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Variable speed of light (VSL) theory. Will The James

Webb telescope falsify Big Bang and Dark Energy?

Otto Krog and Henrik Bohr, The Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.

Abstract:

The purpose of this paper is to show what consequences might come out of a variable speed of light

(VSL), especially in the case of much larger light velocity in the past. In that case the universe is

much larger much older than hitherto imagined.

It is expected that the James Webb telescope in 2019 will observe galaxies close to the event of the

cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation (the socalled last scattering). Such an observation

together with VSL, could lead to arguments for much more matter in the universe, explaining the

problem of dark energy and falsify Big Bang.

Introduction

There have been many attempts to create cosmological models based on the assumption that the

velocity of light was much larger in the beginning of the universe evolution just after the so-called

Big Bang. This assumption of VLS (Variable Speed of Light) will solve many problems in

cosmology and change the standard model of the observable universe. Most noticeably the dark

energy cosmology can be done away with and similarly the area of inflationary expansion.

Historically, the first suggestion of VSL was proposed by Einstein, (ref.1.), who first mentioned a

variable light velocity in 1907. Later in 1911 he considered the role of gravity where light can be

slowed down in a gravitational field like the fact that clocks will run slower in a strong gravitational

field and similarly the corresponding frequency, ν, is changed by ν1 = ν2(1 + GM/r c2).

The fact that the light velocity is slowed down by passage through a medium, such as glass where it

is changed 50%, is used as an argument for the slowing (forward in time) of light in the early

universe. Consensus in cosmology considers the early stages after the Big Bang, as having most of

the energy in the form of radiation which had a dominated role in the expansion of the early

universe. The later stages is then considered to be dominated by matter. The role of mass versus

radiation was crucial for the future stages of the universe evolution.

We believe that light velocity was much higher in the early universe than later, when the medium or

energy density slowed the light as is done, for example in the medium of water and of glass.

Dicke developed a theory of VSL where both the frequency and the wavelength in the equation c =

ν λ vary in time and results in a larger change of the light speed c. In explaining the bending of light

by the gravity of the sun, Dicke assumed that the refractive index n should depend on the gravity

parameters as, n = c/c0 = 1 + 2GM/rc2, where c0 is the speed of light far from all masses, M is the

solar mass and G is the gravity constant. Since the total mass in the universe strongly increases in

the mass dominated period of the evolution of the Universe, the speed of light will decrease. In the

right hand side of the equation the left term 1 is relative large and Dicke considered it to be due to

the remainding mass in the universe. The main term, 2GM/rc2 is depending on the mass of the sun

(ref. 3).

As mentioned above, many theoretical physicists are debating VSL and other natural constants.

(ref.1-3) (Einstein, Dicke). Also others have been studying VSL (Will, Unzicker, Petit, Moffat) (ref.

4-7) in different frameworks or with different arguments. Recently, as described in the science

literature, (ref. 8), Magueijo and Afshordi have proposed a cosmological model where the light

velocity basically was infinite at the birth of the universe where temperatures were trillions of

celcius and which could be detected in the microwave background when more accuracy was

obtained in the observations. Such a possibility for VSL also makes the assumption of an

inflationary era superfluous.

In classical physics, it was generally accepted that light appeared instantaneously at different places.

However, several hundred years ago, scientists (ref. 9) (Rømer) were able to determine a finite

velocity of light from astronomical observations.

As mentioned above, in the beginning of the century Albert Einstein suggested VSL on the reason

of time dilation in relativity (ref. 1, 2) and its relation to redshift, and Dicke did the same in 1957,

(ref. 3). John Moffat, argues for a c that is 30 orders of magnitude smaller today, than in Big Bang.

This article describes how dark energy might be explained by VSL, and the article predicts, that

observations from The James Webb telescope will show huge galaxies very close to “the last

scattering”, (app. 370.000 years after Big Bang, according to cosmology.).

If these galaxies are observed as predicted, the Big Bang Theory will have to be discarded, as it

takes more than a billion year to create huge galaxies and clusters of galaxies.

Another conclusion is, that what we see as the Cosmic microwave background (ref. 10) is just the

border of the observable universe. The universe continues behind that border, being much bigger

than we ever imagined.

Therefore we hypothezise:

The speed of light close to the last scattering is considerably higher, than the one we measure in the

solar system. This will be tested by the James Webb telescope (ref. 11) in 2019, by observing

galaxies so close to the last scattering, that they by no means could have been formed in this short

time-span, according to the usual Big Bang Theory.

Theoretical arguments

The effect of the change in speed of light could be an explanation of dark energy, and actually a

Hubble constant close to zero. Furthermore, the redshift we observe from distant galaxies is a

consequence of a much larger speed of light in the past.

In the following we will give numerical facts in support of this scenario.

The purpose of this analysis is to show how cosmological redshift could be interpreted as a variable

speed of light, instead of the usual interpretation, expanding space. Furthermore it describes a new

understanding of our Universe. If the James Webb Telescope observes full grown galaxies very

close to the CMB (Cosmic Microwave Background) (ref. 10), the Big Bang theory doesn't allow

time enough for the creation of those galaxies.

The redshift factor in cosmology, z, is determined by

From the above we get:

λobs = (1 + z)λemit

It is our assumption that the observed wavelength is directly proportional to the speed of light c in

“vacuum” at present time.

In present time z is zero and the speed of light is what we know as c.

When z is 1 the speed of light is 2c, when z is 2 the speed of light is 3c etc.

Hence we have a cvsl (variable speed of light) described by

cvsl = (1+z)c

The further back in time the higher redshift factor z, and the higher speed of light.

In the figure below, redshift z from 0 to 20 is compared to the age of the universe, as we calculate it

from today as year zero. Modern cosmology interprets this redshift as expanding space.

Calculations of z is done by cosmological calculator from Fermilab. (ref. 12.)

The following figure shows how redshift z behaves within the last billion years. Notice that it

practically is a straight line. Up untill the nineties, this was interpreted as an expanding universe. In

the nineties observations began to show an exponentially rising redshift which was interpreted as an

accellerating expanding universe. Z has to be above 5 to really make an exponential rise.

Lets take the redshift observed one billion years ago where the line still is very straight.

Redshift z is observed to be 0.0735 one billion years ago. (ref. 12.)

That gives us a variable speed of light:

cvsl = (1+z)c = (1+0.0735)c = 1.0735c

If the speed of light varies in one billion years, then the distance varies too.

What was supposed to be one billion lightyears away is not precise one billion years ago in this

VSL theory. If the speed of light decellerated during that period, the age will be slightly different.

Thus we have to find the exact age of the universe at a redshift of 0.0735 in this VSL theory.

The formula is:

t = 2s/(v+v0 )

where s is distance and v0 is velocity one billion years ago and v is the speed of light at present.

If the distance is one billion lightyears, then we think that the time it takes to travel is one billion

years. If the speed of light one billion year ago was higher, and decellerated to our known speed, the

time to travel one billion light years doesn't take one billion years.

It takes

t = 2*1 billion lightyears / (1 + 1.0735)c = 0.9646 billion years, when z = 0.0735.

One billion years ago in normal cosmology is thus only 0.9646 billion years ago in this VSL theory.

z one billion years ago in this VSL theory hence is 0.0735/0.9646 = 0.0762

Therefore we get:

VSL one billion years ago:

cvsl = (1 + 0.0762)c = 1.0762c

For every one billion year, VSL increases by 0.0762c

This direct proportion is easily put into a function that shows how VSL evolves in age:

cvsl(x) = (1 + 0.0762x)c

As can be seen from the next diagram, we get a complete different age of the universe through

space and time.

The above function can be written as

x = (cvsl(x) – 1c) / 0.0762c

where x is time in billion years

Our earliest galaxy observation of redshift is at z = 11. That is equivalent to VSL = 12c.

When z is 11 and VSL is 12c we get this result:

x = (cvsl(x) – 1c)/0.0762c = (12c – 1c)/0.0762c =

144.36 billion years, compared to the age in normal cosmology of a z at 11 which

gives an age of 13.36 billion years.

The higher redshift the more distant and back in time we observe, and the higher the speed of light.

Possible experimental observations and the James Webb

Telescope.

Our prediction is that it will show galaxies much closer to the CMB, than observed before. These

galaxies will be so developed and old, that they cannot have grown that big in the short time the Big

Bang theory allows.

The earliest galaxy we have observed has the name GN-Z11. The light observed from that galaxy is

about 13.4 billion years old. The galaxy is observed 400 million years after the Big Bang.

According to current theory, it can only be a protogalaxy as it takes almost 2 billion years to create a

galaxy the size of, for instance, the Milky Way.

James Webb will be able to observe much closer to the CMB, and with much better resolution, than

telescopes has done before. Therefore, it is our prediction that James Webb will show full grown

galaxies much closer to the CMB than usual theories allow.

Furthermore we postulate that what we know as the CMB is a veil of electromagnetism, which we

can not see through. The radiation should not be understood as the afterglow of the Big Bang, but as

a boundary to a universe much larger and much older behind.

The recent discovery of the quasar 690 million years after Big Bang is the latest discovery of

astronomical observation that poses a problem in the usual Big Bang Theory. (ref. 14.)

The known universe as we observe it, is perhaps a small village, compared to the universe we

cannot yet observe. The fluctuations of heat in the CMB might indicate different clusters of galaxies

in the universe behind this veil.

Prediction and consequences:

The James Webb telescope will show huge fullgrown galaxies in a redshift area very close to CMB.

This observation will not align with our mainstream understanding of the Big Bang theory.

If the above is true it has 2 major consequences:

Space is not expanding or accelerating, which falsifies the theory of Dark Energy.

Big galaxies will be observed very close to CMB, which falsifies the Big Bang theory.

Other natural constants:

If c is variable in space and time, it is naive to think, that other natural constants as for example G,

the constant of gravity, isn't variable as well. If all other natural constants is merged into this theory,

it is most likely that VSL is different than described in the function above. Diracs big number theory

suggested changing natural constants. (ref. 15.)

The VSL theory is just a simple explanation of our thoughts. A lot of work has to be done, if James

Webb observes what we suspect it will.

References

ref.1. Einstein, Albert, “Ueber das Relativitaetsprincip und die demselben gezogenen Folgerungen”

Jahrbuch fuer Radioaktivitaet und Elektronik, 4, 411-462 (1907).

ref. 2 Einstein, Albert, “Ueber den einfluss der Schwerkraft auf die Ausbreitung des Lichtes”

(Annalen der Physik, 35, 898-906 (1911).

ref. 3 Dicke R., “Gravitation without a Principle of Equivalence”, Review of Modern Physics, 29,

363-376 (1957).

ref. 4 Will, C.M. (1995) Theory and Experiment in Gravitational Physics, Cambridge University

Press, p. 144.

ref. 5 Unzicker, A ”A look at the abandoned contributions to cosmology of Dirac, Sciama, and

Dicke” Annalen der Physik, 521, 57-70. (2009).

ref. 6 Petit, J. P. “An interpretation of cosmological model with variable Light Velocity, Mod. Phys.

Lett. A. 3, 1527-1532 (1988).

ref. 7 Moffat, J. “Superluminary Universe: A possible Solution to the Initial Value Problem in

Cosmology”. Int. J. Mod. Phys. D, 2, 351-366, (1993).

ref. 8 Magueiro J., Afshordi N. “A time varying speed of Light as a solution to a cocmological

puzzle”, Phys.Rev. D59, 043516, (1999).

ref. 9 O. Roemer, in Cohen I. B.,(1940), "Roemer and the first determination of the velocity of light

(1676)", Isis, 31 (2): 327–79, reprinted in book form by the Burndy Library, 1942.

ref. 10 CMB, Penzias, A. A.; Wilson, R. W. (1965). "A Measurement of Excess Antenna

Temperature at 4080 Mc/s". The Astrophysical Journal. 142 (1): 419–421. :.

ref. 11 James Webb space telescope. "NASA's James Webb Space Telescope to be Launched Spring

2019". NASA. September 28, 2017. "James Webb Space Telescope. JWST History: 1989-1994".

Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD. 2017.

ref.12. http://home.fnal.gov/~gnedin/cc/ All redshift z's in this paper, are calculated by this

cosmological calculator from Nick Gnedin, Fermilab.

ref. 13. Redshift. History:Huggins, William (1868). "Further Observations on the Spectra of Some

of the Stars and Nebulae, with an Attempt to Determine Therefrom Whether These Bodies are

Moving towards or from the Earth, Also Observations on the Spectra of the Sun and of Comet II".

Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 158: 529–564.

ref. 14. Quasar at 690 million years after Big Bang. doi:10.1038/nature 25180 “An 800-million-

solar-mass black hole in a significantly neutral Universe at a redshift of 7.5” Eduardo Bañados1,

Bram P. Venemans2, Chiara Mazzucchelli2, Emanuele P. Farina2, Fabian Walter2, Feige Wang2,3,

Roberto Decarli2,5, Daniel Stern6, Xiaohui Fan7, Fred Davies8, Joseph F. Hennawi8, Rob

Simcoe9, Monica L. Turner9,10, Hans-Walter Rix2, Jinyi Yang3,4, Daniel D. Kelson1, Gwen

Rudie1 & Jan Martin Winters Eduardo Bañados

ref. 15. P.A.M. Dirac. A new basis for cosmology. Proc. Roy. Soc. London, A. 165:199-208, 1938.