Metals including lead, chromium, arsenic, zinc, cadmium, copper and mercury can cause significant damage to the environment and human health as a result of their mobilities and solubilities. The selection of the most appropriate soil and sediment remediation method depends on the site characteristics, concentration, types of pollutants to be removed, and the end use of the contaminated medium. The approaches include isolation, immobilization, toxicity reduction, physical separation and extraction. Many of these technologies have been used full-scale. This paper will review both the full-scale and developing technologies that are available. Contaminants can be isolated and contained to minimize further movement, to reduce the permeability of the waste to less than 1×10−7 m/s (according to U.S. guidelines) and to increase the strength or bearing capacity of the waste. Physical barriers made of steel, cement, bentonite and grout walls can be used for isolation and minimization of metal mobility. Another method is solidification /stabilization, which contains the contaminants in an area by mixing or injecting agents. Solidification encapsulates contaminants in a solid matrix while stabilization involves formation of chemical bonds to reduce contaminant mobility. Another approach is size selection processes for removal of the larger, cleaner particles from the smaller more polluted ones. To accomplish this, several processes are used. They include: hydrocyclones, fluidized bed separation and flotation. Addition of special chemicals and aeration in the latter case causes these contaminated particles to float. Electrokinetic processes involve passing a low intensity electric current between a cathode and an anode imbedded in the contaminated soil. Ions and small charged particles, in addition to water, are transported between the electrodes. This technology have been demonstrated in the U.S. full-scale, in a limited manner but in Europe, it is used for copper, zinc, lead, arsenic, cadmium, chromium and nickel. The duration of time that the electrode remains in the soil, and spacing is site-specific. Techniques for the extraction of metals by biological means have been not extensively applied up to this point. The main methods include bioleaching and phytoremediation. Bioleaching involves Thiobacillus sp. bacteria which can reduce sulphur compounds under aerobic and acidic conditions (pH 4) at temperatures between 15 and 55°C. Plants such as Thlaspi, Urtica, Chenopodium, Polygonum sachalase and Alyssim have the capability to accumulate cadmium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc and can therefore be considered as an indirect method of treating contaminated soils. This method is limited to shallow depths of contamination. Soil washing and in situ flushing involve the addition of water with or without additives including organic and inorganic acids, sodium hydroxide which can dissolve organic soil matter, water soluble solvents such as methanol, nontoxic cations, complexing agents such as ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), acids in combination with complexation agents or oxidizing/reducing agents. Our research has indicated that biosurfactants, biologically produced surfactants, may also be promising agents for enhancing removal of metals from contaminated soils and sediments.In summary, the main techniques that have been used for metal removal are solidification/stabilization, electrokinetics, and in situ extraction. Site characteristics are of paramount importance in choosing the most appropriate remediation method. Phytoremediation and bioleaching can also be used but are not as well developed.