Article

Using a foreign language reduces mental imagery

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Mental imagery plays a significant role in guiding how we feel, think, and even behave. These mental simulations are often guided by language, making it important to understand what aspects of language contribute to imagery vividness and consequently to the way we think. Here, we focus on the native-ness of language and present evidence that using a foreign language leads to less vivid mental imagery than using a native tongue. In Experiment 1, participants using a foreign language reported less vivid imagery of sensory experiences such as sight and touch than those using their native tongue. Experiment 2 provided an objective behavioral measure, showing that muted imagery reduced accuracy when judging the similarity of shapes of imagined objects. Lastly, Experiment 3 demonstrated that this reduction in mental imagery partly accounted for the previously observed foreign language effects in moral choice. Together, the findings suggest that our mental images change when using a foreign tongue, leading to downstream consequences for how we make decisions.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... One important implication of the results is thus the discrepancy between vividness and emotionality. This indicates potential fundamental differences between the foreign language effect on vividness and emotionality, and casts some doubts on Hayakawa and Keysar's (2018) notion that reduced vividness in mental imagery may account for the findings of reduced emotionality in a second language. Also, the fact that the difference scores of vividness and emotionality were only moderately correlated suggests the changes occurred independently of each other. ...
... A vital contribution of the current study is the use of genuine episodic memories rather than laboratory induced emotional states, which increases the ecological validity and offers an insight into how the use of real emotional memories can be implemented in similar studies investigating emotionality or vividness in a bilingual context. To this point, while the results from this study, in terms of vividness, generally replicate the results found by Hayakawa and Keysar (2018), the methodologies were markedly different, the use of autobiographical memories in the current study being one such methodological difference. As mentioned in the Introduction, studies have found an attenuating effect of the emotionality of autobiographical memories when the narrative perspective has been changed from first-person to third-person, thereby increasing the psychological distance (Gu & Tse, 2016). ...
... As mentioned in the Introduction, studies have found an attenuating effect of the emotionality of autobiographical memories when the narrative perspective has been changed from first-person to third-person, thereby increasing the psychological distance (Gu & Tse, 2016). As the current study used autobiographical memories, these negative memories were likely experienced as more self-relevant than the less personal items used in Hayakawa and Keysar's (2018) study. As such, the results from the current study follow the general findings from Hayakawa and Keysar, but also expand these to paradigms where more self-relevant autobiographical memories are studied. ...
Article
Full-text available
Biased processing of threatening information may play a casual role in the development of anxiety disorders. Even though empirical evidence points to the fact that preattentive bias can predict subjectively experienced distress in response to a stressor, it is still unknown whether it could be useful in predicting the physiological reactivity in response to a stressor. In the present study, the emotional Stroop task was used to measure preattentive bias. Whereas Stroop interference for masked threat words (i.e., preattentive bias) was found to be positively associated with emotional distress (self-reported) in response to a laboratory stressor, this association was reversed when the autonomic reactivity (electrodermal activity) was used as a measure of emotional response to the very same stressor. Also, neither of these effects were a function of pre-existing anxiety levels. The negative association between preattentive bias and autonomic reactivity corresponds to the autonomic inflexibility seen in clinical anxiety (or very high scores of trait anxiety) when exposed to stressful events. Results were discussed in terms of an inability to automatically inhibit the processing of threatening cues that seems to be a vulnerability marker for anxiety.
... Recently, Hayakawa and Keysar (2018) reported that foreign language use is associated with reduced mental imagery. In a series of experiments, they found that participants reported less vivid mental imagery of various sensory processes when using a foreign compared to a native language. ...
... One important implication of the results is thus the discrepancy between vividness and emotionality. This indicates potential fundamental differences between the foreign language effect on vividness and emotionality, and casts some doubts on Hayakawa and Keysar's (2018) notion that reduced vividness in mental imagery may account for the findings of reduced emotionality in a second language. Also, the fact that the difference scores of vividness and emotionality were only moderately correlated suggests the changes occurred independently of each other. ...
... A vital contribution of the current study is the use of genuine episodic memories rather than laboratory induced emotional states, which increases the ecological validity and offers an insight into how the use of real emotional memories can be implemented in similar studies investigating emotionality or vividness in a bilingual context. To this point, while the results from this study, in terms of vividness, generally replicate the results found by Hayakawa and Keysar (2018), the methodologies were markedly different, the use of autobiographical memories in the current study being one such methodological difference. As mentioned in the Introduction, studies have found an attenuating effect of the emotionality of autobiographical memories when the narrative perspective has been changed from first-person to third-person, thereby increasing the psychological distance (Gu & Tse, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the effect of second language use on the experienced vividness and emotionality of negative autobiographical memories. Fifty native Swedish speakers with English as their second language were asked to recall a negative episodic memory from their past in their native language. Half the participants were then asked to reactivate the same memory in their first language while the other half were asked to reactivate it in their second language, and then rate their experienced vividness and emotionality a second time. Following this reactivation, experienced emotionality was reduced for both groups of participants, with a similar magnitude of reduction for both groups. Experienced vividness, however, was only reduced for the group who reactivated the memory in their second language. No difference in intrusion frequency was found between the groups at a one-week follow-up. The results provide increased insight into how a second language can affect the experienced emotionality and vividness of a negative autobiographical memory.
... While experimental studies on (foreign) language effects have been relatively scarce in IB, there is a considerable literature in psychology, in particular, that has investigated how using a non-native language fundamentally impacts human cognition, emotion, moral choices, and behaviour (e.g. Costa et al., 2014a;2014b;Keysar et al. 2012;Hayakawa and Keysar, 2018), which we integrate here with extant IB research. In sum, these prior studies have mostly analysed whether and to what extent outcome variables such as cognitive decision tasks (e.g. ...
... As task processing in a non-native language tends to require additional mental resources, which are not available for the task itself (e.g. Hayakawa and Keysar, 2018;Volk et al., 2014), we expect an adverse effect of foreign language use on divergent thinking, as the aspect of creativity that represents the key outcome variable of interest in this study. As an illustration: Imagine a French engineer in China who is commissioned to develop a more powerful engine together with his or her Chinese and American colleagues. ...
... As task processing in a non-native language tends to require additional mental resources, which are not available for the task itself (e.g. Hayakawa and Keysar, 2018;Volk et al., 2014), we hypothesised in H1 that a negative effect of foreign language use on divergent thinking could be expected. ...
Article
Individuals' creativity is a key resource underlying organisations' innovativeness. With workplaces becoming increasingly multilingual, a question of growing relevance concerns whether using a native versus a foreign language affects individuals' creativity. This study integrates research on foreign language in international business and on determinants of individual creativity with cognitive psychological research. Experiments suggest a detrimental effect of foreign versus native language use on creative performance, which is stronger in verbal tasks. Subjectively perceived foreign language proficiency appears to mitigate this negative effect. In tasks framed in figural terms, foreign language use even seems to stimulate creativity compared to a native language setting. This finding implies a potential lever for organisations seeking to stimulate employees' creativity to deliberately use a foreign language context to encourage 'thinking outside the box', particularly when using nonverbal creativity tools. Important implications arise for future research and practice in international management and creativity and innovation management.
... Emotional attenuation is thus a more likely candidate to explain reported foreign language effects in moral decision-making, but the picture may be somewhat more complicated and other factors may also play a role. For instance, Hayakawa and Keysar (2018) have recently observed that participants report less vivid imagery of sensory experiences (e.g. viewing the Sun as it is sinking below the horizon, smelling fresh paint) in their foreign language. ...
... Here, the prevailing theory ascribes the effect to emotional attenuation as a result of foreign language processing. Still, it may also be the case that use of a foreign language reduces vividness of mental imagery (Hayakawa & Keysar, 2018), which in turn may 13 hamper emotional processing. In any case, moral dilemmas involve personal harm for the respondents, as they are the ones deciding on matters of life and death. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined whether use of a foreign language affects the manner in which people evaluate a criminal situation. We employed a range of crime scenarios, for which severity judgment scores were obtained. Crimes that were written in a foreign language were systematically evaluated as less severe compared with the same cases described in the native language. We propose that these differences may be due to attenuated emotional processing in a nonnative language. Crucially, this observed variation in severity judgment may also affect magistrates and police interrogators confronted with crime scenarios formulated in a foreign tongue. This in turn would have inevitable consequences for the penalty they will or will not exact on the suspect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... Muted emotional resonance can also reduce the vividness of mental imagery. This was demonstrated by Hayakawa and Keysar (2018) on several measures. Bilingual participants reported experiencing difficulty in imagining objects in their L2. ...
... Bilinguals completing the task in their second language were less accurate than those completing the task in their native language. Importantly, Hayakawa and Keysar (2018) also found that bilingual participants completing the task in their L2 were more likely to agree to pushing a man in front of a train in the 'footbridge dilemma' and found that these participants rated the scenario as being far less visually vivid than those in L1. ...
Article
Full-text available
Bilinguals often display reduced emotional resonance their second language (L2) and therefore tend to be less prone to decision-making biases in their L2 (e.g., Costa et al. in Cognition 130(2):236–254, 2014a, PLoS One 9(4):1–7, 2014b)—a phenomenon coined Foreign Language Effect (FLE). The present pre-registered experiments investigated whether FLE can mitigate a special case of cognitive bias, called optimality bias, which occurs when observers erroneously blame actors for making “suboptimal” choices, even when there was not sufficient information available for the actor to identify the best choice (De Freitas and Johnson in J Exp Soc Psychol 79:149–163, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2018.07.011). In Experiment 1, L1 English speakers (N = 63) were compared to L2 English speakers from various L1 backgrounds (N = 56). In Experiment 2, we compared Finnish bilinguals completing the study in either Finnish (L1, N = 103) or English (L2, N = 108). Participants read a vignette describing the same tragic outcome resulting from either an optimal or suboptimal choice made by a hypothetical actor with insufficient knowledge. Their blame attributions were measured using a 4-item scale. A strong optimality bias was observed; participants assigned significantly more blame in the suboptimal choice conditions, despite being told that the actor did not know which choice was best. However, no clear interaction with language was found. In Experiment 1, bilinguals gave reliably higher blame scores than natives. In Experiment 2, no clear influence of target language was found, but the results suggested that the FLE is actually more detrimental than helpful in the domain of blame attribution. Future research should investigate the benefits of emotional involvement in blame attribution, including factors such as empathy and perspective-taking.
... Unlike the relative prevalence of past work conducted on emotions, there are few studies on second language processing and visual imagery. Hayakawa and Keysar (2018) recently examined this topic in two studies. They argue that using a foreign language may reduce mental imagery due to the reduced access to early sensory memories, which are highly language-dependent (Marian & Neisser, 2000). ...
... Stories were presented either as a written text (Study 1), an audio clip (Study 2), or a short film (Study 3), allowing us to examine the generalizability of any observed effect across different narrative modalities. Past research on affective responses, visual imagery, and focused attention would seem to predict lower transportation scores for individuals processing the narrative in their second language (e.g., Hayakawa & Keysar, 2018;Pavlenko, 2012;cf. Spring, 2017). ...
Article
We spend much of our time consuming stories across different types of media, often becoming deeply engaged or transported into these stories. However, there has been almost no research into whether processing a story in one’s non-native language influences our level of transportation. We analyzed three existing datasets in order to compare engagement with English-language stories for those who reported English as their first language and those who reported English as their second language. Stories were presented as text (Study 1), audio (Study 2), and short films (Study 3). Across all studies, equivalent levels of narrative transportation between language groups were found, even after accounting for age and years of English fluency. These results are in contrast to some previous proposals that emotional reactions are attenuated during non-native language processing, despite equivalent levels of comprehension. Our evidence indicates that individuals processing a narrative in their second language feel just as transported into the story as those processing the same narrative in their native language.
... This argument is also used to explain results of studies about moral judgments in bilingual L1 versus L2, where it was found that the judgments in native language (L1) were more severe and unforgiving than those made in L2 (Geipel, et al. 2015). Latter, Hayakawa and Keysar (2017) attributed the contrasting cognitive processes in L1 and L2 to vividness of mental imagery, claiming and showing through 3 experiments that foreign language reduces the vividness of mental images compared to native language. ...
... Even though the studies above find differences in decision-making and moral judgment tasks between L1 and L2 in bilinguals, the level of proficiency in L2 was not taken into consideration. It might be true that the vividness of mental imagery is the reason for the results of the mentioned studies ( Hayakawa and Keysar, 2017), but one can argue that proficiency and acculturation in L2 can influence this cognitive faculty and diminish the differences between L1 and L2. Accordingly, Cavar and Tytus (2017) showed that when testing high proficiency Croatian-German bilinguals, they exhibit the same performance in moral judgment in L1 and in L2. ...
Thesis
Questions regarding the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis have reached new depths: instead of asking does language affect thinking, we are now asking how, when, and in what way languages affect our cognitive functioning. In our study, we continue the line of visual hybrids experiments done by Shen, Gil, et al. (Shen, Gil & Roman 2006; Shen & Gil, 2010; Mashal et al., 2014; Shen & Gil, 2017) using the conceptual hierarchy (CH) effect to further investigate the conceptual processing of Arabic bilinguals when using different languages and linguistic mediums. In our first two experiments, we used picture description task with visual hybrid images, and examined CH effects in 3 language conditions, Colloquial Arabic (CA), Modern Standard Arabic (MSA), and Hebrew (H). In the first experiment, we used an oral description task, and we found no CH effect in any of the language conditions, but there was a significant difference in CH between CA and H. In the second experiment, we used written description task and we found CH effects in all of the language conditions. The third experiment was a control experiment on Hebrew native speakers with an oral description task, and since we found a significant CH effect in this sample but not in the Arabic speakers sample we concluded that Arabic bilingualism is a unique case that needs a special treatment in the linguistic and psycholinguistic research. The surprising differences in the conceptual processing between speaking and writing suggest that Arab bilinguals have a special state of ‘thinking for writing’ as in Slobins’ ‘thinking for speaking’ (1996, 2003). These findings are reflected in the diglossic state of the modern Arabic language.
... Yet recent studies show that nonnative language use increases the rate of utilitarian responses to the footbridge dilemma (Cipolletti et al., 2015;Costa et al., 2014a;Geipel et al., 2015a;Hayakawa and Keysar, 2018;Shin and Kim, 2017). Importantly, using a nonnative language had no effect on a variant of the footbridge dilemma, the so called "switch dilemma" that is formally the same as the footbridge dilemma but does not evoke a strong emotional reaction. ...
... Another account that might help explain certain effects of language nativeness holds that the use of a nonnative language reduces mental imagery. For example, Hayakawa and Keysar (2018) presented participants with triplets of words such as: carrot, pen, mushroom. In some trials the participants had to identify the odd item in terms of shape (here, mushroom), while in others in terms of category (here, pen). ...
Chapter
As a result of globalization, millions of people operate in a language that they comprehend well but is not their native tongue. This paper focuses on how the nativeness of the language of a communication influences judgments and decisions. We review studies that compare decision making while people use a native language to when they use a nonnative language they understand well. The evidence shows that a nonnative language decreases the impact that emotions and socio-moral norms have on users, thereby reducing well-known judgmental biases and norm-related behavior. This effect of nonnative or foreign language brings to light the important role that the native language plays routinely in judgment and decision making. It suggests that the native language is not a simple carrier of meaning. Instead, it reveals that our native language serves as a carrier of emotions and socio-moral norms which in turn govern judgments and choices.
... As a result, using a foreign language can even change people's behaviors -for instance, by reducing risk aversion when presented with financial gambles (e.g. Ascher et al., 2017;Besuglov & Crasselt, 2021;Costa et al., 2014a;Geipel et al., 2018;Hayakawa et al., 2019;Keysar et al., 2012) and increasing utilitarianism when faced with moral dilemmas Costa et al., 2014b;Hayakawa & Keysar, 2018;Hayakawa et al., 2017). Using a foreign language may similarly impact how people respond to difficult medical dilemmas by attenuating the perceived severity of potential adverse effects and reducing the salience of pre-existing beliefs. ...
... Based on prior work demonstrating that information is often processed less emotionally and vividly in a non-native tongue (e.g. Geipel et al., 2018;Harris et al., 2003;Hayakawa & Keysar, 2018), we predicted that using a foreign language would elicit lower (i.e. less severe) ratings of medical conditions relative to using a native language. In other words, bilinguals using English as a foreign language were expected to perceive medical conditions as less physically painful, less emotionally distressing, less socially harmful, and easier to cure than those using native Chinese. ...
Article
Aims and objectives: How health risks are communicated can have a substantial impact on medical judgments and choice. Here, we examine whether the language used to process health-related information systematically changes bilinguals' perceptions and preferences. Methodology: Chinese-English bilinguals were presented with ten medical scenarios in either their native language (Mandarin Chinese; N = 76) or a second language (American English; N = 84) and made judgments regarding their familiarity with the medical conditions and the perceived severity of the possible symptoms (incurability, emotional distress, physical pain, social harm). Participants then rated their agreement with statements pertaining to beliefs about medical decision-making (trust in the good intentions of doctors, acceptability of challenging doctors, importance of involving family, preference for standard treatments, preference for experimental treatments). Data and analysis: Linear mixed effects models were constructed for judgments of medical conditions and for beliefs regarding medical decision-making. Findings and conclusions: Medical conditions were perceived to be easier to cure, less physically painful, and less emotionally distressing when processed in the second language, English. Using English also increased endorsement of beliefs (such as challenging doctors' opinions and accepting experimental treatments) that were more consistent with individualistic than collectivistic norms.We propose that the activation of emotions and values is linked to language, with consequences for how individuals make decisions that impact their health and well-being. Originality: The present study is among the first to systematically examine the interactive psychological impact of language context and experience on judgments and beliefs in an applied medical domain.
... Whether people use their native tongue or second language will lead to different choices (Keysar et al., 2012). This Foreign Language Effect (FLE) has been observed in various domains such as, rule learning (Antón et al., 2020), stereotyping and self-regulation (Hadjichristidis et al., 2016), superstition (Hadjichristidis et al., 2019), dishonest behavior (Bereby-Meyer et al., 2020), mental imagery (Hayakawa & Keysar, 2018), risk taking Hayakawa et al. (2019), decision biases (Keysar et al., 2012), and causality bias (Díaz-Lago & Matute, 2018). ...
... Similar to these two monotheistic religions, Islam also has a powerful Canon Law (i.e., Fiqh or Shariaat) founded on the belief that there is an omniscient and interventionist God (i.e., Allah), asking his servants to follow certain moral rules (Asman, 2004). Previous research on moral judgments has separately examined the foreign language effect and religiosity (see Barak-Corren & Bazerman, 2017;Cipolletti et al., 2016;Hayakawa & Keysar, 2018). The current study aims at investigating the role of language and religiosity in shaping people's moral judgments across three languages of Persian, Arabic, and English. ...
Article
Full-text available
Utilitarian judgments maximize benefit for the most people, whereas deontological judgments are based on moral norms. Previous work shows that people tend to make more utilitarian judgments in their second compared to their native language, whereas higher religiosity is associated with more deontological judgments. However, it is not known whether the effect of language context is moderated by the religiosity of the individual. We hypothesized that more religious participants from all three languages would favor deontological choices irrespective of language context. In order to investigate this, we studied native speakers of Persian who either had Arabic or English as their second language, and all participants were given a standard measure of religiosity. Decision making was measured by the classic trolley trilemma in which a participant could “push” a person to save the lives of more people which is considered a utilitarian judgment. Alternatively, they could “switch” a track to save the lives of more people (“indirect”), or do nothing (“inaction”), both of which are considered deontological. Consistent with the literature showing more utilitarian judgments in the second language, English participants preferred the push option, whereas Persian participants favored the inaction option. L2 Arabic participants more often chose the indirect option. However, participants’ religiosity moderated this effect of language context. Although L2 Arabic participants’ choices were not influenced by religiosity, higher religiosity in the L2 English and L1 Persian groups was associated with more deontological choices. Keywords: moral decision making, foreign language effect, religiosity, utilitarian, and deontological
... Increasing evidence suggests that the use of a foreign language can systematically alter bilinguals' judgments and preferences in domains ranging from moral judgment [11][12][13][14][15][16][17] and financial decision-making [18][19][20] to environmental conservation [21,22] and consumer choice [23][24][25]. Here, we explore whether the influence of language extends to medical contexts by examining how people make decisions regarding preventative healthcare when using a native vs. non-native tongue. ...
... The effect of language on moral judgment may be partly attributable to a reduction in the vividness of mental imagery [17], which could subsequently reduce the emotional impact of difficult decisions. It has also been argued that effects of language on moral judgments may stem from less automatic and intuitive processing, rather than dampened emotion per se (e.g., [55,56]). ...
Article
Full-text available
Every day, multilinguals around the world make important healthcare decisions while using a foreign language. The present study examined how the use of a native vs. non-native language shapes evaluations and decisions about preventative care. Bilinguals were randomly assigned to evaluate a series of medical scenarios in either their native or non-native language. Each scenario described potential adverse effects of a medical condition and a preventative treatment, as well as the population risk of disease- or treatment-related complications. Participants judged the perceived negativity and likelihood of experiencing adverse effects and indicated how willing they would be to accept the preventative treatment. We found that bilinguals using a foreign language perceived disease symptoms and treatment side effects to be less negative than those using their native tongue. Foreign language users were also more likely to account for the objective risks associated with medical conditions and treatments when making decisions about preventative care. We conclude that the use of a native vs. foreign language changes how people evaluate the consequences of accepting and declining preventative treatment, with potential implications for millions of providers and patients who routinely make medical choices in their non-native tongue.
... In the first study, we tested whether the mental images generated from animate words tend to be associated with greater vividness than images generated from inanimate words. Vividness is a property of mental images that refers to the clarity and richness of mental images (Hayakawa & Keysar, 2018) and is different from imageability which corresponds to the ease with which a mental image can be generated from a word. In principle, two words can be judged to be equally imageable, but one of the two words may yield more vivid images (to anticipate our results, dinosaur and shirt are examples of such words, with imageability Z-scores of −.13 and −.03 but whose vividness Z-scores are −1.9 and 1.11 respectively). ...
... Vividness corresponds to the phenomenological experience of perceiving in one's head an object, a smell, a sound, etc., as if we were actually experiencing it with our senses. This property refers therefore to the clarity and richness of mental images (Hayakawa & Keysar, 2018). Indeed, our personal (autobiographical) memories vary as a function of the vividness of the details they comprise: Highly important personal experiences are often made up of vivid details (e.g., my first kiss was with a shy black-haired girl). ...
Article
Animates are remembered better than inanimates because the former are ultimately more important for fitness than the latter. What, however, are the proximate mechanisms underpinning this effect? We focused on imagery processes as one proximate explanation. We tested whether animacy effects are related to the vividness of mental images (Study 1), or to the dynamic/motoric nature of mental images corresponding to animate words (Study 2). The findings showed that: (1) Animates are not estimated to be more vivid than inanimates; (2) The potentially more dynamic nature of the representations of animates does not seem to be a factor making animates more memorable than inanimates. We compared (Study 3) a condition in which participants had to categorise animate and inanimate words with a condition in which they had to form mental images from them. The animacy effect was significant after categorising but not after forming mental imagery. In Study 4, we compared the recall rates of animates and inanimates after these words had been encoded with or without a concurrent visual-spatial memory load. Again, animates were better remembered than inanimates. Taken overall, the findings do not fit well with the hypothesis that imagery processes support animacy effects in memory.
... Besides, a review article by Mikhaleva and Régnier [27] considered studying both native and target language cultures to be essential for students' personal development in the process of foreign language learning. e endings suggest that our mental images change when using a foreign tongue, leading to downstream consequences for how we make decisions [29]. In this regard, the result of the study corroborated the findings of Mikhaleva and Régnier' study [27]. ...
... Mental imagery plays an important role in the way we feel, think, and even behave. ese mental simulations are often guided by language, making it important to understand what aspects of language contribute to imagery vividness and consequently to the way we think [29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study aimed to investigate the Iranian high school EFL learners’ multicultural personality traits (MPTs) based on their differences in age. To this end, a convenient sample of 138 junior and senior high school learners aged between 14 and 18 years old were selected. Data were collected through a Multicultural Personality Questionnaire. It measures MPTs (open-mindedness, cultural empathy, emotional stability, social initiative, and flexibility) on a five-point Likert scale. An independent samples t-test was used to check the differences between MPTs of junior (14–16) and senior (16–18) high school students. MANOVA was utilized to see the differences between components of MPTs of participants in these two groups. Findings indicated that there is a significant difference between MPTs of junior and senior high school learners in terms of open-mindedness and cultural empathy. That is to say the younger group exhibited more open-mindedness and cultural empathy. Moreover, the results revealed that they were not different in terms of other components of MPTs as social initiative, emotional stability, and flexibility. Besides considering differences between target and native language cultural values and society norms, teachers should attempt to improve students’ cultural empathy and open-mindedness in order to gain the students’ knowledge of language and attain educational purposes.
... However, it is possible that the lack of a foreign language benefit was due to the fact that Experiment 1 featured a great deal of numerical as opposed to language-based information. In Experiment 2, we sought to remedy this concern by describing all prizes using vivid emotionally-charged language (e.g., "a life changing vacation") as opposed to numbers (1,000,000 PLN; Hayakawa and Keysar 2018). Taking into account that the foreign language effect may work by attenuating emotional reactions (Keysar et al. 2012;Costa et al. 2014;Hayakawa et al. 2016), one may expect that participants' in our foreign language condition will be less biased by unclaimed prize information compared to those in our native language condition when prizes are described using emotionally-charged language. ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous work has demonstrated that peoples’ gambling-related judgments (e.g., perceived likelihood of winning) are often biased by non-diagnostic unclaimed prize information (i.e., the number of prizes still available to be won) resulting in non-optimal scratch card preferences. Another line of research suggests that people make less biased decisions (e.g., are less affected by the framing of a gamble) when using a foreign language. In the current study, we investigated whether using a foreign language (as opposed to one’s native language) reduced the biasing effects of unclaimed prize information and consequently led to more optimal scratch card preferences. Across three experiments (N = 409), we found that people were equally biased by unclaimed prize information regardless of whether they completed our scratch card gambling task in their native (Polish) or foreign (English) language. In conclusion, it appears that using a foreign language does not help people be less biased in utilizing gambling-related information, and consequently does not lead to more optimal scratch card preferences.
... It remains unclear whether factors other than linguistic alignment, joint attention and brain-entrainment to speech could yield or interact to lead to the differential interbrain synchronization patterns. One could also attribute the differential entrainment pattern to differences in the emotional processing associated with foreign language communication (Lev-Ari, Ho, & Keysar, 2018) or because using a foreign language reduces mental imagery (Hayakawa & Keysar, 2018). Emotions elicit synchronization in brain activity across individuals (Nummenmaa et al., 2014) and the degree of empathy correlates with the brain-to-brain coupling (Goldstein, Weissman-Fogel, Dumas, & Shamay-Tsoory, 2018). ...
... The tentative characterization described above raises a more fundamental question: Why does foreign language context affect decision making tendencies driven by the Autonomous Mind and the Focal Bias? Besides explanations based on emotional reactivity, one may consider the reduced mental imagery elicited by a foreign language context as a relevant factor [34]. Mental imagery, the ease with which one creates mental images of a given situation, is argued to be a property of the Default to the Autonomous Mind [31]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Language context (native vs. foreign) affects people’s choices and preferences in a wide variety of situations. However, emotional reactions are a key component driving people’s choices in those situations. In six studies, we test whether foreign language context modifies biases and the use of heuristics not directly caused by emotional reactions. We fail to find evidence that foreign language context modifies the extent to which people suffer from outcome bias (Experiment 1a & 1b) and the use of the representativeness heuristic (Experiment 2a & 2b). Furthermore, foreign language context does not modulate decision-making in those scenarios even when emotion is brought into the context (Experiment 1c & 2c). Foreign language context shapes decision-making, but the scope of its effects might be limited to decision-making tendencies in which emotion plays a causal role.
... L1 (Harris, 2004;Harris, Ayçiçeği, & Gleason, 2003). Other behavioral work has found participants form less clear mental imagery on the basis of cues provided in L2 (Hayakawa & Keysar, 2018) and are less affected by emotion in decision making as well (Hayakawa, Tannenbaum, Costa, Corey, & Keysar, 2017). A study by Hsu, Jacobs and Conrad (2015) on late, proficient L2 speakers of English (L1 German) showed equally good comprehension of happy, fearful and emotionally neutral Harry Potter passages in L1 and L2; however, reading in L1 elicited stronger activation of the emotion neural network including bilateral amygdala than reading in L2, and a better distinction between emotive and neutral passages was apparent in L1 than in L2 (Hsu et al., 2015). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
The present study aims to investigate the neural correlates of processing conventional figurative language in non-native speakers in a comparison with native speakers. Italian proficient L2 learners of German and German native speakers read conventional metaphorical statements as well as literal paraphrases that were comparable on a range of psycholinguistic variables. Results confirm previous findings that native speakers show increased activity for metaphorical processing, and left amygdala activation increases with increasing Metaphoricity. At the whole-brain level, L2 learners showed the expected overall differences in activation when compared to native speakers (in the fronto-temporal network). But L2 speakers did not show any distinctive activation outside the caudate nucleus as Metaphoricity increased, suggesting that the L2 speakers were less affected by increasing Metaphoricity than native speakers were. With small volume correction, only a single peak in the amygdala reached threshold for L2 speakers as Metaphoricity increased. The findings are consistent with the view that metaphorical language is more engaging for native speakers but not necessarily for L2 speakers.
... Deaf participants reported properties in written language, i.e. not in their first language GSL. Although the use of foreign language may reduce mental imagery [62], it is unlikely that differences in nativeness or language proficiency have influenced the result pattern in the present property listing task. The property listing task assesses the semantic content of concepts, but does not necessarily involve imagery [6]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The neurodevelopmental consequences of deafness on the functional neuroarchitecture of the conceptual system have not been intensively investigated so far. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we therefore identified brain areas involved in conceptual processing in deaf and hearing participants. Conceptual processing was probed by a pictorial animacy decision task. Furthermore, brain areas sensitive to observing verbal signs and to observing non-verbal visual hand actions were identified in deaf participants. In hearing participants, brain areas responsive to environmental sounds and the observation of visual hand actions were determined. We found a stronger recruitment of superior and middle temporal cortex in deaf compared to hearing participants during animacy decisions. This region, which forms auditory cortex in hearing people according to the sound listening task, was also activated in deaf participants, when they observed sign language, but not when they observed non-verbal hand actions. These results indicate that conceptual processing in deaf people more strongly depends on language representations compared to hearing people. Furthermore, additionally enhanced activation in visual and motor areas of deaf versus hearing participants during animacy decisions and a more frequent report of visual and motor features in the property listing task suggest that the loss of the auditory channel is partially compensated by an increased importance of visual and motor information for constituting object knowledge. Hence, our results indicate that conceptual processing in deaf compared to hearing people is more strongly based on the language system, complemented by an enhanced contribution of the visuo-motor system.
... Mental imagery Visual imagery Foreign language Conceptual processing Language proficiency Foreign language effect A B S T R A C T In a recent article, Hayakawa and Keysar (2018) propose that mental imagery is less vivid when evoked in a foreign than in a native language. The authors argue that reduced mental imagery could even account for moral foreign language effects, whereby moral choices become more utilitarian when made in a foreign language. ...
Article
In a recent article, Hayakawa and Keysar (2018) propose that mental imagery is less vivid when evoked in a foreign than in a native language. The authors argue that reduced mental imagery could even account for moral foreign language effects, whereby moral choices become more utilitarian when made in a foreign language. Here we demonstrate that Hayakawa and Keysar's (2018) key results are better explained by reduced language comprehension in a foreign language than by less vivid imagery. We argue that the paradigm used in Hayakawa and Keysar (2018) does not provide a satisfactory test of reduced imagery and we discuss an alternative paradigm based on recent experimental developments.
... Analyses of related moderators, such as experience with foreign cultures (e.g., Akkermans et al. 2010) and country-specific social norms (e.g., Capraro and Cococcioni 2015), could fruitfully complement our study. Second, mental imagery is linked to using a foreign language (Hayakawa and Keysar 2018). The vividness of mental simulations is reduced in a foreign language context, and this reduction in the richness of mental imagery might at least partly be responsible for foreign language effects observed in prior research, favoring rational and utilitarian decisions over intuitive and emotionally charged ones. ...
Article
Full-text available
With increasing globalization comes an increasing number of people communicating in foreign languages when making strategic decisions. We develop a theoretical model in which comprehension constitutes an essential mediator for the effects of using a foreign language on cooperation in global business contexts. To resolve conceptual ambiguities, we separate information processing leading to comprehension from decision-making employing the previously comprehended information. For the first step, we demonstrate how using a foreign language can, depending on individuals' foreign language proficiencies, trigger both lower and higher comprehension. Variation in comprehension is, as a second step and independent of its cause, negatively associated with individuals' tendencies to cooperate. Our experimental results support our theorizing. This study provides new micro-foundations for strategic decision-making and discusses unreliable cooperation as a potentially destructive managerial group dynamic within foreign language contexts.
... L1 (Harris, 2004;Harris, Ayçiçeği, & Gleason, 2003). Other behavioral work has found participants form less clear mental imagery on the basis of cues provided in L2 (Hayakawa & Keysar, 2018) and are less affected by emotion in decision making as well (Hayakawa, Tannenbaum, Costa, Corey, & Keysar, 2017). A study by Hsu, Jacobs and Conrad (2015) on late, proficient L2 speakers of English (L1 German) showed equally good comprehension of happy, fearful and emotionally neutral Harry Potter passages in L1 and L2; however, reading in L1 elicited stronger activation of the emotion neural network including bilateral amygdala than reading in L2, and a better distinction between emotive and neutral passages was apparent in L1 than in L2 (Hsu et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study aims to investigate the neural correlates of processing conventional figurative language in non-native speakers in a comparison with native speakers. Italian proficient L2 learners of German and German native speakers read conventional metaphorical statements as well as literal paraphrases that were comparable on a range of psycholinguistic variables. Results confirm previous findings that native speakers show increased activity for metaphorical processing, and left amygdala activation increases with increasing Metaphoricity. At the whole-brain level, L2 learners showed the expected overall differences in activation when compared to native speakers (in the fronto-temporal network). But L2 speakers did not show any distinctive activation outside the caudate nucleus as Metaphoricity increased, suggesting that the L2 speakers were less affected by increasing Metaphoricity than native speakers were. With small volume correction, only a single peak in the amygdala reached threshold for L2 speakers as Metaphoricity increased. The findings are consistent with the view that metaphorical language is more engaging for native speakers but not necessarily for L2 speakers.
... Earlier research highlighted the benefits of using L2 on judgments and decisions, such as an attenuation of framing effects, loss aversion or reliance on superstitions (Hadjichristidis et al., 2017;Huang & Rau, 2020;Keysar et al., 2012), and an increased proclivity to take gambles with a positive expected value . Later studies showed that effects are not solely beneficial, as using a foreign language can also deteriorate thinking, for example, increase impulsivity (Białek et al., 2022), decrease the accuracy of logical reasoning Maekelae & Pfuhl, 2019), or decrease mental imagery (Hayakawa & Keysar, 2018; but see Montero-Melis et al., 2020 for a discussion). Finally, using a foreign language affects moral judgments by decreasing the impact of relevant moral intuitions (both deontological and utilitarian; Hayakawa et al., 2017;Muda et al., 2018), while not affecting generalized inaction tendency (Białek et al., 2019; but see Hennig & Hütter, 2021 for a discussion). ...
Article
Aims and objectives/purpose/research questions Extant research suggests that processing information in a second language (L2) affects decision-making, possibly by affecting metacognition. We hypothesized that processing in L2 will reduce the bias blind spot effect, whereby people (on average) erroneously think that they are less susceptible to biases than others. Design/methodology/approach In Experiment 1, participants assessed their susceptibility and the susceptibility of others to 13 psychological and 7 economic biases, in either L1 (Polish) or L2 (English). In Experiment 2, participants assessed the 7 most severe bias blind spots from Experiment 1. Data and analysis We recruited 500 participants for each experiment via Prolific (832 overall, after exclusions). The main hypothesis and moderators were tested via mixed-model regressions. Findings/conclusions In Experiment 1, participants showed an overall bias blind spot, which decreased in the L2 condition, but only for psychological biases. In Experiment 2, we replicated the L2-bias blind spot attenuation effect. An exploratory analysis suggests that the effect of L2 is the result of both lower ratings of other-susceptibility and higher ratings of self-susceptibility. Originality Our study provides unique insights into how L2 affects metacognition. We are the first to study how the use of L2 can attenuate the bias blind spot. Our findings provide rare support for the psychological distancing (“birds-eye view”) explanation for the foreign language effect. Significance/implications Bilinguals using L2 showed some resilience to the bias blind spot, suggesting metacognition is language dependent.
... Importantly, because a foreign language carries less emotional meaning, it leads to a reduction in heuristic biases associated with an emotional reaction (Costa, Foucart, Arnon, et al., 2014;Keysar et al., 2012). Thus, participants choose more utilitarian responses to moral dilemmas when they are presented in a foreign language (Cipolletti, McFarlane, & Weissglass, 2016;Corey et al., 2017;Costa, Foucart, Hayakawa, et al., 2014;Geipel, Hadjichristidis, & Surian, 2015;Hayakawa, Tannenbaum, Costa, Corey, & Keysar, 2017; see also Hayakawa & Keysar, 2018). Likewise, Costa, Fourcart, Arnon, et al. (2014) (see also Costa, Fourcart, Hayakawa, et al., 2014;and Ivaz, Costa & Duñabeitia, 2016) found a foreign language effect in dichotomies and moral dilemmas that involved directly the participant, but not when participants had to guess what another person thought (see also Corey et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
The proliferation of fake news in internet requires understanding which factors modulate their credibility and take actions to limit their impact. A number of recent studies have shown an effect of the foreign language when making decisions: reading in a foreign language engages a more rational, analytic mode of thinking (Costa et al., 2014, Cognition). This analytic mode of processing may lead to a decrease in the credibility of fake news. Here we conducted two experiments to examine whether fake news stories presented to university students were more credible in the native language than in a foreign language. Bayesian analyses in both experiments offered support for the hypothesis that the credibility of fake news is not modulated by language. Critically, Experiment 2 also showed a strong direct relationship between credibility and negative emotionality regardless of language. This pattern suggests that the driving force behind the engagement in an automatic thinking mode when reading fake news is not language (native vs. foreign) but emotionality.
... This factor was also suggested by Thoma and Baum (2019) to be relevant in framing tasks. Another possible factor driving foreign language effects in moral judgements is vividness of mental imagery (Hayakawa & Keysar, 2018). In a foreign language, mental images are less vivid, possibly partly inhibiting visualisation of the situation. ...
Article
Full-text available
In decision-making people react differently to positive wordings than to negatives, which may be caused by negativity bias: a difference in emotional force of these wordings. Because emotions are assumed to be activated more strongly in one's mother tongue, we predict a Foreign Language Effect, being that such framing effects are larger in a native language than in a foreign one. In two experimental studies (N = 475 and N = 503) we tested this prediction for balanced and unbalanced second language users of Spanish and English and for three types of valence framing effects. In Study 1 we observed risky-choice framing effects and attribute framing effects, but these were always equally large for native and foreign-language speakers. In our second study, we added a footbridge dilemma to the framing materials. Only for this task we did observe a Foreign Language Effect, indicating more utilitarian choices when the dilemma is presented in L2. Hence, across two studies, we find no Foreign Language Effect for three types of valence framing but we do find evidence for such an effect in a moral decision task. We discuss several alternative explanations for these results.
... Studies were also required to (2) use a yes/no response format as the outcome variable, as this was the most consistently reported outcome variable for the moral FLE studies. Five studies were excluded as they used a Likert-type scale response format, asking participants how morally correct the action was on a scale from completely wrong to completely appropriate, or whether they would commit the action (e.g., pushing the man) from definitely yes to definitely no (e.g., Geipel, Hadjichristidis, & Surian, 2015b, 2016Hayakawa & Keysar, 2018;Tonković & Dumančić, 2019;Wong & Ng, 2018). ...
Article
Emerging evidence shows bilinguals employ different decision-making strategies in their foreign language compared to their native language (known as the Foreign Language Effect). When completing moral dilemmas, accumulating research findings indicate that bilinguals are more likely to endorse the utilitarian option. We conducted a meta-analysis to investigate whether linguistic variables (proficiency, immersion, and language similarity) moderate utilitarian responding to moral dilemmas in a foreign language. A systematic literature search extracted experiments comparing binary responses to moral dilemmas among bilingual participants. Analyses confirmed a moral Foreign Language Effect within personal dilemmas, though this effect was moderated by self-reported reading proficiency, whereby bilinguals with higher self-reported reading proficiency were less likely to make a utilitarian choice. Our findings suggest that not all bilinguals may experience a Foreign Language Effect, with low self-reported reading proficiency being the most likely indicator of whether their response tendencies to a moral dilemma change in the foreign language.
... Earlier research highlighted the benefits of using L2 on judgments and decisions, such as an attenuation of framing effects, loss aversion or reliance on superstitions (Hadjichristidis et al., 2017;Huang & Rau, 2020;Keysar et al., 2012), and an increased proclivity to take gambles with a positive expected value . Later studies showed that effects are not solely beneficial, as using a foreign language can also deteriorate thinking, e.g., increase impulsivity (Białek et al., 2021), decrease accuracy of logical reasoning Maekelae & Pfuhl, 2019), or decrease mental imagery (Hayakawa & Keysar, 2018; but see Montero-Melis et al., 2020 for a discussion). Finally, using a foreign language affects moral judgments by decreasing the impact of relevant moral intuitions (both deontological and utilitarian; Hayakawa et al., 2017;Muda et al., 2018), while not affecting generalized inaction tendency (Białek et al., 2019; but see Hennig & Hütter, 2021 for a discussion). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Extant research suggests that processing information in a second language (L2) affects decision making, possibly by affecting metacognition. We hypothesized that processing in L2 will reduce the bias blind spot effect, whereby people (on average) erroneously think that they are less susceptible to biases than others. In Experiment 1, participants assessed their susceptibility and the susceptibility of others to 13 psychological and 7 economic biases, in either L1 (Polish) or L2 (English). In Experiment 2, participants assessed the 7 most severe bias blind spots from Experiment 1. We recruited 500 participants for each experiment via Prolific (832 overall, after exclusions). The main hypothesis and moderators were tested via mixed-model regressions. In Experiment 1, participants showed an overall bias blind spot, which decreased in the L2 condition, but only for psychological biases. In Experiment 2, we replicated the L2-bias blind spot attenuation effect. An exploratory analysis suggests that the effect of L2 is the result of both lower ratings of other-susceptibility and higher ratings of self-susceptibility. Our study provides unique insights on how L2 affects metacognition. We are the first to study how use of L2 can attenuate the bias blind spot. Our findings provide rare support for the psychological distancing (‘birds-eye view’) explanation for the foreign language effect. Bilinguals using L2 showed some resilience to the bias blind spot, suggesting metacognition is language-dependent. Using L2 can be considered as a debiasing technique.
... The effect of topdown processing in bilinguals is currently debated, and largely dependent on factors like proficiency (Kaan, 2014;Hopp, 2013) and age of acquisition (Molinaro et al., 2017). Concerning semantic processing, despite that it is commonly believed that bilinguals access a common semantic system in both languages (e.g., Caramazza and Brones, 1980), recent studies have suggested that top-down processing may be reduced in a second language because of reduced access to perceptual memory resources (e.g., Hayakawa and Keysar, 2018), which are known to play an important role in the generation of visual expectation (Hindy et al., 2016). The reported comparable behavioral and neural responses on the effect of words in L1 and L2 on visual object recognition are in line with the idea that both languages access common conceptual representations, and deploy top-down guidance to the visual system in a similar manner. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Hearing spoken words can enhance visual object recognition, detection and discrimination. Yet, the mechanism underlying this facilitation is incompletely understood. On one account, words would not bias visual processes at early levels, but rather interact at later decision-making stages. More recent proposals posit that words can alter visual processes at early stages by activating category-specific priors in sensory regions. A prediction of this account is that top-down priors evoke changes in occipital areas before the presentation of visual stimuli. Here, we tested the hypothesis that neural oscillations can serve as a mechanism to activate language-mediated visual priors. Participants performed a cue-picture matching task where cues were either spoken words, in their native or second language, or natural sounds, while EEG and reaction times were recorded. Behaviorally, we replicated the previously reported label-advantage effect, with images cued by words being recognized faster than those cued by natural sounds. A time-frequency analysis of cue-target intervals revealed that this label-advantage was associated with enhanced power in posterior alpha (9-11 Hz) and beta oscillations (17-19 Hz), both of which were larger when the image was preceded by a word compared to a natural sound. Prestimulus alpha and beta rhythms were correlated with reaction time performance, yet they appeared to operate in different ways. Reaction times were faster when alpha power increased, but slowed down with enhancement of beta oscillations. These results suggest that alpha and beta rhythms work in tandem to support language-mediated visual object recognition, while showing an inverse relationship to behavioral performance.
... Recent findings, however, suggest that this view can be biased by the selection of decision problems used (Muda, Pieńkosz, et al., 2020). Our findings are in-line with other recent research demonstrating that people using a foreign language do not always benefit from using their second language: their vividness of mental imagery is reduced (Hayakawa & Keysar, 2018 and do not decrease their use of irrelevant information when gambling (Muda, Walker, et al., 2020). The current research adds another example to the list of situations where using a foreign language is of no benefit, and we urge researchers and practitioners no to assume that using a foreign language is widely beneficial to bilinguals. ...
Article
Full-text available
Intertemporal choice requires one to decide between smaller sooner and larger later payoffs and is captured by discount rates. Across two preregistered experiments testing three language pairs (Experiment 1) and with incentivized participants (Experiment 2), we found no evidence that using a foreign language benefited intertemporal choices. On the contrary, there was some evidence of stronger discounting when a foreign language was used. Our results confirm that more reflective individuals tend to discount less strongly. Thinking in a foreign language did not affect consistency of decisions between payoffs with different defaults in general but can distort the cognitive reflection effects on such consistency. Finally, our findings show that the effects of using a foreign language are robust individual differences in cognitive reflection.
... In this opinion paper, we expand on these theoretical ideas and present a first exploratory study that develops some of these themes. Critically, there is a reciprocity between mental imagery and language where mental imagery shapes as well as is shaped by language, but to what extent and how depends largely on the language and sensory modality [25,26]. Specifically, we propose that differential affordances between the senses based on the availability of (1) and (2) above-i.e. ...
Article
Across diverse lineages, animals communicate using chemosignals, but only humans communicate about chemical signals. Many studies have observed that compared with other sensory modalities, communication about smells is relatively rare and not always reliable. Recent cross-cultural studies, on the other hand, suggest some communities are more olfactorily oriented than previously supposed. Nevertheless, across the globe a general trend emerges where olfactory communication is relatively hard. We suggest here that this is in part because olfactory representations are different in kind: they have a low degree of embodiment, and are not easily expressed as primitives, thereby limiting the mental manipulations that can be performed with them. New exploratory data from Dutch children (9–12 year-olds) and adults support that mental imagery from olfaction is weak in comparison with vision and audition, and critically this is not affected by language development. Specifically, while visual and auditory imagery becomes more vivid with age, olfactory imagery shows no such development. This is consistent with the idea that olfactory representations are different in kind from representations from the other senses. This article is part of the Theo Murphy meeting issue ‘Olfactory communication in humans’.
... Research materials often require translation for crosscultural research. Communicating in a foreign language can influence how people feel, think, and even behave (e.g., Hayakawa & Keysar, 2018;Hayakawa et al, 2017). For instance, research showed that communicating in a foreign language leads to less vivid mental imagery than in one's native tongue. ...
Article
Only little social psychological research is conducted outside so-called WEIRD (Western, Educated, Industrialized, Rich and Democratic societies) cultures (e.g., in the “Global South”). Although cross-cultural replication of social psychological theorizing and findings is thus essential for higher external validity of the field, valid cross-cultural replications are not straightforward to do. Indeed, they require more than “copy-and-pasting” the same research design in different countries. To facilitate valid cross-cultural replications, we present a collection of concrete recommendations that integrate emic and etic approaches: (1) establishing an egalitarian and respectful partnership with representatives of the local community, (2) examining whether constructs carry the same meaning are relevant in and across contexts, and (3) preparing culture-sensitive research materials and procedures. These recommendations aim to inform and improve purely “etic” approaches.
Article
In recent years, a growing body of literature has shown that being in a foreign language (FL) context affects the way in which people make choices. This phenomenon is known as the foreign language effect (FLE). The FLE affects both moral decision-making and risk-aversion tendencies, but no cumulative evidence is available. Herein, we aimed to estimate, through a meta-analytical approach, the effect of being in an FL context as compared with that of a native language (NL). We found 17 studies matching our criteria and, in total, 47 experiments were included (N = 38 investigated the FLE in the moral decision-making domain; N = 9 investigated the FLE in the risk-aversion domain). Results showed that FL affects participants' decisions as compared with NL in both the moral decision-making and risk-aversion domains, inducing participants to be more willing to accept harm in order to maximize outcomes in the former and reducing risk aversion in the latter. In addition, two metaregressions were performed on the studies that investigated the moral decision-making domain in order to assess whether participants' proficiency in the FL, or NL-FL similarity, moderated the observed effect. Our findings indicate that proficiency in the FL does not moderate the observed effect, while NL-FL similarity does. Our results support previous findings on the FLE and provide suggestions for future research.
Article
Full-text available
Peoples' judgments and decisions often change when made in their foreign language. Existing research testing this foreign language effect has predominantly used text-based stimuli with little research focusing on the impact of listening to audio stimuli on the effect. The only existing study on this topic found shifts in people's moral decisions only in the audio modality. Firstly, by reanalyzing the data from this previous study and by collecting data in an additional experiment, we found no consistent effects of using foreign language on moral judgments. Secondly, in both datasets we found no significant language by modality interaction. Overall, our results highlight the need for more robust testing of the foreign language effect, and its boundary conditions. However, modality of presentation does not appear to be a candidate for explaining its variability. Data and materials for this experiment are available at https://osf.io/qbjxn/.
Article
It has been shown that decisions and moral judgments differ when made using native languages compared to foreign languages. Cross-linguistic differences appeared in foreign languages that monolinguals typically acquired in school and used neither routinely nor extensively. We replicated these differences with two populations of proficient, native bilinguals (Italian-Venetian; Italian-Bergamasque). Venetian and Bergamasque are spoken in households and informal circles, unlike Italian, which is also used in more formal contexts. The findings reported in foreign languages for the Asian Disease Problem and the Footbridge Dilemma were reproduced in Venetian and Bergamasque. Our results show that language effects on decision-making and moral judgments are not restricted to foreign languages. The explanation proposed for foreign languages of cross-linguistic differences in emotion responses does not apply to our proficient, native bilinguals, who showed emotion responses of equal intensity in their languages. We propose that the contexts in which bilinguals use a language – either native, regional or foreign – could affect decisions.
Book
The human imagination manifests in countless different forms. We imagine the possible and the impossible. How do we do this so effortlessly? Why did the capacity for imagination evolve and manifest with undeniably manifold complexity uniquely in human beings? This handbook reflects on such questions by collecting perspectives on imagination from leading experts. It showcases a rich and detailed analysis on how the imagination is understood across several disciplines of study, including anthropology, archaeology, medicine, neuroscience, psychology, philosophy, and the arts. An integrated theoretical-empirical-applied picture of the field is presented, which stands to inform researchers, students, and practitioners about the issues of relevance across the board when considering the imagination. With each chapter, the nature of human imagination is examined – what it entails, how it evolved, and why it singularly defines us as a species.
Article
Full-text available
Acculturative stress is a phenomenon describing negative emotions experienced by immigrants in their socio-cultural and psychological adaptation process to the host society's dominant culture and its population. Acculturative stress is assumed to be one the reasons for higher prevalence of postnatal depression among immigrant women compared to non-immigrant women. Theories and models of acculturation and coping strategies suggest that certain cultural orientations or behaviors could mitigate acculturative stress and postnatal depression. Nevertheless, quantitative studies applying these theories have so far revealed inconsistent results. Given this background, we ask: what can a qualitative study of immigrant women's postnatal experiences tell us about the interrelationships between immigrant mothers' acculturation behaviors or cultural orientations, and maternal psychological health? Particularly, we explore the postnatal experiences of Chinese and Japanese women who gave birth in Austria, focusing on their experiences and behaviors influenced by their heritage culture's postnatal practices (zuò yuè zi and satogaeri). Theoretically, we apply Berry's acculturation model through a focus on what we call 'Postnatal Acculturative Stress' (PAS). By doing so, we identify factors that prevent or mitigate PAS. Another aim of this article is to critically reassess Berry's model in the context of postnatal care and maternal psychological health. Data were analyzed using a combination of deductive and inductive method through the application of directed content analysis and phenomenological approach. Women's postnatal experiences were summarized as an 'unexpected solitary struggle in the midst of dual identity change' in four specific domains: postnatal rest and diet, social support, feelings toward significant others and identity. Preventive and mitigating factors against PAS included trust (in self and one's health beliefs) and mutual respectful relationships with and between the significant others. The application of Berry's acculturation model provided a useful Frontiers in Psychology | www.frontiersin.org 1 May 2020 | Volume 11 | Article 977 Seidler et al. Postnatal Acculturation Stress East-Asian Women framework of analysis. Nevertheless, the multifarious complexity involved in the process of acculturation as well as different power dynamics in the family and healthcare settings makes it difficult to draw causal relationships between certain acculturation behaviors or cultural orientations with specific health outcomes. Health professionals should be aware of the complex psychosocial processes, contexts as well as social environment that shape immigrants' acculturative behaviors.
Article
Concerned about the continued dominance of Western International Relations (IR) theories , the global IR community has proposed various measures to address disciplinary hierarchies through encouraging dialogue and pluralism. By investigating the pedagogical preferences of instructors from 45 countries, this paper questions the global IR initiative's emancipatory potential, arguing that disciplinary practices in IR resemble those of dependent development. The study develops a new typology of IR theoretical (IRT) scholarship and examines the readings assigned in 151 IRT syllabi worldwide for evidence of similarity, replication, and assimilation. The findings show that mainstream core IRTs dominate syllabi globally, regardless of region, language of instruction, or instructors' edu-cational/linguistic backgrounds. This domination extends to periphery scholars not using their own local products. Even when they do seek alternative approaches, they prefer to import core alternatives, that is, critical traditions, rather than homegrown IRTs. Finally, the results show that even in syllabi taught in local languages the readings remain dominated by core IRT works. These findings expose a structural defect in the current cry for global IR, by revealing the system's dependent development paradox. The paper concludes with suggestions for creating a symmetric interdependent structure, in the aim of achieving a genuine globalization of IR.
Article
Substantial evidence indicates that first language (L1) comprehension involves embodied visual simulations. The present study tested the assumption that a formally learned second language (L2), which is less related to real-life experiences, is processed in a less embodied manner relative to a naturally acquired L1. To this end, bilingual participants completed the same task in their L1 and L2. In the task, they read sentences and decided immediately after each sentence whether a pictured object had been mentioned in the preceding sentence. Responses were significantly faster when the shape of the object in the picture matched rather than mismatched the sentence-implied shape, but only in the L1, and only when the L1 block was performed before the L2 block. These findings suggest that embodied visual simulations are reduced in a formally learned L2 and may be subjected to cross-language influences.
Article
This paper argues that investigators should consider replacing the popular practice of comparing individuals varying in gender, social class, and/or ethnicity on one or more continuous measures with a search for kinds of individuals defined by patterns of properties that include not only their values on outcome measures but also their gender, social class, and ethnicity. Investigators who believe that a particular predictor contributes to an outcome independent of the gender, class, or ethnicity of the participants often implement statistical procedures that promise to remove the contributions of the above categories. These analyses lead to misleading conclusions when the controlled category is correlated with the dependent measures. The final sections summarize the properties of genders, classes, and ethnic groups that make distinctive contributions to many psychological outcomes. The paper ends by noting that a society's ethical beliefs constitute a defensible basis for ignoring the biological properties associated with these categories in order to allow members of these groups access to whatever educational or occupational goals they desire.
Article
Full-text available
The small-scale study investigates the multiplex imageries mimicked in Lord of the Flies by Golding. In general, it attempts to develop a good understanding of the mental imageries the Novelist Golding selects in ‘Lord of the Flies’. In particular, it aims to describe the various mental imageries used, interpret their denotations, and finally explain the forces lying behind their choice. The study benefits from both corpus linguistics and discourse analysis for both data collection and analysis. It fits into the critical studies which builds on van Dijk’s (1998) three-D model of analysis at the syntactic, semantic, and schematic level of discourse. It has been found that four modes of imageries are exploited as motifs in the novel to help develop certain themes. They exclusively include visual, auditory, tactile, and olfactory imageries. Though very frequent, the visual imageries are used to convey motifs of maturation and peacefulness of mind, surviving, limitations of human capacity, lack of knowledge, eagerness to move or travel, and understanding the surroundings. The auditory imageries are also frequent; however, they are utilized to satisfy motifs of World War II and fighting between nations, total curiosity and eagerness to socialize within human communities, panic, fear, and anger, limitations of human capacity, and surviving. Both the tactile and olfactory are very rare. The tactile imagery is used to help develop the need for knowledge, leadership and peace whereas the olfactory one is selected to present war and fighting within modern communities. It has been concluded that the mental imageries are exploited well as motifs that can present the development of both human civilization and self-concept throughout history up to present times.
Article
Full-text available
The psycholinguistic study is aimed at investigating the impact of culture and language on the images of socially important concepts in linguistic consciousness. The study is based on the data obtained in the massive associative research implemented in Tatarstan and Sakha (Yakutia), which involved sample groups of Russians, bilingual Yakutians and bilingual Tatarians. It employs the conceptual framework of linguistic consciousness developed by Russian psycholinguists and associated with the notions of speech act, consciousness and culture. Linguistic consciousness reflects speech acts in relation to cognitive processes and the transformation of these acts into communication. The sample was obtained by a free associative experiment which registered the first reply. The study presents the obtained results as Karaulov’s model of “associated gestalt“, modified to meet the requirements of the study. The model is divided into semantic zones and subzones which are further compared in different samples. The paper demonstrates that the associative meanings of lexemes-stimuli contain components clearly dependent on the differences between not only the ethnic language structures, but also between the Russian, Yakutian and Tatarian cultures and their mutual influences in the course of intercultural communication and interaction in vitally important areas. © 2018 Peoples' Friendship University of Russia. All Rights Reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has provided ample evidence for an impact of language on moral dilemma judgments, suggesting higher willingness to sacrifice one person to save several others when the dilemma is presented in a foreign as opposed to the judge’s native language. In accordance with the dual-process model of moral judgment, the foreign language effect is frequently taken to indicate either decreased “deontological” norm-adherence or increased sensitivity to aggregate consequences of a decision. However, previous research has rarely investigated these supposed mechanisms directly. We applied a multinomial modeling approach to investigate the effect of language on endorsement of aggregate consequences, norm-endorsement, and inertia, while differentiating between low- and high-involvement scenarios. The results of two experiments indicate that foreign language reduces norm-endorsement. Moreover, results of an interaction analysis suggest that among high-involvement scenarios foreign language may also decrease inertia, relative to native language. Endorsement of aggregate consequences was unaffected by language. Our multinomial modeling approach thus indicates that theorizing on the foreign language effect should consider both norm-endorsement and inertia.
Article
Full-text available
Recent research has revealed that people’s preferences, choices, and judgments are affected by whether information is presented in a foreign or a native language. Here, we review this evidence, focusing on various decision-making domains and advancing a variety of potential explanations for this foreign-language effect on decision making. We interpret the findings in the context of dual-system theories of decision making, entertaining the possibility that foreign-language processing reduces the impact of intuition and/or increases the impact of deliberation on people’s choices. In closing, we suggest future research directions for progressing our understanding of how language and decision-making processes interact when guiding people’s decisions.
Article
Full-text available
Though moral intuitions and choices seem fundamental to our core being, there is surprising new evidence that people resolve moral dilemmas differently when they consider them in a foreign language (Cipolletti et al., 2016; Costa et al., 2014a; Geipel et al., 2015): People are more willing to sacrifice 1 person to save 5 when they use a foreign language compared with when they use their native tongue. Our findings show that the phenomenon is robust across various contexts and that multiple factors affect it, such as the severity of the negative consequences associated with saving the larger group. This has also allowed us to better describe the phenomenon and investigate potential explanations. Together, our results suggest that the foreign language effect is most likely attributable to an increase in psychological distance and a reduction in emotional response. (PsycINFO Database Record
Article
Full-text available
The most commonly used method to test an indirect effect is to divide the estimate of the indirect effect by its standard error and compare the resulting z statistic with a critical value from the standard normal distribution. Confidence limits for the indirect effect are also typically based on critical values from the standard normal distribution. This article uses a simulation study to demonstrate that confidence limits are imbalanced because the distribution of the indirect effect is normal only in special cases. Two alternatives for improving the performance of confidence limits for the indirect effect are evaluated: (a) a method based on the distribution of the product of two normal random variables, and (b) resampling methods. In Study 1, confidence limits based on the distribution of the product are more accurate than methods based on an assumed normal distribution but confidence limits are still imbalanced. Study 2 demonstrates that more accurate confidence limits are obtained using resampling methods, with the bias-corrected bootstrap the best method overall.
Article
Full-text available
We investigated whether and why the use of a foreign language influences moral judgment. We studied the trolley and footbridge dilemmas, which propose an action that involves killing one individual to save five. In line with prior work, the use of a foreign language increased the endorsement of such consequentialist actions for the footbridge dilemma, but not for the trolley dilemma. But contrary to recent theorizing, this effect was not driven by an attenuation of emotions. An attenuation of emotions was found in both dilemmas, and it did not mediate the foreign language effect on moral judgment. An examination of additional scenarios revealed that foreign language influenced moral judgment when the proposed action involved a social or moral norm violation. We propose that foreign language influences moral judgment by reducing access to normative knowledge.
Article
Full-text available
This paper investigates how affect-laden imagery that evokes emotional stress influences risk perception and risk taking in real-life scenarios. In a series of three studies, we instructed participants to imagine the consequences of risky scenarios and then rate the intensity of the experienced stress, perceived risk and their willingness to engage in risky behavior. Study 1 showed that people spontaneously imagine negative rather than positive risk consequences, which are directly related to their lower willingness to take risk. Moreover , this relationship was mediated by feelings of stress and risk perception. Study 2 repli-cated and extended these findings by showing that imagining negative risk consequences evokes psychophysiological stress responses observed in elevated blood pressure. Finally, in Study 3, we once again demonstrated that a higher intensity of mental images of negative risk consequences, as measured by enhanced brain activity in the parieto-occipital lobes, leads to a lower propensity to take risk. Furthermore, individual differences in creating vivid and intense negative images of risk consequences moderated the strength of the relationship between risk perception and risk taking. Participants who created more vivid and intense images of negative risk consequences paid less attention to the assessments of riskiness in rating their likelihood to take risk. To summarize, we showed that feelings of emotional stress and perceived riskiness mediate the relationship between mental imagery and risk taking, whereas individual differences in abilities to create vivid mental images may influence the degree to which more cognitive risk assessments are used in the risk-taking process.
Article
Full-text available
We investigated whether and how processing information in a foreign language as opposed to the native language affects moral judgments. Participants judged the moral wrongness of several private actions, such as consensual incest, that were depicted as harmless and presented in either the native or a foreign language. The use of a foreign language promoted less severe moral judgments and less confidence in them. Harmful and harmless social norm violations, such as saying a white lie to get a reduced fare, were also judged more leniently. The results do not support explanations based on facilitated deliberation, misunderstanding, or the adoption of a universalistic stance. We propose that the influence of foreign language is best explained by a reduced activation of social and moral norms when making moral judgments.
Article
Full-text available
Should you sacrifice one man to save five? Whatever your answer, it should not depend on whether you were asked the question in your native language or a foreign tongue so long as you understood the problem. And yet here we report evidence that people using a foreign language make substantially more utilitarian decisions when faced with such moral dilemmas. We argue that this stems from the reduced emotional response elicited by the foreign language, consequently reducing the impact of intuitive emotional concerns. In general, we suggest that the increased psychological distance of using a foreign language induces utilitarianism. This shows that moral judgments can be heavily affected by an orthogonal property to moral principles, and importantly, one that is relevant to hundreds of millions of individuals on a daily basis.
Article
Full-text available
Surveys in the social sciences often employ rating scales anchored by response category labels such as “strongly (dis)agree” or “completely (dis)agree.” Although these labels may exert a systematic influence on responses since they are common to all items, academic research on the effect of different labels is surprisingly scarce. In order to help researchers choose appropriate category labels, we contrast the intensity hypothesis (which posits that response categories are endorsed less frequently if the labels are more extreme) with the familiarity hypothesis (which states that response categories are endorsed more frequently if the labels are more common in day-to-day language). In a series of studies we find consistent support for the familiarity hypothesis. Our results have important implications for the appropriate use of category labels in multilingual surveys, and we propose a procedure based on Internet search engine hits to equate labels in different languages in terms of familiarity.
Article
Full-text available
The authors propose that cultural frame shifting—shifting between two culturally based interpretative lenses in response to cultural cues—is moderated by perceived compatibility (vs. opposition) between the two cultural orientations, or bicultural identity integration (BII). Three studies found that Chinese American biculturals who perceived their cultural identities as compatible (high BII) responded in culturally congruent ways to cultural cues: They made more external attributions (a characteristically Asian behavior) after being exposed to Chinese primes and more internal attributions (a characteristically Western behavior) after being exposed to American primes. However, Chinese American biculturals who perceived their cultural identities as oppositional (low BII) exhibited a reverse priming effect. This trend was not apparent for noncultural primes. The results show that individual differences in bicultural identity affect how cultural knowledge is used to interpret social events.
Article
Full-text available
In an increasingly globalized marketplace, it is common for marketing researchers to collect data from respondents who are not native speakers of the language in which the questions are formulated. Examples include online customer ratings and internal marketing initiatives in multinational corporations. This raises the issue of whether providing responses on rating scales in a person’s native versus second language exerts a systematic influence on the responses obtained. This article documents the anchor contraction effect (ACE), the systematic tendency to report more intense emotions when answering questions using rating scales in a nonnative language than in the native language. Nine studies (1) establish ACE, test the underlying process, and rule out alternative explanations; (2) examine the generalizability of ACE across a range of situations, measures, and response scale formats; and (3) explore managerially relevant and easily implementable corrective techniques.
Article
Full-text available
The VMIQ was administered to 220 high school and college students. The content of the VMIQ is described. Test–retest reliability was assessed over a 3-wk interval, stability over 6 mo, and validity as correlated against the Vividness of Visual Imagery Questionnaire. Results suggest that the VMIQ is a reliable, stable and valid measure of an individual's ability to produce images of movement. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
In 4 experiments, 206 undergraduates and 79 homeowners, through the use of a structured scenario, were led to imagine themselves experiencing certain events and came to believe more strongly that the events would befall them. This promotive effect of the scenario procedure on probability or likelihood estimates occurred for both positive (e.g., winning a contest) and negative events (e.g., being arrested for a crime) and in both laboratory and field contexts. Crucial to its relevance for compliance, the scenario procedure influenced not only probability judgments, but behavior as well. Homeowners who imagined themselves utilizing a cable TV service were more likely to subscribe to such a service when requested to do so weeks later. It was determined that the effect of structured scenarios on compliance was not due to additional information provided by the scenario. An interpretation based on the availability heuristic is suggested. (12 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Second language speakers commonly acknowledge that taboo terms can be uttered with greater ease in their second language (L2) than in their first language (L1). To investigate this phenomenon psychophysiologically, 32 Turkish–English bilinguals rated a variety of stimuli for pleasantness in Turkish (L1) and English (L2) while skin conductance was monitored via fingertip electrodes. Participants demonstrated greater autonomic arousal to taboo words and childhood reprimands (“ Shame on you! ”) in their L1 compared to their L2. This finding provides quantifiable support for the subjective experiences of L2 speakers.
Article
Full-text available
We conducted three experiments indicating that characteristically deontological judgments--here, disapproving of sacrificing one person for the greater good of others--are preferentially supported by visual imagery. Experiment 1 used two matched working memory tasks-one visual, one verbal-to identify individuals with relatively visual cognitive styles and individuals with relatively verbal cognitive styles. Individuals with more visual cognitive styles made more deontological judgments. Experiment 2 showed that visual interference, relative to verbal interference and no interference, decreases deontological judgment. Experiment 3 indicated that these effects are due to people's tendency to visualize the harmful means (sacrificing one person) more than the beneficial end (saving others). These results suggest a specific role for visual imagery in moral judgment: When people consider sacrificing someone as a means to an end, visual imagery preferentially supports the judgment that the ends do not justify the means. These results suggest an integration of the dual-process theory of moral judgment with construal-level theory.
Article
Full-text available
Areas of expertise that cultivate specific sensory domains reveal the brain's ability to adapt to environmental change. Perfumers are a small population who claim to have a unique ability to generate olfactory mental images. To evaluate the impact of this expertise on the brain regions involved in odor processing, we measured brain activity in novice and experienced (student and professional) perfumers while they smelled or imagined odors. We demonstrate that olfactory imagery activates the primary olfactory (piriform) cortex (PC) in all perfumers, demonstrating that similar neural substrates were activated in odor perception and imagination. In professional perfumers, extensive olfactory practice influences the posterior PC, the orbitofrontal cortex, and the hippocampus; during the creation of mental images of odors, the activity in these areas was negatively correlated with experience. Thus, the perfumers' expertise is associated with a functional reorganization of key olfactory and memory brain regions, explaining their extraordinary ability to imagine odors and create fragrances.
Article
Full-text available
This research contributes to the current understanding of language effects in advertising by uncovering a previously ignored mechanism shaping consumer response to an increasingly globalized marketplace. We propose a language-specific episodic trace theory of language emotionality to explain how language influences the perceived emotionality of marketing communications. Five experiments with bilingual consumers show (1) that textual information (e.g., marketing slogans) expressed in consumers' native language tends to be perceived as more emotional than messages expressed in their second language, (2) that this effect is not uniquely due to the activation of stereotypes associated to specific languages or to a lack of comprehension, and (3) that the effect depends on the frequency with which words have been experienced in native- versus second-language contexts. (c) 2008 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
Article
Full-text available
Recent theoretical models highlighting the role of imagery in trauma and aversion learning focus on the role of images in memory (e.g., Brewin, Dalgleish, & Joseph, 1996) and images as substitute stimuli in aversive conditioning (Dadds, Bovbjerg, Redd, & Cutmore, 1997). An unanswered question is whether individual differences in imagery are associated with different rates of traumatisation and aversion states (fear and avoidance of various stimuli). We examine one aspect of this: does high imagery ability correlate with the frequency with which people report aversions? Three samples of university students were tested on the Betts Questionnaire Upon Mental Imagery, the Tellegen Absorption Scale, and a new measure we designed to sample of range of aversions. As hypothesised, vividness of imagery showed positive correlations with number of aversions reported. This relationship held after controlling for general neuroticism and proneness to disgust. Results for absorption showed no relationship. The results are unable to disentangle causal paths but suggest a focus on individual differences in imagery vividness may be fruitful for understanding individual differences in aversion learning.
Article
Full-text available
A special association between imagery and emotion is often assumed, despite little supporting evidence. In Experiment 1, participants imagined unpleasant events or listened to the same descriptions while thinking about their verbal meaning. Those in the imagery condition reported more anxiety and rated new descriptions as more emotional than did those in the verbal condition. In Experiment 2, 4 groups listened to either benign or unpleasant descriptions, again with imagery or verbal processing instructions. Anxiety again increased more after unpleasant (but not benign) imagery; however, emotionality ratings did not differ after a 10-min filler task. Results support the hypothesis of a special link between imagery and anxiety but leave open the question of whether this also applies to other emotions.
Article
Full-text available
The ability to envision specific future episodes is a ubiquitous mental phenomenon that has seldom been discussed in the neuroscience literature. In this study, subjects underwent functional MRI while using event cues (e.g., Birthday) as a guide to vividly envision a personal future event, remember a personal memory, or imagine an event involving a familiar individual. Two basic patterns of data emerged. One set of regions (e.g., within left lateral premotor cortex; left precuneus; right posterior cerebellum) was more active while envisioning the future than while recollecting the past (and more active in both of these conditions than in the task involving imagining another person). These regions appear similar to those emerging from the literature on imagined (simulated) bodily movements. A second set of regions (e.g., bilateral posterior cingulate; bilateral parahippocampal gyrus; left occipital cortex) demonstrated indistinguishable activity during the future and past tasks (but greater activity in both tasks than the imagery control task); similar regions have been shown to be important for remembering previously encountered visual-spatial contexts. Hence, differences between the future and past tasks are attributed to differences in the demands placed on regions that underlie motor imagery of bodily movements, and similarities in activity for these two tasks are attributed to the reactivation of previously experienced visual–spatial contexts. That is, subjects appear to place their future scenarios in well known visual–spatial contexts. Our results offer insight into the fundamental and little-studied capacity of vivid mental projection of oneself in the future. • autonoetic consciousness • episodic future thought • episodic memory • functional MRI
Article
Full-text available
Amnesic patients have a well established deficit in remembering their past experiences. Surprisingly, however, the question as to whether such patients can imagine new experiences has not been formally addressed to our knowledge. We tested whether a group of amnesic patients with primary damage to the hippocampus bilaterally could construct new imagined experiences in response to short verbal cues that outlined a range of simple commonplace scenarios. Our results revealed that patients were markedly impaired relative to matched control subjects at imagining new experiences. Moreover, we identified a possible source for this deficit. The patients' imagined experiences lacked spatial coherence, consisting instead of fragmented images in the absence of a holistic representation of the environmental setting. The hippocampus, therefore, may make a critical contribution to the creation of new experiences by providing the spatial context into which the disparate elements of an experience can be bound. Given how closely imagined experiences match episodic memories, the absence of this function mediated by the hippocampus, may also fundamentally affect the ability to vividly re-experience the past. • episodic • hippocampus • imagination • memory • construction
Article
Full-text available
A rapidly growing number of recent studies show that imagining the future depends on much of the same neural machinery that is needed for remembering the past. These findings have led to the concept of the prospective brain; an idea that a crucial function of the brain is to use stored information to imagine, simulate and predict possible future events. We suggest that processes such as memory can be productively re-conceptualized in light of this idea.
Article
A growing literature demonstrates that using a foreign language affects choice. This is surprising because if people understand their options, choice should be language independent. Here, we review the impact of using a foreign language on risk, inference, and morality, and discuss potential explanations, including reduced emotion, psychological distance, and increased deliberation.
Article
The marketplace affords consumers various modalities to express their preferences (e.g., by pressing a button on a vending machine or making an oral request at a restaurant). In this article, we compare speaking to manual preference expression modalities (button-pressing, writing, and taking) and study their effect on self-control dilemmas. Based on studies of the Stroop task and on neuroscientific evidence, we predict that speaking is less likely than motor movement to evoke self-control. Our prediction relies on the observation that different expression modalities activate different regions of the anterior cingulate cortex and hence may influence the extent to which emotions rather than cognitions determine an individual’s decision. In six studies conducted both in the lab and the field, we show that speaking prompts more indulgent choice than manual modalities (studies 1a, 1b, 2, 3, and 4) but not when individuals speak in a foreign language (study 5).
Article
As a result of globalization, policymakers and citizens are increasingly communicating in foreign languages. This article investigates whether communicating in a foreign language influences lay judgments of risk and benefit regarding specific hazards such as "traveling by airplane," "climate change," and "biotechnology." Merging findings from bilingual and risk perception research, we hypothesized that stimuli described in a foreign language, as opposed to the native tongue, would prompt more positive overall affect and through that induce lower judgments of risk and higher judgments of benefit. Two studies support this foreign language hypothesis. Contrary to recent proposals that foreign language influences judgment by promoting deliberate processing, we show that it can also influence judgment through emotional processing. The present findings carry implications for international policy, such as United Nations decisions on environmental issues. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Many have argued that moral judgment is driven by one of two types of processes. Rationalists argue that reasoned processes are the source of moral judgments, whereas sentimentalists argue that emotional processes are. We provide evidence that both positions are mistaken; there are multiple mental processes involved in moral judgment, and it is possible to manipulate which process is engaged when considering moral dilemmas by presenting them in a non-native language. The Foreign-Language Effect (FLE) is the activation of systematic reasoning processes by thinking in a foreign language. We demonstrate that the FLE extends to moral judgment. This indicates that different types of processes can lead to the formation of differing moral judgments. One implication of the FLE is that it raises the possibility that moral judgments can be made more systematic, and that the type of processing used to form them might be relevant to normative and applied ethics.
Article
Dual-system approaches to psychology explain the fundamental properties of human judgment, decision making, and behavior across diverse domains. Yet, the appropriate characterization of each system is a source of debate. For instance, a large body of research on moral psychology makes use of the contrast between "emotional" and "rational/cognitive" processes, yet even the chief proponents of this division recognize its shortcomings. Largely independently, research in the computational neurosciences has identified a broad division between two algorithms for learning and choice derived from formal models of reinforcement learning. One assigns value to actions intrinsically based on past experience, while another derives representations of value from an internally represented causal model of the world. This division between action- and outcome-based value representation provides an ideal framework for a dual-system theory in the moral domain.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
Prior research has demonstrated that imagining hypothetical future events may render those events subjectively more likely. The suggestion has been made that this effect is due to the increased availability in memory of the events imagined. To test directly this explanation in a health context, the present study examined the effects of both ease and difficulty of imagining contracting a disease on subjects' beliefs that the event would occur. Subjects were asked to imagine contracting a disease described either as having certain easy-to-imagine symptoms or difficult-to-imagine symptoms. Following this, subjects rated their ease of imagination and estimated the likelihood of contracting the disease. The results revealed that judgments of ease or difficulty of imagination paralleled judgments of the likelihood of contracting the disease. Those subjects who rated the disease as easy-to-imagine judged the disease as more likely to occur, whereas those who experienced difficulty in imagining the disease rated it as less likely to occur. The results are interpreted in terms of the availability heuristic and give direct support for and extend this principle by showing that trying to imagine difficult-to-construct or cognitively inaccessible events reduces likelihood estimates. Implications for preventive health programs are discussed.
Article
Two aspects of translation were investigated: (1) factors that affect translation quality, and (2) how equivalence between source and target versions can be evaluated. The variables of language, content, and difficulty were studied through an analysis of variance design. Ninety-four bilinguals from the University of Guam, representing ten languages, translated or back-translated six essays incorporating three content areas and two levels of difficulty. The five criteria for equivalence were based on comparisons of meaning or predictions of similar responses to original or translated versions. The factors of content, difficulty, language and content-language interaction were significant, and the five equivalence criteria proved workable. Conclusions are that translation quality can be predicted, and that a functionally equivalent translation can be demonstrated when responses to the original and target versions are studied.
Article
Investigated the effects of different cognitive representations of the rewards (outcomes) in a delay of gratification paradigm on children's ability to wait for these rewards. Ss were 60 3-5 yr olds in nursery school. It was found that consummatory (arousing) ideation directed at the relevant (contingent) rewards hindered effective delay. In contrast, cognitive transformations of the rewards which focused on their nonconsummatory qualities and associations significantly facilitated delay behavior more than did comparable ideation about similar rewards irrelevant to the delay contingency. Consummatory ideation focused on rewards irrelevant to the contingency also greatly helped to maintain delay. Theoretical implications for the role of fantasy and cognitive appraisal in self-control are examined. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes laboratory and clinical attempts to relate different memory systems (procedural, semantic, and episodic) to corresponding varieties of consciousness (anoetic, noetic, and autonoetic). The case of a young adult male amnesic patient is described. The S suffered a closed head injury that left him without autonoetic consciousness. This deficit is manifested in his amnesia for personal events and his impaired awareness of subjective time. Two simple experiments investigated recall and recognition by a total of 89 normal undergraduates to further examine autonoetic consciousness as the necessary correlate of episodic memory. Results show that the distinction between knowing and remembering previous occurrences of events is meaningful to people, that people can make corresponding judgments about their memory performance, and that these judgments vary systematically with the conditions under which retrieved information takes place. (French abstract) (71 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Twelve people who emigrated as adults from Spanish-speaking cultures and then spent at least 30 years in an Anglo culture were asked to provide autobiographical memories to word cues. All communication was in Spanish on one day and English on a second. In previous studies, there has been a bump or increase in autobiographical memories for the 10 to 30 decades. Here the increase in memories followed the age of immigration and settlement, supporting a cognitive theory of the reminiscence bump. The distributions of memories across the lifespan were similar for the Spanish sessions and the English sessions. Participants identified 20% of their memories as recalled internally in the language not being used that day. For this subset of memories, events prior to migration were more frequently recalled in Spanish, whereas events after migration were more frequently recalled in English. © 1998 Academic Press This research is motivated by two questions: (1) what, if any, is the effect of a major cultural and linguistic transition, such as immigration, on the recall of autobiographical memories? and (2) are the personal memories of persons who make such transitions preferentially sampled according to language? Based on existing the-ory and observation, we hypothesized that adult immigrants would show greater recall for events around the time of immigration and accultura-tion, that recall for events prior to immigration would emerge more readily when cued in the mother tongue, and that events after immigra-tion would more readily surface in response to cues in the language of adoption.
Article
People's greater willingness to help identified victims, relative to non-identified ones, was examined by varying the singularity of the victim (single vs. a group of eight individuals), and the availability of individually identifying information (the main difference being the inclusion of a picture in the “identified” versions). Results support the proposal that the “identified victim” effect is largely restricted to situations with a single victim: the identified single victim elicited considerably more contributions than the non-identified single victim, while the identification of the individual group members had essentially no effect on willingness to contribute. Participants also report experiencing distress when the victim is single and identified more than in any other condition. Hence, the emotional reaction to the victims appears to be a major source of the effect. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Emotional reactions are an important element in the motivation to help others. Our research examined the role of affective vs. deliberative information processing in the genesis and use of emotional reactions in decisions to provide financial aid to people in distress. In two studies, we investigated whether information processing mode influenced participants' donations, affective reactions, and the relationship between the two. Information processing was manipulated by a priming procedure and a cognitive load paradigm. Participants' empathic emotions were assessed by self-reported sympathy, compassion, and distress. Additionally, we measured how much better a donation would make participants feel and their anticipated regret for not donating, which were taken as indicators of their motivation to donate as a form of mood management. Results suggest that different mechanisms govern the initial decision to donate money (Stage 1) compared to later decisions on how much money to donate (Stage 2). Motivations for mood management were primarily predictive of donation decisions, whereas empathic feelings were predictive of the donation amount. The potentially disruptive effects of deliberative processing on prosocial behavior are discussed in light of a two-stage processing model of donations.
Article
Would you make the same decisions in a foreign language as you would in your native tongue? It may be intuitive that people would make the same choices regardless of the language they are using, or that the difficulty of using a foreign language would make decisions less systematic. We discovered, however, that the opposite is true: Using a foreign language reduces decision-making biases. Four experiments show that the framing effect disappears when choices are presented in a foreign tongue. Whereas people were risk averse for gains and risk seeking for losses when choices were presented in their native tongue, they were not influenced by this framing manipulation in a foreign language. Two additional experiments show that using a foreign language reduces loss aversion, increasing the acceptance of both hypothetical and real bets with positive expected value. We propose that these effects arise because a foreign language provides greater cognitive and emotional distance than a native tongue does.
Article
How do preferences change when consumers focus on the anticipated satisfaction with a purchase rather than choice? In a series of three studies, we show that preferences, both expressed and revealed, change depending on the degree to which anticipated satisfaction is evoked. These shifts in preferences arise because, compared to choice, anticipated satisfaction elicits a mental-imaging processing strategy that is both more effort intensive and qualitatively different. By providing direct evidence from thought protocols and by presenting evidence suggesting that these shifts in preferences vanish when mental imagery is discouraged or made more difficult, we show that the effect arises out of a processing strategy that requires effortful mental imagery of one or more of the options in the decision-making task. Finally, we demonstrate the uniqueness of the effect by showing that it cannot be generated with heightened processing or by an orientation that is directed toward the extent to which the options are liked. Copyright 2000 by the University of Chicago.
Article
Experiments were designed to examine the imagery abilities of an agnosic patient, M.S., who has consistently shown more severe deficits in recognizing visually, and in retrieving knowledge of living as compared with non-living items. Judgements of visual similarity were required for named objects and for object-pictures, as well as for the factual properties of these stimuli. The same disproportionate difficulty in processing living ('natural') objects was found in these tasks as well as in forced-choice recognition. In contrast, no deficit was found on analogous tasks concerned with word-shape similarities. These findings have a bearing on concepts of semantic memory.
Article
Tension between health policy and medical practice exists in many situations. For example, regional variations in practice patterns persist despite extensive shared information,1 2 3 there are substantial deviations from accepted guidelines daily in the care of patients,4 5 6 7 and disproportionate amounts of care are given to selected individuals.8 9 10 These observations indicate that decisions in the clinical arena, which focus on the individual patient, may be at variance with general medical policies, which are based on wider considerations. Our study investigated this discrepancy. Imagine a patient presenting to a physician with a specific problem. Normally the physician treats each patient as a unique . . .
Article
GROUPS OF SS, 17-46 YR. OLD COLLEGE STUDENTS, WERE USED TO SCALE 925 NOUNS ON ABSTRACTNESS-CONCRETENESS (C), IMAGERY (I), AND MEANINGFULNESS (M). CONCRETENESS WAS DEFINED IN TERMS OF DIRECTNESS OF REFERENCE TO SENSE EXPERIENCE, AND I, IN TERMS OF WORD'S CAPACITY TO AROUSE NONVERBAL IMAGES; C AND I WERE RATED ON 7-POINT SCALES. MEANINGFULNESS WAS DEFINED IN TERMS OF THE MEAN NUMBER OF WRITTEN ASSOCIATIONS IN 30 SEC. THE MEAN SCALE VALUES FOR THESE VARIABLES ARE PRESENTED FOR EACH OF THE 925 NOUNS. ALSO REPORTED ARE THE INTERCORRELATIONS OF THE VARIABLES, TOGETHER WITH AN EXAMINATION OF THE WORDS FOR WHICH C, I, AND M VALUES ARE MOST CLEARLY DIFFERENTIATED; AND RELIABILITY DATA, INCLUDING COMPARISONS WITH SCALE VALUES FOR THE VARIABLES FROM OTHER STUDIES. (45 REF.)
Article
The working memory framework was used to investigate the factors determining the phenomenological vividness of images. Participants rated the vividness of visual or auditory images under control conditions or while performing tasks that differentially disrupted the visuospatial sketchpad and phonological loop subsystems of working memory. In Experiments 1, 2, and 6, participants imaged recently presented novel visual patterns and sequences of tones; ratings of vividness showed the predicted interaction between stimulus modality and concurrent task. The images in experiments 3, 4, 5, and 6 were based on long-term memory (LTM). They also showed an image modality by task interaction, with a clear effect of LTM variables (meaningfulness, activity, bizarreness, and stimulus familiarity), implicating both working memory and LTM in the experience of vividness.
Article
Two studies of autobiographical memory explored the hypothesis that memories become more accessible when the linguistic environment at retrieval matches the linguistic environment at encoding. In Experiment 1, Russian-English bilinguals were asked to recall specific life experiences in response to word prompts. The results supported the hypothesis of language-dependent recall: Participants retrieved more experiences from the Russian-speaking period of their lives when interviewed in Russian and more experiences from the English-speaking period of their lives when interviewed in English. In Experiment 2, the language of the interview was varied independently from the language of the word prompts. Both variables were found to influence autobiographical recall. These findings show that language at the time of retrieval, like other forms of context, plays a significant role in determining what will be remembered.
Article
A study was conducted to examine the relationship between subjective and objective measures of mental imagery control. Eighty college undergraduates completed a battery of imagery tests and self-report measures to examine whether questionnaires that purport to measure imagery control or dynamic imagery ability (imagery of movement) would show a stronger relationship with objective measures of mental manipulation than would subjective measures that tap vividness of static imagery. Neither subjective measures of movement imagery nor subjective measures of stationary imagery showed meaningful relationships with objective measures of visuospatial manipulation. Additionally, subjective and objective imagery measures generally tended to dissociate. Basic component skills thought to be involved in mental manipulation, however, showed a much stronger relationship with the objective imagery tasks than did the self-report questionnaires. Findings suggest that subjective measures of imagery control do not tap the same cognitive processes involved in objective tests that require accurate imagery manipulation.
Article
Human lesion data have indicated that the frontal polar area might be critically involved in having an insight into one's future. Retrospective memory mediated by medial temporal lobes and related structures, on the other hand, could be used to extract one's future prospects efficiently. In the present study, we investigated the roles of these two brain structures in thinking of the future and past by using positron emission tomography (PET) and a naturalistic task setting. We measured regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in healthy subjects while they were talking about their future prospects or past experiences, with regard to two different temporal windows (in years or days). Many areas in the frontal and the medial temporal lobes were activated during the future and past tasks compared with a control task requiring semantic retrieval. Among these, areas in anteromedial frontal pole showed greater activation during the future tasks than during the past tasks, showing significant effect of temporal distance from the present. Most areas in the medial temporal lobes showed greater or equivalent level of activations during the future tasks compared with the past tasks. The present results suggest that thinking of the future is closely related to retrospective memory, but that specific areas in the frontal pole and the medial temporal lobes are more involved with thinking of the future than that of the past.
Researchers often conduct mediation analysis in order to indirectly assess the effect of a proposed cause on some outcome through a proposed mediator. The utility of mediation analysis stems from its ability to go beyond the merely descriptive to a more functional understanding of the relationships among variables. A necessary component of mediation is a statistically and practically significant indirect effect. Although mediation hypotheses are frequently explored in psychological research, formal significance tests of indirect effects are rarely conducted. After a brief overview of mediation, we argue the importance of directly testing the significance of indirect effects and provide SPSS and SAS macros that facilitate estimation of the indirect effect with a normal theory approach and a bootstrap approach to obtaining confidence intervals, as well as the traditional approach advocated by Baron and Kenny (1986). We hope that this discussion and the macros will enhance the frequency of formal mediation tests in the psychology literature. Electronic copies of these macros may be downloaded from the Psychonomic Society's Web archive at www.psychonomic.org/archive/.