Technical ReportPDF Available

Handbook for Operators

Authors:

Abstract

EC Programme for Employment and Social Solidarity (2007 - 2013): PROGRESS - CHALLENGE - VS/2008/0470, HANDBOOK FOR OPERATORS - Employment Strategies for Social Inclusion: Challenges and Key Words for Local Employment Initiatives; Italy, Bulgaria, Spain, Cyprus
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
1
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
2
P
PR
RE
EF
FA
AC
CE
E
The general increase in the employees level of skills required by companies in today's European labour market is reported by the
whole scientific literature: the demand for such expertise and qualification is based primarily on the innovation of organization
models and labour division, the birth of new means of production and the impact of new technologies. Both large and small
companies who seek to compete in terms of surplus value in an increasingly turbulent market, exposed to international
competition, require skilled and reliable workforce. The demand for labor is therefore more selective, requiring more and more
qualified workforce, with a certain level of basic and horizontal knowledge, even in the lower-level positions in the company
structure.
In view of the current situation, it is necessary to take into account not only the difficulties of integrating into the workforce the
most vulnerable subjects, who often possess very limited skills and work-related abilities and entail increasingly complex social
needs, but also the increasing flexibility of the labour market (with all the elusive processes that sometimes cause precarious
work situations) that tend to destabilize the work position of the non-specialized subjects, generating frequent discriminations
against those most vulnerable, who are most prone to risk the expulsion from the market: the insecurity and instability in the
work context may then result in economic insecurity and social exclusion.
Social exclusion, strictly related to the concept of inequality and part of a dynamic and complex social process, encompasses
many interrelated issues, such as marginalization, economic insecurity, cultural deprivation, loneliness, lack of social and family
ties. The concept of poverty thus assumes a meaning that goes far beyond material and economic poverty, together with various
typical conditions of contemporary society: a multidimensional and complex intertwining of suffering and social inequality.
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
3
Thus, the objective of integration between the field of active employment policies and the social sector becomes strategically
worthy of immediate pursuit.
On the one hand, active employment policies are becoming more and more a means to address and resolve disadvantages that,
originating from difficult work situations, fall mainly in the social context as a demand for financial and family support services,
and on the other hand, social intervention policies are more effective if they succeed in using programs and tools which promote
a concrete social inclusion, in addition to temporary support initiatives including economic support, through job placement and
the improvement of people’s employability.
The fight against social exclusion, together with the assurance of equal access to productive lives and to social welfare thus
requires the development of innovative strategies, based on a polycentrism of interventions and must be implemented through
the development of partnerships between local public and private sectors. Working on removing discriminatory barriers,
restoring equal treatment to people who are their victims, is to actually design an integrated operational strategy between the
different areas of welfare, aiming to create the means for social and employment inclusion for the subjects. Therefore, the fight
against employment exclusion is also against social exclusion.
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
4
Labour Market Governance and Welfare System: creating jobs at the local level: Local Employment Development
The European Commission is promoting the establishment of holistic, integrative local employment development (LED)
strategies. A very important aspect of LED is its multi-stakeholder policy, encouraging committed local partnerships that identify
with the areas they operate in. The Commission looks for good understanding and dialogue, combined with a commitment to
management excellence to out the best in citizens of local communities.
Local Employment Development (LED) is meant as a set of actions aiming at improving the local economy and the local labour
market. This may, for example, refer to activities to decrease unemployment by increasing the attractiveness of the local area as
a business location, to improve the quality of jobs and working conditions, to reduce inequality (e.g. due to gender, age,
ethnicity, culture), to foster labour market integration etc.
It entails a process that is designed and implemented with the involvement of many local actors and takes into account the needs
and potential of a particular locality.
Local Employment Development (LED) as an “instrument” to fight unemployment has been recognised by the European
Commission and other European institutions in the early 1980s and since then has been continuously gaining importance
(European Commission, 2007b). Since about 2000, the strategy of subsidiarity has been the subject of particular focus. The
European Union, the Member States, the regional and local levels as well as social partners and the civil society should, therefore,
be involved in economic, employment and social policies by taking advantage of multi-stakeholder partnerships (European
Commission, 2000).
Local employment development has been addressed through various European programmes, such as the European Structural
Funds (in the framework of which the former Community Initiative EQUAL is to be particularly highlighted), the URBAN and
LEADER Community Initiatives or the INTERREG programme.
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
5
In line with the European Union’s objectives and initiatives, the individual Member States (as well as Australia and Canada) have
also been paying increasing attention to the local level and LED policies during the past years, resulting in a decentralisation
process in terms of a transfer of competences and more autonomy to local authorities.
Local initiatives are nonetheless strongly embedded in national policies, which, in turn, are oriented on the EU guidelines (mainly
the Lisbon Strategy for Growth and Jobs and European Employment Strategy) and often funded by European financial means. Only
in a few countries (e.g. Hungary, Luxembourg) LED does not yet constitute an established policy field.
The major motivation for this approach is the recognition of the fact that there are considerable differences among
regions/provinces, resulting in specific and varying problems. Such differences should be tackled by those that are most familiar
with them - hence, local actors. Consequently, an increasing tendency of combining top-down strategies (i.e. strategies set at
central level but operating employment promotion locally through Public Employment Services) and bottom-up initiatives (e.g.
activities driven by local NGOs approaching local authorities and/or companies to attract funding, co-operation or support) can
be observed across Europe, Australia and Canada. A multi-stakeholder approach is followed in LED in all Member States,
Australia and Canada.
There is also a shift in governance mechanisms, envisaging a ‘sharing of power’ and ‘division of labour’ in the policy-making
process. This is to be achieved by stronger interaction among regional/local governments and the civil society as well as the
participation of other relevant stakeholders (including companies).
The analysis of the local employment development policies throughout Europe has shown that although there is a tendency for
decentralisation, a top-down process is applied rather than a bottom-up one. However, since the various local areas are very
different, the European Commission as well as national governments should pay more attention to the local level by putting more
emphasis on the concept of New Governance and the development of local actors to become operationally involved.
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
6
T
TH
HE
E
C
CH
HA
AL
LL
LE
EN
NG
GE
E
P
PR
RO
OJ
JE
EC
CT
T
PROGRESS Community programme for employment and social solidarity
Call for proposals VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01 PROJECTS ON LOCAL EMPLOYMENT DEVELOPMENT (LED)
The European Commission, DG Employment, social affairs and equal opportunities, with the notification of the 11th of November
2008, approved the Progress project proposal “Challenge”.
The project was submitted under the call for proposals VP/2008/010, BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01 PROJECTS ON LOCAL
EMPLOYMENT DEVELOPMENT (LED, priority "to facilitate knowledge acquisition and transfer in the implication for local
development of the emerging issues of inclusion, migrants, ethnic minorities, demographic change, and/or youth").
The project aims to promote the comparison and the exchange of experiences and of competences, in relation to social
protection and labour inclusion policies. The project shall support the exchange of good practices in the field of the local
initiatives for the employment development: strategic tools for the promotion of labour active policies able to enhance the local
communities potential, adopting shared development strategies including the various welfare dimensions.
The primary goal is in fact "to elaborate innovative locally-generated employment strategies (LDEI - Local Development
Employment Initiatives), able to develop a co-ordinate approach of social inclusion for disadvantaged people", through the
constitution of qualified multilevel partnership to guarantee the realization of local development strategies, integrating the
various levels of governance; the analysis of inclusion strategies, and the definition of possible integrations with the labour active
policies at regional, national and European level; the development of local social networks, in order to share knowledge and
experiences among experts in the field, to elaborate common innovative methodologies, models and tools to manage negotiated
programming paths.
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
7
Expected results are the activation of stable local planning boards and therefore the development of innovative labour and social
inclusion models.
Challenge is supported by the European Community Programme for Employment and Social Solidarity (2007-2013) - PROGRESS.
This programme is managed by the Directorate-General for Employment, social affairs and equal opportunities of the European
Commission.
This programme was established to financially support the implementation of the objectives of the European Union in the
employment and social affairs area, as set out in the Social Agenda, and thereby contribute to the achievement of the Lisbon
Strategy goals in these fields. The seven-year Programme targets all stakeholders who can help shape the development of
appropriate and effective employment and social legislation and policies, across the EU-27, EFTA-EEA and EU candidate and pre-
candidate countries.
PROGRESS mission is to strengthen the EU contribution in support of Member States' commitments and efforts to create more
and better jobs and to build a more cohesive society.
To that effect, PROGRESS will be instrumental in: providing analysis and policy advice on PROGRESS policy areas; monitoring and
reporting on the implementation of EU legislation and policies in PROGRESS policy areas; promoting policy transfer, learning and
support among Member States on EU objectives and priorities; relaying the views of the stakeholders and society at large.
For more information see:
http://progress.verlata.it
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
8
http://ec.europa.eu/employment_social/progress/index_en.html. The information contained in this publication does not
necessarily reflect the position or opinion of the European Commission.
Objectives
General Objective
To elaborate innovative locally-generated employment strategies (LDEI - Local Development Employment Initiatives), capable of
developing a co-ordinate approach of social inclusion for disadvantaged people.
Operative Objectives
To promote the constitution of qualified multilevel partnership to guarantee the realization of local development strategies,
integrating the various levels of governance
To analyze the strategies of inclusion, defining possible integrations with the labour active policies at regional, national and
European level
To promote the development of local social networks, in order to share knowledge and experiences among experts in the field,
to elaborate common innovative methodologies, models and tools to manage negotiated programming paths
To promote the activation of stable local planning boards. To elaborate innovative labour and social inclusion models
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
9
Activities
Phase 1: Project coordination and governance
Activation of the steering committees for the project management: Partners Assembly; Executive Board; Action Teams
Phase 2: Opportunities and threats Analysis for a new welfare model
Analysis of the changes at a national level and within the local communities structure
Analysis of the variables and substantial aspects behind the extreme forms of social and labour discrimination
Interviews with local stakeholders, in order to point out the communities perceptions about extreme forms of social and
labour discrimination and the offer of social and labour inclusion tools and policies.
Phase 3: Good practices review
Good practices peer review and comparative analysis
Phase 4: Awarness Raising
Management of European Awareness Scenario Workshop: 1 for each territorial context
Phase 5: Learning Laboratories
ICT Based Community activation
Visits and exchange experiences organization
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
10
One-week transnational laboratories for LED innovation (Transnational staff granting technical assistance to the various
territories): 1 for each territorial context
Phase 6: New governance systems
Elaboration of an operative handbook for public and private operators
Elaboration of a "green paper" in order to explicit the new vision in terms of policies and strategies
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
11
M
ME
ET
TH
HO
OD
DO
OL
LO
OG
GI
IE
ES
S
For Local Development Employment Initiatives
The local dimension of the European Employment Strategy
Brussels, 3.3.2010 COM (2010) 2020 COMMUNICATION FROM THE COMMISSION EUROPE 2020 A strategy for smart,
sustainable and inclusive growth
After the adoption of the Amsterdam Treaty, the EU has modified its approach to employment policies. During the Luxembourg
Jobs Summit in November 1997 it was decided that this new approach - the European Employment Strategy (EES) – had to be
based on thematic priorities, divided in four pillars and described in the employment guidelines. Each year, the Member States
transform these guidelines in National Action Plans for Employment (NAP). The NAPs are examined by the European Commission
and the Council, presenting the results of their evaluations in a joint report on employment.
These results serve to redefine the guidelines and make recommendations concerning the country-specific policies and
employment strategies of the Member States.
Since their inception, the guidelines for employment have dealt with the local dimension, calling on Member States to involve the
local and regional levels and to support the creation of jobs locally. This local dimension has strengthened over the years.
In March 2000 the Lisbon European Council outlined a strategy emphasizing the importance of the interaction between
economic, employment and social policies and the mobilization of all actors and established a stronger method of coordination
described as "a fully decentralized approach applied coherently with the principle of subsidiarity to which the EU, the Member
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
12
States, the regional and local levels, and the social partners and civil society will be actively involved through various forms of
partnership. "
Guideline 11 for 2001 is targeted specifically to regional and local actions concerning employment, calling for the mobilization of
"all relevant stakeholders at regional and local levels, including the social partners" to implement the SEO "identifying the
potential local employment and strengthening partnerships to this end. " Among other things, the guideline 11 calls for "local
and regional authorities to develop employment strategies to fully exploit opportunities to create jobs locally and thus promote
partnerships with all stakeholders, including representatives of civil society”. It also calls for measures that would "enhance the
competitive development and the ability to create jobs in the social economy, particularly in the provision of goods and services
that respond to needs not yet satisfied by the market, and calls Member States to examine any obstacles to such measures,
aiming to reduce them. "
To further highlight the regional and local dimension of the EES and seek the views of local stakeholders, the Commission began
in April 2000, a campaign of consultations and public awareness focused on two aspects:
a) a debate on policies, based on the Commission note "Acting Locally for Employment"
b) experimental activities carried out and validated in the European context
In November 2001 the Commission published a new document "Strengthening the local dimension of the European Employment
Strategy", which proposes ways to develop and implement employment strategies at the local level, building on lessons learned
from past experiences and making better use of financial means available at EU level.
Although there has been a general improvement for what concerns employment, the assessment of the first five years of the EES
has shown some critical aspects: a significant disparity between regions, a non-achievement of goals related to the pillar of
adaptability and a low involvement of institutional and local levels. The mid-term and the first five years evaluation of the EES
focus on territorial governance of employment policies issues. This analysis also revealed a process of redefinition of EES,
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
13
allowing to identify the new common guidelines for employment, which suggest, instead of the previous four pillars, three
overarching objectives (full employment, quality and work performance, social integration and cohesion) divided into 10 policy
guidelines. These guidelines confirm the focus on social integration and cohesion as a necessary and binding condition, also by
strengthening, through specific programs, the levels of trade and transfer of good practices.
In March 2005 the European Council has re-launched the Lisbon strategy and noticed how the achievement of the objectives is
linked to the full and aware involvement of regional and local actors and social partners. As part of a renewed Lisbon strategy,
the European Council implemented the “Integrated Guidelines for Growth and Jobs (2005 - 2008)”. An analysis of the guidelines
for cohesion policy for 2007-2013 presented by the Commission made clear that the European Community focuses more and
more on the local dimension and on the involvement of local institutions and relevant social actors including the third sector in
the direction and management of politics (new model of participatory governance). The fact that the local dimension is worthy of
priority action concerning employment and the social context is proved by the territorial fragmentation of the labor market and
the difference in the impact of national policies. The consequence is that among to the general policies, those micro-oriented on
specific local markets become relevant.
One of the basic objectives of the new labor policy is therefore the relationship with the actions of assistance to local
development and promotion of territorial economy. It is an essential integration, destined to improve the efficiency of work
policies, making the connection between investment in the development and human resources promotion. In addition, this
approach looks particularly promising in terms of policy integration, according to an approach that takes into account the
different variables that affect the dynamics of the various aggregates of labor market and targets.
In March 2010 the Commission published a new document "A European strategy for smart, sustainable and inclusive growth",
available at http://ec.europa.eu/eu2020 and attached to this report.
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
14
The strategic addresses on terms of method: planning, coordination and local roots
The support processes for the endogenous development of the territories involve acting aiming not just to increase the amount
of elements in the production process, but rather, and explicitly, to increase its efficiency, leaving the greater overall productivity
of the system at ensuring its sustainability and competitiveness.
The first step to achieve such a result is an organization of policy measures, to enable the measurement of specific interventions
in terms of structural hardening of economy and society.
Hence the strategic decision to establish a major discontinuity in the procedure to configure public investment choices and
interventions planning: a choice also based on the evaluation of the limits of the previous planning phase; in particular, it is
necessary to build a program featuring a strong internal and external coherence, strong focus and tough connections in the
actions for development.
The fundamental issue inspiring this strategy is integrated planning, i.e. choosing to work in integrated programs, territorial
reference for all steps of development, whatever the implementing body and the source of funding. In terms of method, the
strategy takes some basic principles as a reference and guidance for action and implementation, namely:
Concentration: the planning will consist of few programs, the programs will be roughly divided into lines of action
designed to achieve a limited number of specific, stated, clear, quantified and coherent objectives; the actions will concern
few priority operational objectives;
Integration: i.e. choosing to plan the interventions ensuring their convergence to a limited number of priority objectives for
the valorization of resources – the priority Axes - and with reference to specific territorial areas, designed to outline the
prevailing features of the actions. In this context, a certain level of importance is attained by the integration of financial
resources from structural funds, which must be pursued in particular concerning the planning and use of integrated
measures, aimed at joint development objectives;
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
15
Decentralization and the clear identification of implementation responsibilities: as an essential element for concentration
and integration management, as the most direct expression of the subsidiarity principle of an operational implementation,
underlying in the important process of devolution in place, as a tool to ensure more effective conditions to development
actions featuring strong territorial specificity and therefore the need to involve those who are able to express greater levels
of knowledge of the territory, of its resources and of its demands; as a factor of acceleration and prevision in a process of
devolution of functions, skills, resources, requiring longer completion times than the ones available for operational
planning; and as a founding element of the policy of the mission.
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
16
Local Action Plans
How to build a local action plan with my community?
3 steps are recommended:
1. share a diagnosis
2. imagine the actions
3. formalize the action plan
SHARING A DIAGNOSIS allows the various members of the community to build confidence, share a common vision of their own
community, make a starting point. It means that before any meeting, a basic diagnosis with objective and measurable data is
already available. When it is shared, the diagnosis in enriched by personal and experience elements
IMAGINING THE ACTIONS deals with creativity, benchmarking and “no limits proposition”. All the actions proposed in this specific
moment won’t be realized. The objective here is to explore new fields, new ideas, new dynamics, thanks to the many individual
experiences of the participants. In the end, a list of actions will be made
FORMALIZING THE ACTION PLAN : here we come back to reality, our means, our potential, who will lead the action, who will pay
for it, when can it be launched, what do we need before starting it, what will be the problems…? This step leads to the formal
action plan that needs to be officially launched with the whole community and stay public as the collective objective.
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
17
The contents of the LAP
The planning of the activities to be carried out is based on the recognition that the experiences of local development have
progressively outlined a programming model very focused on the practicality and achievement of operational objectives for
territorial development, as well as monitoring and evaluation of the effects of the policy on the local level.
In this perspective, the working plan of this phase of the intervention involves adopting a programming cycle capable of
achieving the general objectives of development and assessing the implementation status according to a cyclic logic consisting
of the following steps:
Analysis of the local situation through quantitative and qualitative surveys
Awareness and information campaigns aimed at local actors considered appropriate to be involved in the definition and
implementation of a local strategy for employment
Identification of needs and interests of beneficiaries and local actors
Identification of existing policies and actions at local level
Definition of priorities and initiatives in clear and shared terms
Estimates of resources and coincidence of local priorities with the funding opportunities
Construction of the Local Action Plan on a multi-year basis with annual specification
Monitoring and evaluation
The structure of the LAPs which are going to be implemented will consist of:
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
18
The stipulation of institutional consultation and consent agreement, through the explanation of the vision shared by the
various actors involved in the consultation meetings and the formalization of their availability / involvement in the
implementation of actions;
The socio-economic diagnosis of the concerned area, focusing on detecting the morphology of the labor market to identify
lines and axes of priority intervention. This diagnosis will be accompanied by a list of available resources within the
territory and by the staff involved to address the economic and employment promotion measures that are determined
within the LAPs
The strategic guidelines planning process. A planning process will be carried out, based on the previous diagnosis, that
would lead to the definition of an general objective and strategic guidelines of the various individual LAPs
The identification and validation of the Multi Annual Plan. Taking the strategic guidelines as reference, the set of actions to
articulate them on a medium-term will be designed
The implementation of the Annual Action Plan. Taking inspiration from the Multi Annual Plan, certain actions will be given
priority to be implemented in the first year of activation of the LAP
The organizational model and the organs needed for the management of the LAP. In particular, participation structures will
have to be provided to combine the political and the technical approach in the decision making process
The definition of assessment and monitoring mechanisms of the LAP.
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
19
General Objective
Strategic Lines
Lines goals
Actions
General
Objective
L1 L1
L1
11 12 13 11 12 13 11 12 13
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
20
Officially, the Local Action Plan will consist of:
A document formalizing the agreement, signed by all the actors who took part in its elaboration and will participate in the
management. This section should specify the type of agreement and the commitment and involvement of the single
agents.
A document for the LAP development and monitoring. This document should include:
The identification of the promoter and the actors participating in the LAP
The socio-economic diagnosis of the territory, including a reference to the policies and programs carried out by the
individual involved organizations
The description of resources (material and human) available to and brought by every agent of the LAP
The types of consultation mechanisms used
The objectives and strategic guidelines of the LAP, as well as the method used to define them
The description of the Multi Annual and Annual Plan
The description of the management bodies
The mechanisms and indicators for monitoring and evaluation.
The mechanisms of organization and management
Each Local Action Plan will be accompanied by the definition of a specific organizational model of management and
accompanying. It will indicate:
The various scheduled organizational levels
The function they will carry out
The heads of each department
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
21
The frequency of scheduled meetings and workshops
The LAP will be provided with facilities to ensure the governance of intervention at the various levels:
Political level, at which the major strategic axes are established
Technical level, responsible for executing the business plan
A (plenum) department, where a large participation is expected, to share information among every agent of the territory
Advisory level, appointed to suggest multidimensional solutions to specific problems
The bodies appointed to develop and manage the LAP will be configured so as to combine instances of democratic
representation and effective management of scheduled activities.
Consultation process and PAL assessment
Given the innovative nature of the intervention, the management of the three consultation tables requires an extra effort in
monitoring and continuous evaluation, aiming at validating the managed processes, the representativeness of the acquired
elements and the effectiveness of the achieved results. In this phase, great importance will be acknowledged to the works
concerning the "Comparative local analysis and development of possible indicators”.
Based on these assumptions, a monitoring and continuous development strategy must therefore be created, focusing on the
development of the Multi Annual Plan, which is divided into several cyclic stages:
Planning of the multi annual policy through the identification of the most coherent and efficient strategies and
interventions to achieve the defined objectives;
Breakdown of the policy in directions, guidelines and strategies with the best possible detail of enforceability;
Ongoing verification of the results and the adequacy / incisiveness of the provided instruments;
Redesign of the intervention, carried out through the involvement of all management levels, with the coordination and
supervision of the local partners;
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
22
Analysis of the results, especially to identify, through links of cause and effect, the reasons of failure in achieving the
defined objectives, including research methods and difference measurements;
Analysis of the evolution of the reference context and the ongoing dynamics, in order to seize the opportunities and to
divert the related risks
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
23
H
HA
AN
ND
DB
BO
OO
OK
K
For Local Development Employment Initiatives
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
24
THE PROJECT CYCLE MANAGEMENT
The Project Cycle Management method is based on the bibliography provided by the European Union with regard to negotiated
planning, carried out within the structural objectives, and to territorial development programs. This methodology focuses on the
design of the project as a collective process of participation through which a variety of subjects becomes part of a coherent
system of planning activities and engages in reciprocal conditions for their implementation. The problems that require the PCM
are, therefore, those that require the intervention of many actors, with different and often conflicting interests. The PCM
approach has the advantage of offering an integrated view of the target situation and of ensuring the identification of shared
goals, allowing to meet the real needs of the stakeholders and the beneficiaries. The phases of the project cycle are:
Analysis phase
Stakeholder analysis
Problem analysis
Objectives analysis
Identification of areas of intervention
Planning Phase
Choice of intervention contexts
Identification of the project through the Logical Framework
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
25
Analysis of the context through the SWOT methodology
The SWOT Analysis is a methodology that allows to visually and rationally represent the influence of various environmental
context agents on the fulfillment of the project; the Swot methodology separates the influent exogenous elements (social,
political, economic etc.) from the endogenous ones (competition, power of users and potential service providers, etc.). This
analysis tool places and evaluates the project in a "systemic" perspective, allowing to identify and map the strengths and
weaknesses for building on the planning structure. The literature usually classifies the "positive" endogenous factors as strengths
and the negative ones "negative" as weaknesses; the same is true for exogenous factors, defined as opportunities and risks. The
first ones include all those variables necessary to the organization or the system: is almost always possible to intervene on them
to achieve the decided goals. It is not possible, on the other hand, to directly intervene on the second ones, but it is appropriate
to provide monitoring tools that analyze trends in order to prevent negative events and exploit the positive ones. Among the
exogenous factors, we may list, only for illustrative purposes, the social, economic, regulatory and political context, the level of
technological development, the barriers to entry, the market price of the good or service and competition. Among the
endogenous factors we may list the institution image in relation to a specific service, the know-how, the development trends of
the service, the technological skills. The comprehensiveness and the quality of the evaluation conducted with SWOT methodology
are a function of the completeness of the “preliminary” analysis. To carry out a good analysis, knowing in detail the specific issue
is not enough: the full knowledge of the general context within which the project is located is required.
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
26
Strengths
Weaknesses
-....
-....
-....
-....
-....
-....
Opportunities Risks
-....
-....
-....
-....
-....
-....
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
27
Identification of problems: the problem tree
According to the PCM approach, a proper and effective planning comes from a complete analysis of the problems taken into
account and their connections. The key element of this approach is the preeminence of logic to identify problems rather than
needs, because the problem represents a present and objective negative situation, while the need expresses an unspoken and
often generic desire.
The process of problem analysis is divided into the following phases:
1. Identify problems
2. Check that the problems are clear and that there are no missing solutions
3. Choose the central problem, a problem that may have many causes and many effects
4. Identify the direct causes of the central problem
5. Identify the direct effects of the central problem
6. Determining the cause-effect relationships between all the problems
7. Check the relations
8. Draw the connection lines of the problem tree
Visually represent the flow of cause-effect relationships between problems.
In the logic of the PCM, a problem is never isolated. It is part of a group of problems, often chaotic and indecipherable.
Therefore, to define our problem we should put it in a hierarchical system of more general and detailed problems.
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
28
Intervention logic Indicators Sources of
verification
Hypothesis
General
objectives
Description of
intervention strategy that
has been chosen to be
pursued through the
implementation of the
project
Certain and
verifiable quali-
quantitative tools,
which allow to
assess the results of
the project.
Sources that provide
information about the
truth and formation
methodology of the
indicators
Basic conditions for the
success of the project,
determined by
exogenous factors, but
considered sufficiently
realistic and durable
Purpose
(specific
objective)
Result
Task
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
29
The Gantt chart
The PCM method uses traditional tools and methods such as Gantt chart for the detailed planning of project activities included in
the logical framework.
The chart is named after its inventor H.L. Gantt who introduced it in the early 1900s. This tool is very useful to easily visualize
the various activities, clearly showing the duration and progress of a project. This diagram consists of a table, which rows are
used to indicate the project activities, while the columns show the time needed to implement them. Once the individual actions
of a project and the duration of each of them are known, it is very easy to trace a Gantt chart. An ordinary word processor or a
spreadsheet are sufficient (Of course, even a regular pen or pencil and a sheet of paper would be enough: the same tools used by
Mr. Gantt).
The total duration of the project can be easily visualized, its different phases, their individual duration, the overlap times of the
various activities. This is a very simple and basic view of the Gantt chart, applied to an equally Simple project. This tool may
indeed be more useful.
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
30
Participatory planning tools
European Awareness Scenario Workshop
This is a method first introduced in Denmark, intended to reach an agreement between the different groups of stakeholders at
local level, aiming to reach a consensual definition of sustainable city.
Its original field of application is participated town planning, but the method has been later used in other areas, such as local
development, activation of management change pathways and innovation and research.
In 1994, the European Commission has started a plan based on this method, the TDSP (Training and Dissemination Schemes
Project), which aims to explore new ways to promote innovation within the community by establishing more effective methods to
share a series of "best practices" in different political and cultural contexts and the identification of tools to share the related
know-how.
Method
The method allows to promote discussion and participation. It is especially effective in local contexts, where it is easy to
associate with a problem those charged with solving them. It was first tested in the environmental context, especially for the
solution of urban environment related problems. It can become a useful tool to promote a shared system of community welfare
and a sustainable development of the local economy, sensitive to the employment needs of disadvantaged groups.
Objectives
An EASW is used to stimulate democratic and aware participation to choices related to the improvement of living conditions in
the communities. It allows participants to exchange information, discuss the issues and processes that manage the community
welfare and the system of needs and disadvantaged groups expectations, stimulating their ability to identify and plan practical
solutions to existing problems. The EASW methodology proved to be particularly suited to:
Encourage dialogue and participation among the various components of society;
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
31
Create a balanced relationship between education, work, society and social services;
Allow sustainable development while respecting the needs and aspirations of the members of a local community.
Tools
In an EASW the participants meet to exchange views, develop a shared vision for the future of their community and provide ideas
on how to achieve it, by answering the following fundamental questions:
How can we solve the identified problems?
Who is primarily charged with solving them? Local authorities, citizens or both?
The method, therefore, involves thinking about the role that the local system of welfare and workfare, and other various systems
of social management, can play in making the models of development more focused on to the needs of vulnerable groups. The
role of the participants is also extremely important because they:
Know the change opportunities and their limitations;
Can promote change by changing their behavior patterns.
The area of application
In an EASW, the debate should focus on four specific issues, related to the general topic of discussion, chosen to allow for an
integrated analysis of the possible solutions. Thus, in a workshop on workfare, the suggested themes are:
1. The social groups at risking social discomfort in our cities
2. The system of assistance and social services of the territory and the local labour market
3. The economic development of the territory and negotiated planning of interventions
4. How to promote the employment of disadvantaged people of the territory
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
32
Actors
Up to 100 people can participate at an EASW, possibly chosen on the basis of the heterogeneity of their origin (city,
neighborhood, company, territorial pact, sex, etc.). Participants should represent their operational context. Usually they are
chosen among four different social groups (interest groups):
1. Citizens
2. Experts
3. Public administrators
4. Representatives of the private sector
Specifically, in addition to the representativeness of participants, which should be assured through the organization procedures
of the Forum, they include:
A preliminary phase to contextualize the initiative within the context of territorial animation concerning the issue of the
project.
An introductory phase managed by a facilitator (which will be the same for all forums) who will offer some important
considerations, keeping in mind the target of the room and the specific realities of the areas identified;
A report provided by guest personalities, chosen as key actors of the territory. The report should be as much as possible
intended for stimulus and animation, and will offer content and insights that can support the following debate.
A phase of confrontation / debate, where participants will interact with the moderators and between them, in order to
build a common vision in terms of welfare, exchange guidelines and therefore generate willingness to promote paths to
social and employment inclusion of disadvantaged people.
A final phase in which the facilitator will sum up the debate, identifying and reiterating the key points of suggestions and
stimuli acquired from the audience
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
33
Phases
In this logic, EASW Forums will focus on two main activities: the development of visions and the suggestion of ideas.
In the development of visions the participants, after the introductory sessions, will work in plenary meeting or in groups of
interest, divided by social category (citizens, administrators, etc.). During group work, participants are asked to think
ahead to imagine, in relation to the topics of discussion, how to solve the problems of people risking social exclusion in
their city. They must do so with reference to the scenarios, which envisage 4 possible alternatives, 4 like the groups of
stakeholders. To make this activity easier, the methodology provides a number of techniques to manage the discussion
and the achievement of expected results. The visions developed by each group will then be presented in a subsequent
plenary session, after which, by a vote, a vision shared by participants will be chosen. This vision should accurately indicate
the chosen solutions, emphasizing the role played by the community for each of them. The vision emerged at the end of
this session, perfected by the facilitator and by the group leaders in a small meeting at the end of this first set of activities,
will form the basis of the next phase, the suggestion of ideas, that will be rooted in the final products of the project.
In the suggestion of ideas, participants are asked to work in thematic groups. After a brief introduction to the tasks, in
which the facilitator presents the common vision, a new work session starts. This time the groups are formed by mixing
together the participants, depending on the topic of the discussion. Each group will thus represent various interests and,
starting from the common vision, will have to suggest ideas on how to achieve it. The discussion should be guided in this
second set of activities as well, with the help of certain techniques, to make each group suggest concrete ideas on how to
achieve the common vision and who will take responsibility for their implementation with reference to the assigned
subject. Each group should formulate a small number of ideas (usually 5). The ideas will be presented in another session to
be discussed and voted. Top rated ideas will ultimately be the basis for the local action plan, developed by participants, to
solve the problems discussed.
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
34
The location
The need to ensure the transferability of the results requires careful thinking about the choice of territorial contexts in which to
activate the forums, to ensure:
1) Possible and timely implementation of the initiative;
2) Flexibility check of the active devices.
The rating criteria that will be used for identifying testing areas are: uniform distribution throughout the country, diversity of social and cultural
fabric, willingness of the local actors to join the network of the project and participate actively in the proposed experiments
“WITH SUPPORT FROM THE EUROPEAN UNION - VP/2008/010 BUDGET LINE 04-04-01-01. CHALLENGE VS/2008/0470, ADD. VS/2009/0448 SI2.512991”.
35
E
EX
XP
PE
ER
RI
IE
EN
NC
CE
ES
S
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any references for this publication.