todos
y cada uno de los aminoácidos esenciales, por lo que durante
muchos años ha sido considerada la proteína de mejor calidad
con la que se comparaban el resto de alimentos. En la actualidad
se considera que la proteína patrón es aquella que contiene todos
los aminoácidos esenciales y en la cantidad adecuada para cubrir
las necesidades de los niños de 1 a 3 años (5). La calidad de
una proteína se valora mediante la puntuación de aminoácidos
(6), que compara el contenido en aminoácidos con la proteína
patrón, y mediante la puntuación de aminoácidos corregida por
su digestibilidad (protein digestibility-corrected amino acid score,
PDCAAS), que tiene en cuenta además la digestibilidad fecal real
de la proteína (5). En este sentido, el huevo tiene una puntuación
del 100% en cuanto a la puntuación de aminoácidos, ya que no
contiene ningún aminoácido limitante, y una puntuación corregida
por la digestibilidad del 97%, algo superior al de otras proteínas
de origen animal, como las de lácteos, carnes y pescados, y bas-
tante superior a la de otras proteínas de origen vegetal (7).
Es ampliamente conocido el papel de las proteínas en el depor-
te. En general, son necesarias para sintetizar nuevas proteínas
corporales, incluidas las miofibrilares, y para reparar las proteínas
dañadas durante el esfuerzo. También algunos aminoácidos pue-
den ser utilizados para la producción de energía en el músculo
(8). Pero justo tras un ejercicio de resistencia el músculo es más
sensible al aporte de aminoácidos que se haga en ese momento
y que favorece la síntesis de proteínas musculares (9). Por esa
razón se recomienda tomar regularmente unos 20 g de proteína
en cada una de las comidas, y también tras el entrenamiento
y antes de ir a la cama, ya que esta pauta ha demostrado que
favorece la recuperación muscular (10). En concreto, la ingesta de
unos 20-25 g de proteína de huevo, que proporcionan unos 8-10
g de aminoácidos esenciales, permite alcanzar casi la máxima
síntesis proteica en adultos jóvenes tras un ejercicio de resis-
tencia (11).
En adultos sedentarios, se recomienda la ingesta de al menos
0,8-1 g de proteína/kg de peso corporal al día (12), lo que permite
mantener el balance proteico. Sin embargo, en personas física-
mente activas y especialmente en deportes de alta intensidad,
las necesidades son algo mayores y se recomiendan cantidades
entre 1,2 y 2,0 g/kg/día (1). Como el peso corporal varía mucho
de unos deportistas a otros dependiendo de las exigencias de
cada disciplina, la ingesta adecuada de proteínas en un deportista
puede variar también enormemente, yendo desde 60-85 g/día en
deportistas de 50 kg de peso hasta 180-255 g/día en deportistas
de 150 kg.
Sin embargo, la ingesta excesiva de proteínas no parece incre-
mentar significativamente la síntesis proteica (11). El exceso de
proteínas que no puede almacenarse se transforma en grasa para
ser almacenada como fuente de energía, aumentando la carga
para el hígado y para el riñón. La ingesta excesiva de proteínas
también favorece la eliminación urinaria de calcio (12), lo que
puede afectar negativamente a la masa ósea.
GRASAS DEL HUEVO
Un huevo de tamaño medio contiene unos 200 mg de coleste-
rol, localizados fundamentalmente en la yema. Aunque el coles-
terol dietético tiene una influencia pequeña en los niveles de
colesterol séricos, por su contenido en colesterol el huevo se ha
eliminado o limitado, erróneamente, de la dieta de las personas
que necesitan controlar sus lípidos sanguíneos. Sin embargo,
cada vez hay más evidencias de que el consumo de huevo tiene
poca o nula influencia sobre los niveles de colesterol sérico, mien-
tras que puede incluso ser beneficioso desde el punto de vista
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PAPEL DEL HUEVO EN LA DIETA DE DEPORTISTAS Y PERSONAS FÍSICAMENTE ACTIVAS
[Nutr Hosp 2017;34(Supl. 4):31-35]
cardiovascular. Recientes estudios concluyen que el consumo de
huevo no se asocia a un mayor riesgo de enfermedad coronaria
(13,14), y no supone un mayor riesgo de ictus (13) e incluso
puede ser un factor protector (14).
Las grasas son necesarias en la dieta de cualquier individuo,
ya que aportan energía y son vehículo de numerosos nutrientes
esenciales. Los objetivos nutricionales establecen que la ingesta
de grasa no debe proporcionar más del 30-35% de la ingesta
calórica y que las grasas saturadas deben aportar menos del 10%
de la energía total de la dieta. Por lo tanto, al menos dos tercios de
la grasa de la dieta debería ser grasa insaturada. En este sentido,
el huevo tiene un perfil de ácidos grasos muy favorable desde
el punto de vista cardiovascular, ya que predominan los ácidos
grasos mono y poliinsaturados frente a los saturados (2,3). Tam-
bién aporta cantidades apreciables de ácidos grasos esenciales
omega 3, y que se han relacionado con una disminución de la
fatiga muscular (15).
VITAMINAS Y MINERALES DEL HUEVO
Las necesidades de algunas vitaminas son mayores en las
personas activas que en individuos sedentarios, por varias razo-
nes (16). Primero, debido a que el gasto energético es mayor,
aumentan las necesidades de las vitaminas B1, B2 y niacina, y
se necesita mayor cantidad de vitamina B6 debido a la mayor
ingesta proteica (17). Por otro lado, durante el esfuerzo se daña
el tejido muscular, y para su recuperación son necesarios folatos
y vitamina B12 (17). Durante el ejercicio aumenta el consumo de
oxígeno y esto produce un mayor estrés oxidativo y producción
de radicales libres (18), por lo que las necesidades de nutrientes
antioxidantes pueden estar incrementadas en deportistas. Ade-
más, el entrenamiento prolongado e intenso afecta negativamente
al sistema inmunológico del deportista, por lo que es importante
una ingesta adecuada de proteínas y algunos micronutrientes
involucrados en la respuesta inmune como son el hierro, zinc, y
vitaminas A, D, E, B6 y B12 (19).
Otros nutrientes que conviene vigilar en los deportistas son:
la vitamina D, ya que su deficiencia se asocia a un mayor
riesgo de fracturas óseas por estrés y un menor rendimiento
(1); el hierro, ya que en disciplinas de alta intensidad puede
disminuir su absorción, aumentar su pérdida por orina, sudor
y heces, y producirse anemia debido a la fragilidad de los
eritrocitos (16); y la colina, ya que forma parte de moléculas
como la acetilcolina, fosfolípidos, lipoproteínas, e intervie-
ne en las reacciones de donación de grupos metilo, y en el
deporte de resistencia podrían aumentar las demandas de
este micronutriente (20).
La forma más segura y efectiva de conseguir una situación
nutricional adecuada es el seguimiento de una dieta equilibrada
rica nutrientes, especialmente antioxidantes (1). En este sentido
el huevo es una excelente fuente de vitaminas y minerales. Dos
huevos permiten cubrir más del 15% de las IR de vitamina A, E,
B2, niacina, hierro, zinc y selenio, y más del 30% de las IR de
vitamina B12, ácido pantoténico, biotina, colina y fósforo de adultos
entre 20 y 49 años (Fig. 1).
Figura 1.
Cobertura de las IR medias de adultos entre 20 y 49 años con 100 gramos de huevo.
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[Nutr Hosp 2017;34(Supl. 4):31-35]
ERRORES Y TÓPICOS EN RELACIÓN
AL HUEVO EN EL DEPORTE
El seguimiento o no de una dieta correcta puede significar la
diferencia entre el éxito o el fracaso en una competición o prueba
deportiva. Por esta razón, los deportistas desde siempre han bus-
cado la dieta, el alimento o el suplemento perfecto que les ayude
a conseguir el máximo rendimiento. Esto ha facilitado la aparición
de mitos en relación a las propiedades de algunos alimentos,
entre ellos el huevo, y a la propagación de ideas equivocadas,
tanto en población general como en deportistas.
Uno de los tópicos más extendidos es la creencia de que es
mejor desechar las yemas, por su elevado contenido en coleste-
rol, y consumir solo las claras, porque es en estas en las que se
encuentra la proteína del huevo. Sin embargo, esto no es correcto.
Por un lado, y como ya se ha comentado, el colesterol dietético
tiene solo una pequeña influencia sobre los niveles de colesterol
sanguíneo, y el consumo de huevo en el marco de una dieta
equilibrada no se asocia a un mayor riesgo cardiovascular. Pero
por otro, la proteína del huevo no se encuentra exclusivamente en
la clara, ya que un 40% aproximadamente se localiza en yema (3)
(Fig. 2). Además, en la yema se encuentran también numerosos
nutrientes, y algunos en mayor cantidad que en la clara. Por ejem-
plo, las vitaminas liposolubles A, D, E, y K y la luteína y zeaxantina
se encuentran exclusivamente en la yema, o las vitaminas B1, B6,
B12, folatos, ácido pantoténico, biotina y colina, calcio, fósforo,
hierro, zinc, cobre, que se encuentran en mayor proporción en la
yema que en la clara (3). Por lo tanto, desechar las yemas supone
desechar también todos estos nutrientes del huevo.
Otro mito muy extendido es la creencia de que es mejor consumir
el huevo crudo porque la calidad proteica es mejor que en el cocido.
Esto es totalmente erróneo. En primer lugar, porque el calor desna-
turaliza las proteínas del huevo haciendoque sean más fácilmente
digestibles (21). En segundo lugar, porque con el calor se inactivan
algunas proteínas comola avidina, que es un factor antibiotina (22).
Y en tercer lugar, porque el huevo debe manipularse adecuada-
mente para que sea un alimento seguro y evitar contaminaciones
microbianas, lo que se consigue entre otras cosas con el cocinado
correcto del huevo (23).
RECOMENDACIONES DE CONSUMO DE
HUEVO EN DEPORTISTAS Y PERSONAS
FÍSICAMENTE ACTIVAS
En primer lugar, conviene recordar que es la dieta global, y
no un alimento en particular, lo que define una dieta correcta. El
huevo se puede incorporar en cantidades moderadas en una dieta
sana y equilibrada. El consumo elevado de cualquier alimento,
incluido el huevo, no es prudente. Pero desafortunadamente, en
ocasiones se malinterpretan las recomendaciones y se elimina el
huevo de la dieta de forma innecesaria. En el caso de alimentos
nutritivos, como son los huevos, evitar su consumo puede hacer
más daño que bien.
En las guías dietéticas, los huevos aparecen en el mismo
grupo que carnes y pescados. La recomendación general es
consumir a diario entre dos y tres raciones de este grupo de
alimentos (24,25). Lo ideal es equilibrar el consumo de car-
nes, pescados y huevos, de manera que ninguno predomine o
desplace a los otros, y consiguiendo que el huevo pueda cubrir
entre un tercio y la mitad de las recomendaciones de consumo
marcadas de este grupo de alimentos.
CONCLUSIÓN
El huevo es un alimento de gran valor nutricional, recomenda-
ble para la población en general, pero también en el colectivo de
deportistas y personas físicamente activas. Es un alimento que
aporta proteínas de gran calidad y tiene además una elevada
densidad nutricional, lo que hace que sea un alimento muy
adecuado para hacer frente a las mayores necesidades nutricio-
nales de los deportistas. Es conveniente, no obstante, corregir
errores y desterrar algunos mitos en relación a su consumo en
este colectivo. El consumo de huevo en cantidades moderadas,
y manejado adecuadamente para que sea un alimento seguro,
contribuye al seguimiento de una dieta prudente, equilibrada
y sana, tanto en población general como en las personas más
activas.
Figura 2.
Nutrientes en un huevo (50 g comestibles) y porcentaje que se encuentra en la
yema.
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PAPEL DEL HUEVO EN LA DIETA DE DEPORTISTAS Y PERSONAS FÍSICAMENTE ACTIVAS
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... Hen eggs present a high nutritional value resulting from their varied composition: high concentration of essential amino acids, low calorie content, richness in vitamins A, E, B 7 and B 12 and high content of zinc, iron and phosphorus [1][2][3]. Furthermore, eggs can be deemed as functional food because of their content of bioactive compounds with nutraceutical properties such as phospholipids, ovalbumin, ovotransferrin, selenium and choline [4,5]. As a result, moderate egg consumption has been proven to exert health benefits in human beings including prevention of hypertension, anti-ageing effect and improvement of ocular health [6][7][8]. ...
... p-value 4 ** ns *** ns ns Different letters in the same column (a, b, c) indicate significant differences (p < 0.05). 1 The different size classes of eggs were: XL-very large, egg weight ≥73 g; L-large, 63 ≤ egg weight <73 g; M-medium, 53 ≤ egg weight <63 g; S-small, egg weight <53 g. 2 Eggs were deemed not be suitable for sale if any of the following causes occurred: shell-less eggs, broken eggs, shell with deformities, eggs with abnormal shape or colour. 3 There were 3 replicates per diet, with 25 hens per replicate. 4 ns: no significant effect (p > 0.05). ...
... Yolk lipid oxidation (SEM 3 = 0.149, *) measured in four-month-stored eggs of laying hens fed diets containing grape pomace (GP) or grape extract (GE) at different concentrations. Different letters (a, b) indicate significant differences (p < 0.05). 1 TBARS: thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. 2 MDA: malondialdehyde.3 SEM, standard error of means; each value represents the mean of nine samples per dietary treatment (three samples per replicate); each sample resulted from the pool of two yolks. ...
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An experiment was conducted to assess in laying hens the effect of including grape pomace (GP, at 30 or 60 g/kg) or grape extract (GE, at 0.5 or 1.0 g/kg) on egg production, feed conversion ratio, protein and polyphenol digestibility, egg weight, egg quality, yolk fatty acid profile and oxidative stability of yolk lipids. No differences were detected among diets for egg production (83.8%, on average) or egg mass (56.8 g/d, on average). However, the average egg weight was lower (p = 0.004) for dietary treatments GP 30, GP 60 and GE 0.5 (67.5 g, on average) than for control hens (68.5 g). Accordingly, in hens fed the GP diets the proportion of XL eggs was lower (p = 0.008) than in control hens, while the proportion of M eggs was higher (p < 0.001) in hens fed the diets GP 30, GP 60 and GE 0.5 than in the control group. The dietary inclusion of both GP and GE decreased daily feed intake (120.9 vs. 125.3 g/d, p < 0.001) and the feed conversion ratio (2.09 vs. 2.18, p = 0.01). Feeding GP at 60 g/kg or GE reduced excreta protein digestibility (54.7 vs. 62.8%, p < 0.001), whereas all GP and GE diets showed higher excreta polyphenol digestibility than the control treatment (57.2 vs. 41.0%, p < 0.001). While yolk colour score was increased with all grape diets (8.12 vs. 7.34, p < 0.001), the dietary inclusion of GP, either at 30 or 60 g/kg, and that of GE at 1.0 g/kg increased the Haugh units of the albumen (80.8 vs. 76.4 Haugh units, p = 0.001). Shell thickness remained unaffected by dietary treatments (365.2 μm, on average). When included in the diet at 60 g/kg, GP reduced the proportion of saturated fatty acids in the yolk (31.6 vs. 32.9%, p = 0.001) and that of monounsaturated fatty acids (39.5 vs. 41.4%, p < 0.001), while it increased the percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids (28.9 vs. 25.7%, p < 0.001). In fresh eggs, no significant differences were found for the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration (0.146 mg/kg, on average). In stored eggs, the MDA amount was lower in the eggs of the laying hens fed GP at 60 g/kg than in the eggs of the control hens (1.14 vs. 1.64 mg/kg, p = 0.025). In conclusion, the inclusion of grape pomace, either at 30 or 60 g/kg, and grape extract at 1.0 g/kg in the diet of laying hens improved some egg quality traits, but feeding grape pomace resulted in a lower average weight of eggs. Nevertheless, feeding laying hens with diets containing grape pomace resulted in a higher antioxidant potential in egg yolk than dietary inclusion of grape extract.
... Half a century of research has now demonstrated that egg intake is not associated with increased health risk [2] and that it is worth incorporating such product in our diet with regard to its high nutrients content and its numerous bioactivities [1]. Some recent researches have highlighted the beneficial role of eggs for humans, including physically active people, and several authors have demonstrated that egg cholesterol was not well absorbed [3,4]. Consequently, consuming eggs does not significantly impact blood cholesterol concentration [3,4]. ...
... Some recent researches have highlighted the beneficial role of eggs for humans, including physically active people, and several authors have demonstrated that egg cholesterol was not well absorbed [3,4]. Consequently, consuming eggs does not significantly impact blood cholesterol concentration [3,4]. In parallel, egg consumers especially 6-24 month-old infants eat lower added and total sugars relative to non-consumers [5], which is likely correlated with its satiety effect [2,6,7]. ...
... Yolk is also a rich source of essential fatty acids such as linoleic acid (FA 18:2 9c,12c (n-6)). The high content of cholesterol in eggs (400 mg per 100 g of whole egg) has contributed to the decline of egg intake 30 to 40 years ago, although many studies conducted in the 1990s have reported an absence of correlation between egg intake and high level of plasmatic cholesterol [3,4]. It is now assumed that variation in plasmatic cholesterol and associated cardiovascular disease risk results from food factors but also saturated fatty acids intake (such as dietary myristic (14:0) and palmitic (16:0) acids). ...
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Egg is an encapsulated source of macro and micronutrients that meet all requirements to support embryonic development until hatching. The perfect balance and diversity in its nutrients along with its high digestibility and its affordable price has put the egg in the spotlight as a basic food for humans. However, egg still has to face many years of nutritionist recommendations aiming at restricting egg consumption to limit cardiovascular diseases incidence. Most experimental, clinical, and epidemiologic studies concluded that there was no evidence of a correlation between dietary cholesterol brought by eggs and an increase in plasma total-cholesterol. Egg remains a food product of high nutritional quality for adults including elderly people and children and is extensively consumed worldwide. In parallel, there is compelling evidence that egg also contains many and still-unexplored bioactive compounds, which may be of high interest in preventing/curing diseases. This review will give an overview of (1) the main nutritional characteristics of chicken egg, (2) emerging data related to egg bioactive compounds, and (3) some factors affecting egg composition including a comparison of nutritional value between eggs from various domestic species.
... Half a century of research has now demonstrated that egg intake is not associated with increased health risk [2] and that it is worth incorporating such product in our diet with regard to its high nutrients content and its numerous bioactivities [1]. Some recent researches have highlighted the beneficial role of eggs for humans, including physically active people, and several authors have demonstrated that egg cholesterol was not well absorbed [3,4]. Consequently, consuming eggs does not significantly impact blood cholesterol concentration [3,4]. ...
... Some recent researches have highlighted the beneficial role of eggs for humans, including physically active people, and several authors have demonstrated that egg cholesterol was not well absorbed [3,4]. Consequently, consuming eggs does not significantly impact blood cholesterol concentration [3,4]. In parallel, egg consumers especially 6-24 month-old infants eat lower added and total sugars relative to non-consumers [5], which is likely correlated with its satiety effect [2,6,7]. ...
... Yolk is also a rich source of essential fatty acids such as linoleic acid (FA 18:2 9c,12c (n-6)). The high content of cholesterol in eggs (400 mg per 100 g of whole egg) has contributed to the decline of egg intake 30 to 40 years ago, although many studies conducted in the 1990s have reported an absence of correlation between egg intake and high level of plasmatic cholesterol [3,4]. It is now assumed that variation in plasmatic cholesterol and associated cardiovascular disease risk results from food factors but also saturated fatty acids intake (such as dietary myristic (14:0) and palmitic (16:0) acids). ...
Article
Full-text available
Egg is an encapsulated source of macro and micronutrients that meet all requirements to support embryonic development until hatching. The perfect balance and diversity in its nutrients along with its high digestibility and its affordable price has put the egg in the spotlight as a basic food for humans. However, egg still has to face many years of nutritionist recommendations aiming at restricting egg consumption to limit cardiovascular diseases incidence. Most experimental, clinical, and epidemiologic studies concluded that there was no evidence of a correlation between dietary cholesterol brought by eggs and an increase in plasma total-cholesterol. Egg remains a food product of high nutritional quality for adults including elderly people and children and is extensively consumed worldwide. In parallel, there is compelling evidence that egg also contains many and still-unexplored bioactive compounds, which may be of high interest in preventing/curing diseases. This review will give an overview of 1) the main nutritional characteristics of chicken egg, 2) emerging data related to egg bioactive compounds, and 3) some factors affecting egg composition including a comparison of nutritional value between eggs from various domestic species.
... The cholesterol content is mainly found in the yolk (400 mg/100 g of whole egg). Eggs contain vitamin D, E B12, retinol, riboflavin, iodine and iron [103]. ...
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Micro- and macro-nutrient deficiencies among women are considered a global issue that the food industry has not adequately considered until recently. The industry must provide and guarantee a diversity of food products worldwide that allow women to get a correct and balanced diet according their life stage. The food industry must focus on this challenge within a framework of sustainable production, minimizing the use of natural resources and avoiding the emission of waste and pollutants throughout the life cycle of food. Food coproducts are presented as potential bioactive functional compounds which can be useful for technological purposes, due to the fact that they can serve as non-chemical, natural and health-improving food ingredients. In this review, we focus on the potential use of food processing coproducts which must be part of a strategy to promote and improve women’s health and well-being. This knowledge will make it possible to select potential ingredients from coproducts to be used in the fortification of foods intended for consumption by females and to introduce sustainability and gender perspectives into food innovation. The attainment of fortifications for foods for women has to be linked to the use of sustainable sources from food coproducts in order to be economically viable and competitive.
... Their family poultry production used to provide opportunities for income generation to the local communities, apart from satisfying their own needs. It is raised and consumed by indigenous tribal people for its invigorating and medicinal properties (Sobaler, et al., 2017). IKC is the only all-black chicken among the 19 diverse chicken breeds of India ICAR-National Bureau of Animal Genetic Resources [www.nbagr.res.in]. ...
Chapter
The chapter highlights the functionality and medicinal/nutritional value of Kadaknath bird, the most opted celebrity of the poultry industry in India. Potential benefits of Indian breed of Indian Kadaknath chicken (IKC) is drawing attention in recent days for unusual therapeutic properties of black colored meat and brown eggs of high-quality with invigorating and used in the prevention or treatment of disease. Indian Kadaknath meat and eggs demand is growing in India and overseas for its high quality protein, filled with rich-nutrients and antioxidant properties, metal chelating ability and health promoting properties are considered as a promising functional food. Because of commercial viability of Kadaknath meat and eggs are leading to popular farming and becoming a very profitable agri-business. Kadaknath meat and eggs are drawing interest among farmers in managing organic farming to deal with global production meeting international standard and management while addressing key aspects such as nutrients composition, nutrients quality, food safety norms and consumer appeal are discussed.
... Proper nutrition and consuming highly nutritious food can help population that is involved in recreational sport, as well as professional athletes, to achieve their maximum performance, to reduce the risk of injury, and to ensure the best recovery and health (Close et al., 2016). Including food that contains proteins of high quality and bioavailability, a profile of fatty acids very favorable from a cardiovascular point of view, and vitamins and minerals that are involved in energy and protein metabolismprovides defense against oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as ensures cell growth and tissue repair (Sobaler, Vizuete & Ortega, 2017). In addition, Isenmann et al. (2019) demonstrate the importance of adequate protein and carbohydrate intake from foodstuffs following an exercise bout for the facilitation of muscle regeneration while minimizing the inflammatory response. ...
... Proper nutrition and consuming highly nutritious food can help population that is involved in recreational sport, as well as professional athletes, to achieve their maximum performance, to reduce the risk of injury, and to ensure the best recovery and health (Close et al., 2016). Including food that contains proteins of high quality and bioavailability, a profile of fatty acids very favorable from a cardiovascular point of view, and vitamins and minerals that are involved in energy and protein metabolismprovides defense against oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as ensures cell growth and tissue repair (Sobaler, Vizuete & Ortega, 2017). In addition, Isenmann et al. (2019) demonstrate the importance of adequate protein and carbohydrate intake from foodstuffs following an exercise bout for the facilitation of muscle regeneration while minimizing the inflammatory response. ...
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Practice of sport, exercise or recreational physical activity increase the needs of energy and nutrients. Objectives are: 1) to evaluate BMI; 2) to assess the nutritional status; and 3) to test the association between BMI and KIDMED index. The study is realized on a sample of healthy young participants (N=101), aged 18-35, that do recreational sport activities such as: football (N=24), basketball (N=16), handball (N=15), volleyball (N=20), tennis (N=10), swimming (N=10) and martial arts (N=9). Body composition: height, weight, and BMI, were measured and calculated according to World Health Organization's manual. A 16-item KIDMED questionnaire was used to assess nutritional status. KIDMED index was calculated after the KIDMED questionnaire was administered to all participants. Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was applied to test the association between BMI and KIDMED index. We have assessed an optimal diet-medium quality, in physically active population that is involved in recreational sport such as: football, basketball, handball, volleyball, tennis, swimming and martial arts, and a normal healthy weight category based on BMI classification criteria of World Health Organization. In addition, we have found a weak positive association between BMI and KIDMED index in physically active population, that was not statistically significant. The outcome of the study indicates that most of the people that are regularly involved in physical activity have a decent nutritional awareness, as a result of the nutritional counseling they get from their coaches. It seems that recreational collective activities and sports, besides allowing people to gain knowledge about healthy eating skills and nutritional habits, also encourage them to bring the required changes in their diets. The impact of physical activity may be a promising area for future promotion of nutrition and health.
... Rational diet is of great importance for health and achieving satisfactory sports performance [1][2][3][4], and therefore, proper nutrition should become a significant element of a healthy lifestyle. Food choices are determined by a wide range of factors, among which age, experience with food, flavor preferences, knowledge, beliefs, as well as geographical location and cultural context are mentioned most frequently [5,6]. ...
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Qualitative dietary assessments are not common in aging athletes. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate diet quality and its determinants among aging masters athletes. Eighty-six participants of the 8th World Masters Indoor Athletics Championships were enrolled in the study (age range 36–65 years). Three subgroups were distinguished to represent countries with different eating habits. Body composition was measured by bioelectrical impedance. Eating habits and diet quality were assessed using the Dietary Habits and Nutrition Beliefs Questionnaire (KomPAN®, Warszawa, Poland), and the Pro-healthy Diet Index (pHDI-10). Dietary quality determinants were identified by a multiple regression model conducted for each subgroup separately (Great Britain, France, and Poland). The results showed that none of the subgroups adhered to the reference intake of products with beneficial health outcomes. This was particularly noticeable in the insufficient consumption of whole grain products, dairy, and fish. The fish and vegetables consumption frequency significantly differentiated the eating habits of the studied groups. Diet quality determinants varied depending on the group. However, in each of them, fruit consumption was one of the components of a good-quality diet. The obtained results can be used by institutions providing health education among the elderly to develop an appropriate strategy aimed at changing inappropriate eating habits.
... Bibliografía: [90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98] ...
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This book is intended for anyone passionate about nutrition and sports supplementation. It aims to introduce readers to what regards the subject, combining areas such as nutrition, biological chemistry, the physiology of the exercise, food science and pharmacology. It is by no means intended to replace a good book on each of these areas, just try to give a general snapshot of each of the substances that are currently being used in the world of supplementation sports, its functions, applications, benefits and doses that are usually used. Heber E. Andrada October 5, 2020
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N-3 PUFA (n-3) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) are a family of fatty acids mainly found in oily fish and fish oil supplements. The effects of n-3 PUFA on health are mainly derived from its anti-inflammatory proprieties and its influence on immune function. Lately an increased interest in n-3 PUFA supplementation has reached the world of sport nutrition, where the majority of athletes rely on nutrition strategies to improve their training and performance. A vast amount of attention is paid in increasing metabolic capacity, delaying the onset of fatigue, and improving muscle hypertrophy and neuromuscular function. Nutritional strategies are also frequently considered for enhancing recovery, improving immune function and decreasing oxidative stress. The current review of the literature shows that data regarding the effects of n-3PUFA supplementation are conflicting and we conclude that there is, therefore, not enough evidence supporting a beneficial role on the aforementioned aspects of exercise performance.
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Skeletal muscle mass is regulated by a balance between muscle protein synthesis (MPS) and muscle protein breakdown (MPB). In healthy humans, MPS is more sensitive (varying 4-5 times more than MPB) to changes in protein feeding and loading rendering it the primary locus determining gains in muscle mass. Performing resistance exercise (RE) followed by the consumption of protein results in an augmentation of MPS and, over time, can lead to muscle hypertrophy. The magnitude of the RE-induced increase in MPS is dictated by a variety of factors including: the dose of protein, source of protein, and possibly the distribution and timing of post-exercise protein ingestion. In addition, RE variables such as frequency of sessions, time under tension, volume, and training status play roles in regulating MPS. This review provides a brief overview of our current understanding of how RE and protein ingestion can influence gains in skeletal muscle mass in young, healthy individuals. It is the goal of this review to provide nutritional recommendations for optimal skeletal muscle adaptation. Specifically, we will focus on how the manipulation of protein intake during the recovery period following RE augments the adaptive response.
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High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced in skeletal muscle during exercise have been associated with muscle damage and impaired muscle function. Supporting endogenous defence systems with additional oral doses of antioxidants has received much attention as a noninvasive strategy to prevent or reduce oxidative stress, decrease muscle damage and improve exercise performance. Over 150 articles have been published on this topic, with almost all of these being small-scale, low-quality studies. The consistent finding is that antioxidant supplementation attenuates exercise-induced oxidative stress. However, any physiological implications of this have yet to be consistently demonstrated, with most studies reporting no effects on exercise-induced muscle damage and performance. Moreover, a growing body of evidence indicates detrimental effects of antioxidant supplementation on the health and performance benefits of exercise training. Indeed, although ROS are associated with harmful biological events, they are also essential to the development and optimal function of every cell. The aim of this review is to present and discuss 23 studies that have shown that antioxidant supplementation interferes with exercise training-induced adaptations. The main findings of these studies are that, in certain situations, loading the cell with high doses of antioxidants leads to a blunting of the positive effects of exercise training and interferes with important ROS-mediated physiological processes, such as vasodilation and insulin signalling. More research is needed to produce evidence-based guidelines regarding the use of antioxidant supplementation during exercise training. We recommend that an adequate intake of vitamins and minerals through a varied and balanced diet remains the best approach to maintain the optimal antioxidant status in exercising individuals.
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Muscle contraction during exercise, whether resistive or endurance in nature, has profound affects on muscle protein turnover that can persist for up to 72 h. It is well established that feeding during the postexercise period is required to bring about a positive net protein balance (muscle protein synthesis - muscle protein breakdown). There is mounting evidence that the timing of ingestion and the protein source during recovery independently regulate the protein synthetic response and influence the extent of muscle hypertrophy. Minor differences in muscle protein turnover appear to exist in young men and women; however, with aging there may be more substantial sex-based differences in response to both feeding and resistance exercise. The recognition of anabolic signaling pathways and molecules are also enhancing our understanding of the regulation of protein turnover following exercise perturbations. In this review we summarize the current understanding of muscle protein turnover in response to exercise and feeding and highlight potential sex-based dimorphisms. Furthermore, we examine the underlying anabolic signaling pathways and molecules that regulate these processes.
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The possible relationship between dietary cholesterol and cardiac outcomes has been scrutinized for decades. However, recent reviews of the literature have suggested that dietary cholesterol is not a nutrient of concern. Thus, we conducted a meta-analysis of egg intake (a significant contributor to dietary cholesterol) and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. A comprehensive literature search was conducted through August 2015 to identify prospective cohort studies that reported risk estimates for egg consumption in association with CHD or stroke. Random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate summary relative risk estimates (SRREs) for high vs low intake and stratified intake dose–response analyses. Heterogeneity was examined in subgroups where sensitivity and meta regression analyses were conducted based on increasing egg intake. A 12% decreased risk (SRRE = 0.88, 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.81–0.97) of stroke was observed in the meta-analysis of 7 studies of egg intake (high vs low; generally 1/d vs <2/wk), with little heterogeneity (p-H = 0.37, I² = 7.50). A nonstatistically significant SRRE of 0.97 (95% CI, 0.88–1.07, p-H = 0.67, I² = 0.00) was observed in the meta-analysis of 7 studies of egg consumption and CHD. No clear dose–response trends were apparent in the stratified intake meta-analyses or the meta regression analyses. Based on the results of this meta-analysis, consumption of up to one egg daily may contribute to a decreased risk of total stroke, and daily egg intake does not appear to be associated with risk of CHD. Key Teaching Points: • The role of egg consumption in the risk of stroke and coronary heart disease has come under scrutiny over many years. • A comprehensive meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies that reported risk estimates for egg consumption in association with CHD or stroke was performed on the peer-reviewed epidemiologic literature through August 2015. • Overall, summary associations indicate that intake of up to 1 egg daily may be associated with reduced risk of total stroke. • Overall, summary associations show no clear association between egg intake and increased or decreased risk of CHD. • Eggs are a relatively low-cost and nutrient-dense whole food that provides a valuable source of protein, essential fatty acids, antioxidants, choline, vitamins, and minerals.
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Prolonged bouts of exercise and heavy training regimens are associated with depression of immune system functions which can increase the risk of picking up opportunistic infections such as the common cold and influenza. Some common sport nutrition practices including high carbohydrate diets and carbohydrate ingestion during exercise, training with low glycogen stores, intentional dieting for weight loss, ingestion of high dose antioxidant supplements and protein ingestion post-exercise may influence immune system status in athletes. In order to maintain robust immunity, athletes need to consume a well-balanced diet that is sufficient to meet their requirements for energy, carbohydrate, protein, and micronutrients. Dietary deficiencies of protein and specific micronutrients are well known to be potential causes of immune dysfunction and an adequate intake of some essential minerals including iron and zinc and the vitamins A, D, E, B6 and B12 are important to maintain a healthy immune function. Vitamin D may be a particular concern as recent studies have emphasised its importance in limiting infection episode incidence and duration in both the general population and in athletes and many individuals exhibit inadequate vitamin D status during the winter months. There is only limited evidence that individual amino acids, β-glucans, herbal extracts and zinc are capable of boosting immunity or reducing infection risk in athletes. The ingestion of carbohydrate during exercise and daily consumption of probiotics, vitamin D3, bovine colostrum, and plant polyphenol containing supplements or foodstuffs currently offer the best chance of success, particularly for those individuals who are prone to illness.Immunology and Cell Biology accepted article preview online, 04 December 2015. doi:10.1038/icb.2015.109.
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The protein score reflects its amino acids (AA) content in comparison with the ideal protein. However, when there is a need to know the use of AA by the organism it is necessary to do a correction of the score value by protein digestibility (PDCAAS). Since this information is not available for usually con-sumed foods, the present work aimed at calculating the PDCAAS values of these foods. The score was calculated the limiting AA of 70 foods, taking as reference protein the AA pattern for children > 1 year old and adults proposed by the U.S. National Academy of Sciences for the year 2002. The PDCAAS value was obtained in each case by multiplying the score value by the digestibility index. For vegetable foods the obtained score values and PDCAAS were, respectively: vegetables 88.5% / 73.4%, tubercles 89.44% / 74.24%, fresh fruits 75.6% / 64.3%, dried fruits 65.6% / 48.1%, legumes in general 89.2% / 69.58%, chickpea and soybean 100% / 78%, cereals and derivatives 68.8% / 58.5%. Creation of table that contents the score values, digestibility values, and PDCAAS of foods is a useful tool when food selection for a dietary plan based on its protein quality is desirable.
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Recovery from the demands of daily training is an essential element of a scientifically based periodized program whose twin goals are to maximize training adaptation and enhance performance. Prolonged endurance training sessions induce substantial metabolic perturbations in skeletal muscle, including the depletion of endogenous fuels and damage/disruption to muscle and body proteins. Therefore, increasing nutrient availability (i.e., carbohydrate and protein) in the post-training recovery period is important to replenish substrate stores and facilitate repair and remodelling of skeletal muscle. It is well accepted that protein ingestion following resistance-based exercise increases rates of skeletal muscle protein synthesis and potentiates gains in muscle mass and strength. To date, however, little attention has focused on the ability of dietary protein to enhance skeletal muscle remodelling and stimulate adaptations that promote an endurance phenotype. The purpose of this review is to critically discuss the results of recent studies that have examined the role of dietary protein for the endurance athlete. Our primary aim is to consider the results from contemporary investigations that have advanced our knowledge of how the manipulation of dietary protein (i.e., amount, type, and timing of ingestion) can facilitate muscle remodelling by promoting muscle protein synthesis. We focus on the role of protein in facilitating optimal recovery from, and promoting adaptations to strenuous endurance-based training.