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Behaviorism and Foreign Language Teaching Methodology

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Abstract

This paper aims at exploring in details about one of the left language learning theoriesnamely Behaviorism. Behaviorism, as how it is today, is gradually left behind since there are many new theories of language learning. Regarding this issue, it is very important to ensure that actually Behaviorism is still useful in certain teaching and learning activities in the classroom. This review investigates behaviorism methodology having advantages in learning a language in the classroom. This review also observes the critics of behaviorism and its weaknesses in a learning environment. This inquiry concentrates on the view point of B.F. Skinner, one of the most outspoken behaviorism psychologist and his experimentations about animals. The notion of antimentalism of behaviorism also discussed in the process. Keywords: Behaviorism Theory, Foreign Language, Teaching Methodology
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BEHAVIORISM IN FOREIGN LANGUAGE TEACHING
METHODOLOGY
Asep Budiman
The Faculty of Teacher Training and Education,
Sebelas Maret University,
asepbudiman@student.uns.ac.id
ABSTRACT
This paper aims at exploring in details about one of the left
language learning theoriesnamely Behaviorism. Behaviorism, as
how it is today, is gradually left behind since there are many new
theories of language learning. Regarding this issue, it is very
important to ensure that actually Behaviorism is still useful in
certain teaching and learning activities in the classroom. This
review investigates behaviorism methodology having advantages in
learning a language in the classroom. This review also observes the
critics of behaviorism and its weaknesses in a learning
environment. This inquiry concentrates on the view point of B.F.
Skinner, one of the most outspoken behaviorism psychologist and
his experimentations about animals. The notion of antimentalism
of behaviorism also is discussed in the process.
Keywords: Behaviorism Theory, Foreign Language, Teaching
Methodology
INTRODUCTION
Learning is an individual activity that conducts studies,
work processes internal factors. According to Skinner (1976),
learning is a process of adjustment to adaptation through has
simulation and accommodation between the basic units of
cognition stimulation with someone. In the view of psychology
behavior is miscue to the interaction between stimulus and
response. A personis considered to havelearnedsomethingif
shecanshow changes inbehavior. According to this theory, the
importance of learning is a form of stimulus input and output in
the form of the response.
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If the terms of a concept or theory, theory of foreign
language learning has long been discussed to find the best way
how foreign language can be taught effectively. In this case,
theory becomes crucial since it helps the teacher to perceive the
phenomenon in the world of learning. It contains of framework of
concepts, and principles as well (Lodico, Spaulding, Voegtle,
2006). Speaking of theory in language learning, there are four
major and familiar theories of language acquisition and language
learning namely behaviorism, cognitivism, humanism, and
constructivism (Fauziati, 2016). Based on its development,
behaviorism is the first theory developed by some key figures
such as Pavlov, Watson, Thorndike, and Skinner. Put simply,
behaviorists’ view on learning is that it focuses on how learners’
behavior is shaped through stimulus and response. They also
view that behavior is observable.
Behaviorism theory is certainly different from other
theories. This can be seen in everyday classroom learning. There
are different assumptions or views that appear on behaviorism
theory (Leahey, 2000). Behaviorism theory views that learning is
changing the behavior of students, from being able to produce
oral or written product, and the task of the teacher is to control
the stimulus and the learning environment in order to change the
desired destination approaching, gift giver sand teachers of
students who have been able to show significant changes while
punishment given to students who are notable to show the
change of meaning.
It is necessary to holddiscussionof thetheoryof
behaviorism. This paper will briefly examine an overview of
behaviorism theory, how behaviorism theory is applied to a
particular method of foreign language teaching methodology, and
to an approach of teaching writing named teaching writing as
product. Hopefullythe discussion will result in minimizingfalse
assumptionsaboutthe theory ofbehaviorism understanding of
why teachers choose a particular method or technique of
teaching for particular learners with particular learning
objectives.
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THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK
Understanding Behaviorism Theory
Behaviorism learning theory oriented "results that can be
measured, observed, analyzed, and tested objectively". Repetition
and training used so that the desired behavior can become a
habit. The expected result of the application of the theory of
behaviorism is the formation of a desired behavior. Desired
behavior gets positive reinforcement and behavior that are less
fit awarded negative. Evaluation or assessment is based on
observed behavior. In this theory, a lot of teachers do not lecture,
but brief instructions are followed example, either by themselves
or through stimulation (Skinner, 1976).
Behaviorism Learning Theory is a theory of learning that
emphasizes human behavior as a result of the interaction
between stimulus and response. Behaviorism theory is a theory
proposed by Gage and Berliner. This theory later developed into
the flow of learning psychology that influence the development of
education and learning theory known as behaviorism flow. This
emphasis on the formation of the flow behavior appears to be a
result of learning.
Behaviorism theory with stimulus-response relationship
model, seated person as an individual passive learning (Alissa,
2003). Specific behavioral responses analyzed by using training
methods or habituation alone. The emergence of behaviors will
be stronger when given reinforcement and will disappear when
sentenced. A person is considered to have learned something if
he can show changes in behavior. According to this theory the
important learning is in the form of inputs and outputs in the
form of stimulus response.
Stimulus is all that is given by the teacher to the learner,
while the response in the form of student reactions or responses
to the stimulus given by the teacher. Processes that occur
between stimulus and response cannot be observed and cannot
be measured (Sarah, 2006). It can be observed is stimulus and
response.
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Therefore, it is something given by the teacher (stimulus)
and something that is accepted by the students (response) should
be observed and measured (Fauziati, 2016). It focuses on the
theory of measurement, since the measurement is an important
thing to notice changes in behavior occurs or not.
1. Pavlov's Theory of Classical Conditioning
Ivan Petrovich Pavlov was born 14 September 1849 in
Ryazan; Russia is the village where his father Peter
Dmitrievich Pavlov became a pastor. He was educated at
church schools and went to Theological Seminary. Pavlov
graduated as a medical scholar with a base area of physiology.
In 1884 he became director of the department of physiology
at the Institute of Experimental Medicine and initiate research
on the physiology of digestion. Ivan Pavlov won the Nobel
Prize in Physiology or Medicine field in 1904. Greatly, it
influenced his work on conditioning Psychology behaviorism
in America. His writing is a Work of the Digestive Glands
(1902) and Conditioned Reflexes (1927).
Classic conditioning (conditioning or classical terms) is a
process that Pavlov discovered through experiments on dogs,
in which the original stimulus and paired with a neutral
conditional stimulus repeatedly giving rise to the desired
reaction. The experiments were performed Pavlov and other
experts seem to be very affected by the views of behaviorism,
in which the symptoms of a person's psychological views of
his behavior. To understand the theory of classical
conditioning as a wholeneed to understand there are two
types of stimulus and two response types.
The two types of stimulus is the unconditioned stimulus
(unconditioned stimulus - UCS), which automatically
generates a stimulus that preceded the response without any
learning examples: food and unconditioned stimulus
(conditioned stimulus - CS), which previously neutral
stimulus, eventually bringing a conditioned response after
associated with the unconditioned stimulus (for example:
food comes before the bell sounds).
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Based on the assumption that by using certain stimuli,
human behavior can be changed according to what is desired.
Then Pavlov conducted experiments using animal (dog)
because he thinks animals have in common with humans.
Nevertheless, with all its advantages, is fundamentally
different from human beings to animals. He was
experimenting with how to conduct surgery on a dog's cheek.
The saliva gland is visible from outside. When shown
something of food, it will come out the dog saliva. Now, before
the food is shown, the red light is shown first, and food. Saliva
water itself will come out anyway. If such action is done
repeatedly, then at one time by just showing a red light
without food then saliva water will come out anyway. The
food is reasonable stimulus, while the red light is artificial
stimuli. It turns out that such an act is done repeatedly; it will
give rise to artificial stimulation condition for the onset of
salivation in the dogs. This event is called: Conditional or
Conditioned reflex response.
2. Watson’s Conditioning Theory
Watson is a purely behaviorist. Watson study about
learning aligned with other sciences such as physics or
biology are strongly oriented towards empirical experience
alone, that is as far as can be observed and measured.
According to Watson, learning is a process of interaction
between stimulus and response (Johnson, 2001). In this case,
the stimulus and response is established from the behaviors
that can be observed and can be measured. Watson
acknowledges the mental changes in a person throughout the
learning process, and he considered such things as a factor
that should not be taken into account. It is believed that by
the process of conditioning we can build a set of stimulus-
response connections, and more complex behaviors are
learned by building up a series of responses (Watson, 1913).
3. Thorndike's Theory of Connectivism
Thorndike’s view on learning is that it is the process of
forming associations or bonds or he called it “the connection
of a certain act with a certain situation and resultant
pleasure.” Thorndike also classifies laws of learning as
follows:
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a) Law of Readiness
It points out that organism will learn only when he is
physically and mentally ready for it. An organism that is
getting ready to obtain a change in behavior, the
implementation of these behaviors will lead to satisfaction
of the individual so that the association tends to be
reinforced.
b) Law of Exercise
It suggests that drill and practice increase efficiency and
durability of learning. Law principles of exercise is the
connection between the condition (which is a stimulant)
with the action will be stronger because of the exercises,
but will be weakened if the connection between the two
was not continued or discontinued so that the principle of
this law shows that the main principle of learning is
repetition. The more often repeated, the subject matter
will be more controlled.
c) Law of Effect
The relationship tends to be reinforced if the stimulus
response and tend to be weakened as a result pleasant if
the result is not satisfactory. This law refers to the
stronger or weaker connections as a result of actions. An
act which tends to be maintained with due fun and other
times will be repeated. Conversely, an act that followed
unpleasant consequences tends to be stopped and will not
be repeated.
4. Skinner's Theory of Operant Conditioning
Concepts put forward by Skinner about learning is able to
outperform other concepts put forward by the previous
figures. He was able to explain concepts in a simple to learn
and can demonstrate his concept of a comprehensive study.
According to Skinner, the relationship between stimulus and
response that occurs through the interaction of the
environment, which then would lead to changes in behavior;
it is not as simple as described by previous leaders. Therefore,
to understand a person's behavior is absolutely necessary to
first understand the relationship between the stimulus to
each other, and to understand the response may be raised and
the consequences that may arise as a result of the response.
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Skinner also noted that, by using mental changes as a tool to
explain the behavior will only add to the complexity of the
problem.
Therefore, any tool that is used needs further explanation,
and so on. Of all the supporters of behaviorism Theory,
Skinner’sTheory is the most influence. Learning programs
such as the teaching machine, learning program, modules, and
other learning programs are based on the concept of
stimulus-response relationships and the importance
reinforcing factors, an instructional program that implements
learning theory proposed by Skinner.
According to Skinner, to reinforce the behavior or the
behavior confirmed we need reinforcement. There are also
types of reinforcement, positive reinforcement and negative
reinforcement. Positive reinforcement is based on the
principle that the frequency of a response increases because it
was followed by a stimulus that contains award. Thus, the
behavior of which is expected to increase due to be followed
by a pleasant stimulus. Example, learners are always so
studious to rank the bikes will be rewarded by their parents.
Behavior to be repeated or improved is to study hard to
become rank one and positive reinforcement / unpleasant
stimulus is giving the bike.
Negative reinforcement is based on the principle that the
frequency of a response increases because followed by a
stimulus that is not fun to be removed. Thus, the behavior of
which is expected to increase due to be followed by the
removal of an unpleasant stimulus. Example, learners and
teachers often ask eliminating / no questions do not criticize
the teacher is pleased hearts so that learners will often ask.
Thus, the behavior that you want to repeat or enhanced often
asked and unpleasant stimulus you need to lose is criticism of
teachers so that students are not shy and will often ask
questions because the teacher does not criticize the
unqualified / deviated (Baum, 2005; Chiesa, 1994; Pierce &
Cheney, 2013; Rachlin, 1991).
Behaviorism and Foreign Language Teaching Methodology
Behaviorism theory is crucial in foreign language learning.
The influence of this theory can be seen in the implementation of
teaching learning process using Grammar Translation Method
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(GTM), Direct Method (DM), Situational Language Teaching (SLT)
and closely related to a particular language teaching method
called Audiolingual Method (ALM). This ALM has two principles:
(1) Stimulus-Response concept, and (2) an assumption that
second language learning should reflect and imitate the
perceived process of mother tongue learning.
According to Fauziati (2016) the application of
behaviorism theory in Audiolingual method is as follows: (1) the
organism is the learner, (2) the behavior as verbal behavior, (3)
the stimulus as what is presented of the foreign language, (4) the
response as the learners’ reaction to the stimulus, and (5) the
reinforcement as the extrinsic approval and praise of the teacher,
fellow students, and self-satisfaction of target language use.
Based on the relation between behaviorism theory and
ALM, it is clear now that ALM is marked by the following
characteristics: (1) new language should always be dealt within
the sequence of listening, speaking, reading, and writing with
emphasis on teaching receptive skills before productive skills, as
what is claimed by Alexander (1986, as cited in Johnson, 2001)
stating that nothing will be spoken before it has been heard, and
nothing will be written before it has been read, (2) habit
formation through frequent repetition, (3) errors are avoided, (4)
the use of dialogues as the chief means of presenting language,
(5) using mimicry, memorization, and pattern drills techniques,
(6) discouraging the use of mother tongue in the classroom, and
(7) the use of language lab in conducting teaching and learning
process.
With regard to pattern drills technique in behaviorism
theory, Brooks as cited in Fauziati (2014) mentioned various
types of pattern drills as follows:
1. Repetition: repeating utterances aloud as soon as they were
sounded
2. Inflection: replacing one word in an utterance
3. Replacement: replacing one word in an utterance
4. Restatement: delivering utterances to students, and asking
students to address it to someone else
5. Completion: repeating utterances in complete form
6. Transposition: changing word order when a word is added
7. Expansion: adding a word in a certain place of the utterance
8. Contraction: changing the phrase or clause with a single
word
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9. Transformation: transforming a sentence into negative of
interrogative, or through changes in tense, mood, voice, or
modality
10. Integration: integrating two utterances
11. Rejoinder: making appropriate response to the given
utterance
12. Restoration: asking students to restore a sequence of words
taken from a sentence to its original form.
In accordance with the foreign teaching methodology,
behaviorism gives several implications in languagelearning
process. Those are as follows:
1. Shaping
Teachers usually teach simple behavior in the school, they
do not teach complex behavior in teaching learning
process. The complex behavior can be taught through
shaping or successive approximations. Shaping refers to
procedure in which successive approximation to some
terminal behavior is reinforced. This process begins with
the purposes of study, assignment analysis, students’
activities and response to the reinforcement. (Blankship,
1981). Blankship (1981) states five steps of students’
behavior in learning process:
a. Come on timein the class
b. Active in learningprocess
c. Show thegood resultof thetest
d. Doing their homework
2. Modelling
Modelling is one of types of learning on behaviorism. The
language teacher often uses this method in language
learning process. A learner imitates the teacher’s behavior
in learning process, ex: an English teacher reads English
book regularly in the class in language learning process.
Teacher is model for students in learning process then; the
students will imitate the behavior. The students will also
read regularly in the class like their teacher.
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3. Rewarding and punishing
In the learning process a teacher often gives a punishment
to their students because of students guiltiest. This
punishment should be applied in wise ways in the class.
The students often get reward when they get good
achievements in learning process. This method is based on
Skinner theory of reward and punishment. In teaching
learning process students usually get a difficult with
foreign language subject, so, they often get punishment
from their teacher. Reward and punishment are one of the
implications of Skinner behaviorism theories in teaching
learning process especially in language learning.
4. Programmed learning
Programmed learning is the application of the principles
of operant conditioning. This learning process happens
when the students get assignment from the teacher and
they do it. In language learning process the teacher gives
assignment to the students to read the story in their
foreign language book they will do it.
Programmed learning has four purposes such as:
a. Summarizing the learning material
b. Forcing the students read the learning materials
c. Giving the result of learning directly to the teacher
d. Using effective time in learning
5. Assigning
There are several task components of learning in
behaviorism, those are:
a. Purposes and study in behavioral
b. Divides task into sub task
c. Determine the relation between sub task
d. Determine material and procedures of sub task
e. Giving feedback in the end of sub task.
These learning component means the students
always do the task and divide it into sub task. In language
learning process the students always practice the task
from language teacher, then, the result will be analyzed
by the teacher.
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The last implication of behaviorism of language and
learning in language learning is language acquisition theories.
The behaviorist has found the language acquisition theories and
these theories has been applied until today. Behaviorist says that
human born without any perception of language or it is called
tabula rasa and human learns language from their environments.
The language is form of culture and human uses the
language as means of communicating. It means that human
communicates with their own language. The behaviorism theory
of learning gives good implication in teaching learning especially
in language learning process. According to Thorndike there are
two implications of behaviorism in language learning. Those are
Theoretical and Practical.
In theoretical implication, the implication of behaviorism
is based on the theory of learning in behaviorism. Thorndike
stated that the four laws of learning gives good contribution
inlanguagelearning. In practical implication, Thorndike stressed
the importance of habits and procedures in learning especially in
language learning process (Barash, 2005).
According to Skinner, the theoretical implications of
operant theory creating an effective behavioral language,
vocabulary and grammar such a language must allow behavioral
phenomena to be coherently described. Among the useful aspect
of the contemporary language of operant theory are the
distinction between omission and elicitation of responses, the
extension of this vocabulary discrimination the usage of
response.
A behavioral language may be particularly effective in
extensions to verbal behavior. Speaking and writing are kinds of
behavior, but vocabulary creates difficulties for a behavioral
account. For example, human speak using words. This
vocabulary not only fails to distinguish spoken to written verbal
behavior but also treats words as things rather than as kinds of
responses. Verbal behavior has often been treated as if skinner
derived all language from the stimulus-response associations of
other varieties of behaviorism. (Gazda& Raymond, 1980).
Behaviorism Theory and Teaching Writing as Product
As clearly stated before that the classroom practices in
behaviorism theory is characterized by mimicry and the
avoidance of error, it has a close connection to an approach of
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teaching writing called product approach (Staats&Staats, 1963;
Staddon, 2014). Mimicry itself is an activity of imitating behavior
or speech. In teaching writing as product, the main procedures
involve imitating and transforming models provided by the
teacher, and emphasizing the error free final product. In the
product approach, the classroom activities concern with the final
product of writing and what the product should look like the
model given (Fauziati, 2014). Therefore, we can say that
behaviorism theory underlies the product approach in teaching
writing.
CONCLUSION
In Behavioral theory, human behavior is the result of
learning, so it can be changed by manipulating and creating
learning conditions. Behaviorism theory strongly emphasizes the
behavior or behavior that can be observed. Theories in the very
nature of molecular clumps, because looking at the lives of
individuals composed of elements like molecules. Characteristic
of this theory is prioritizing the elements and a small part, is
mechanistic, emphasizing the role of the environment, concerned
with the formation of a reaction or response, emphasizing the
importance of exercise, concerned with the mechanism of
learning outcomes, concerned with the role of ability and
learning results obtained is the emergence of the desired
behavior. On learning theory is often called psychological SR
means that human behavior is controlled by rewards or reward
and reinforcement or reinforcement from the environment. Thus,
the learning behavior is closely interwoven between behavioral
reactions to stimulus. Teachers who hold this view say that
student behavior is a reaction to the environment and the
behavior is the result of learning.
SHORT BIOGRAPHY
Asep Budiman is a graduate student in English Education
Department at SebelasMaret University of Surakarta, Central
Java, Indonesia. He received his Bachelor Degree from the same
department in Muhammadiyah University of Purwokerto,
Indonesia. He has experience in teaching English in some schools,
English courses and English Debate forums. His research interest
includes motivation in EFL, language testing, and TEFL.
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... In light of this principle, Skinner's concept of 'instrumental conditioning' in the Stimulus-Response (S-R) theory suggests that when the right stimulus is given, and learners' positive learning outcomes are reinforced, they would continue to learn and improve (Nazir, 2018;Schunk, 2020). Also, as Budiman (2017) and Morrison et al. (2019) asserted, instructional design is rooted in learning theories, and instructors are the ones who manipulate the input in the learning environment to alter learners' behaviours. Hence, the instructors' knowledge base, especially subject matter content knowledge, is critical for delivering the stimulus (Syamdianita & Cahyono, 2021). ...
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In China, phonics instruction has been given substantial emphasis ever since the implementation of the 2011 National English Curriculum for Compulsory Education. However, many Chinese students' learning outcome remains unsatisfactory due to EFL teachers' insufficient knowledge to teach phonics and the absence of a phonics instructional guide. To address this gap, this study aims to investigate the effects of a newly developed phonics instructional guide on Chinese pre-service EFL teachers' knowledge base to teach phonics. Adopting an experimental research design, the study was conducted at a teachers' college in Sichuan Province, China. There were 172 pre-service EFL teachers assigned into two equivalent groups, namely the experimental group (N=86) and control group (N=86), who took a test respectively before and after the intervention. The measures of the test included seven dimensions aiming to elicit knowledge of general phonics, phonetic system, phonemic awareness, phonics decoding rules, phonics instructions, reinforcement methods, and sight word instructions. The experimental group participants
... How people learn is multifaceted and, it involves interdisciplinary dimensions related to psychology and education sciences, sociology, neuroscience, biology, and computer science [15]. The past century has given rise to explorations in behaviourism, particularly in how students behave in the process of learning, as they are the passive recipients of a range of stimuli used to achieve a desired outcome, which is ultimately language knowledge [16,17], predominantly acquired from the environment [18]. Cognitivism [19] considers the brain's cognitive processes, such as motivation and imagination [20], which come into play as central and explanatory for the learning process, allowing the learner to actively think about, participate with, and make sense of the language learning process [21]. ...
... How people learn is multifaceted and, it involves interdisciplinary dimensions related to psychology and education sciences, sociology, neuroscience, biology, and computer science [15]. The past century has given rise to explorations in behaviourism, particularly in how students behave in the process of learning, as they are the passive recipients of a range of stimuli used to achieve a desired outcome, which is ultimately language knowledge [16,17], predominantly acquired from the environment [18]. Cognitivism [19] considers the brain's cognitive processes, such as motivation and imagination [20], which come into play as central and explanatory for the learning process, allowing the learner to actively think about, participate with, and make sense of the language learning process [21]. ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic has led to perspective shifts in the approach of English language classrooms in the online higher education context. The current empirical study aims to understand the behaviour of 394 university students enrolled in agricultural, veterinary, and overall life science programmes in one of the main Romanian universities while learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL) and English for Specific Purposes (ESP) in terms of their classroom engagement during the 2020–2021 academic year. Following the application of an online questionnaire, a principal component analysis (PCA) was undertaken to determine the factors that determine students’ engagement (predominantly emotional and social), while learning EFL and ESP in the online system during the COVID-19 pandemic. Furthermore, the PCA results were used to identify clusters of students expressing similar behaviours towards the English learning process. Two clusters were identified: Cluster 1 consisted of moderately engaged students, and Cluster 2 consisted of highly engaged students. The clusters differed by the anxiety students express during class, the perception of the online system, the level of involvement and enjoyment, as well as class environment and dynamics, with the second cluster being the only one revealing a difference between the face-to-face and online experience. This study on students’ behaviours, attitudes, and preferences places students in the centre of the process of foreign language teaching and learning, as their enjoyment and engagement lead to a less stressful environment, especially during challenging times, and ultimately to long-term language proficiency and sustainable educational development.
Chapter
When new educational games are developed for teaching languages, a set of ideas or intuitions about how students can gain more knowledge are used; however, few of them are based on a solid theory or substantiated with linguistic research. This chapter presents a brief review about second language acquisition theories; describes the importance of recovering, maintaining, and transmitting indigenous languages; and analyzes efforts made for enhancing bilingual education. Serious games are presented as an alternative for learning indigenous languages, and guidelines to develop serious games implementing second language acquisition theories are proposed. Finally, a discussion about challenges and future trends in recovering, maintaining, and transmitting indigenous languages is presented.
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By portraying fictitious people inside literary works, authors are able to reflect on the reality of human events that occur in daily life around them and express their thoughts and feelings about them. Literary works and psychology have a great correlation because they both deal with human beings and their reactions. Humans have souls with various emotions and sensations, therefore they are extremely likely to suffer psychological repercussions as a result of the actions of fictitious characters in literary works. Through a literature review, this paper unveils the advantage of the development of character education with simulation and reproduction of literary works. It has impacts on the expansion of knowledge, personal experience and evolves the inner sensitivity of students. As a result, literary works have psychological effects that may influence readers' conduct, and the advantages of the psychological impact can be applied in character education for the next generation.
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Language acquisition and language learning among scientists tend to be different. This is based on the fact that the language acquisition process is supported unconsciously and is limited to a certain time. Meanwhile, the language learning process can be done consciously and is not limited by time. Through these two arguments, according to Stephen Krashen the acquisition process has certain characteristics. He believes that language acquisition can be obtained in adults. Based on this information, the researcher wants to describe and analyze the philosophy that encourages Stephen Krashen to develop a theory of language acquisition through classroom management based on Multiple Intelligences. This study used a qualitative research design with a case study method at SD Plus Al-Kaustar Malang, Indonesia. Data collection included observation, interview and documentation study through an analysis technique consisting of three steps; data collection, reduction and conclusion. The results showed that the philosophical background built in the theory of Stephen Krashen based on Multiple Intelligences is a empiricism philosopgy. This is known through the process of language acquisition which is formed through an adequate language environment carried out by the sensory experiences of students with the help of their cognitive thinking processes. These findings indicate that language acquisition can be done through a good environmental design even though it has passed the age limit for first language acquisition.
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A narrative inquiry as the approach of qualitative research is conducted in this research to know how the implementation of a video as a teaching media of Phonology and what the problems that the students face in using a video as the learning media of Phonology. This research involves 28 students of the second grade. The subject of research is the students of an English department in Education of UNISKA Kediri. The result is that there are four categorized problems that students face. Students felt that; (1) a native speaker in the video speaks too fast; (2) the pronunciation is unclear; (3) there are some new words or terms; (4) it is difficult to imitate the intonation and stressing of a word and sentence. However, the students can solve problems. Besides that, they get some advantages their ability in some aspects and are aware of the current issue; (1) the first is that the video is easy accessible; (2) the second one is that the video also is appropriate with the current issue so the students, beside learn about phonology, also aware of the current issue; (3) the other one is the students can learn and practice whenever with (out) the guidance of the lecturer; (4) the last advantage that we can offer is the students can listen the native speaker easily because they can play back the video when they cannot catch the word or meaning.
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With this important work, written around current behavioral psychology research and practice as it applies to school-age children, the authors address both experimental and applied issues in the assessments and interventions used with this population. Among the issues examined are the legal, bureaucratic, and psychological complications involving the newly mandated Functional Assessment law. Included with this book is a software package designed specifically to provide tools to conduct and calculate outcomes for functional assessment procedures on notebook computers.
Book
The fourth edition ... continues to provide an accessible and comprehensive explanation of language acquisition and use, written specifically for Australian teacher-education students and teachers.<br /
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The purpose of this book is to explore various experimental and naturalistic observations of complex human behavior in terms of learning principles and thereby to offer a relatively general conception of how the physical and social environments may shape human behavior. The strategy' is to employ an integrated set of learning principles that seem to have "heavy-weight" effects. There is no attempt to give an exhaustive account of learning principles or to consider the controversies and on-going research concerned with those that are presented. In extending the principles to complex human behavior, areas of application are sometimes reached that have not yet been sufficiently subjected to experimentation. Nevertheless, there appears to be enough support of the basic principles as well as a sufficient number of demonstrations of the relevance of their extrapolations to consider a learning conception of complex human behavior to be a powerful approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
(This partially reprinted article originally appeared in Psychological Review, 1913, Vol 20, 158–277.) Notes that psychology has failed to make good its claim as a natural science, due to a mistaken notion that introspection is the only direct method of ascertaining facts. Psychology, as the behaviorist views it, is a purely objective, experimental branch of natural science that needs introspection as much as do chemistry and physics. The behavior of humans and the behavior of animals must be considered on the same plane, as being equally essential to a general understanding of behavior. The elimination of states of consciousness as proper objects of investigation in themselves will remove the barrier from psychology that exists between it and the other sciences. Psychology as behavior will have to neglect but few of the really essential problems with which psychology as an introspective science concerns itself. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Behaviorism: More than a Failure to Follow in Darwin's Footsteps
  • D Alissa
Alissa, D., E. (2003). Behaviorism: More than a Failure to Follow in Darwin's Footsteps. Illinois: Jossey-Bass.American History Vol (87) (2), pp. 686.
B.F. Skinner, Revisited. The Chronicle of Higher Education
  • D Barash
Barash, D., P. (2005). B.F. Skinner, Revisited. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Washington: Vintage Books.
Understanding behaviorism: Behavior, Culture and Evolution
  • W M Baum
Baum, W.M. (2005) Understanding behaviorism: Behavior, Culture and Evolution. New York: Blackwell.