ArticlePDF Available

Application of Peanut Butter to Improve the Nutritional Quality of Cookies

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

The study on Hydrogenated fat replaced with peanut butter to reduce saturated fatty acids in cookies was carried out. Cookies prepared with varied concentrations of hydrogenated fat and peanut butter (100:00, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60, 20:80 and 00:100) were analyzed to check fatty acid composition and textural characteristics. Palmitic acid, Myristic acid and Stearic acid (Saturated fatty acids) were higher in Control cookies, which level was reduced with increasing concentration of PB in different treatments. Linoleic acid and Oleic acid (Unsaturated fatty acids) were lower in control cookies, which were increased with increasing concentration of Peanut butter in different treatments. Oil stability index of experimental cookies increased up to 3.62% with increasing concentration of PB. Cookies hardness was also increased with increasing concentration of PB. Cookies with 40% PB had beneficial fatty acid composition with stable oil quality and also had a greater appreciable sensory quality by evaluation panel. Objective Preparation of peanut butter Preparation of cookies in different ratio of vegetable fat to peanut butter Texture analysis and sensory quality.
Content may be subject to copyright.
Application of Peanut Butter to Improve the
Nutritional Quality of Cookies
P. N. TIMBADIYA1*, S. B. BHEDA2, H. P. GAJERA3 and S.V. PATEL3
1Department of biochemistry, junagadh agricultural university, junagadh, 362001, India.
2Department of R & D (BDL), Intas biopharmaceuticals, Ahmedabad- 380015.
3Department of biochemistry junagadh agricultural university, junagadh, 362001, India.
Abstract
The study on Hydrogenated fat replaced with peanut butter to reduce
saturated fatty acids in cookies was carried out. Cookies prepared with varied
concentrations of hydrogenated fat and peanut butter (100:00, 80:20, 60:40,
40:60, 20:80 and 00:100) were analyzed to check fatty acid composition and
textural characteristics. Palmitic acid, Myristic acid and Stearic acid (Saturated
fatty acids) were higher in Control cookies, which level was reduced with
increasing concentration of PB in different treatments. Linoleic acid and
Oleic acid (Unsaturated fatty acids) were lower in control cookies, which
were increased with increasing concentration of Peanut butter in different
treatments. Oil stability index of experimental cookies increased up to 3.62%
with increasing concentration of PB. Cookies hardness was also increased with
increasing concentration of PB. Cookies with 40% PB had beneficial fatty acid
composition with stable oil quality and also had a greater appreciable sensory
quality by evaluation panel.
Objective
Preparation of peanut butter
Preparation of cookies in different ratio of vegetable fat to peanut butter
Texture analysis and sensory quality
Current Research in Nutrition and Food Science
Journal Website:www.foodandnutritionjournal.org
ISSN: 2347-467X, Vol. 5, No. (3) 2017, Pg. 398-405
CONTACT P.N. Timbadiya adi.timbadia@gmail.com Depar tment of biochemistry, junagadh agricultural university, junagadh,
362001, India.
© 2017 The Author(s). Published by Enviro Research Publishers
This is an Open Access article licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License
(https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/4.0/ ), which permits unrestricted NonCommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in
any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.12944/CRNFSJ.5.3.26
Article History
Received: 3 August
2017
Accepted: 24 October
2017
Keywords
Cookies,
Peanut butter,
Vegetable fat,
Fatty acid composition,
Sensory acceptability
Introduction
Peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) is the cheapest source
of protein also known as Groundnut because it
grows underground1. It has 40-54% oil and 26-28%
protein. Roasting process makes it tastier, imparts
flavor and specially inactivates lipoxygenase but
the drawback of this process is that it decreases
the shelf life of it2 and affects nutrient composition3.
399 TIMBADIYA et al., Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour., Vol. 5(3), 398-405 (2017)
Peanuts are available in the retail market places in
the form of raw nuts, salted nuts, roasted in shell
nuts, peanut butter and confectioneries4. Peanut
oil has the highest stability with high oleic/ linoleic
acid ratio. Nutritionally, high linoleic acid is desirable
as it is an essential fatty acid and produces a
hypocholesterolemic effect.
Peanut oil contains mainly three fatty acids like
Palmitic acid (10%), oleic and linoleic acid (80%
combined)5. Peanut oil contains of approximate
81% UFAs in which about 39% are PUFA. Because
of this quality of high MUFA content it is ideal diet
for lowering cholesterol6. Peanuts are susceptible
to oxygen due to high MUFA content so it reduces
damage caused by oxidation during manufacturing
and transport which is main reason of losses of
quality7.Cookies are very well accepted product in
majority of population from all income groups, and it
can be a vehicle for a nutritional source like protein,
carbohydrates and fatty acid. Cookies are generally
made up of vegetable fat but it can be the best
nutritional source for desirable protein and essential
fatty acid if supplemented with peanut butter which
may improve human health8. Commercial cookies
are made up of refined wheat flour, and it lacks in
protein quality as well as quantity. Refined wheat
flour has around 10% of protein and is deficient in
lysine and essential amino acid. Pulses and oilseeds
are the good sources of protein, and effective use of
it can solve the human nutritional disease9.
Butter made up of peanuts improves the nutritional
quality of Cookies because it contains more amounts
of protein and essential fatty acids10. Peanut butter
contains beneficial mono and poly unsaturated fats
so it could be good alternative of traditional vegetable
fat and help to lower blood cholesterol levels11. Risk
of heart disease can be reduced by 50 percent if
the people intake few grams of nuts or peanut butter
daily. The β-Sitosterol (phytosterol) is an anti-cancer
compound which has been identified in peanuts and
peanut butter. Use of Milk Solid Non Fat (MSNF) can
also improve the protein quality of the experimental
cookies prepared using part of peanut butter in place
of vegetable fat12.
Peanut kernel is the main source of protein and
lipids, the composition of full-fat flour of peanuts
reported 2.5 %, 27.4 %, 44.4%, 2.3 %, 2% and
21.5% for moisture, protein, oil, crude fiber, ash
and carbohydrate respectively13. Bioc hemical
compositions of peanut kernel have different
biochemical compounds. Average % of moisture,
protein, Lipids, Crude fiber, Nitrogen free extract,
Starch, Reducing sugars and Ash is 05.0, 28.5,
47.5, 02.8, 13.3, 04.0, 00.2 and 02.9 respectively.
Other biochemical compounds of various peanut
butters are as followed, Calories, Iron, Niacin,
Calcium, Phosphorus, Riboflavin, Sodium, Vitamin
A, Potassium, Thiamine, Ascorbic acid14.The
Sensory evaluation of biscuits prepared with peanut
butter had comparatively more hard texture and
more dark color than control biscuits. However, the
flavor and taste of biscuits made up of PB is more
palatable15.
Materials and Methods
Preparation of peanut butter (PB):100 g
peanuts(variety “GG-20”)were heated at 100 °C
in hot air oven for 8- 10 minutes and cooled to get
uniform roasted product, blanched, peel removed,
low weight seeds, discolored seeds or other
unnecessary parts were removed. Now this whitens
peanut kernel was grind at lower speed in a mixer
for 1 to 2 minutes, pinch of salt was mixed in peanut
powder which was spread on vessels and kept for 4
to 5 hours till deoiling of peanut powder was noticed.
Peanut butter was stored in airtight vessels and kept
in cooled condition (14 °C).
Preparation of Cookies
Cookies with vegetable to Peanut butter ratios of
T1 (100:0), T2 (80:20), T3 (60:40), T4 (40: 60),
T5 (20:80), T6 (0: 100) were prepared according
to standard recipe. The oven was preheated to
1500C/3000F/Gas 4. Refine flour (150 gm.),
sugar (120gm.), baking powder (4 gm.), Acence
(2 ml), Cardamom powder (1 gm.), Nutmeg powder
(1gm.)and peanut butter/vegetable fat (appropriate
ratio) were mixed by using stand mixer or electric
hand mixer. Kneaded dough was prepared for
7 to 8 minutes. The dough was rolled in to balls and
flattened with bottom of glass. It was placed on the
oily surface with enough space to spread out. The
oven was heated for 10 to 15 minutes earlier. Cookies
were baked at 150 oC for 25 minutes. After baking
process, cookies became soft so allowed it to cool
to get hardness and kept it in air tight vessels.
400 TIMBADIYA et al., Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour., Vol. 5(3), 398-405 (2017)
Fatty Acid Composition
The presence of fatty acid was analyzed after oil
extraction by soxhlet method from experimental
cookies and raw materials (PB, refined
wheat flour). To determine the presence of fatty
acid, methyl esters of different oil samples were
prepared16.Known weight (0.250-0.500 g) of fat/oil
sample was placed into a screw cap tube and 6 ml
of 0.5 M methanolic sodium methoxide was added.
It was mixed thoroughly on a vortex mixer and left
in 70 oC water bath for 10 min for dissolving the fat
globules and then cooled at room temperature. To
this, 0.5 ml boron trifluoride reagent was added
and mixed thoroughly. It was boiled for 10 min.
at 70 oC in water bath and, then, allowed to cool at
room temperature. 2-3 ml hexane and 1 ml HPLC
grade distilled water was added. From this tube,
about 1 ml of hexane layer (supernatant) was
transferred to another test tube and a small amount
of anhydrous sodium sulphate was added. Water
free hexane containing fatty acids was injected into
a Gas chromatography-Mass Spectroscopy (GC-MS,
QP 2010 Plus, Shimadzu)and was run for about 30
min. The fatty acids present in the oil samples were
identified and quantified using GC condition. The
GC parameters were (1) Capillary column: DB-Wax
(30m x 0.25 mm x 0.25µM), (2) Injector temperature:
250, (3) Injector split: 1µl (1:50), (4) Column Oven
Program: 60 oC12 oC/min 150 oC (1min)5oC/
min240 oC (5min) and (5)Column Flow:
1ml/min (He). The MS parameters are 1.Ion source
temp:230 oC, 2.Interface temp: 240 oC, 3.Detector
Voltage:0.84kV.
Hardness of Cookies
The hardness of cookies was measured using
texture analyzer (Stable micro system, U.K.) by
cutting through a blade with which was penetrated
in to cookies at speed of 0.5 mm/sec till the depth
of 5 mm and post speed was 10 mm/sec. The
highest peak (maximum force) was considered as
hardness of cookies at that time cookies broken
in to two major pieces. When the knife further
penetrated in to cookies, force was reduced and it
was cut in to broken smaller pieces. The variation in
the observation was recorded for different cookies
provided as sample (cookies) properties.
Sensory Evaluation
The mean of colour, a colour of crumb, a texture
of crumb, surface characteristics, taste and mouth
feel by a panel of 10 judges on a 7-point scale (1 for
very and 7 for excellent overall qualities) showed the
overall sensory quality.
Statistical Analysis
The ANOVA (completely randomized design) method
was used for analysis of data related to three times
replicated cookies for all parameters17
Results and Discussion
Fatty Acid Composition of Raw Materials
Fatty acid analysis of vegetable fat showed that it
contains highest proportion of total SFA which is
(60.35%) followed by 37% total MUFA and 2.62%
total PUFA (Table 1). Wherever the highest oleic acid
was (34.56%) in vegetable fat as in which palmitic
acid (44.65%) as SFA and linoleic acid (2.62%) as
PUFA, however other fatty acids were recorded in
lower concentrations (Table 1). 37% oleic acid, 24%
palmitic acid and 21.1% linoleic acid in vegetable
fat were recorded. Change in fatty acid content of
vegetable fat was varied based on the amount of
vegetable fat used in its production18.
Fatty acids analysis of peanut butter showed that it
contains the highest amount of total MUFA (56.57%),
total PUFA (18.83%) and also total SFA (30.86%).
Percentage of oleic acid (38.43 %) was greatest in
peanut butter than linoleic acid (18.74%) and palmitic
acid (14.46%). SFA like palmitic acid and stearic
acid were recorded in high proportion significantly
(p <0.01) highest in vegetable fat than PB however,
MUFA and PUFA like oleic acid and linoleic acid
were significantly (p < 0.01) highest in PB than that
of the vegetable. While refined wheat flour contained
only 1 percent fat so its contribution in experimental
cookies is not much important. Due to the highest
oleic acid (52%) followed by linoleic acid (26.2%) in
peanut butter it has a high nutritive value than other
fats and butter. Content of fatty acids were not similar
in products of PB and peanut. It changes with area
of production and variety19.
401 TIMBADIYA et al., Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour., Vol. 5(3), 398-405 (2017)
Fatty acid content of cookies: Study revealed that
total SFA was highest (62.45%) in control cookies
but as proportion of PB was increased, Total
SFA was decreased gradually which is shown in
table 2. In treatment T6 the amount of vegetable fat
was completely reintegrated by PB so percentage
of SFA comes to the lowest range (33.29%). The
reason was due to the high amount of SFA found in
vegetable than PB. In treatment T3 MUFA content
was found 37.27%, where, 40 % vegetable fat and
60 %peanut butter. In treatment T4 MUFA content
was found 37.45 % where, 60 % vegetable fat and
40 % peanut butter were added as raw materials
to make cookies. In treatment T6 highest MUFA
and total PUFA was found 47.50 % and 18.91%
respectively. Where, 100% vegetable fat was back
up by PB (Table 2).This was probably due to the high
content of PUFA (18.91%) in PB, which was100%
used to make T6 cookies in place of vegetable fat. The
ratio of linoleic acid to total SFA is called nutritional
quality index which was found 0.18 (T4) against
0.14 (control cookies). The result recorded of major
Fatty acids like palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic
acids, in the Turkish biscuits, which supported the
present study20.
Peanut Butter Incorporated Cookies Contained
Valuable MUFA and PUFA
MUFA and PUFA are blood cholesterol lowering
fatty acids and so it decreased the hazards effect
of coronary heart diseases21. In addition it also
contains many other nutrients which are beneficial
to heart like protein, folic acid, arginine, vitamin E,
plant sterols, soluble fiber, copper, zinc, magnesium
and selenium22. Daily supplement of PB can reduce
the disease related to heart by 21% however less fat
diet decreased it by 12%23. Total cholesterol level can
be reduced by 10% and LDL cholesterol by 14% by
using PB diets as it contains high MUFA24.
Sensory Acceptability
In treatment T3 40% vegetable fat was replaced by
PB which showed improved overall sensory quality
(Fig. 1). But when 100% PB was supplemented,
cookies became soggy and hard with irregular
puffing25. It was noted that 40% replacement of
vegetable fat with PB did not affect spread ratio
but replacement of 75 and 100% PB increased
spread ratio.26 However, increasing proportion of
PB in cookies led to weight increase. The product
trustworthiness was disapproved when fat was
incorporated by more than 50% with mung bean
paste27. Higher approval of kinema- supplemented
(Fermented soybean used product) cookies
compared with full fat soybean flour supplemented
cookies28.
Table 1: Fatty acid composition of raw materials.
Sr.No Fatty acid Vanas- Maida Raw Peanut Pooled S.Em. CD at CV
(% distribution) pati peanut Butter mean ± 5 % %
A. Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA)
1. Lauric acid, C12:0 0.68 0.18 - 0.03 0.30 0.01 0.04 9.77
2. Myristic acid, C14:0 1.92 0.25 0.15 0.08 0.60 0.01 0.05 4.25
3. Palmitic acid, C16:0 44.65 28.44 16.19 14.46 23.44 0.23 0.76 1.55
4. Stearic acid, C18:0 13.10 2.76 5.33 7.55 7.18 0.05 0.15 1.11
5. Arachidic acid, C20:0 - - 2.94 3.35 3.15 0.08 0.31 4.17
6. Behenic acid, C22:0 - 0.42 2.67 5.39 2.83 0.16 0.57 9.98
B. Mono-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA)
7. Palmitoleic acid C16:1 0.06 0.14 - 0.13 0.11 0.01 0.02 9.75
8. 7-Hexadecenoic acid C16:1 - 1.61 - - 1.61 - - -
9. Oleic acid, C18:1 34.56 16.38 57.32 38.43 36.67 0.23 0.76 1.10
10. 10-Octadecenoic acid C18:1 2.34 - - 8.18 5.26 0.04 0.18 1.45
(trans oleic acid)
11. Elaidic acid C18:1(trans oleic acid) - - - 8.13 8.13 - - -
402 TIMBADIYA et al., Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour., Vol. 5(3), 398-405 (2017)
12. 11-Eicosenoic acid C20:1 - - - 1.7 1.7 - - -
C. Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA)
13. Linoleic acid, C18:2 2.62 46.70 14.50 18.74 20.64 0.14 0.46 1.17
14. Linolenic acid, C18:3 - 3.42 - 0.09 1.75 0.03 0.12 2.98
Table 2: Fatty acid composition of experimental cookies supplemented with peanut butter
Sr. Fatty acid Treatments Pooled S. Em CD at CV
No. (% distribution) T1 T
2 T
3 T
4 T
5 T
6 mean ± 5 % %
A. Saturated Fatty Acids (SFA)
1. Lauric acid C12:0 0.58 0.67 0.78 0.58 0.45 0.32 0.57 0.03 0.09 9.10
2. Myristic acid, C14:0 2.42 2.35 2.34 2.33 2.14 2.29 2.34 0.11 0.34 8.16
3. Palmitic acid, C16:0 48.65 40.67 37.78 39.27 31.50 17.58 35.91 0.28 0.85 1.33
4. Stearic acid, C18:0 10.65 9.45 8.68 9.20 7.22 7.14 8.72 0.09 0.27 1.71
5. Arachidic acid, C20:0 0.15 0.29 0.66 0.38 2.17 2.24 0.98 0.06 0.17 9.94
6. Behenic acid, C22:0 - 8.76 2.62 1.04 0.56 3.45 3.29 0.12 0.39 6.53
B. Mono-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (MUFA)
7. Palmitoleic acid C16:1 0.65 0.14 0.26 0.06 0.14 0.15 0.23 0.01 0.04 9.52
8. Oleic acid, C18:1 26.54 26.91 34.57 31.62 32.86 31.58 30.68 0.21 0.66 1.21
9. 10-Octadecenoic acidC18:1 1.53 1.76 2.44 2.21 1.83 2.61 2.06 0.08 0.25 6.80
(trans oleic acid)
10. Elaidic acidC18:1 - - - 3.56 7.34 13.61 8.17 0.13 0.47 2.82
(trans oleic acid)
C. Poly-Unsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA)
11. Linoleic acid, C18:2 8.80 8.41 9.54 9.72 13.45 18.65 11.43 0.19 0.58 2.86
12. Linolenic acidC18:3 - 0.42 0.36 0.26 0.55 0.26 0.52 0.02 0.06 8.53
Where; T1 = Control, V 100: PB 0, T2 = V 80: PB 20; T3 = V 60: PB 40; T4 = V 40: PB 60; T5 = V 20: PB 80;
T6 = V 0: PB 100.
Hardness of cookies was increased when the
increasing the level of Peanut butter instead of
vegetable (Fig. 1). The reason behind increasing
hardness can be decreased total fat in the cookies as
gradual increasing proportion of PB. Same result was
found in sweet cookies up to 40% wheat which was
replaced with fat free soy flour in sugared cookies
and hardness was increased. Cookies textures
gradually become harder as 10, 15 and 50% wheat
flour was replaced by fat free white skin peanuts.
When oatrim, the carbohydrate situated fat replaced
75 and 100% of the butter in PB cookies, activity of
water and color get increased, cookie extension and
hardness was decreased. It was noted that 0.1%
sodium stearoyllactylate repressed the brittleness
but observed in a hard cookie.
There was gradual but significant decrease in
diameter of cookies which was mentioned in
Table 3. Thickness of cookies was significant during
T1 to T6 treatments, which was due to irregular puffing
and sogginess in experimental cookies prepared
with replacement of vegetable fat with peanut butter.
Spread ratio was found higher (4.08) in control
cookies and recorded significant change between
T1 and T2 treatment, followed by significantly declined
at T3 treatment again, non- significant change for T3
to T4 treatment. It significantly declined in T4 to T6
treatments compared to control cookies.
403 TIMBADIYA et al., Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour., Vol. 5(3), 398-405 (2017)
Fig. 1: examination of treatments PB on (A) hardness (B) overall all sensory
and (C)Spread ratio
Table 3: Physical Characteristics of Cookies Made from Varying Levels of Vanspati
(Hydrogenated Fat) and Peanut Butter.
Sr. Treatments Diameter Thickness Spread Weight Hardness
No. (V : PB) (mm) (mm) ratio (g) (g force)
(D) (T) (D/T)
1. Control
T
1 (100 : 0) 45.27 11.30 4.08 9.62 19189.33
2. Experimental
T
2 (80: 20 ) 42.00 14.50 2.92 10.15 22051.67
3. Experimental
T
3 (60 : 40) 40.73 16.47 2.45 10.33 25608.00
4. Experimental
T
4 (40 : 60 ) 39.10 18.48 2.13 11.05 26009.00
5. Experimental
T
5 (20 : 80 ) 36.80 21.37 1.74 12.07 26509.67
6. Experimental
T
6 (0 : 100 ) 34.67 22.39 1.53 13.08 49453.67
Pooled mean 39.76 17.42 2.48 11.05 28136.89
S. Em. ± 0.47 0.12 0.02 0.07 192.62
CD at 5 % 1.45 0.38 0.05 0.22 595.11
CV % 2.05 1.21 1.19 1.13 1.19
Where, V = vegetable fat, PB = peanut butter
404 TIMBADIYA et al., Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour., Vol. 5(3), 398-405 (2017)
Conclusion
From Above study it can be concluded that the
negligible reduction in the organoleptic score of
the experimental cookies containing peanut butter
was observed when vegetable fat was substituted
up to 40% of peanut butter (T3). Thus, this level of
added peanut butter was treated as optimum level
in the experimental cookies without much adverse
effect on the acceptability i.e. sensory attributes.
Cookies’ hardness was elevated with increasing
incorporation of vegetable fat with peanut butter.
This could be due to increase in protein content and
reduction in fat content in the experimental cookies.
The SFAs namely; stearic acid, myristic acid, lauric
acid, palmitic acid, etc. were found higher in control
cookies and significantly declined with rising volume
of peanut butter in the developmental cookies. This
could be beneficial for heart patients. Oleic acid
(MUFA) was found least in control cookies, which
was significantly increased when 20 % vegetable
fat was replaced by peanut butter (T2) followed by
non-significant increase for the rest of treatments
(T2 to T6). Nutritionists give more importance to MUFA
contents so as to restrict cardiac problems. Linoleic
acid (PUFA) was found lower in control cookies
and it significantly increased with incorporation of
peanut butter in experimental cookies. This could
be considered beneficial from the nutritionist point
of view for controlling atherosclerosis.
Conflict of Interest
Now a days, there are continuously an increase in
cardiac disease in human which is majorly cause
by intake of saturated fatty acid in our diet. The
peanut butter have a high amount of unsaturated
fatty acids which is beneficial for human health and
it has better nutritional quality so we can decline
the risk of cardiac disorder by the replacement of
SFAs with the USFAs ( unsaturated fatty acids ). The
main source of peanut butter is groundnut which is
the easily available and comparatively cheaper than
vegetable ghee.
Acknowledgement
All authors are thankful to the Professor and Head,
department of Biochemistry, Junagadh Agriculture
University (JAU) Junagadh, for the providing the
instruments, other laboratory facilities and funding
for this research work.
References
1. Abegaz, E. G.; Kerr, W. L. and Koehler, P. E.
2006. Descriptive sensory analysis of stored
model peanut confections with different sugar,
moisture, and antioxidant levels. Peanut
Science, 33 (1): 53-59.
2. Arshad, M. U.;Anjum, F. M. and Tahir 2007.
Zahoor nutritional assessment of cookies
supplemented with defatted wheat germ. J.
Food Science.102 (1): 123–128.
3. Chun, J. Y. 2002. Vitamin E content and
stability in peanuts and peanut products
during processing and storage.M.A.G., Korea
University, Korea.
4. Bartolozzi, G.; Bizzozero, N. and Pistis, A.
2000. An investigation on the fat content of
industrial biscuits. J. Industrie Alimentary, 39:
1391-1393.
5. Dhamsaniya, N. K.; Patel, N. C. and Dabhi,
M. N. 2012. Selection of groundnut variety for
making a good quality peanut butter. J. Food
Science Technology, 49(1):115–118.
6. Moore K. M. and Knauft D. A. 1989. The
inheritance of high oleic acid in peanut. J. of
Heredity, 80: 252-253.
7. Anonymous, 2001. Peanut oil one of the world
traditional healthy oils 9(3), www.peanut-
institute.org.
8. Lam, C.; Wong, D.; Cederbaum, S.;, Lim, B.;
Qu, Y.; 2012. Peanut consumption increases
levels of plasma very long chain fatty acids
in humans, J. Molecular genetics and
metabolism, 13:41-45.
9. Anonymous, 2001. Food For Thought Dietary
Guidelines Take another Look at Fat 5(1),
www.peanutsusa.com.
10. Woodroof, J. G.; Thompson, H. and Cecil, S.
R. 1949. How refrigeration protect quality of
peanut. J. Food Industry, 21: 66-71.
11. Sahar, R. and El-Hady 2012. Utilization
of defatted wheat germ flour as nutrient
J. Agricultural. Research Kafer El-Sheikh
University, 38(1): 238-253.
405 TIMBADIYA et al., Curr. Res. Nutr Food Sci Jour., Vol. 5(3), 398-405 (2017)
12. Lee, S. S.; Kim, M. B.; Chun, J. C.; Cheong,
Y. K. and Lee, J. 2004. Analysis of trans-
resveratrol in peanuts and peanut butters
consumed in Korea. J. Food Research
International, 37: 247–251.
13. Freeman, A. F.; Morris, N. J. and Willich, R.
K. 1954. Peanut butter. U. S. Dept. Agril. AIC,
pp- 370.
14. Watt, B. K. and Merrill, A. L. 1963. Composition
of foods, USDA, Agric, Handb.8, U.S. Dept.
Agric., Washington, D.C.
15. Sadaf, J.; Bibi, A.; Raza, S.; Waseem, K.;
Jilani, M. S. and Ullah, G. 2013. Peanut butter
incorporation as substitute for shortening
in biscuits: Composition and acceptability
studies. J. International Food Research, 20(5):
3243-3247.
16. Woodroof, J. G. 1983. Peanuts: production,
processing, products. The-AVI publishing
company, Inc., (III ed.), West port,
Connecticut.
17. Misra J. B. and Mathur R. S. 1998. A simple and
economical procedure for transmethylation of
fatty acids in groundnut oil for analysis by
GLC. J. International Arachis News Letter,
18: 40-42.
18. Snedecor, G. W. and Cocharan, W. G., 1967.
Statistical methods, 6th Ed., Oxford and IBH
Publishing Co, Calcutta.
19. Paul, A. A. and Southgate, D. A. T. 1978.
Fatty acid composition. In “The composition
of foods” Elserier / Muth- Holland Biomedical
press, New york, pp. 289-300.
20. Nagaraj, G. 1995. Groundnut: In “quality and
utility of oilseeds”: Published by Directorate
of oilseeds Research. Hyderabad. pp. 2-8.
21. Daglioglu, O.; Tasan, M. and Tuncel, B. 2000.
Determination of fatty acid composition and
total trans fatty acids of Turkish biscuits
by capillary gas liquid chromatography.
European Food Research and Technology,
211: 41-44.
22. Kris-Etherton; Pearson, T. A.; Wan, Y.; Hargrove,
R. L.; Moriarty, K.;Fishell, V. andEtherton, T.
D. 1999. High-monounsaturated fatty acid
diets lower both plasma cholesterol and
triacylglycerol concentrations. J. clinical
nutrition, 70(6): 1009-1015.
23. Gandhi AP, Srivastav DC, Parihar VS, Nadh
PR, Kotwaliwale N, Kawalkar J (2001). Effect
of incorporation of defatted soy flour on the
quality of sweet biscuits. J. Food Sci Technol
38:502–50.
24. Ory RL, Conkerton EJ (1983) Supplementation
of bakery items with high protein peanut flour.
J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 60:986–989.
25. Swanson RB, Garden LA, Parks SS (1999)
Effect of carbohydrate based fat substitute
and emulsifying agents on reduced fat
pea-nut butter cookies. J. Food Quality
22:19–29.
26. Gajera HP, Kapopara MB, Patel VH, Patel MM
(2008) Influence of peanut butter on quality
characteristics of biscuits. J. Food Sci. Technol
45:373–375
27. Adair M, Knight S, Gates G (2001) Acceptability
of peanut butter cookies prepared using
mungbean paste as a fat ingredient substitute.
J. Am. Dietetic Assoc. 101:467–469
28. Shrestha AK, Noomhorm A, NoomhormAthapol
(2002) Com-parison of physico-chemical
properties of biscuits supple-mented with soy
and kinema fours. Int.J. Food Sci Technol. 37:
361–368.
... O amendoim (Arachis hypogaea L.) é uma das principais culturas oleaginosas cultivada e consumida no mundo. O amendoim é consumido como fonte proteica e energética na dieta, mas também possui uma considerável quantidade de fibras e diversos nutrientes em sua composição (Timbabadiya et al., 2017). O amendoim contém cerca de 49% de óleo em peso, destes, 14% são ácidos graxos saturados (SFAs), 51% são ácidos graxos monoinsaturados (MUFAs), principalmente ácido oleico, e 33% são ácidos graxos poliinsaturados (PUFAs), principalmente ácido linoleico, destacando-se ainda na fração não lipídica, 16% de carboidratos, 9% de fibras e 25% de proteínas (Onodera et al., 1998). ...
... Um dos produtos derivados dos grãos de amendoim é a pasta de amendoim, consumida na sua forma natural, adicionada de aditivos, podendo ser também incorporada em diversas formulações alimentícias (Chang et al., 2013;Timbabadiya et al., 2017). O consumo de pasta de amendoim na dieta diária de homens e mulheres ajuda a controlar níveis normais de colesterol, reduzindo o colesterol total e o LDL, promovendo a saúde do coração. ...
... Alpha-tocopherol (Vitamin E) is an antioxidative vitamin by preventing the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids present in consumed foods (Gao, Wilde, Lichtenstein, Bermudez, & Tucker, 2006). So that peanut is not used only for oil extraction but also for the formulation of various fortified food products (Shakerardekani, Karim, Ghazali, & Chin, 2013;Timbadiya, Bheda, Gajera, & Patel, 2017). The processed cheese sauce is a novel thermally processed cheese product at the present time. ...
Article
The processed cheese sauce is an innovative thermally processed cheese product. Peanut butter is an excellent source of plant protein, vitamins, minerals, and a host of biologically active composites. The aim of this study was carried out to produce processed cheese sauce with a high content of essential nutrients by supplementation with peanut butter. Processed cheese sauce was prepared with peanut butter in the ratios of (2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10 g/100 g) processed cheese sauce. Furthermore, Gas–Liquid Chromatography (GLC) displayed that the peanut butter having an appreciably higher ratio of oleic to linoleic acid symbolized about 80% of the peanut fatty acid profiles. It also had antioxidant activity which determined by DPPH % and total phenol content 9.69% ± 0.97and 224 ± 0.011 mg/g, respectively. The changes in processed cheese sauce composition, minerals, vitamins, color changes, physical properties, and sensory attributes have been reported and discussed. Addition of up to 7.5% and 10% of peanut butter imparted better flavor to processed cheese sauce with adequate composition and quality. Processed cheese sauce with this formula may offer vital nutrients and selling good health benefits to consumers. Peanut butter is an excellent source of plant protein, vitamins, minerals, and a host of biologically active composites. The processed cheese sauce is an innovative thermally processed cheese product nowadays. It is one of the potential foods that have been used for fortification with numerous functional food ingredients. The objective of this study was carried out to produce processed cheese sauce with a high content of essential nutrients by supplementation with peanut butter.
... Peanut grain contains carbohydrates (21.51g), lipids Fats 49.66g, fiber (8.0g), proteins (23.68g), energy 2448kJ (585 kcal) and water 1.55 g (Settaluri et al., 2012). Peanut skins are rich in phenolic compounds and these polyphenols act as antioxidants (Lindsey et al., 2018) and its butter is also widely used in cookies which improve the nutritional quality of cookies (Timbadiya et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
BARI-2016 is the peanut variety developed by hybridizing two peanut genotypes No. 334 and Pw. during 1995 at Barani Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Chakwal. F1 to F7 generations were raised following the pedigree selection method was used for focusing high yield, maximum number of seeds pod-1, shelling percentage and vigorous plant type. On the basis of better yield performance of BARI-2016 at different locations in yield trials Punjab Seed Council approved it for general cultivation based on its better yield performance and is having cultivated. The potential and average yield of BARI-2016 is 4100 and 2900kg ha-1, respectively and it is tolerant to drought and Cercospora leaf spot with 60-70% recovery after shelling. More than 40% pods of BARI-2016 have 3-4 seeds pods-1 which is a distinguished character of BARI-2016 and differentiate it from earlier approved varieties of peanut.
... Nugraheni et al., 10 and A. Kanchana et al., 11 used resistant starch type 3 (RS3) andoryza sativa (red rice)flakes to make crackers and snacks that can as a functional food to improve diabetes, obesity and metabolism.Timbadiya et al., 12 replaced with peanut butter to reduce saturated fatty acids in cookies not only had a greater appreciable sensory quality, but also reduce heart disease risk through consumption of beneficial mono and poly unsaturated fats. Ajanaku et al., 13 indicated the maize-Ogi with abundant protein sources would as an alternative approach for combating the threats of protein malnutrition in neonates.Further, Biswas et al., 14 evidenced the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic efficiency ofvaluable components from watermelon (Citrullus vulgaris) seed kernel sonmale albino rats. ...
Article
The aim of the present study was to develop a mixed leather of açaí, banana, peanut, and guaraná syrup with nutritional characteristics, high fiber content and energy value using hydrocolloids agar and gellan gum as a binding agent. For this purpose, different concentrations of these hydrocolloids were evaluated in the development of mixed leather. The following formulations were developed: agar (0.50%) and gellan gum (0.50%), as (A050/G050); agar (0.75%) and gellan gum (0.25%), as (A075/G025); and agar (1.0%), as (A1). The concentration of dietary fiber in the formulation containing 0.50% of agar demonstrated significant differences in comparison to the other samples (p < 0.05). The addition of 0.75% of agar presented a higher average for carbohydrates (56.85 mg 100/g). The most negative impact on the bioaccessibility of the total phenolic compounds (TPC) and antioxidant activity (ABTS and FRAP) was in the A050/G050 sample. Regarding rupture strength, the sample A1 showed the lowest value (2.42 N) among all of the mixed leathers. The drying process contributed to the shrinkage of the polymer network of agar and gellan gum, resulting in a more compact mixed leather. This polymer net, in turn, trapped the lipid content, as well as the TPC (after gastrointestinal digestion) of mixed leather A1, thus providing beneficial effects to the body. Finally, the addition of 1% of agar stood out for presenting greater results for these parameters, offering a viable alternative for the production of a more nutritious product.
Article
Elderly people are a vulnerable group that is in a risk of getting undernutrition. This problem could be addressed by fermented peanut meal (black oncom) which has many nutritional contents and potential health benefits. This study aimed to determine physical, sensory characteristics, and nutritional contents of biscuits with the addition of black oncom or peanuts which were made from a substitution from wheat flour to sorghum flour. A factorial design was used to formulate and test the biscuits. The factors were type of flour and additions of peanuts or black oncom flour. The hardness of biscuits was analyzed using Stevens LFRA texture analyzer instrument, while water absorption analysis was determined as bound water per gram of samples. Sensory analysis was performed using the hedonic test by semi-trained panelists and was evaluated on nine point scale. Nutritional contents of protein, lipid, water, ash, carbohydrate, crude fiber, and dietary fiber were analyzed using modified AOAC methods, while protein digestability was determined based on the enzymatic principle using modified Saunder method. Physical characteristics of biscuits were not significant different in the hardness and water absorption (P > 0.05), indicating that additions of peanut flour or black oncom flour did not affect physical characteristics. SOB (sorghum-based black oncom biscuit) had the same acceptance with WOB (wheat-based black oncom biscuit), but it had lower acceptance than SPB (sorghum-based peanut biscuits) and WPB (wheat-based peanut biscuits). The addition of black oncom flour increased nutritional contents in SOB and WOB as follows 15.12 and 14.45 g/100 g of protein, 1.98 and 1.87 g/100 g of ash, 1.06 and 0.08 g/100 g of crude fiber, 76.28 and 76.38% of protein digestibility and fat content of 28.18 and 29.83 g/100 g, respectively. Meanwhile, the nutritional contents of WPB and SPB were 12.18 and 12.53 g.100 g of protein, 31.78 and 29.41 g/100 g of fat, 1.93 and 1.75 g/100 g of ash, 0.69 and 1.09 g/100 g of crude fiber and 70.98 and 73.75% of protein digestibility, respectively. SOB showed significant differences in nutritional contents, especially in the protein and fat contents compared to WOB, SPB and WPB, whereas the protein digestability showed no significant differences. This study concluded that sorghum-based black oncom biscuits could be applied as a supplementary food for elderly people especially in the undernutrition problem.
Article
Roasting is the main processing step performed to improve sensory and conservative properties of peanuts. The objective of this study was to evaluate changes in peanut oil and paste during roasting at different temperatures in a conventional oven (80, 110, 140, 170, and 200°C) and microwave. The increase in roasting temperature promoted reduction of L * value, b * value, and increases of a *, K232 , K270, and acidity. For alpha (α), gamma (γ), and delta (δ) tocopherols, as well as fatty acids, less degradation were observed at the roasting temperature of 140°C. Paste acceptability greater than 70% was achieved with roasting at 140°C. Based on the results, 140°C was the optimal roasting temperature that achieved the best paste acceptance rates with the smallest changes in oil and tocopherol quality parameters. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
Full-text available
Replacement of wheat flour with defatted wheat germ (DFWG) at levels of 0–25% was investigated for its effect on functional and nutritional properties of cookies. The crude protein content of DFWG was as high as 27.8% with a highly valuable amino acid profile, rich in essential amino acids, especially lysine (2.32g/100g). The physicochemical and sensory evaluation of cookies, revealed that up to 15% substitution of wheat flour with DFWG produced acceptable cookies similar to the control (100% wheat flour) cookies. The protein quality of the cookies was assessed through weanling albino rats by feeding a diet of cookies for 10 days, which was formulated to supply 10% protein, with a casein diet as a control. The cookies containing 15% DFWG, were best regarding protein bioavailability in rats. The protein efficiency ratio (PER), net protein utilization (NPU), biological value (BV) and true digestibility (TD) differed significantly among diets containing cookies with 0–10% DFWG, and casein diet when fed to rats. Diets containing 15% DFWG have values, of these parameters, similar to the casein diet.
Article
20 samples of biscuits of industrial origin were analyzed in order to determine their fat content (5-25.1%).The composition of the fat content was further analyzed by gaschromatography: the results showed a clear prevalence of saturated fatty acids (from 45-50% to a maximum of 85%). Only in one product containing hydrogenated fats, a fairly high percentage of trans oleic acid was found (6.5%).
Article
The present study was designed to evaluate the composition and acceptability of biscuits prepared by partially replacing hydrogenated vegetable shortening with peanut butter to reduce the fats and enhance the nutritional value. For this objective five different treatments of biscuits were prepared from peanut (Arachis hypogaea) butter and hydrogenated vegetable shortening (Banaspati) i.e. T1(0:100) T2(10:90) T3(20:80) T4(30:70) T5(40:60). T1 (without peanut butter) was kept as control. Physiochemical studies showed that peanut butter incorporation in biscuits increased moisture content, crude fiber and crude protein content, while Crude fat and Nitrogen free extract (NFE) decreased significantly with the incorporation of peanut butter. Sensory studies showed that biscuits prepared with peanut butter had relatively harder texture and darker color than control. However, peanut butter gave palatable flavor and taste to biscuits. The treatment with peanut butter and hydrogenated vegetable shortening (40:60) was the most preferred of all the samples.
Article
Biscuits were prepared by replacing hydrogenated fat (vanaspati) with peanut butter (PB) in the ratios 100:00, 75:25, 50:50, 25:75, 00:100 in the standard biscuit recipe, and their quality evaluated. There was an increase in the protein content with a decrease in total fat content when the proportion of PB increased in the biscuits. Sensory acceptability of biscuit was better when vanaspati was substituted by 50% PB. Weight and hardness of biscuit increased with increasing proportion of PB. Spread ratio was not affected up to 50% replacement of vanaspati with PB but decreased when 75 and 100% PB was incorporated.
Article
Replacement of wheat flour up to 40 % level with defatted soyflour in the standard sweet biscuits recipe increased the protein content from 6.5 to 14.8%, bending hardness from 3.60 to 9.85 N. and cutting hardness from 6.02 to 23.04 N of then biscuits. Sensory evaluation results showed that all of the biscuits from various blends were acceptable with no significant differences among them.
Article
Model peanut butter confections with two antioxidant (TBHQ) levels (0 and 180 ppm), two sugar levels (0 and 4%), and 3 moisture levels (0, 2, and 5%) were stored at 21 C for 52 wk. Six sensory descriptors, sweet, bitter, roasted peanutty, rancid, painty, and cardboard attributes were examined by trained panel. Samples with intermediate and high moisture had high rancid, painty, and cardboard scores and low roasted peanutty and sweet scores. Samples with TBHQ had higher roasted peanutty flavor and lower rancidity, painty, and cardboard scores in low moisture treatments. Addition of sugar increased sweetness while reducing bitterness and rancidity of peanut paste (P ≤ 0.05). Significant two-way interactions were observed for all attributes.
Article
A modified HPLC method for the determination of trans-resveratrol in peanuts and peanut butter has been developed. The method used acetonitrile/water (9:1, v/v) as an extraction solvent followed by solid phase extraction on column packed with Al2O3 and AccuBandII SPE ODS C18. Eluate was evaporated under nitrogen stream and the residue was dissolved in LC mobile phase. Analytical data include the trans-resveratrol content of 15 different cultivars of raw peanuts produced from Korea, four roasted peanuts and seven peanut butter consumed in Korea. The trans-resveratrol content of the raw peanuts, roasted peanuts and peanut butter ranged from 0.09 to 0.30 μg/g, trace amount to 0.13 and 0.27 to 0.70 μg/g, respectively. Analytical method validation parameters including linearity, accuracy, precision, limits of detection and quantitation were determined. Overall recovery from peanut and peanut butter was close to 100% (n=10).