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Antibacterial activity of Garcinia kola seed and leaf extracts on some selected clinical isolates

Authors:
Corresponding Author: Ezeanya Chinyere.C
Department of Basic Scienc es (Microbiology Option),
Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Nigeria.
Email: chi_chi34@yahoo.com
Research Article Volume 2013, Article ID sjmb-298, 9 Pages, 2012. doi:doi: 10.7237/sjmb/298
Science Journal of Microbiology Published By Science Journal Publication
ISSN: 2276-626X
http://www.sjpub.org/sjmb.html
© Author(s) 2013. CC Attribution 3.0 License.
ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF GARCINIA KOLA SEED AND LEAF EXTRACT ON SOME SELECTED CLINICAL
ISOLATES
Ezeanya Chinyere.C
Daniel Ebakota.O
Department of Basic Sciences (Microbiology Option),
Benson Idahosa University, Benin City, Nigeria.
Accepted 10th January, 2013
ABSTRACT
Garcinia kola seeds and leaves were screened for their anti bacterial
activities using 1% hydrochloric acid, diethylether, acetic acid (ethanoic
acid) and acetone. The seeds and leaves were dried and ground into
powdered form. 10g of the ground seeds and leaves were in four sets. 90ml
of the extraction solvents was added to each set. The seed and leaf extracts
were tested on clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli,
Salmonella typhi and Streptococcus pyogenes using Agar Diffusion Method.
Acetic acid seed and leaf extract showed the highest degree of zones of
inhibition of 44mm and 37mm respectively against all the test organisms.
The other extracts showed no inhibitory effect on the test organisms. The
mechanism of action of the seed and leaf extract on the four bacteria had
leakage of both protein and potassium (K+) ions. Phytochemical screening
of the extracts revealed the presence of some bioactive components like
alkaloids, saponins, tannins, anthraquinones and cardiac glycosides. These
components determine the antibacterial activity of the seed and leaf
extracts. The results from this study, provides scientific evidence that
Garcinia kola has the capability of inhibiting the growth of pathogenic micro
organisms; thus it will be useful in tropical medicine for the treatment of
microbial infections.
KEYWORDS: Garcinia kola, Clinical isolates, Zone of inhibition, Protein
and potassium ions leakage, Phytochemical screening
INTRODUCTION
Garcinia kola, also known as bitter kola, is a nut-bearing
tropical tree native to Nigeria's coastal rainforests. It was
named after a man called Garcin, who lived and wrote about
the plant in the 18th century [1]. It has a bitter taste followed
by slight sweetness. Despit e its bitter taste, Garcinia kola
nuts are commonly eaten as a snack and used for their
stimulant effects, due to high caffeine content . G.kola is
mostly found in the southern part of Nigeria [2].
Garcinia kola contains antibacterial properties, according to
clinical data. They are effective in the treatment of infectious
disease while simultaneously mitigating many of the side
effects that are often associated with synthetic
antimicrobials [3]. They are effective, yet gentle. They
exhibit response to specific organs or systems in the body.
Bitter kola does not possess toxins. In the United States,
bitter kola is termed as “miracle drug” [4].
G.kola has been shown to be a popular treatment for
diarrhea and fever. The seed extract is antiseptic and is
active mostly against gram positive bacteria. While the leaf,
is active mostly against gram negative bacteria [5]. It is also
very efficacious for hepatitis. In West Africa, is now being
harnessed as a cure for the Ebola virus infections and also
against flu [3]. The stem, bark and the seeds are used for
acute fever, inflammation of the respiratory tract and throat
infections. Historically, Nigerians used Garcinia kola as an
aphrodisiac. The seeds are also chewed to relieve
hoarseness of voice, sore throat and cough. In folk medicine
the seed is used for the treatment of liver disorder [6]. It is
also used in the treatment of dysentery and diarrhea [7].
The leaves are used for stomach ache and pains and is also
anti helmithic. They also serve as good remedy for t yphoid
fever [8].
The seed and leaf of bitter kola are complex mixture of
biflavonids and prenylated benzophenones [9]. They have
anti-inflammatory, anti-diabetic and anti-heptotoxic
properties. There are many pharmacological effects
demonstrated for Garcinia biflavanoids [10]. Recently, two
new chromanols, garcinnoic acid, garcinial, together with 8-
tocotrienol were reported. G.kola also contains tannins,
cardiac glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, hydroxymethyl
anthraquinones, phlobatannins, polyphenols, glucosides and
reducing compounds [11].
THE OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDY
The objective of this study was to determine the
antibacterial effect of the seed and leaf extracts of Garcinia
kola on clinical isolates of Staphylococcus aureus,
Streptococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia
coli.
Science Journal of Microbiology ISSN: 2276-626X 2
How to Cite this Article: Ezeanya Chinyere.C, Daniel Ebakota.O “Antibacterial Ac tivity of Garcinia Kola Seed and Leaf Extract on Some Selected Clinical Isolates ”, Science Journal of
Microbiology,Volume 2013, Article I D sjmb-298, 9 Pages, 2012. doi:doi: 1 0.7237/sjmb/298
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Sample collection
Seeds of Garcinia kola were collected locally from New Benin
market in Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria while pesticide free
Garcinia kola leaves, collected in Igbu village, Ekpoma, Edo
State, Nigeria.
Collection of Test Organisms
Properly identified clinical isolates of Staphyloccoccus
aureus,Streptococcus pyogenes,Escherichia coli and
Salmonnella typhi were collected from the Microbiology
Laboratory Department of Faith Medical Centre Benin City,
Nigeria. The isolates were re-identified using conventional
microbiological techniques [12].
Preparation of Extracts
100g of fresh leaves and seeds were each dried in hot -air
oven at 50oC for 4 days. The leaves and seeds were then
ground into powdery form. Ten grams (10g) each of the
grounded seed and leaf were weighed into 100ml sterile
bottles. 90ml of each solvent (1% hydrochloric acid,
diethylether, acetic acid (ethanoic acid) and acetone )was
dispensed into the sterile bottles. The bottles were placed on
a mechanical shaker overnight for extraction. The mixture
was filtered into sterile 100ml bottles with the aid of
Wattman no 1 filter paper. This was done for each extract.
Sterility test of the Extracts
Purity of extracts was determined by streak-inoculation
onto freshly prepared Nutrient, Blood and MacConkey agar
plates. Plates were incubated
at 37oC for 18-24 hours. At the end of incubation
period, plates were examined for growth.
Serial Dilution of Extracts
1% Hydrochloric acid, Acetone, Acetic acid and Diethlyether
were the solvents used for serial dilution of the extracts.
Different ratios of the extract to solvent were obtained.
The control for the experiment contained 1ml of the solvent
hence apportioned 0:1
The 2nd set of dilution contained 1ml of the different extracts
only that is (1:0).
The 3rd set of dilution contained 1ml of extract mixed with
2ml of solvent (1:2).
The 4th set of dilution contained 1ml of extract mixed with
4ml of solvent (1:4).
The 5th set of dilution contained 1ml of extract mixed with
6ml of solvent (1:6)
The 6th set of dilution contained 1ml of extract mixed with
8ml of solvent (1:8).
Estimation of Extract Activity using Agar Diffusion
Method
A 10-fold serial dilution of overnight broth culture of test
organisms was seeded unto the surface of freshly prepared
Nutrient agar and labeled filter paper discs impregnated
with each extract for 4 hours was placed on the surface of
the Nutrient agar plates using a sterile forceps.
Quantification of microbial growth inhibition was
determined by measuring the diameter of clear zones
around the disc after 24 hours of incubation.
Determination of Extract Antimicrobial Activity
For the determination of the extract minimum inhibitory
concentration (MIC), 10-fold serial dilution of each of the
different test organism (Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus
pyogenes and Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli) was
carried out. 0.5ml of nutrient broth and 0.5ml of the diluted
test organism were dispensed into several tubes after which
1ml of the extract was used to carry out 2-fold serial
dilution. After which all the test tubes were incubated at
270C for 18-24hours. At the end of the incubation period, the
test tubes were observed for turbidity (growth).
Determination of Mechanism of Action of Crude Extract
This was done to determine the mechanism of action of the
crude extract on the test organisms. Exactly 1ml of 18hours
broth of the test organisms was introduced into 30mg/ml
concentration of both the seed and leaf crude extract of
Garcinia kola. The suspension was thoroughly mixed at
room temperature (250C -280C) and then centrifuged at
different intervals of 30minutes, 1hour, 1hour 30minutes
and 2 hours. The protein leakage was known by measuring
the concentration of protein in the supernatant. This was
achieved by reading the absorbance using the flame
colourimeter. The corresponding protein concentration was
known from a standard curved obtained using Bovine Serum
Albumin(BSA).
For the potassium ion leakage, extractions were made at
different time intervals 10minutes, 20minutes, 40minutes
and 60minutes. The atomic absorption spectrophotometer
was used to get the readings. All samples prepared for
reading were well centrifuged and the supernatants we re
used for analysis. Control experiment was carried out with
extracts alone with no organisms introduced.
Science Journal of Microbiology ISSN: 2276-626X 3
How to Cite this Article: Ezeanya Chinyere.C, Daniel Ebakota.O “Antibacterial Ac tivity of Garcinia Kola Seed and Leaf Extract on Some Selected Clinical Isolates ”, Science Journal of
Microbiology,Volume 2013, Article I D sjmb-298, 9 Pages, 2012. doi:doi: 1 0.7237/sjmb/298
Phytochemical Screening of the Extracts
The extracts obtained were subjected to phytochemical
screening by methods of Harbone, 1984 [13]; to determine
the presence of bioactive agents such as alkaloids, saponins,
tannin, phlobatannins, anthraquinones and cardiac
glycosides.
RESULTS
No bacteria growth was observed in all extracts
when plated on nutrient agar, blood agar and macConkey
agar plates.The zone of inhibition by acetic acid seed extract
of G.kola on Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pyogenes
and Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli is shown in table 1.
The serial dilution of both the seed and leaf acetic acid
extract resulted in varying diameters of zone of inhibition of
the test organisms. For the acetic acid seed extract, the
minimum inhibitory concentration for the gram positive and
gram negative bacteria was 1:0 and 1:6 respectively (table
1). For the acetic acid leaf extract, the m inimum inhibitory
concentration for the gram positive and gram negative
bacteria was 1:0 and 1:4 respectively (table 2).
The test organisms were not susceptible to the other
extracts such as Acetone, Diethylether and 1% Hydrochloric
acid extract of both the seeds and leaves. The maximum
dilution at which no growth occurred in the test -tubes was
recorded as the minimum inhibitory concentration. For the
Gram negative bacteria, the MIC was the seventh test tube
(2-7) of the acetic acid leaf extract; the test- tube had a clear
content. While for gram- positive bacteria the MIC was the
eighth test tube (2-8) for the leaf acetic acid extract. For the
acetic acid seed extract, the MIC for gram negative bacteria
was the fourth test tube (2-4) while for gram positive
bacteria was the third test tube (2-3). The control showed
some degree of turbidity.
Table 3-7 shows the values obtained for potassium (K +) ion
and protein leakage from the test organisms by both the
seed and leaf extracts of Garcinia kola. Table 8 shows the
presence of various bioactive components in the extracts.
Table 9 shows the diameter of zones of inhibition of the test
organisms to some commercial antibiotics.
Table 1: Zone of inhibition by acetic acid seed extract of G.kola on Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pyogenes,Salmonella
typhi and Escherichia coli
ORGANISMS
RATIO OF THE EXTRACT TO
SOLVENT
DIAMETER OF ZONE OF
INHIBITION(mm)
Staphylococcus aureus
0:1
20.0
1:0
13.0
1:2
44.0
1:4
26.0
1:6
35.0
1:8
29.0
Escherichia coli
0:1
11.0
1:0
16.0
1:2
16.0
1:4
22.0
1:6
22.0
1:8
35.0
Streptococcus pyogenes
0:1
1:0
1:2
1:4
Science Journal of Microbiology ISSN: 2276-626X 4
How to Cite this Article: Ezeanya Chinyere.C, Daniel Ebakota.O “Antibacterial Ac tivity of Garcinia Kola Seed and Leaf Extract on Some Selected Clinical Isolates ”, Science Journal of
Microbiology,Volume 2013, Article I D sjmb-298, 9 Pages, 2012. doi:doi: 1 0.7237/sjmb/298
Table 2: Zone of inhibition by acetic acid leaf extract of G.kola on Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus pyogenes,Salmonella
typhi and Escherichia coli
ORGANISMS
RATIO OF THE EXTRACT TO
SOLVENT
DIAMETER OF ZONE OF
INHIBITION(mm)
Staphylococcus aureus
0:1
11.0
1:0
15.0
1:2
16.0
1:4
20.0
1:6
17.5
1:8
15.0
Escherichia coli
0:1
6.0
1:0
4.0
1:2
8.0
1:4
10.0
1:6
17.5
1:8
18.5
Streptococcus pyogenes
0:1
1:0
1:2
1:4
1:6
1:8
Salmonella typhi
0:1
1:0
1:2
1:4
1:6
1:8
1:6
1:8
Salmonella typhi
0:1
1:0
1:2
1:4
1:6
1:8
Science Journal of Microbiology ISSN: 2276-626X 5
How to Cite this Article: Ezeanya Chinyere.C, Daniel Ebakota.O “Antibacterial Ac tivity of Garcinia Kola Seed and Leaf Extract on Some Selected Clinical Isolates ”, Science Journal of
Microbiology,Volume 2013, Article I D sjmb-298, 9 Pages, 2012. doi:doi: 1 0.7237/sjmb/298
Table 3: Biruet Method of Protein Determination used as the standard for the determination of protein leakage
Standard BSA-Serum Concentration Water Biuret Absorbance
at
Bovine Albumin(ml) of BSA used (mg) Reagent(ml) 540mm
0.5 1 3.5 2 0.001
1.0 2 5.0 2 0.02
1.5 3 2.5 2 0.02
2.0 4 2.0 2 0.038
3.0 6 1.0 2 0.056
4.0 8 0.0 2 0.095
TABLE 4: Rate of Protein Leakage by Garcinia kola Seed Crude Extract on the Clinical Isolates
Clinical Isolates Time Intervals/Absorbance (mm)
30minutes 60minutes 90minutes 120minutes
Staphylococcus aureus 0.115 0.336 0.075 0.002
Escherichia coli 0.088 0.365 0.048 0.052
Streptococcus pyogenes 0.082 0.285 0.373 0.035
Salmonella typhi 0.138 0.236 0.082 0.036
TABLE 5: Rate of Protein Leakage by Garcinia kola Leaf Crude Extract on the Clinical Isolates
Clinical Isolates Time Intervals/Absorbance (mm)
30minutes 60minutes 90minutes 120minutes
Staphylococcus aureus 0.005 0.262 0.032 0.002
Escherichia coli 0.005 0.212 0.005 0.678
Streptococcus pyogenes 0.032 0.282 0.033 0.032
Salmonella typhi 0.084 0.282 0.015 0.682
TABLE 6: Rate of Potassium (K+) ion Leakage by Garcinia kola Seed Crude Extract on the Clinical Isolates
Clinical Isolates Time Intervals/Absorbance (mm)
10minutes 20minutes 40minutes 60minutes
Staphylococcus aureus 0.5 6.2 36.2 109.5
Escherichia coli 0.1 6.9 25.7 107.1
Streptococcus pyogenes 3.2 4.8 17.5 110.4
Salmonella typhi 1.9 8.0 34.2 108.0
Science Journal of Microbiology ISSN: 2276-626X 6
How to Cite this Article: Ezeanya Chinyere.C, Daniel Ebakota.O “Antibacterial Ac tivity of Garcinia Kola Seed and Leaf Extract on Some Selected Clinical Isolates ”, Science Journal of
Microbiology,Volume 2013, Article I D sjmb-298, 9 Pages, 2012. doi:doi: 1 0.7237/sjmb/298
TABLE 7: Rate of Potassium (K+) ion Leakage by Garcinia kola Leaf Crude Extract on the Clinical Isolates
Clinical Isolates Time Intervals/Absorbance (mm)
10minutes 20minutes 40minutes 60minutes
Staphylococcus aureus 1.60 2.80 96.20 62.90
Escherichia coli 85.20 75.10 65.01 67.80
Streptococcus pyogenes 12.45 2.82 93.30 32.20
Salmonella typhi 84.50 82.80 65.20 68.20
TABLE 8: Phytochemical Component of Garcinia kola Seed and Leaf Extracts
Bioactive Component Seed Extract Leaf Extract
AA D HC A AA D HC A
Alkaloids + + - - + + - -
Saponins + - - - + - - -
Tannins + - - - + - - -
Anthraquiones + - - - + - - -
Steroids - - - - - - - -
Flavonoids - - - - + - - -
Phlobatannins + - - - + - - -
Cardiac glycosides:
Legal Test + + - - + - - -
Lieberman Test + + + + - + + -
Salkowsla Test - - - - - - - -
KEY:
(+) - Present
(- ) - Absent
Extracts:
AA – Acetic acid
D – Diethylether
HC – 1% Hydrochloric acid
A – Acetone
Science Journal of Microbiology ISSN: 2276-626X 7
How to Cite this Article: Ezeanya Chinyere.C, Daniel Ebakota.O “Antibacterial Ac tivity of Garcinia Kola Seed and Leaf Extract on Some Selected Clinical Isolates ”, Science Journal of
Microbiology,Volume 2013, Article I D sjmb-298, 9 Pages, 2012. doi:doi: 1 0.7237/sjmb/298
Table 9: Zone of inhibition by some selected commercial antibiotics on Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes,
Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli
Antibiotics Diameter of Zone of Inhibition (mm)
S. aureus S. pyogenes S. typhi E. coli
Chloramphenicol (20mg) - 16 - 11
Augmentin (30mg) - - - -
Amoxycillin (25mg) - - - -
Erthromycin (30mg) - 20 - 12
Ceftilazone (30mg) - - - -
Nitrofuruntoin (200µg) 19 - - -
Penfloxacin (5mg) - - 14 -
Gentamicin (10mg) - - 16 12
Tetracycline (30µg) - 10 - 14
Cotrimoxazole (25mg) - 12 - 15
DISCUSSION
The outcome of this study has shown that the seed and leaf
extract of Garcinia kola posses antibacterial activity. The
antibacterial activity against the test organisms varied as the
acetic acid extract from the Garcinia kola had the highest
inhibitory effect on the selected micro organisms. This
antibacterial activity against the test organisms is due to the
presence of bioactive components present in the extract
such as tannin, saponins as shown in this study. This work
therefore agrees with Ebanu et al., 1999: “antimicrobial
activity in plants results from the bioactive component
present in the plants such as alkaloids, saponins, tannins,
anthraquinones, steroids, flavonoids etc”.
The acetic acid seed extract produced the widest zone of
inhibition for gram positive organisms compared to the
gram negative organisms. The leaf extract also showed the
widest zone of inhibition for gram negative bacteria. This
result again showed that the acetic acid extract of Garcinia
kola had varying activity on gram positive and gram-
negative organisms.
The variation in activity of the extract of bitter kola showed
that bioactive components had varied degree of solubility in
the various solvents used for extraction. It is vital to note
that extracts (1% hydrochloric acid and acetone) that
produced no zone of inhibition, had no inhibitory
component of Garcinia kola present in them. For
Diethylether extract that produced small zone of inhibition,
had only one bioactive component (alkaloids) present.
Acetic acid extract which produced the widest zone of
inhibition had bioactive components (tannins, saponins,
alkaliods, anthraquinones, phlobatannins and cardiac
glycosides) present.
Table 1,2, showed that acetic acid extraction is more
effective than other extraction. When an inhibitory zone of
less than 10.0mm in diameter is produced by a test
organism, the organism is regarded as resistant to the
extract. The maximum dilution at which the organism was
sensitive to the extract is recorded as the minimum
inhibitory concentration (MIC).
The anti bacterial activity of the acetic acid extract of
Garcinia kola was determined from the result of the
diameter of the zones of inhibition, the level of turbidity for
each test organisms and the presence of bioactive
components. The test organisms Staphylococcus aureus,
Streptococcus pyogenes, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi
were all susceptible to susceptibility and turbidity test.
These test organisms are clinical isolates which are
pathogenic.
Sofowora, 1996 tested the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of
Garcinia kola on various Gram positive (Staphylococcus
aureus and beta haemolytic Streptococci) and Gram negative
bacteria (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Neisseria
Science Journal of Microbiology ISSN: 2276-626X 8
How to Cite this Article: Ezeanya Chinyere.C, Daniel Ebakota.O “Antibacterial Ac tivity of Garcinia Kola Seed and Leaf Extract on Some Selected Clinical Isolates ”, Science Journal of
Microbiology,Volume 2013, Article I D sjmb-298, 9 Pages, 2012. doi:doi: 1 0.7237/sjmb/298
gonorrhoeae) and they showed a strong activity against
them. Thus, this work therefore agrees with Sofowora,1996.
This work also agrees with Irrine,1981: “dried seed is used
for the treatment of dysentery and diarrhoea, while the
leaves are used for the treatment of fever”. Therefore, the
inhibition of the test organisms by the acetic acid extract of
Garcinia kola agrees with the claim by traditional
practitioners and other investigators that the seed and leaf
of Garcinia kola have antimicrobial activity and could be
administered as a form of therapy for the treatment of
related diseases of the test organisms since they were all
susceptible to all the antimicrobial assay tests.
Adeleke et al 2007, Indabaw, 2011,Ogunjobi, 2011
[14,15,16] assayed the methanolic and ethanolic seed
extract respectively of Garcinia kola on some selected
pathogenic micro organisms including fungi. Their results
showed that the seed extracts had antimicrobial activity on
the pathogenic micro organisms. Hence, the antibacterial
activity of Garcinia kola, as shown in this work agrees
Adeleke et al 2007, Indabaw, 2011 and Ogunjobi,
2011[14,15,16] .
The acetic acid extract activity compared with commercial
antibiotics showed a higher inhibitory effect. This is a
pointer to the fact that Garcinia kola could serve as better
therapeutic options than some commercial antibiotics.
CONCLUSION
Garcinia kola has a very promising use as an anti-bacterial
agent and for the treatment of infections caused by the test
organisms used- Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus
pyogenes, Salmonella typhi and Escherichia coli. Moreover,
for the usage of this medicinal plant (Garcinia kola) to be
fully maximized, it is expected that all parts of the plant
should be properly assayed in the laboratory and further
research is needed to optimize the effective use of this agent
in clinical practice.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
I want to acknowledge Duru Martin, Microbiology
Laboratory, Faith Mediplex, Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria for
his immense contribution to the success of this work.
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Garcinia kola is cultivated for its economic importance. The plant is mainly used as a medicinal herb in West Africa. Although it is bitter the plant is used as a snack and a stimulant due to the high content of caffeine in the seeds of the plant. The current study was done to investigate the antibacterial activity of the plant seeds and to analyse the presence of important pharmaceutical compounds. From the study the plant seeds were found to contain tannins, saponins, flavonoids, terpenoids, glycosides and alkaloids but phenols and steroids were found to be absent in the plant seeds. Among all the organisms tested with the ethanol extract of G. kola, only B. cereus with an inhibition zone of 10.17±0.477 and E. coli with an inhibition zone of 12.83±0.833 were inhibited. All other organisms were not inhibited. The penicillin control showed large zones of inhibition and DMSO did not show any zones of inhibition. The data obtained in this research is a scientific justification of the plants traditional use in the treatment of various stomach problems. From this research it is worthy to recommend the plant seeds for the treatment of diarrhea caused by E.coli and all the ailments caused by B. cereus, however further research needs to be done to isolate the pharmaceutical compounds, investigate their mode of action and the effect of the same in the in vivo environment.
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Background A preliminary review of literature for this study shows that the use of Garcinia kola (bitter kola) as plant medicine is common among Africans but there are no scientific evidence to support its uses to prevent or treat common medical conditions. The main purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine the various uses and outcomes of Garcinia kola (G. kola) among people of Oshimili North in the Delta State of Nigeria. Methodology This descriptive cross-sectional quantitative study was based on a structured questionnaire for adults aged 18 and above (n = 274) in Oshimili North local government area of Delta State of Nigeria. Likert scale data were coded as follows: 1 = strongly disagree, 2 = disagree, 3 = neutral, 4 = agree and 5 = strongly agree. As Likert-type data are usually ordinal data, which make more sense when converted to interval data. The converted ordinal data were analyzed using SPSS computer software. Ethical requirement including the administration of information sheet, written informed consent, and the provision of confidentiality was ensured. Results The analysis of results show that the benefits derived from ingesting bitter kola were rated high for cough, bacterial or viral infection and anticancer. The results also show that most of the respondents consider bitter kola having low benefits for relieving food poison, diarrhea or stomach upset. Chi-square results show no association between gender and perceived benefits of bitter kola for relieving these conditions. In addition, results show that females perceive benefits derive from ingesting bitter kola as low as an aphrodisiac whereas males consider it as average. Chi-square results show significant association between gender and perceived benefits of bitter kola as an aphrodisiac. Conclusion The study found that Garcinia kola acts as anti-bacteria, anti-virus and provides protection against cancer. However, this study could not find any conclusive evidence to support the age long claim of bitter kola as treatment for food poison, diarrhea or stomach upset and aphrodisiac (libido).
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Methaonlic and aqueous extracts of seed Garcinia kola were evaluated or Phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activities. Therapeutic activity of Garcinia cola seed extract against Staphylococcus auerus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans was studied. Results showed that Methaonlic extract of Garcinia cola was active against Staphylococcus auerus, Escherichia coli and candida albicans. Aqueous extract of the plant was also active against Staphylococcus auerus and Escherichia coli. The result from the study provides scientific evidence that Garcinia cola has the ability of inhibition the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. Thus, it will be helpful in the management of such infections.
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Background: The use of bitter kola as plant medicine is common among Africans for centuries, yet there is little or no scientific evidence to demonstrate that its use provides health benefits. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to ascertain whether or not bitter kola provides any health benefits to its regular users. Methods: A study sample of n=274 adults living in Igbuzor town in Oshimili North Local Government Area of Delta State of Nigeria was selected using simple random sampling technique. Likert Scale was used as data collection tool. The data analysis was carried out using SPSS computer software. Results: The results show that irrespective of gender n=139 regular users agreed to excellent and good health while ingesting bitter kola in comparison to n=37 non-regular users who agreed to the same statements (see table 3 & 4). The results further show that both genders n=142 (94.66%) male and n=110 (95.65%) female respondents agree that they ingest better kola for its health benefits (see table 5). Conclusion: This study found that regular users of bitter kola enjoy better health than non-regular users and that both regular and non-regular user agrees to the medicinal properties of bitter kola. These research findings help to remove the assumptions about the health benefits of bitter kola and replaced them with actual research evidence.
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Antibacterial activity of Garcinia kola (Bitter Kola) and Cola nitida (Kola nut) against Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae was studied. Results showed that alcohol extract of Garcinia kola was active against Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae at various concentrations, with the latter displaying the lowest sensitivity. Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi were completely resistant. Hot water extract of the same plant was however, active against Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The other organisms showed sensitivity to the alcohol extract of Cola nitida, but higher sensitivity was observed with the hot water extract of the plant. Some of the results provided scientific evidence for the use of the plants by traditional herbalists in the treatment of microbial infections.
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Some of the oldest known medicinal systems of the world such as Ayurveda of the Indus civilization, Arabian medicine of Mesopotamia, Chinese and Tibetan medicine of the Yellow River civilization of China and Kempo of the Japanese are all based mostly on plants. Interestingly, Allopathy-today's most familiar medical system which is primarily based on synthetic chemicals for medication, has these days, shown greater interest in using chemicals derived from plants. This explains how important is, and will remain the medicinal use of plants for the mankind. The central Himalaya is a huge repository of such medicinal plants. Nepal for being located at this portion of the Himalaya, has always remained a place of great interest to the botanists and phytochemists involved in researching medicinal herbs. It would be a matter of great surprise for the readers to know that the first botanical exploration was done in Nepal in 1802/3 AD by a medicinal practitioner Mr. Buchanan Hamilton. This was followed by Mr. N. Wallich in 1820/2 1. Both of these had brief ethnobotanical notes, which were recorded by D. Don and Wallich himself. Since then workers from all around the world are actively involved in researching medicinal uses of plants from the Nepal Himalaya. Many drugs have been formulated, marketed, and patented. The Japanese are among those who have not only contributed to the medico-botany of Nepal, but also other areas of botanical science. Of the expected 7000 species of flowering plant in Nepal, 10 percent are reported to be medicinal. Proper documentation of this resource would mean a great contribution to Nepal's meteria medica. The present Hand Book is one such contribution. Amongst the four authors of this Handbook, Dr. Takashi Watanabe--the first author, had served the then Department of Medicinal Plants (now Department of Plant Resources) as a Japanese volunteer during the '80s. After completion of his Ph.D in Pharmacy from Kitasato University, Tokyo, he continued to work in medicinal plants of Nepal. With the help of two sincere and renowned botanists of the Department, namely Dr. K.K. Rajbhandary and Mr. K.J. Malla, along with an experienced phyto-chemist-Dr. S. Yahara (Associate Professor of Kumamoto University), Dr. Watanabe might have found medicinal plants a better topic for writing a book. This is undoubtedly a welcoming step.
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A total of 47 plant extracts representing 132 genera and 172 species of plants distributed over 59 families were collected from various parts of Nigeria. The plant extracts were screened for the presence of alkaloids, saponins, tannins, phlobatannins and anthraquinones. The number of positive tests obtained was 176 (32.18%) for alkaloids, 242 (44.24%) for saponins, and 435 (79.52) for tannins. A few were positive for phlobatannins and anthraquinones.
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The four medicinal plants, Garcinia kola (roots), Borreria ocymoides (leaves), Kola nitida (bark) and Citrus aurantifolia (roots) were screened for phytochemical components. They were found to contain tannins, phlobatannins, polyphenols, hydroxymethyl anthraquinones, glucides, saponins, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavanoids and reducing compounds. The aqueous and alcoholic extracts as well as alkaloids and cardiac glycosides of the medicinal plants were tested on various pathogenic bacteria. They were found to inhibit such organisms as Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, beta-haemolytic streptococci, Escherichia coli and Neisseria gonorrhoeae. The usefulness of the phytochemical bases of these plants as potential sources of pharmaceutical drug preparation is discussed.
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Results of recent research in West Africa in order to promote further knowledge of the plants used in traditional medicine are reported.
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1. The hypolipidaemic effect of kolaviron, a mixture of Garcinia biflavonoid 1 (GB1), Garcinia biflavonoid 2 (GB2) and kolaflavanone, used in the treatment of various ailments in southern Nigeria, was investigated in rats. The ability of Questran (Bristol-Myers Squibb, Hounslow, UK), a hypolipidaemic therapeutic drug, to attenuate hypercholesterolaemia in rats was also examined. 2. In order to assess the hypolipidaemic effect of this extract in experimental animals, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), cholesterol, phospholipid, low-density lipoprotein–cholesterol (LDL-C), high-density lipoprotein–cholesterol and triglyceride levels were determined in the plasma and liver. 3. Cholesterol administered orally to rats at a dose of 30 mg/0.3 mL five times a week for 8 consecutive weeks resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.001) in the relative weight of the heart of hypercholesterolaemic animals compared with control. However, cotreatment with kolaviron and Questran ameliorated the cholesterol-induced enlargement of the heart. Kolaviron (100 and 200 mg/kg) elicited 88.5 and 87.4% reductions, respectively, in plasma cholesterol levels of pretreated animals compared with the cholesterol-fed group. In addition, kolaviron produced a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in post-mitochondrial fraction (PMF) cholesterol levels in treated animals compared with untreated hypercholesterolaemic animals. Similarly, Questran significantly decreased (P < 0.05) the cholesterol-induced increase in plasma cholesterol levels compared with untreated hypercholesterolaemic animals. In addition, (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased plasma LDL-C levels by over 70% in treated animals compared with untreated hypercholesterolaemic animals. Similarly, kolaviron significantly decreased (P < 0.05) PMF LDL-C levels by over 60% in treated animals compared with untreated hypercholesterolaemic animals. 4. The significantly (P < 0.05) higher values of plasma and PMF triglycerides obtained in cholesterol-fed animals compared with control animals were unaltered following cotreatment with kolaviron and Questran. In the present study, there was a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in plasma formation of malondialdehyde in kolaviron- and Questran-treated animals compared with untreated hypercholesterolaemic animals. 5. The results of the present study demonstrate that kolaviron exerts a hypocholesterolaemic effect and reduces the relative weight of the heart in cholesterol-fed animals. This reduction and the favourable lipid profile indicate a possible anti-atherogenic property of the extract.