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Words are very important to share ideas, but less is known regarding the way the message is communicated in the leadership process. The present study explored how nonverbal delivery factors might impact leaders’ charisma, followers’ mood, and followers’ performance. The research specifically focused on how immediacy and dominance impacted the relationship between leaders’ delivery styles and followers’ mood, perceptions of charismatic leadership, and performance. Results showed that immediate and dominant leadership behaviors were critical in eliciting positive mood and reducing negative mood in followers. In the absence of immediate and dominance behaviors in leaders, followers’ negative mood increased and positive mood decreased. Moreover, the dominant and immediate displays also led to higher perceptions of charismatic leadership. Crucially, only simple or mixed dominant delivery styles led to an enhancement in the performance of followers. The mediating role of followers’ positive mood on the relationship between leaders’ delivery styles and followers’ performance was also examined. More importantly, positive mood explained the link between leaders’ delivery styles and performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the role of delivery styles in the leadership process were discussed.
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JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES, Volume 11, Number 3, 2017
© 2017 University of Phoenix
View this article online at wileyonlinelibrary.com • DOI:10.1002/jls.21519 21
CHARISMATIC LEADERSHIP:
A STUDY ON DELIVERY STYLES,
MOOD, AND PERFORMANCE
ANTÓNIO SACAVÉM , LUIS F. MARTINEZ , JOÃO VIEIRA DA CUNHA ,
ANA MARIA ABREU , AND STEFANIE K. JOHNSON
Words are very important to share ideas, but less is known regarding the way the message is com-
municated in the leadership process. The present study explored how nonverbal delivery factors
might impact leaders’ charisma, followers’ mood, and followers’ performance. The research spe-
cifi cally focused on how immediacy and dominance impacted the relationship between leaders’
delivery styles and followers’ mood, perceptions of charismatic leadership, and performance. Results
showed that immediate and dominant leadership behaviors were critical in eliciting positive mood
and reducing negative mood in followers. In the absence of immediate and dominance behaviors
in leaders, followers’ negative mood increased and positive mood decreased. Moreover, the domi-
nant and immediate displays also led to higher perceptions of charismatic leadership. Crucially, only
simple or mixed dominant delivery styles led to an enhancement in the performance of followers.
The mediating role of followers’ positive mood on the relationship between leaders’ delivery styles
and followers’ performance was also examined. More importantly, positive mood explained the link
between leaders’ delivery styles and performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the role
of delivery styles in the leadership process were discussed.
Followers’ Mood and Performance
Depend on Leaders’ Delivery Styles
Much of a leaders’ time is spent communicating with
others. Previous research has suggested that 75% of the
leaders’ time is spent speaking and listening (Giesel-
man, 1980 ), and nonverbal behaviors comprise most
of the process of interpersonal communication (Meh-
rabian, 1981 ). Moreover, leaders spend most of the
time in the workplace providing information, direct-
ing, coordinating, instructing, and giving feedback—in
other words, communicating with followers (Burtis &
Turman, 2010 ; Katz & Kahn, 1978 ).
Most of the research on communication and lead-
ership has focused on the charismatic leadership
approach. Charismatic leadership is based on con-
ceptions of Weber ( 1947 ), House ( 1977 ), Burns
( 1978 ), and Bass ( 1985 ) and explains the positive
results concerning follower behavior and performance.
22 JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES • Volume 11 • Number 3 • DOI:10.1002/jls
Charismatic leaders have been seen as friendly and
warm but also strong, dynamic, and powerful. Meta-
analytic studies also suggested the connection between
charismatic leadership and positive results (DeGroot,
Kiker, & Cross, 2000 ; Lowe, Kroeck, & Sivasubra-
maniam, 1996 ). Previous research has suggested that
the communication of an optimistic, enthusiastic,
trustful organizational vision encouraged followers to
accomplish goals (Conger & Kanungo, 1998 ; Shamir,
House, & Arthur, 1993 ), and the charismatic leader is
a highly eff ective speaker (Bryman, 1992 ). It is consen-
sual among leadership theorists that the organizational
vision is the primary source for charisma, and much
of the research on leadership communication has been
developed regarding visionary or charismatic speeches
that were composed of two elements: content of the
speech and delivery of the speech (Awamleh & Gard-
ner, 1999 ; Conger, 1989 ; Holladay & Coombs, 1993 ,
1994 ; Ticky & Devanna, 1986 ). e former is related
to rhetorical elements communicated through words
(Conger, 1991 ; Den Hartog & Verburg, 1997 ; Shamir,
Arthur, & House, 1994 ). e latter is rich in nonverbal
elements of communication, such as gestures, eye
contact, energy, facial expressiveness, and tone of voice
(Awamleh & Gardner, 1999 ; Holladay & Coombs,
1993 , 1994 ). e abovementioned studies concluded
that not only content but also delivery aspects of the
organizational vision elicit higher levels of perceived
charisma. Additionally, strong or expressive delivery is
essential for content to have a total eff ect on followers
(Holladay & Coombs, 1994 ).
Studies that examined the nonverbal delivery of the
message found that manipulating the leader’s mood
led to greater perceptions of leader charisma (Awamleh
& Gardner, 1999 ; Holladay & Coombs, 1993 , 1994 ;
Johnson & Dipboye, 2008 ), leadership eff ectiveness
(Awamleh & Gardner, 1999 ), and task performance
(Johnson & Dipboye, 2008 ). Recent research suggested
that leader expressivity is a likely process for the emo-
tional link between leaders and followers (Dasborough,
Ashkanasy, Tee, & Tse, 2009 ; Johnson, 2008 , 2009 ). A
close analysis of the leaders’ expressiveness dimension
revealed that it is composed by both nonverbal elements
of immediacy and dominance (Mehrabian, 1981 ).
In line with the statements above, it seems para-
mount to examine the relationship between expressed
mood and performance (Johnson, 2009 ). e present
study appeared to be the fi rst to investigate the eff ects
of immediacy and dominance as diff erent but related
dimensions of leaders’ nonverbal delivery styles on fol-
lowers’ positive mood, followers’ perceptions of char-
ismatic leadership, and followers’ performance.  e
present study also sought to expand previous research
(Johnson, 2009 ; McColl-Kennedy & Anderson, 2002 ;
Visser, van Knippenberg, van Kleef, & Wisse, 2013 )
examining the mediating eff ect of followers’ mood on
the relationship between leaders’ delivery styles and
followers’ performance.
Affective Events Theory and Leadership
Aff ective events theory (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996 )
is a psychological approach developed to describe
the link between moods in the workplace and job
performance, job satisfaction, and behaviors. Aff ective
events theory suggested that human beings are also
emotional, and individual behaviors are guided by
aff ective events. According to aff ective events theory,
changes in employees’ aff ect, attitudes, and behaviors
emerged from positive and negative circumstances at
the workplace (Johnson, 2009 ). Furthermore, aff ective
experiences are essential aspects of the work environ-
ment (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996 ). Being in a positive
mood raises the chances of the occurrence of positive
events, and being in a negative mood raises the chances
of the emergence of negative events (Wright & Bower,
1992 ).
Affective events theory also suggested that mood
eff ects result from a complex interaction of both moti-
vational and cognitive elements (Weiss & Cropan-
zano, 1996 ). Concerning the “(…) cognitive side,
mood repair (for negative mood states) and mood
maintenance (for positive mood states) also infl uences
responses. A particular prediction in any situation
depends on the mood state, the task, and the aforemen-
tioned cognitive and motivational processes” (Weiss &
Cropanzano, 1996 , p. 64). Despite the unwillingness
to accept the existence of diff erent moods in the work-
place, it is clear that during the interaction between
leaders and followers, both are exposed to circum-
stances that elicit diff erent mood states, which impact
feelings, attitudes, and behaviors (McColl-Kennedy &
Anderson, 2002 ).
JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES • Volume 11 • Number 3 • DOI:10.1002/jls 23
Affective events theory is related to leadership
because leaders expressed moods that may be per-
ceived as aff ective events by followers (Dasborough,
2006 ; Johnson, 2008 , 2009 ). Events provoke a mood
change and consequently have aff ective signifi cance
(Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996 ), and leaders may
decrease the infl uence of negative aff ective events of
followers’ behaviors (Pirola-Merlo, Hartel, Mann, &
Hirst, 2002 ). To that extent, leaders’ behavior may be
conceived as an aff ective event whenever an aff ective
response emerges in followers (Johnson, 2008 ).
Empirical evidence found that leaders’ expressions
of aff ect infl uences followers more than the content of
the leaders’ message (Newcombe & Ashkanasy, 2002 ),
and leaders’ emotion regulation can be trained (Edel-
man & van Knippenberg, 2016 ).  e present research
examined the relationship between leaders’ nonverbal
delivery styles, manipulated through immediacy and
dominance, and followers’ mood, ratings of leaders
charisma, and performance.
Leaders’ Nonverbal Delivery Styles
The charismatic leadership style has been defined
mainly in terms of the aff ective needs of the followers
(Katz & Kahn, 1978 ). Others have defined charis-
matic leadership in terms of the pattern of nonverbal
behavior conveying a sense of the leaders’ enthusiasm
and confi dence (Riggio, 1987 ). An emergent body of
research aiming to uncover the processes of transference
of moods between leaders and followers (Bono & Ilies,
2006 ; Cherulnik, Donley, Wiewel, & Miller, 2001 ;
Damen, van Knippenberg, & van Knippenberg, 2008 ;
Erez, Misangyi, Johnson, LePine, & Halverson, 2008 ;
Johnson, 2008 , 2009 ; Sy, Choi, & Johnson, 2013 ; Tee,
2015 ) suggested that mood contagion is a powerful
force for the transfer of moods in the leadership pro-
cess. Mood contagion is the predisposition to “mimic
and synchronize facial expressions, vocalizations, pos-
tures, and movements with those of another person
and, consequently, to converge emotionally” (Hatfi eld,
Cacioppo, & Rapson, 1994 , p. 5). Empirical research
has revealed mood contagion in leadership (Bono &
Ilies, 2006 ; Cherulnik et al., 2001 ; Erez et al., 2008 ;
Johnson, 2008 , 2009 ; Sy, Cote, & Saavedra, 2005 ).
Although research had shown that leader expres-
sivity is a likely process for the emotional link between
leaders and followers (Dasborough et al., 2009 ; John-
son, 2008 , 2009 ), only a few studies investigated the
previous link at an individual or dyadic level (Bono
& Ilies, 2006 ; Cherulnik et al., 2001 ; Johnson, 2009 ;
Visser et al., 2013 ), and only two studies investigated
the link at the group level (Erez et al., 2008 ; Sy et al.,
2013 ).
A close analysis of nonverbal behaviors that were
frequently used in research to assert leader expressivity
include: maintaining direct eye contact and manifesting
an expressive face (Awamleh & Gardner, 1999 ; Holla-
day & Coombs, 1993 , 1994 ; Howell & Frost, 1989 ;
Johnson & Dipboye, 2008 ), having a relaxed posture
and leaning towards followers (Howell & Frost, 1989 ),
and exhibiting vocal variation and dynamic hand and
body gestures (Awamleh & Gardner, 1999 ; Holladay
& Coombs, 1993 , 1994 ; Johnson & Dipboye, 2008 ).
e nonverbal behaviors integrated elements of both
immediate and dominant dimensions mentioned in the
nonverbal communication literature (Burgoon, Pfau,
& Birk, 1990 ; Mehrabian, 1981 ). Furthermore, imme-
diacy and dominance are two of the three primary
dimensions of nonverbal behavior (Burgoon et al.,
1990 ; Mehrabian, 1981 ). Moreover, human relations
comprise both vertical (Burgoon & Hoobler, 2002 ;
Hall & Friedman, 1999 ) and horizontal (Berger, 1994 ;
Wiggins, 1979 ) dimensions. e vertical dimension
relates to concepts like power and dominance, and
the horizontal dimension is linked to the closeness of
interpersonal relations (Hall, Coats, & LeBeau, 2005 ).
Certain attributes of charismatic leadership have been
emphasized consistently in empirical literature (Avolio
& Bass, 1995 ; Bass, 1985 ; House, 1985 ; Howell, 1985 ;
Yukl & Van Fleet, 1982 ), and among the attributes
are persuasiveness and infl uence (House, 1977 ) and
dominance (House, 1977 ; Zaleznik & Kets de Vries,
1975 ). Previous research in nonverbal communication
already found positive links between persuasiveness
and “immediate” and “dominant” behaviors (Burgoon
et al., 1990 ) (Table 1 ).
“Immediate” behaviors comprised: orienting toward
others, leaning toward others, maintaining direct
eye contact, facial expressiveness (e.g., smiling), and
nodding (Burgoon et al., 1990 ; Coker & Burgoon,
1987 ; Edinger & Patterson, 1983 ). Furthermore,
“dominant” behaviors included: facial expressiveness,
Perceptions of
Charismatic
Leadership
Follower
Positive and
Negative
Mood
Follower
Performance
H1a/b/c
Leader Delivery Style H2a/b/c H3a/b/c
H4
Figure 1. Relationship Between Delivery Styles,
Manipulated Through Immediacy and Dominance,
and Followers’ Mood, Followers’ Perceptions of Leader
Charisma, and Followers’ Performance
Table 1. Immediate and Dominant
Leaders’ Behaviors
Immediate Dominant
Smiles Dynamic hand gestures
Nods Speaks fast and loud
Leaning forward Expressive face
Body fronting Relaxed posture
Expansive gestures
24 JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES • Volume 11 • Number 3 • DOI:10.1002/jls
dynamic hand gestures (Burgoon et al., 1990 ; Dunbar
& Burgoon, 2005 ), expansive gestures, and relaxed
posture (Manusov & Patterson, 2006 ). In other words,
leaders’ nonverbal expressiveness is constituted by ele-
ments of both immediacy and dominance dimensions
of nonverbal behavior.
The present study sought to manipulate leaders’
nonverbal delivery styles throughout dominance and
immediacy to better understand independent and joint
eff ects on leadership outcomes (Figure 1 ).
Hypotheses Development
NONVERBAL IMMEDIACY
“Immediate” behaviors are actions that simultaneously
communicate psychological closeness and likeliness
(Mehrabian, 1971 ), referred to as immediacy, that
is best conveyed through nonverbal communication
(Christensen & Menzel, 1998 ; Christophel, 1990 ;
Rodriguez, Plax, & Kearney, 1996 ). Also, “immediate”
supervisor behaviors produced a more positive subordi-
nate aff ect (Richmond & McCroskey, 2000 ). A positive
aff ect was communicated not only through the content
of what the leader shares but also by means of his or her
nonverbal behavior during communication (Ashkanasy
& Tse, 2000 ; Bass, 1985 ; Gardner & Avolio, 1998 ;
Johnson, 2008 ), resulting in the spread of positive
aff ect to followers through mood contagion (Johnson,
2008 ). Moreover, followers’ who were exposed to
“immediate” behaviors of charismatic leaders could
manifest strong and positively toned expressions of
emotion (Cherulnik et al., 2001 ). Accordingly, it was
expected that leaders’ expressing immediate behav-
iors would elicit higher levels of positive mood and
greater ratings of charismatic leadership from followers
than leaders’ who conveyed “non-immediate and non-
dominant” displays. It was also expected that nonim-
mediate behaviors, which conveyed dislike, emotional
detachment, and psychological distance (Kearney, Plax,
Smith, & Sorensen, 1988 ), should be linked to the fol-
lowers’ negative mood.
NONVERBAL DOMINANCE
Dominance is one of the attributes of charismatic
leadership that had been consistently emphasized in
empirical literature (House, 1977 ; Zaleznik & Kets de
Vries, 1975 ). Dominance and power were highly corre-
lated (Harper, 1985 ) and were frequently used synony-
mously with one another (Burgoon, Johnson, & Koch,
1998 ). Interpersonal dominance is a set of expres-
sive, communicative acts through which infl uence is
achieved and power is exerted (Burgoon et al., 1998 ).
Research related to the biological factors associated
with dominance concluded that two hormones are
responsible for the regulation of such behaviors: tes-
tosterone and cortisol (Carney, Cuddy, & Yap, 2010 ;
Mehta & Josephs, 2010 ). Individuals express domi-
nance through expansive, open postures (Manusov &
Patterson, 2006 ; Tiedens & Fragale, 2003 ), and the
manifestation of such nonverbal behaviors increased
the dominance hormone (testosterone), reduced the
stress hormone (cortisol), and increased the feelings
of power (Carney et al., 2010 ). Therefore, a domi-
nant communicator would exhibit dynamic kinetic
nonverbal cues, perceived as confidence and relax-
ation (Dunbar & Burgoon, 2005 ). According to
Gregory and Webster ( 1996 ), people mimicked high-
status individuals, such as leaders, which created more
chances to positively infl uence low-status individuals
JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES • Volume 11 • Number 3 • DOI:10.1002/jls 25
(Anderson, Keltner, & John, 2003 ). Moreover, mim-
icry is the underlying mechanism by which individuals
share moods (Davis, 1985 ), and it is likely that fol-
lowers’ experience the same biochemical changes in the
process of mimicking leaders’ dominant displays (i.e.,
feelings of power and confidence) because mimicry
allowed experiencing the mood of the other (Chartrand
& Bargh, 1999 ) by virtue of the biofeedback hypo-
thesis (Larsen & Kasimatis, 1990 ; Strack, Martin, &
Stepper, 1988 ). erefore, it is expected that nonverbal
dominant behaviors, associated with feelings of power
and confi dence (Carney et al., 2010 ), might increase
followers’ positive mood. On the other hand, nondom-
inant behaviors, which had been associated with feel-
ings of anxiety and powerlessness (Carney et al., 2010 ),
might increase followers’ negative mood through mood
contagion. Positive mood as well as negative mood rep-
resented two distinct dimensions rather than two sides
of a single continuum (Watson & Tellegen, 1985 ).
FOLLOWERS MOOD
As discussed above, leaders’ nonverbal delivery styles
may infl uence followers’ mood through mood con-
tagion (Hatfi eld et al., 1994 ). e process of sharing
moods between individuals occurred mainly through
subconscious mood mimicry (Davis, 1985 ). Evidence
suggested that most of the times, individuals were not
aware of their own mirroring behaviors (Erez et al.,
2008 ), and during an interaction, individuals were
drawn to instantaneously mimic the facial expres-
sions of others (Dimberg, 1982 ; Hatfi eld et al., 1994 ;
Vaughan & Lanzetta, 1980 ). Furthermore, followers’
that mimic leaders’ nonverbal displays start to feel
the same emotions as suggested by the facial feedback
hypothesis (Larsen & Kasimatis, 1990 ; Strack et
al., 1988 ) Leaders are highly salient and powerful
group members (Dasborough, 2006 ; George, 2000 ),
and mood contagion from leaders is expected to
be especially strong (Connelly, Gaddis, & Helton-
Fauth, 2002 ). erefore, leaders possess the ability
to infl uence follower’s negative and positive moods
(Dasborough et al., 2009 ; Glasø & Einarsen, 2008 ;
Van Knippenberg & van Kleef, 2016 ) with a greater
impact than nonleaders (Bono & Ilies, 2006 ; Walter
& Bruch, 2008 ). Thus, “immediate delivery style”
should elicit a more positive mood and a less negative
mood from followers than “non-immediate and non-
dominant delivery style” (Hypothesis 1a). In addition,
“dominant delivery style” should elicit a more positive
mood and a less negative mood from followers than
“non-immediate and non-dominant delivery style
(Hypothesis 1b). Furthermore, “immediate and dom-
inant delivery style” should elicit a more positive mood
and a less negative mood from followers than “non-
immediate and non-dominant delivery style” (Hypo-
thesis 1c).
FOLLOWERS PERCEPTIONS OF
LEADERS’ CHARISMA
Strong or expressive delivery is positively associated
with the followers’ perceptions of leaders’ charisma
(Awamleh & Gardner, 1999 ; Holladay & Coombs,
1993 , 1994 ; Johnson & Dipboye, 2008 ). Research
had also shown that charismatic leaders who exhib-
ited positive moods were perceived positively by fol-
lowers (Ashkanasy & Tse, 2000 ; Johnson, 2009 ), and
leaders manifesting negative moods were perceived
negatively by followers (Lewis, 2000 ; Newcombe &
Ashkanasy, 2002 ). Past empirical research revealed a
positive link between supervisor’s nonverbal immediacy
and perceived credibility (Richmond & McCroskey,
2000 ). Moreover, credibility is a crucial element of
leadership (Kouzes & Posner, 1995 ; McKenna, 1989 ).
e credibility of leaders may result from conveying
likeability (Sears, Freedman, & Peplau, 1985 ), and
people are attracted to people they like (Mehrabian,
1971 ). One of the attributes of charismatic leader-
ship is “dominance,” which had been consistently
emphasized in the literature (House, 1977 ; Zaleznik
& Kets de Vries, 1975 ). e dominant style had been
shown to be a signifi cant predictor of perceptions of
charismatic leadership (Holladay & Coombs, 1993 ,
1994 ). Accordingly, “immediate delivery style” should
elicit higher perceptions of charismatic leadership
than “nonimmediate and nondominant delivery style
(Hypothesis 2a). Moreover, a “dominant’ delivery style”
should elicit higher perceptions of charismatic leader-
ship than “nonimmediate and nondominant delivery
style” (Hypothesis 2b). In addition, “immediate and
dominant delivery style” should elicit higher percep-
tions of charismatic leadership than “nonimmediate
and nondominant delivery style” (Hypothesis 2c).
26 JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES • Volume 11 • Number 3 • DOI:10.1002/jls
FOLLOWERS PERFORMANCE
Literature revealed a positive association between leaders’
positive mood and employees’ work performance
(George, 2000 ). According to Teven ( 2010 ), non-
verbal immediacy had a positive impact on supervisors’
credibility. Furthermore, followers were more likely to
work harder when supervisors’ immediacy was perceived.
Research also suggested that nonverbal dominance had
an impact on credibility (Burgoon et al., 1990 ; Kouzes
& Posner, 1995 ; McKenna, 1989 ), and credibility
had an impact on performance (Weick, Sutcliffe, &
Obsfeld, 2005 ). Moreover, expressive delivery, which
integrated the dominance construct, was associated with
follower performance (Johnson & Dipboye, 2008 ).
Thus, “immediate delivery style” should elicit better
performance than “nonimmediate and nondominant
delivery style” (Hypothesis 3a). Additionally, “dominant
delivery style” should elicit better performance than
“nonimmediate and nondominant delivery style” (Hy-
pothesis 3b). Also, “immediate and dominant delivery
style” should elicit better performance than “nonimme-
diate and nondominant delivery style” (Hypothesis 3c).
The effect of leadership on performance is indirect
and may be mediated by followers’ mood (Johnson,
2009 ; McColl-Kennedy & Anderson, 2002 ; Visser
et al., 2013 ). Followers’ positive mood was linked
to performance (Barsade, 2002 ; McColl-Kennedy &
Anderson, 2002 ; Sy et al., 2005 ; Visser et al., 2013 ) in
diff erent settings. Visser et al. ( 2013 ) found support for
the mediating role of followers’ positive mood in the rela-
tionship between leaders’ positive mood and followers’
performance. Leaders’ expressive delivery integrated
both immediate and dominant displays, which are two
main components of nonverbal behavior (Burgoon et al.,
1990 ). Leaders expressed positive mood through expres-
sive delivery (Johnson, 2009 ; Visser et al., 2013 ), and fol-
lowers’ positive mood mediated the relationship between
leaders’ positive mood and followers’ performance (Visser
et al., 2013 ). Hence, it is reasonable to expect that fol-
lowers’ positive mood mediates the relationship between
leaders’ delivery styles and performance (Hypothesis 4).
Method
PARTICIPANTS AND DESIGN
e participants were students from a European uni-
versity who had volunteered to participate in the
study ( n = 112). Most participants were female (66%).
The participants ranged in age from 18 to 50 years
( M = 25.33, SD = 8.32). Moreover, 25% of participants
were 20 years or younger, 50% of participants were
22 years or younger, and 75% of participants were
26 years or younger. Most participants were under-
graduate students ( n = 95). e study used a 2 (leader
immediate behavior: immediate or nonimmediate) × 2
(leader dominant or nondominant) between-subjects
design. Participants were randomly assigned to one of
the four conditions.
PROCEDURES
An experimental design was developed to test the
hypotheses. A controlled laboratorial context was
necessary to allow for the causal examination of the
relationships required to support the hypotheses (Bono
& Ilies, 2006 ; Johnson, 2009 ). To eff ectively manipu-
late “immediate” and “dominant” nonverbal behaviors
of leaders and to guarantee the same verbal content bet-
ween experimental conditions, a professional actor rep-
resenting the role of a leader was videotaped portraying
the required nonverbal behaviors for each group.  e
procedure was consistent with previous studies on
nonverbal delivery of leaders (Awamleh & Gardner,
1999 ; Erez et al., 2008 ; Holladay & Coombs, 1993 ,
1994 ; Johnson, 2009 ; Johnson & Dipboye, 2008 ;
Visser et al., 2013 ). Furthermore, Gardner, Lowe,
Moss, Mahoney, and Cogliser ( 2010 ) recommended
the use of laboratorial experiments to allow for a more
meticulous testing of the hypothesized relationships in
the absence of eventual confounding factors. For the
purpose of the study described next, there was probably
not much lost by using a laboratorial setting instead of
a natural setting. A meta-analytical study conducted
by Anderson, Lindsay, and Bushman ( 1999 ) in the
eld of psychology found identical eff ects between fi eld
and laboratory settings. Also, according to Visser et al.
( 2013 ), previous studies that examined the relationship
between leaders’ nonverbal behaviors and followers’
aff ect revealed similar results for fi eld studies and lab-
oratory research.
e participants were randomly assigned to one of
the groups: “immediate,” “dominant,” “immediate and
dominant,” and “nonimmediate and nondominant.”
In the “immediate” delivery style, the actor was told
JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES • Volume 11 • Number 3 • DOI:10.1002/jls 27
to portray a close and dynamic leadership presence
through the use of smiles, nods, forward leaning, and
body fronting. In the “dominant” delivery style, the
leader used a “dominant” leadership presence. The
leader used dynamic hand gestures, an expressive face,
fast and loud speaking, relaxed posture, and expansive
gestures. In the “immediate and dominant” delivery
style, the leader used diff erent mixes of “immediate”
and “dominant” nonverbal behaviors (e.g., smiling
and expansive gesture; smiling, nodding, and hand
gestures). In the “nonimmediate and nondominant”
delivery style, the leader used diff erent mixes of “non-
immediate” and “non-dominant” nonverbal behav-
iors (e.g., inexpressive face, lack of hand gestures). Eye
contact behavior was not considered because the actor
had read directly from a teleprompter to maintain the
same speech content in all the groups.  erefore, eye
contact behavior remained constant in all the experi-
mental conditions.
Four trained independent researchers were conve-
niently assigned to lead each one of the experimental
groups and to apply the study procedures.  e research
procedures to be used in each experimental condition
were explained to each of the researchers prior to the
data collection. Participants in each group were led by
the researcher in charge to a room. Four rooms were
previously prepared to accommodate each group. Each
room was equipped with a large video-projected image
and sophisticated sound system. As mentioned above,
it was crucial to manipulate the nonverbal delivery
styles of leaders, through immediacy and dominance,
to ensure the causal direction of mood from leaders to
followers because a main proposition for the study is
that charismatic leaders infl uence followers’ mood via
mood contagion (Johnson, 2009 ).
Consistent with previous studies on leaders’ non-
verbal delivery (Awamleh & Gardner, 1999 ; Erez et
al., 2008 ; Holladay & Coombs, 1993 , 1994 ; John-
son, 2009 ; Johnson & Dipboye, 2008 ; Visser et al.,
2013 ), a professional actor was recorded performing
the role of a human resources manager of a corpora-
tion (henceforth called “leader”).  e leader had not
had any previous relationships with the participants
and was not aware of the purpose of the study. Nev-
ertheless, according to Davis and Luthans ( 1979 ), it
is reasonable to consider that the participants in the
study would perceive the individual in the videos as a
leader because he described the task and evoked task
performance from them.
Additionally, participants of the “immediate,” “dom-
inant,” “immediate and dominant,” and “non-imme-
diate and non-dominant” conditions were asked to
imagine themselves as recruiters in a nongovernmental
organization—“End of Poverty” (fi ctitious organiza-
tion). Participants were also asked to imagine meet-
ing with the new human resources director (the new
leader)—“John Smith” (fi ctitious name)—for the fi rst
time in a videoconference staff gathering. Research
revealed that the labeling of someone as a leader is
suffi cient to elicit leadership prototypes and infl uence
followers’ attitudes (Lord, Foti, & De Vader, 1984 ).
e participants were asked to recruit the best can-
didate for the sales supervisor role. Subjects were also
asked to pay close attention to the speech because the
new leader would be explaining the task to be per-
formed afterward. Participants were also advised to
avoid interacting with the new leader due to technical
limitations concerning the videoconference system.
Participants also received a briefi ng and a brief biog-
raphy of the new leader.  e biography stated that John
Smith had a history of success in the last corporation he
had worked for and was expected to have a promising
future in the company “End of Poverty.”  e briefi ng
was important because it helped the participants to
become familiar with the new leader.  e procedure
was consistent with previous studies (Awamleh &
Gardner, 1999 ; Johnson, 2009 ).
The leader—professional actor—was recorded
giving four speeches of 6 minutes each.  e length of
each speech was defi ned according to previous studies
(Awamleh & Gardner, 1999 ; Holladay & Coombs,
1994 ). e same actor portrayed the leader’s role in
each experimental group to overcome any infl uence
that physical or gender diff erences may have on fol-
lowers’ evaluations of leaders. Indeed, research has
found a correlation between height and leadership
(Blaker et al., 2013 ). Literature also found diff erences
in evaluations of the leaders by male and female fol-
lowers (Eagly, Makhijani, & Klonsky, 1992 ). In each
speech, the delivery of the message was manipulated
to create four contrasting experimental conditions:
“immediate,” “dominant,” “immediate and dominant,
28 JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES • Volume 11 • Number 3 • DOI:10.1002/jls
and “nonimmediate and nondominant.”  e content
of the message described the subjects’ task at hand and
was held constant in each of the four experimental con-
ditions to allow the focus to remain on the nonverbal
delivery aspects of the leader’s communication.
en, subjects of each experimental group were asked
to fi ll out the Job Aff ect Scale (Burke, Brief, George,
Robertson, & Webster, 1989 ) to assess positive and
negative mood and the Multifactor Leadership Ques-
tionnaire (Bass & Avolio, 1995 ) to evaluate followers’
perceptions of leaders’ charisma. Finally, participants
were instructed to complete the selection task. In the
end, participants were thanked for their contribution.
MANIPULATION CHECKS
e eff ectiveness of the experimental manipulation of
delivery was evaluated via 19 raters who were blind to
the research hypotheses and watched the four speeches
in random order. Raters evaluated each speaker on
specifi c items (e.g., smiles, nods, dynamic hand ges-
tures), judging the extent that each speech was deliv-
ered in tune with the four experimental conditions
previously defi ned.
e 19 raters received brief training on how to identify
“immediate” and “dominant” nonverbal behaviors and
independently rated each video on the nine dimensions
(smiles, nods, forward leaning, body fronting, dynamic
hand gestures, expressive face, fast and loud speaking,
relaxed posture, and expansive gestures) on a 5-point
scale, which ranged from 0 = not at all to 4 = frequently
if not always . e items for both the immediate (Cron-
bachs α = .95) and the dominant (Cronbachs α = .94)
delivery styles had a high level of internal consistency.
The “immediate leader” was rated as expressing
more immediate behaviors ( M = 3.39, SD = .88) than
the “dominant leader” ( M = .53, SD = .89), t (36) = 10,
p < .001, and less dominant behaviors ( M = .70,
SD = .79) than the “dominant leader” ( M = 3.76,
SD = .90), t (36) = −11, p < .001.
The “immediate and dominant leader” was rated
as expressing more immediate behaviors ( M = 3.46,
SD = .57) than the “nonimmediate and nondominant
leader” ( M = .29, SD = .41), t (33) = 20, p < .001, and
more dominant behaviors ( M = 4.26, SD = .85) than
the “nonimmediate and nondominant leader” ( M = .09,
SD = .29), t (36) = 20, p < .001.
MEASURES
Followers Mood
Positive and negative scales were used to assess mood
valence. Indeed, positive mood and negative mood rep-
resent two distinct dimensions rather than two sides of
a single continuum (Watson & Tellegen, 1985 ).  e
Job Aff ect Scale (Burke et al., 1989 ), which had been
utilized in past research (Johnson, 2008 , 2009 ; Sy et
al., 2005 ; Sy et al., 2013 ), is a self-reported scale and
integrates six high-arousal items for positive mood and
six high-arousal items for negative mood. In line with
previous studies (Johnson, 2009 ), the current study
focused on high arousal moods. Mood contagion is
more likely to occur with high-arousal moods than
with low-arousal moods (Damen et al., 2008 ; Hatfi eld
et al., 1994 ).
e participants were asked to answer on a 5-point
scale (1 = not at all and 5 = very much ). Both the high-
arousal positive mood scale (Cronbach’s α = .94) and
the high-arousal negative mood scale (Cronbach’s
α = .72) had an adequate level of internal consistency,
above the accepted standard of .70 (Guion, 1998 ).
Followers’ Perceptions of Leader Charisma
Consistent with previous studies (Johnson, 2008 , 2009 ;
Sy et al., 2013 ), followers’ perceptions of charisma were
assessed using three subscales of the Multifactor Lead-
ership Questionnaire (MLQ-5X/short form) (Bass &
Avolio, 1995 ). e scale is composed of 12 items that
measure charisma, specifying the frequency that leaders
manifested certain behavior.  e scale integrates three
subscales: idealized infl uence, inspiration motivation,
and attributed charisma. Moreover, “attributed cha-
risma is the personal power that charismatic leaders
possess. Idealized infl uence includes leader behavior
related to serving as a role model for followers in which
a leader stresses values and beliefs, moral behavior, and
a strong sense of the collective mission. Inspiration
motivation is comprised of behaviors aimed at adding
meaning to followers’ work, typically resulting in an
increase in follower enthusiasm” (Johnson, 2008 , p. 2).
Perceptions of leader charisma were assessed on a
5-point scale (0 = not at all and 4 = frequently, if not
always ). An overall measure of charismatic leadership
was utilized based on the theoretical conceptualization
existent in contemporary literature (Bass & Riggio,
JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES • Volume 11 • Number 3 • DOI:10.1002/jls 29
2006 ). e internal consistency of the scale was mea-
sured (Cronbach’s α = .94), and the result was above the
accepted standard of .70 (Guion, 1998 ).
Task
e participants were asked to complete a task adapted
from Towler ( 2003 ). The task was explained using
recorded speeches for subjects participating in one
of the following groups: “immediate,” “dominant,
“immediate and dominant,” and “nonimmediate and
nondominant.”
e task consisted of scanning and rating each one of
the 11 one-page résumé.  e résumés varied in terms
of qualifi cations and gender. Candidates were referred
to using the fi rst letter of their name and the fi rst letter
of their surname (e.g., AH), and the order of the ré-
sumés were randomized.  e participants were asked to
rate the résumés for the sales supervisor role taking into
account four dimensions: “willingness to work hard,
“creativity potential,” “ability to work well with others,
and “leadership potential” (Towler, 2003 ).  e partic-
ipants had 30 minutes to complete the task. In similar
studies (Johnson, 2009 ), participants had 45 minutes to
complete the task but were also invited to write a letter
to the top candidate. In the current study, the last part
of the task was removed (writing of a letter) to introduce
more objectivity in the evaluation.  e process of evalu-
ating the quality of a letter is highly subjective in nature
and might undermine the objective measurement of the
subjects’ performance in the selected task.
e résumés were created based on the interviews
that were conducted with 11 human resources directors
from diff erent companies operating in distinct indus-
tries (e.g., pharmaceutical, media, telecommunications,
etc.). A convenience sample was used. Convenience
sampling is a nonprobability technique where individ-
uals are chosen at the convenience of the researcher.
The interviews were recorded and transcribed. The
questions used in the interview were designed to
obtain information concerning specifi c elements that
a recruiter may observe in the résumé for each one of
the previously mentioned dimensions (“willingness to
work hard,” “creativity potential,” “ability to work well
with others,” and “leadership potential”).
A sample question was “What are the 3 most impor-
tant elements in a résumé which helps you identifying
the ability to work well with others of a candidate”.  e
data obtained were qualitatively analyzed, and the three
elements more often identifi ed by interviewees in each
dimension were used to develop instrumental points,
which we used to create each résumé.
A sample of three elements, which were identifi ed in
the “ability to work well with others” dimension, were:
(a) “the candidate participated in team projects and
had an ascendant professional path in teams”; (b) “the
candidate participated in hobbies that have encouraged
teamwork and socialization”; and (c) “the candidate
frequently used the first-person plural—we”. Next,
through reviewing résumés found on the Internet,
specifi c items were created to facilitate the process of
transference of the elements into the résumés.
A sample item concerning the element “the candi-
date participated in team projects and had an ascendant
professional path in teams” was “integration of referrals
from peers that highlights candidates’ competence to
work eff ectively in teams”. Finally, 11 résumés were
created.  e best résumé integrated all items, the sec-
ond-best résumé integrated 10 items, and so forth until
the worst résumé was created, which integrated only
one of the items.
Subsequently, a researcher specialized in design and
creativity helped with the integration of the following
item in the résumés: “creation of a resume that adds
aesthetics to functionality.”  e researcher created a
rst draft of the résumés’ layout, and the researcher
specialized in design made the proper adjustments to
it, and a fi nal layout was obtained.
Then, résumés were evaluated by three raters to
obtain comparison scores to access performance accu-
racy in the subsequent phase—the carrying out of the
task by the participants. According to Murphy and
Cleveland ( 1995 ), judgmental accuracy is a result of
the level of congruency between ratings of performance
and “true” ratings of performance.  e raters indepen-
dently evaluated each résumé on a 5-point scale (0 = not
at all and 4 = very much ) concerning the four dimen-
sions previously referred: “willingness to work hard,
“creativity potential,” “ability to work well with others,
and “leadership potential” (Towler, 2003 ).
Before discussions between raters, a very high level
of interrater agreement was achieved (ICC = .95). Fol-
lowing previous studies (Towler, 2003 ), all raters agreed
30 JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES • Volume 11 • Number 3 • DOI:10.1002/jls
on a fi nal score for each résumé, and comparison scores
were obtained.  e accuracy score was calculated by
taking the absolute value of the difference between
comparison scores and participants’ ratings.  e scale
used for participants to evaluate the résumés had an
adequate level of internal consistency (Cronbachs
α = .93), above the accepted standard of .70 (Guion,
1998 ).
Results
TEST OF HYPOTHESES
e rst three hypotheses were tested using multivar-
iate analysis of variance (MANOVA). A significant
MANOVA eff ect was obtained in all multivariate test
statistics; Pillai’s Trace = .85, F (12, 297) = 9.81, p < .001.
Before proceeding with the MANOVA, the homoge-
neity of covariance matrices was examined.  e test
was conducted and revealed that covariance matrices
were equal across groups. Boxs M value of 41.94 was
associated with a p value of .13, which is nonsignifi cant
according to the accepted standard of p < .05 (Huberty
& Petoskey, 2000 ). Moreover, 28% of the variance in
the canonical derived outcome accounted for leaders’
delivery styles ( η p 2 = .28). Eff ect size represents a way to
measure the eff ectiveness of an intervention (Ledesma,
Macbeth, & Cortada de Kohan, 2009 ).
To determine which outcomes differed, and
to examine the nature of the MANOVA effect, a
series of follow-up analyses of variance (ANOVAs)
were performed. The ANOVAs yielded an effect of
leaders’ delivery styles on followers’ positive mood,
F (3, 100) = 28.94, p = .001, η p 2 = .47. Results showed
that 47% of variability in followers’ positive mood
accounted for leaders’ delivery styles, which is a large-
size eff ect in behavioral sciences ( η p 2 > 0.14) according
to Cohen ( 1988 ) and Miles and Shevlin ( 2001 ). A
main eff ect of leaders’ delivery styles on followers’ neg-
ative mood was observed, F (3, 100) = 7.73, p = .001,
η p 2 = .19, as well as on ratings of charismatic leader-
ship, F (3, 100) = 77.43, p = .001, η p 2 = .70. Finally, the
ANOVAs yielded an eff ect of leaders’ delivery styles
on followers’ performance, F (3, 100) = 3.98, p = .01,
η p 2 = .11 (Table 2 ).
Finally, post-hoc analyses (LSD) were performed to
analyze the individual mean diff erence comparisons
across the groups of leaders’ delivery styles and the
outcomes. The results are shown in Table 2 . As can
be seen, Hypotheses 1a, 1b, and 1c were supported
such that “immediate,” “dominant,” and “immediate
and dominant” delivery styles elicited more followers
positive mood and less followers’ negative mood than
“nonimmediate and nondominant delivery style.
As suggested by Hypotheses 2a, 2b, and 2c, leaders
“immediate,” “dominant,” and “immediate and dom-
inant” delivery styles were attributed higher ratings of
charismatic leadership than “nonimmediate and non-
dominant” delivery style. Hypothesis 3a was not sup-
ported as “immediate” delivery style did not elicit better
performance than “nonimmediate and nondominant
delivery style. Finally, in accordance with Hypotheses 3b
and 3c, leaders’ “dominant” and “immediate and dom-
inant” delivery styles elicited better performance than
“non-immediate and non-dominant” delivery style.
TEST OF MEDIATION
To examine whether the eff ect of leaders’ delivery styles
on followers’ performance was mediated by followers’
positive mood—Hypothesis 4—the bootstrapping
method was used (Preacher & Hayes, 2004 ) consistent
with recent studies that focused on the role of aff ect
in the leadership process (Visser et al., 2013 ). Accord-
ingly, the SPSS macro provided by Preacher and Hayes
( 2004 ) was used. e use of bootstrapping to examine
the mediation indirect eff ects, as opposed to the Sobel
test (Sobel, 1982 ), does not require assumptions
regarding the underlying sampling distribution and
seems to have greater power in small samples (Preacher
& Hayes, 2004 ; Shrout & Bolger, 2002 ).
Bootstrapping is a nonparametric approach to eff ect
size estimation and to hypotheses testing (Preacher &
Hayes, 2004 ). Moreover, the bootstrapping approach is
“a way of circumventing the power problem introduced
by asymmetries and other forms of non-normality in
the sampling distribution of ab ” (Preacher & Hayes,
2004 , p. 722). Moreover, “it also produces a test that
is not based on large-sample theory, meaning it can
be applied to small samples with more confidence”
(Preacher & Hayes, 2004 , p. 722).  e independent
variable (leaders’ delivery styles) was dummy coded
because the study conditions were experimentally
manipulated, and therefore, it was not a continuous
variable.
Table 2. Main Effects of Leaders’ Delivery Styles on Followers’ Mood, Ratings of Charismatic
Leadership, and Followers’ Performance
DV F
(3, 100)
p η
p
2 Groups M SD M differences (effect sizes )
Follower positive mood 28.94 .001 .47 1 2 3 4
I 3.19 0.78 1
D 3.48 0.64 1
ID 3.43 0.76 1
NIND 1.74 0.77 1.45*** (1.88) 1.74 *** (2.45) 1.69 *** (2.19) 1
Follower negative mood 7.73 .001 .19 1 2 3 4
I 1.45 0.41 1
D 1.58 0.43 1
ID 1.62 0.47 1
NIND 2.09 0.63 –0.64 *** (1.19) –0.51*** (0.94) –0.47*** (0.84) 1
Perceptions of charismatic
leadership
77.43 .001 .70 1 2 3 4
I 3.15 0.48 1
D 3.38 0.37 1
ID 3.32 0.44 1
NIND 1.53 0.65 1.62 *** (2.84) 1.86 *** (3.49) 1.80 *** (3.19) 1
Follower performance 3.98 .01 .11 1 2 3 4
I 39.11
b 11.46 1
D 30.96
b 12.48 1
ID 30.89
b 16.02 1
NIND 40.77
b 12.52 –1.66 –9.81* (0.78) –9.88* (0.69) 1
Note . D = dominant; I = immediate; ID = immediate and dominant; NIND = non-immediate and non-dominant.
aCohen s d .
b Lower result = better performance.
JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES • Volume 11 • Number 3 • DOI:10.1002/jls 31
Multiple regression analysis was conducted to
examine each component of the proposed mediation
model (Table 3 ). First, in support of Hypothesis 4,
it was found that leaders’ delivery styles were posi-
tively associated with followers’ performance ( β = 7.15,
t (102) = 2.19, p = .03).  e present study also found
that leaders’ delivery styles were positively related to fol-
lowers’ positive mood ( β = 1.63, t (102) = 9.18, p = .01).
Finally, results indicated that followers’ positive mood
( mediator ) was positively associated with followers’
performance ( β = 4.43, t (102) = −2.50, p = .01).  en,
followers’ positive mood ( mediator ) was controlled for,
and leaders’ delivery styles ( IV ) were no longer sta-
tistically signifi cant ( β = −.08, t (102) = −0.02, p = .99).
Because a -path, b -path, and c -path revealed statistically
signifi cant results, and c -path did not reveal a statis-
tically signifi cant result ( p = .99), indirect eff ects were
analyzed to access mediation .
Indirect eff ects were tested with bootstrapping meth-
odology with bias-corrected confi dence estimates, and
the 95% confi dence interval of the indirect eff ects was
obtained with 5,000 bootstrap resamples (Preacher
& Hayes, 2008 ). Results of the mediation analysis
confi rm a mediation relationship as the bias-corrected
95% confi dence intervals exclude zero for all contrasts
( β = 7.33; confi dence inter val = 0.50–14.18). Indeed,
leaders’ delivery styles enhanced followers’ performance
through followers’ positive mood, and Hypothesis 4
was supported.
Discussion
e present study found that leaders’ delivery styles
had an impact on follower performance through fol-
lowers’ positive mood. Moreover, “immediate,” “dom-
inant,” and “immediate and dominant” delivery styles
had an effect on followers’ mood and attributions
Table 3. Multiple Mediation Estimates of Leaders’ Delivery Styles on Followers’ Performance through
Followers’ Mood
Followers’ positive mood
d
β SE t p
IV
a to mediators(a-path) Leaders delivery styles on followers’ mood 1.63 .18 9.18 .01
Mediators on DV (b-path) Followers’ mood on followers performance 443 1 .77 2.50 .01
Total effect of IV on DP (c-path) Leaders delivery styles on followers’ performance 7.15 3.26 2.19 .03
Direct effect of IV on DP (c -path) Leaders delivery styles on followers’ performance .08 4.29 –.02 .99
BC 95% CI
β
c SE Lower Upper
Bootstrap indirect effect ( ab- path)
b Leaders delivery styles on followers, performance 7.33 3.52 0.50 14.18
Note . BC = bias corrected; CI = confidence interval; 5000 bootstrap samples.
aIV was coded as = ‘non-immediate and non-dominant’, 1 = ‘ immediate ’ + ‘ dominant ’ + ‘ immediate and dominant ’.
bIndirect effects of IV on DV through proposed mediator (ab path).
c Unstandardized coefficients.
d Mediator.
32 JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES • Volume 11 • Number 3 • DOI:10.1002/jls
of charismatic leadership, but only simple or mixed
“dominant” delivery styles led to an enhancement in
the performance of the followers.  e ndings added
value to the line of research that suggested that delivery
factors (e.g., gestures, eye contact, facial expressiveness,
tone of voice variety, leaning towards followers) were
essential determinants of leaders’ charisma (Awamleh
& Gardner, 1999 ; Holladay & Coombs, 1993 , 1994 ;
Johnson & Dipboye, 2008 ) and performance (Johnson
& Dipboye, 2008 ). Furthermore, the results support
the line of research that has been examining the process
by which a leader’s expressed aff ect is transferred onto
followers at a dyadic level (Bono & Ilies, 2006 ; Cher-
ulnik et al., 2001 ; Johnson, 2009 ; Visser et al., 2013 ).
THEORETICAL IMPLICATIONS
Aff ective events theory (Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996 )
suggests that human beings are also emotional, and
their behaviors are guided by aff ective events. Non-
verbal communication of leaders is the key process
through which leaders convey emotion.  e current
study also provided evidence that leaders’ nonverbal
delivery styles had a positive eff ect on leadership out-
comes and contributed to shedding new light on the
role of aff ect in the leadership process.  e eff ect of
“dominant” and “immediate and dominant” delivery
styles on followers’ positive mood might had occurred
because “dominant” behaviors (e.g., open, wide ges-
tures) tend to produce a biochemical change in
leaders, which is associated with feelings of power and
confi dence (Carney et al., 2010 ).
Furthermore, the positive eff ect of immediate behav-
iors (e.g., smiles) on followers’ positive mood might
have a similar explanation. Past research (Strack et al.,
1988 ) associated smiling with a more positive mood
than a condition where the smile is inhibited. Fur-
thermore, by virtue of the biofeedback hypothesis
(Larsen & Kasimatis, 1990 ; Strack et al., 1988 ), fol-
lowers’ might have experienced similar mood changes
in the process of mimicking leaders’ “dominant” and
“immediate and dominant” displays because mim-
icry allows the experiencing of the mood of the others
(Chartrand & Bargh, 1999 ). A signifi cant diff erence
between “immediate,” “dominant,” and “immediate
and dominant” delivery styles and “nonimmediate and
nondominant” deliver style was also expected. Indeed,
“nonimmediate and nondominant” behaviors con-
veyed both psychological distance (Mehrabian, 1971 )
and feelings of powerlessness and uncertainty (Carney
et al., 2010 ), which might explain the significantly
higher levels of negative mood in the “nonimmediate
and nondominant” delivery style.  e ndings support
the aff ective role of communication in leadership by
reinforcing previous studies (Johnson, 2009 ; Visser et
al., 2013 ), which demonstrated that leaders’ expressed
moods have an eff ect on followers’ moods during the
process of watching leaders communicating through
videos. Aff ective events theory (Weiss & Cropanzano,
JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES • Volume 11 • Number 3 • DOI:10.1002/jls 33
1996 ) is related with leadership because leader’s non-
verbal styles may be perceived as aff ect events by fol-
lowers (Dasborough, 2006 ; Johnson, 2008 , 2009 ).
PRACTICAL IMPLICATIONS
The findings suggested that leaders may use differ-
ent delivery styles (“immediate,” “dominant,” and
“immediate and dominant”) to boost followers
positive aff ect, greater ratings of charismatic leader-
ship, and better performance. Specifi c behaviors that
leaders’ may exhibit to achieve the abovementioned
results were also pinpointed.  e study’s fi ndings built
on past research that had examined the role of leaders’
expressions of aff ect on follower performance (Johnson,
2009 ; Visser et al., 2013 ). e ndings suggested that
followers’ positive aff ect might explain the link between
leader delivery styles and follower performance. Please
note that the “immediate and dominant” delivery
style was not characterized by “immediate” and “dom-
inant” behaviors displayed separately. Instead, both
“immediate” and “dominant” behaviors were mani-
fested at the same time.  erefore, leaders’ speech may
be composed of a blend of “immediate,” “dominant,”
and “immediate and dominant” displays.
While verbal language is critical to create meaning,
transform tacit knowledge, and inspire stable action,
nonverbal delivery styles are critical to facilitate mood
contagion and leverage organizational performance
through followers’ mood.
LIMITATIONS AND SUGGESTION FOR
FUTURE RESEARCH
e study has limitations, especially concerning the
sample used. The leader’s speech presentation, via
recorded video, restricts the exposure to a variety of
real leader behaviors, namely, personal eye contact.
Nevertheless, the utilization of recorded video is con-
sistent with past research in the fi eld. Another limi-
tation was the use of an actor to manipulate leaders’
nonverbal delivery styles. Actors might portray stronger
moods than in real organizational life situations (John-
son, 2009 ). However, past research had broadly used
actors to manipulate the mood of the leader (Awam-
leh & Gardner, 1999 ; Holladay & Coombs, 1993 ,
1994 ; Lewis, 2000 ; Newcombe & Ashkanasy, 2002 ).
e eff ects of gender and age were not accounted for
in the current study. Previous studies suggested that
women had a diff erent view about bosses’ characteris-
tics than men (Lopez & Ensari, 2014 ; Singh, Nadim,
& Ezzedeen, 2012 ), and leaders’ age may influence
performance (Kearney, 2008 ).
Future research might focus on longitudinal experi-
mental studies as recent fi ndings suggested that aff ect at
work could infl uence not only proximal but also distal
outcomes (Sy et al., 2013 ; Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996 ).
e eff ects of leadership styles on gender should also be
investigated. Future studies could measure not only fol-
lowers’ but also leaders’ aff ect. To assess leaders’ imme-
diacy and dominance, the use of psychophysiological
and behavioral measurements was recommended.
Concerning psychophysiological measurements, an
advanced eye-tracking unobtrusive instrument might
be used to measure immediacy, and salimetrics kits
could be used to measure dominance.  e use of an
unobtrusive method instead of head-mounted cameras
is also crucial for future studies because it is important
to guarantee that followers are observing the leader in
a natural state—in other words, without an instrument
in his or her head—to avoid contamination factors.
Following previous studies (Johnson, 2009 ; Towler,
2003 ), performance was measured by judgmental accu-
racy of a task. However, considering that individual
performance involves a diversity of organizational
activities (Carlos & Rodrigues, 2016 ), future research
might consider using diff erent measures—for example,
self-reported performance scale (Carlos & Rodrigues,
2016 )—to evaluate performance.
Conclusion
Despite the limitations, the research findings are
expected to advance the understanding of expressed
mood and performance, through mood contagion, in
the leadership realm. A controlled laboratory setting was
used to examine the relationship between leaders’ non-
verbal delivery styles, manipulated through immediacy
and dominance, and followers’ mood, followers’ percep-
tions of leader charisma, and followers’ performance.
Followers’ positive aff ect was also tested as a mediator
between leaders’ nonverbal delivery styles and fol-
lowers’ performance.  e results provided support to
charismatic leadership theories, which suggested that
34 JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES • Volume 11 • Number 3 • DOI:10.1002/jls
an important way charismatic leaders might impact
followers could be through the existence of an intense
emotional bonding that underlies the leadership pro-
cess (Bass, 1985 ). Charismatic leaders were perceived as
powerful people who elicit followers’ positive emotions
to transmit the organizational vision, but little research
examined the emotional aspects of charisma (Erez et
al., 2008 ). e present research confi rmed the aff ective
events theory and shed new light on the mood conta-
gion process and nonverbal delivery styles, manipulated
through immediacy and dominance.  e ndings might
help in the prescription of behaviors that influence
favorable moods and boost followers’ performance.
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António Sacavém is an Assistant Professor of Management
at Universidade Europeia – Laureate International Uni-
versities, in Lisbon and Partner at António Sacavém Com-
munication Academy. He holds a PhD at Universidade
Europeia – Laureate International Universities, in Lis-
bon. He explores the role of Nonverbal Communication
and Emotion in Leadership, namely emotional contagion,
mimicking, and social intuition processes. His training
and consulting clients include Toyota, Roche, Microsoft,
and Impresa Group. His work has been covered in main-
stream Portuguese media outlets such as RTP, SIC, TVI,
38 JOURNAL OF LEADERSHIP STUDIES • Volume 11 • Number 3 • DOI:10.1002/jls
and TVI24. Communications can be directed to antonio.
sacavem@universidadeeuropeia.pt.
Luis F. Martinez is an Assistant Professor of Marketing
at Nova School of Business and Economics, Universidade
Nova de Lisboa, Portugal. He earned his PhD in Social
and Behavioral Sciences from Tilburg University, and he
held a Visiting Scholar position at the MIT Sloan School
of Management. His research interests include emotion
and decision-making, consumer behavior, leadership, and
health at work. His research work has appeared in jour-
nals such as Decision, Harvard Business Review, Journal
of Business Research, Cognition and Emotion, Journal
of Economic Psychology, The International Journal of
Human Resource Management, and Stress and Health.
João Vieira da Cunha is an Associate Professor in
Information Systems at IÉSEG School of Management.
He earned his PhD in Management from the MIT Sloan
School of Management. He studies leadership in the digital
age. His work has been published in journals such as the
Academy of Management Review, Organization Science,
and MIS Quarterly.
Ana Maria Abreu is an Assistant Professor of Psychology
at Universidade Europeia – Laureate International Uni-
versities. She holds a DEA in Neuropsychology (Paris VI)
and a PhD in Brain, Behavior, and Cognition (Paris VI
and King’s College London). She worked as a researcher
in Aff ective and Social Neurosciences and Motor Neuro-
psychology at Sapienza University of Rome, Universidade
Católica Portuguesa, and Universidade de Lisboa. Her
research interests include developmental disorders, motor
skills, and motor control. Her works have been published
in journals such as Cerebral Cortex, European Journal of
Neuroscience,  e Journal of Neuroscience, and Psychology
of Sport and Exercise.
Stefanie K. Johnson is an Assistant Professor of
Management at the University of Colorado, Boulder’s
Leeds School of Business. She completed her PhD at Rice
University and is particularly interested in the effects
of unconscious biases in the evaluation of women and
minorities with the goal of fi nding ways to mitigate those
biases. Stefanie has published 40 journal articles and book
chapters in outlets such as Harvard Business Review and
has presented her work at over 50 meetings around the
world, including at the White House for a 2016 summit
on diversity in corporate America on National Equal Pay
Day and the 2016 Harvard Negotiation and Leadership
Conference.
... While speaking with the AVs, it was clear that they do not actively recognize leadership qualities within themselves. Leadership qualities, therefore, were categorized into four distinct leadership styles, based loosely on the common leadership models: Servant Leaders (Chen, Zhu, & Zhou, 2015;Gandolfi & Stone, 2018;Greenleaf, 2008), Laissez-faire Leaders (Aasland, Skogstad, Notelaers, Nielsen, & Einarsen, 2010;Flynn, 2019;Sharma & Singh, 2013), Transformational Leaders (Bass & Riggio, 2006;Gregory Stone, Russell, & Patterson, 2004;Herman & Chiu, 2014;Poutiatine & Conners, 2012), and Charismatic Leaders (Conger, 2015;Sacavém, Martinez, da Cunha, Abreu, & Johnson, 2017;Shamir, House, & Arthur, 1993). ...
... Charismatic leaders have been seen as friendly and warm but also strong, dynamic, and powerful (Sacavém et al., 2017). Charismatic leaders are often seen as heroic or inspiring and desire to encourage leadership in others (Conger, 2015). ...
... Charismatic Leaders are often seen as heroic or inspiring and desire to encourage leadership in others (Conger, 2015;Sacavém et al., 2017;Shamir et al., 1993). Five ...
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Ireland has a rich history in volunteering. A culture of neighbor helping neighbor, and giving one's time, energy and commitment to others outside of one?s immediate family. The purpose of the research is to examine life course influences on volunteer identity and learning through volunteering toward a contribution to lifelong learning. This research seeks to understand the learning experiences of Active Volunteers (AVs) within the context of wider society and changing social structures. It closely examines the concept of identity and learning through the life course, and why it is considered an issue of critical importance in the context of community engagement and volunteer longevity. This research explores the lived-experiences of the AV in Ireland post-tertiary education, and interpretation of the relationship between informal learning and identity through socially defined influences and experiences of family, environment, customs and lifestyle, to gain insight and understanding of volunteer identity and learning as informal learning over the life course. Through an inductive approach that adopts social identity theory and lifelong learning theory, this research is underpinned by a constructivist interpretive paradigm. Such an approach is qualitative, holistic, and aims to understand and explain the personal ways individuals relate volunteering with their identity, learning as part of their volunteer experience, and understanding identity through learning. Through in-depth interviews, reflective journaling, and identity workshops, my research investigated participant perceptions of learning through volunteering. I looked at identity from the view point of the AV and their understanding of what learning means, 'if' or 'how' those understandings change over time; and to provide a deeper understanding of the concept of learning that remains. The research findings found four distinct Active Volunteer Dispositions (AVDs) as volunteer leader types that, when properly cultivated, can transform and revolutionize how we understand volunteer identity and learning. Personal and social identity is important for individual learning, and further study into the interconnected relationship between identity and informal learning over the life course can be useful for creating, supporting, and maintaining important volunteer leader learning models. Adult and higher education, as institutions of society, have a fundamental role to play in promoting the ideals of democracy, social justice, and human rights and contributing to the social development of society. The findings are discussed in terms of typing the AVDs and recommendations in terms of supports for AVs; ideas for learning and community-based program development in adult education; and suggestions for national and international educational policy development for the betterment of wider civic society.
... Charismatic leadership is one of many leadership styles often practiced by top managements. It has proven to have an effective impact (Shamir et al., 1993;Antonio et al., 2017) on subordinates and has a balanced and holistic positive impact on the whole organization (Biviano, 2000;Mohd Hamran et al., 2014;2015;Yang & Zhu, 2016). The charismatic term is derived from the Greek word meaning "divine gift", the ability to perform miracles in which it was introduced by Weber in 1947 (Cabbuag, 2016). ...
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Leadership is a key pillar of the successful 21 st century organizations and it is very crucial to ensure that its governance is always of the highest standard and remain relevant. Leadership without integrity is a risk to an organization and will disrupts the organization's efficiency and effectiveness. Therefore, the process of developing a good leader is vital for university students who will be future leaders with a holistic and balanced spiritual and physical aspect of their life. This study was conducted to analyze the four concepts of P.E.S.I. namely Physical, Emotional, Spiritual and Intellectual that influence the preservation of leadership among students in a Malaysian institution of higher learning. The quantitative method was used in this study where self-administered questionnaires were employed as a research instrument. The sample (n=342) was collected from students of a public university in Malaysia. The results found that there were significant relationships between the four concepts of P.E.S.I. and the formation of charismatic leadership among students of a public university in Malaysia. This study is expected to be an important source of reference for public universities in Malaysia to develop exemplary leaders.
... Erez et al. (2008) found that self-rated leader charisma was positively related to positive expressions and aroused behavior (e.g., "the leader tended to talk with his/her hands a lot", p. 608). Similar results were found in Sacavém et al.'s (2017) scenario experiment of leader delivery styles, mood, and performance. ...
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We present a systematic review of literature examining leadership and the contagion of affective phenomena, namely emotion, mood and affect. Specifically, an inductive thematic analysis approach was adopted to synthesize the findings from published studies. In addition, a mini meta‐analysis was conducted to quantify reported effects. A rigorous search identified 25 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria for further review. Results highlighted important relationships between leadership and contagion aligned with six themes: charismatic and transformational leadership are conducive to contagion of leader and follower positive affective phenomena; greater contagion effects exists when there is congruence between leader and follower affective states; contagion of leader and follower affective phenomena is directly linked to leader effectiveness and performance; and, individual susceptibility to the contagion of affective phenomena can moderate these relationships. These findings have salient implications for conceptualization and measurement across multiple lines of inquiry and within numerous domains of application. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Prior research on leadership has recognized and discussed several leadership types and styles. In addition to the classic division of leaders into authoritarian, democratic, and laissezfaire styles of leadership introduced by Lewin, Lippit, and White (1939), recent research has introduced such conceptions of leadership as charismatic leadership (Grabo & van Vugt, 2016;Sacavém, Martinez, Vieira da Cunha, Abreu, & Johnson, 2017), narcissistic leadership (Anninos, 2018;Nevicka, De Hoogh, Den Hartog, & Belschak, 2018), destructive leadership (Aravena, 2017;Hoffrén, Syvärinen, & Laulainen, 2017), ethical leadership (Avelia, 2017;Caldwell & Anderson, 2017;Ko, Ma, Bartnik, Haney, & Kang, 2018), servant leadership (Amah, 2018; Ling, Liu, & Wu, 2017), and authentic leadership (Ling et al., 2017;Quraishi & Aziz, 2018). ...
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RESUMO | A investigação e o conhecimento científico sobre a liderança e a sua importância no sucesso das organizações, continua a ser um tema amplamente explorado pela ciência. No que diz respeito às organizações desportivas, e à gestão do desporto em particular, persiste a necessidade de se continuar a estudar este fenómeno para compreendermos cada vez melhor o papel dos lideres e os seus comportamentos, assim como a sua importância no desenvolvimento das pessoas nas organizações. Este estudo teve como objetivo analisar e avaliar a relação entre a gestão do desporto e liderança e os efeitos na motivação dos técnicos superiores de desporto nos municípios portugueses, com base nos estilos de liderança e respetivos comportamentos dos atuais responsáveis municipais pelo desporto. A investigação seguiu uma abordagem dedutiva de natureza quantitativa descritiva, incindindo sobre 302 dos 308 municípios de Portugal Continental, Região Autónoma dos Açores e da Madeira. O universo em estudo foi composto por técnicos superiores de desporto e pelos atuais responsáveis municipais pelas unidades orgânicas dos serviços de desporto. Os dados foram recolhidos entre novembro de 2020 e fevereiro de 2021 com recurso a questionários de respostas fechadas e no total obtiveram-se 443 respostas, tendo sido posteriormente analisados com recurso a técnicas de estatística descritiva e inferencial. Os resultados da investigação permitiram caracterizar e atualizar o conhecimento sobre os profissionais a atuar na gestão do desporto municipal e concluir que existe de forma geral um reconhecimento entre grupos sobre a predominância dos estilos de liderança existentes e do seu comportamento enquanto lideres, um claro reconhecimento sobre a importância da formação em gestão do desporto no âmbito da liderança e na melhoria das competências e conhecimentos para atuar na gestão do desporto, ao mesmo tempo que existem diferenças significativas entre técnicos superiores de desporto e responsáveis municipais pelo desporto ao nível da perceção sobre os estilos de liderança e motivação. As características associadas ao estilo de liderança transformacional também foram amplamente percecionadas como essenciais para se alcançar uma liderança de excelência nas organizações desportivas e na gestão do desporto. Palavras-chave: Gestão do Desporto; Liderança; Municípios; Motivação; Técnicos Superiores de Desporto. ABSTRACT | The research and scientific knowledge about leadership and its importance in the success oforganizations continues to be a subject widely explored by science. Regarding sports organizations,and sport management in particularly, there is still a need to continue to study this phenomenon tobetter understand the role of leaders and their behaviors, as well as their importance in thedevelopment of people in organizations. This study aimed to analyse and evaluate the relationshipbetween sport management and leadership and the effects on the motivation of sport technicians inPortuguese municipalities, based on the leadership styles and respective behaviors of the currentmunicipal heads of the organic units of the sport services. The research followed a deductiveapproach of a descriptive quantitative nature, focusing on 302 of the 308 municipalities in MainlandPortugal and in the Autonomous Region of Azores and Madeira. The universe under study wascomposed of sport technicians and the current municipal heads of the organic units of the sportservices. Data were collected between November 2020 and February 2021 using closed-endedquestionnaires and a total of 443 answers were obtained, which were subsequently analysed usingdescriptive and inferential statistical techniques. The results of the research allowed us to characterizeand update the knowledge about the professionals working in municipal sports management andconclude that there is a general recognition among groups about the predominance of the existingleadership styles and their behavior as leaders, a clear recognition of the importance of training insports management in the context of leadership and improvement of skills and knowledge to work insports management, while there are significant differences between sports technicians and municipalheads of the organic units of the sport services in terms of the perception of leadership styles andmotivation. The characteristics associated with the transformational leadership style were also widelyperceived as essential to achieve leadership excellence in sports organizations and in sportsmanagement. Keywords: Sports Management; Leadership; Local Authorities; Motivation; Sports Technicians.
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We provide an integrative review of the empirical literature on leadership and affect (emotion, mood, and affective dispositions), which is first and foremost a literature on leader displays of affect. We conclude that the influence of leader affective displays can be understood through the mediation paths of emotional contagion and cognitive interpretation of affect in combination with the first-and second-stage moderators of these paths. We also conclude that the common yet overly simplistic notion that leader displays of positive affect are more effective than leader displays of negative affect can in important part be attributed to an overreliance on subjective ratings as indicators of leadership effectiveness, whereas behavioral indicators of leadership effectiveness suggest a more contingent view of the effectiveness of positive and negative affective displays. We propose that to bolster and further develop these conclusions, we need (a) more research focusing on moderation in dual-path mediation; (b) development of theory about cognitive interpretations following leader affective displays; and (c) more sophisticated models of the difference amongst different affective states to better capture the complexity of their effects. We also outline how evidence regarding the role of follower affect in response to leadership more generally points to the potential for integration of affective and non-affective models of leadership.
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This Handbook provides an up-to-date discussion of the central issues in nonverbal communication and examines the research that informs these issues. Editors Valerie Manusov and Miles Patterson bring together preeminent scholars, from a range of disciplines, to reveal the strength of nonverbal behavior as an integral part of communication.
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Transformational Leadership, Second Edition is intended for both the scholars and serious students of leadership. It is a comprehensive review of theorizing and empirical research that can serve as a reference and starting point for additional research on the theory. It can be used as a supplementary textbook in an intense course on leadership--or as a primary text in a course or seminar focusing on transformational leadership. New in the Second Edition: New, updated examples of leadership have been included to help illustrate the concepts, as well as show the broad range of transformational leadership in a variety of settings. New chapters have been added focusing specifically on the measurement of transformational leadership and transformational leadership and effectiveness. The discussion of both predicators and effects of transformational leadership is greatly expanded. Much more emphasis is given to authentic vs. inauthentic transformational leadership. Suggestions are made for guiding the future of research and applications of transformational leadership. © 2006 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.