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The manipulation of resistance training (RT) variables is widely considered an essential strategy to maximize muscular adaptations. One variable that has received substantial attention in this regard is RT volume. This paper provides evidence-based guidelines as to volume when creating RT programs designed to maximize muscle hypertrophy.
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... Dentre essas, o volume se mostra entre as principais a ser controlada para ganhos hipertróficos (4) . Assim, o volume do TR pode ser quantificado de diferentes formas e descreve o trabalho total realizado (5,6) . ...
... Muitos estudos descobriram que as adaptações a diferentes planejamentos de TR parecem ser semelhantes quando equacionados ao volume total (4,6) . Desta (5) 2005 ...
Article
Este estudo tem a intenção de abordar questionamentos sobre a quantidade séries recomendável para hipertrofia em indivíduos particantes assíduos de musculação. O objetivo foi identificar a quantidade de séries adequada para gerar hipertrofia muscular em indivíduos treinados. Trata-se de um estudo de revisão de literatura que aborda as formas mais utilizadas de quantificar o volume de treino com o objetivo de hipertrofia ao indivíduo. Foi observado que é essencial a intervenção de um profissional capacitado para que se tenha controle do planejamento de treinamento garante resultados otimizados e evita prejuízos. Foi concluído que a utilização mínima de 10 séries por grupo muscular semanalmente gera ganhos adequados para indivíduos treinados. Controlar o volume através das séries semanais se mostrou eficiente e de fácil manipulação, sendo os aumentos e manutenções do volume estimuladores da hipertrofia e evitam prejuízos.
... Therefore, it seems that a high volume and load progression is required for LI-RT to produce effects similar to HI-RT in PWT. However, whereas higher volume (which cause longer training time) is an important strategy for maximizing MM gains, longer training time is an important barrier for older adults to participate in RT (16,26,28,29). Therefore, while low-volume RT results in modest increases in MM, it may increase engagement of older adult in RT. ...
... Therefore, while low-volume RT results in modest increases in MM, it may increase engagement of older adult in RT. Following that, an increase in volume may be the ideal long strategy for maintaining constant progression (29). ...
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This study investigated the impact of intensity in a low-volume RT on sarcopenia indicators in postmenopausal women (PTW). Thirty-two participants were randomly assigned to either a control group (CT, n = 10), a LL-RT group (n = 10) that performed one set of 25–30 repetition maximum per exercise or a high-load RT group (HI-RT, n = 12) that performed one set of 8–12 repetition maximum per exercise. The RT groups performed 8 exercises, with 90 seconds of rest between exercises, 2 times a week for 24-weeks. Muscle mass (MM) of limbs (upper and lower) was assessed by DEXA, muscle strength (MS) was measured by the 1-RM leg press test, and physical performance by the TUG test and the 30-second sit to stand test. The ANCOVA (covariates: age, antihypertensive drugs, hormone replacement therapy and pre-time values) was used to analyze the gains (Δ) between groups, with a significance level of 5%. After 24-weeks of RT, lower and upper limb MM (together/summed) increased in both HI-RT (Δ = 0.60 kg; 95% CI: 0.23–1.0 kg) and LI-RT (Δ = 0.48 kg; 95% CI: 0.06–0.91 kg) in relation to CT (Δ=-0.03 kg; 95% CI: -0.43–0.37 kg) with no difference between them (p = 0.016; ƞ²=0.27 (large); observed power = 0.83). However, upper limb MM increased only in the HI-RT. For MS, the HI-RT group (Δ = 40 kg; 95% CI: 21–58 kg) showed greater gains compared to the CT (Δ = -5 kg; CI 95%: -24–14 kg) and LL (Δ = 12 kg; 95% CI: -8–33 kg) (p = 0.001 η ² = 0.35, Power = 0.98). Even though LI-RT promotes MM gains in lower limbs, HI-RT should be considered in low-volume training to promote gains in MS and also in MM in upper limbs in the PTW.
... Over the years, there have been controversial findings as to the optimal amount of training volume an individual should perform to enhance muscular adaptations (2,11,32). For instance, there are data supporting greater muscle growth with multiple sets of exercises, compared with a single set after a chronic exercise program (18,28,33,34). ...
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Pearson, JR, Moodie, N, Stout, KW, Hawkins, WC, Matuszek, M, Graham, ZA, Siedlik, JA, Vardiman, JP, and Gallagher, PM. Similar responses in the Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) signaling pathway after different lower-body exercise volumes in recreationally active men. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2022-This project examined the differences between a single set (SS) compared to multiple sets (MS) of resistance exercise on the Akt/protein kinase B (PKB) signaling pathway, the expression of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), and the receptor for IGF-1 (IGF-1R) to better understand the types of resistance training protocols that are most beneficial in stimulating the muscle hypertrophic response. Sixteen healthy men were randomly selected into 2 groups of 8. Subjects in each group received 3 biopsies: (a) before exercise, (b) 15 minutes postexercise, and (c) 180 minutes postexercise. Subjects in the SS group performed 1 set of leg press to failure at 80% of their predetermined 1 repetition maximum (1RM). Subjects in the MS group performed 2 sets of 10 repetitions and 1 set to failure at 80% of their predetermined 1RM, with 3 minutes of rest between each set. Our results indicated no group 3 time interactions in the concentration of Akt signaling proteins. Furthermore, there were no group 3 time interactions in IGF-1 or IGF-1R expression. However, phosphorylated 4E-binding protein 1 levels increased 150% from pre to 180 minutes post (p 5 0.005). In addition, there was a significantly greater increase in IGF-1R expression in the SS group compared with the MS group (7.99 6 10.07 vs. 4.41 6 6.28; p 5 0.026). Collectively, we found that a SS of resistance training evokes a similar acute Akt/PKB pathway response as MS in recreationally active men.
... The cardiovascular system (CVS) is one of the most important functional systems of the body, which determine and limit the physical performance of an athlete's body [9,10,27]. Adaptation of the components of the circulatory system to different modes of physical exertion is one of the central issues of biological and sports science due to the fact that the reduced adaptive capabilities of the specified system limit the realization of the functional reserves of the athlete's body during various types of physical exertion [19,22,28]. Bodybuilding, as one of the directions of healthimproving motor activity, is characterized by a significant intensity and volume of training loads [11,26]. ...
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The cardiovascular system is one of the leading functional systems of the body, which ensure and maintain the proper level of physical performance of the body during physical exertion. Bodybuilding is one of the areas of sports activity in which taking into account the individual characteristics of the adaptation of the circulatory system to powerful muscle work of significant intensity is decisive for building an optimal training regimen. Anatomical and physiological remodeling of the heart as a result of regular sports leads to changes in the pumping function of the myocardium, as well as indicators of central and peripheral hemodynamics. Currently, there is a problem of insufficient study of the functional changes of blood vessels in response to a static regime of physical exertion in the early post-workout period. The purpose of the research is to study the characteristics of the reaction of blood vessels during the early recovery period after dosed physical exertion of a static nature. During the study, 34 young men were examined in the following groups: 1 group – persons engaged in bodybuilding; 2 group – young men engaged in fitness; 3 group – untrained persons. Maximum arbitrary static force was determined in all examined persons using a static dynamometer DS-500, static load was modeled by holding on a static dynamometer for 30 seconds an effort corresponding to 50 % of the maximum static force. Functional changes of blood vessels and central hemodynamics were registered by the method of tetrapolar thoracic impedance rheoplethysmography using the computerized diagnostic complex “Cardio+” (Ukraine). Statistical data processing was carried out using the computer program IBM SPSS Statistics (version 26), using non-parametric methods of evaluating the obtained results. It was established that static exercise in young bodybuilders leads to an increase in minute blood volume due to optimal physiological changes in central hemodynamic parameters. In persons engaged in fitness and in untrained young men, the minute volume of blood decreases and circulation conditions deteriorate immediately after exercise, which complicates the processes of rapid recovery after physical exercise in a static mode. A decrease in vascular resistance to blood flow with a simultaneous increase in minute blood volume was revealed immediately after static exercise in young bodybuilders compared to individuals engaged in fitness and untrained individuals. It was established that the circulatory system of young bodybuilders is most optimally adapted to static loads compared to persons engaged in fitness and untrained young men.
... The ST session involved performing the following exercises in order: LP, LEM, and SLCM [33]. For each of the exercises, 4 sets of 10 maximum repetitions or the greatest number of repetitions were performed until concentric failure was reached [34] with a load of 85% of 1RM. ...
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The objective of this study was to verify the influence of the ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on muscle damage and the inflammatory response after an acute strength training (ST) session. Twenty-seven healthy male individuals (age: 25 ± 4.3 years) participated in the study, including 18 RR/RX and 9 XX individuals. The participants were divided into two groups (RR/RX and XX groups) and subjected to an acute ST session, which consisted of a series of leg press, leg extension machine, and seated leg curl machine. The volunteers were instructed to perform the greatest volume of work until concentric muscle failure. Each volunteer’s performance was analyzed as the load and total volume of training, and the blood concentrations of C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), interleukin-8 (IL-8), creatine kinase (CK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), myoglobin, testosterone, and cortisol were measured before the ST session and 30 min and 24 h postsession. The ACTN3 R577X polymorphism effect was observed, with increased concentrations of CCL2 ( p < 0.01 ), IL-8 ( p < 0.01 ), and LDH ( p < 0.001 ) in XX individuals. There was an increase in the concentration of CK in the RR/RX group compared to XX at 24 h after training ( p > 0.01 ). The testosterone/cortisol ratio increased more markedly in the XX group ( p < 0.001 ). Regarding performance, the RR/RX group presented higher load and total volume values in the training exercises when compared to the XX group ( p < 0.05 ). However, the XX group presented higher values of delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) than the RR/RX group ( p < 0.05 ). The influence of ACTN3 R577X polymorphism on muscle damage and the inflammatory response was observed after an acute ST session, indicating that the RR/RX genotype shows more muscle damage and a catabolic profile due to a better performance in this activity, while the XX genotype shows more DOMS.
... The greater MT seen in the OSL group may be attributed to the novel training stimulus of OSL. Practitioners often examine training volume in respect to hypertrophy adaptations [42], however, in our study, no differences in training volume were found between groups. Fonseca et al. [20] previously demonstrated that utilizing a variety of novel exercises was more effective at inducing hypertrophy in the quadriceps muscles as opposed to employing a single volume-matched exercise (barbell squats). ...
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Purpose This study compared the effects of offset loading (OSL) versus traditional loading (TDL) in the bench press exer-cise on pectoral muscle thickness and bench press strength over a 4-week mesocycle. Methods: Twenty male participantsaged 18–45 years with at least 5 years of bench press experience and a bench press one-repetition maximum equal to orgreater than their body mass were randomly assigned to OSL and TDL groups. Before and after the 4-week mesocycle,pectoral muscle thickness was assessed via ultrasonography and muscle strength was assessed by bench press one-repetitionmaximum. Effects were explored with two-way mixed ANOVA and non-clinical magnitude-based inferences. Results: Nogroup-by-time interaction was detected for any variable (P > 0.05). When compared to small magnitudes, the pectoralismajor muscle thickness changes were likely greater in OSL compared to TDL for the dominant (ES = 0.70; 87% likelygreater) and nondominant pectoralis (ES = 0.77; 91% likely greater) as well as the sum of both pectorals (ES = 0.80; 92%likely greater). Similarly, a likely greater effect for absolute (ES = 0.57; 82% likely) and relative (ES = 0.67; 85% likely)bench press strength was seen with OSL. Conclusion: Magnitude-based inferences interpreted here support the notion thatOSL may be an advantageous training modality to enhance pectoral muscle thickness and bench press strength. (PDF) The Effects of Offset Loading Versus Traditional Loading in the Bench Press Exercise on Muscle Thickness and Strength in Trained Males. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/365620091_The_Effects_of_Offset_Loading_Versus_Traditional_Loading_in_the_Bench_Press_Exercise_on_Muscle_Thickness_and_Strength_in_Trained_Males [accessed Nov 21 2022].
... The greater MT seen in the OSL group may be attributed to the novel training stimulus of OSL. Practitioners often examine training volume in respect to hypertrophy adaptations [42], however, in our study, no differences in training volume were found between groups. Fonseca et al. [20] previously demonstrated that utilizing a variety of novel exercises was more effective at inducing hypertrophy in the quadriceps muscles as opposed to employing a single volume-matched exercise (barbell squats). ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose This study compared the effects of offset loading (OSL) versus traditional loading (TDL) in the bench press exercise on pectoral muscle thickness and bench press strength over a 4-week mesocycle. Methods: Twenty male participants aged 18–45 years with at least 5 years of bench press experience and a bench press one-repetition maximum equal to or greater than their body mass were randomly assigned to OSL and TDL groups. Before and after the 4-week mesocycle, pectoral muscle thickness was assessed via ultrasonography and muscle strength was assessed by bench press one-repetition maximum. Effects were explored with two-way mixed ANOVA and non-clinical magnitude-based inferences. Results: No group-by-time interaction was detected for any variable ( P > 0.05). When compared to small magnitudes, the pectoralis major muscle thickness changes were likely greater in OSL compared to TDL for the dominant (ES = 0.70; 87% likely greater) and nondominant pectoralis (ES = 0.77; 91% likely greater) as well as the sum of both pectorals (ES = 0.80; 92% likely greater). Similarly, a likely greater effect for absolute (ES = 0.57; 82% likely) and relative (ES = 0.67; 85% likely) bench press strength was seen with OSL. Conclusion: Magnitude-based inferences interpreted here support the notion that OSL may be an advantageous training modality to enhance pectoral muscle thickness and bench press strength.
... However, the results of several studies in these meta-analyzes may have been affected by the large inter-subject variability when different RT frequencies are compared [28]. The comparison of different RT frequencies with between-subject experimental designs and training volume equalization by number of sets and repetitions may not be the most appropriate approach to this problem [29]. Thus, within-subject experimental design should be prioritized [23] if the aim is to evaluate training frequencies with equalized and unequalized TTV. ...
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Several studies comparing resistance training (RT) frequencies may have been affected by the large between-subject variability. This study aimed to compare the changes in lower limbs maximal dynamic strength (1RM) and quadriceps femoris cross-sectional area (CSA) after a RT with different weekly frequencies in strength-trained individuals using a within-subject design. Twenty-four men participated in a 9-week RT program, being randomly divided into two conditions: resistance training with equalized total training volume (RTEV) and with unequalized total training volume (RTUV). The RT protocol used the unilateral leg press 45° exercise and each subject's lower limb executed one of the proposed frequencies (one and three times/week). All conditions effectively increased 1RM and CSA (p<0.001); however, no significant differences were observed in the values of 1RM (p = 0.454) and CSA (p = 0.310) between the RT frequencies in the RTEV and RTUV conditions. Therefore, RT performed three times a week showed similar increases in 1RM and CSA to the program performed once a week, regardless of training volume equalization. Nevertheless, when the higher RT frequency allowed the application of a greater TTV (i.e., RTUV), higher effect size (ES) values (0.51 and 0.63, 1RM and CSA, respectively) were observed for the adaptations.
Article
Modern high-achieving sports, as well as recreational motor activities, are characterized by a significant intensification of the duration, intensity and volume of muscle work, which can cause the appearance and development of pre-pathological and pathological changes in the activity of the heart and blood vessels. They, in turn, can become the cause of fatal accidents with suboptimal loads in sports. Regular physical exertion leads to specific adaptive changes in the circulatory system, resulting in changes in the pumping function of the heart and the functioning of blood vessels. The purpose of the study is to study the characteristics of changes in heart function and central hemodynamics in the period of early recovery after stato-dynamic physical exertion. We examined 3 groups of young bodybuilders (group 1), those engaged in fitness (group 2), untrained individuals (group 3). Registration of indicators of cardiovascular activity before and after static-dynamic exercise was carried out using the computerized diagnostic complex “Cardio+” (Ukraine). The bodybuilders examined by us are distinguished by a greater degree of training and adaptation of the cardiovascular system, which is evidenced by the presence of physiological bradycardia, increased stroke volume, volumetric ejection velocity, as well as indexes of the heart’s stroke and minute work. The response of the circulatory system of bodybuilders to a mixed type of exercise resembles that in response to a dynamic load, to which bodybuilders are less adapted than individuals engaged in fitness. In turn, the circulatory system of people engaged in fitness responds to a mixed load mode identically to that of a static load, to which these individuals are less adapted than to dynamic exercises. Also, the representatives of the 2nd group occupy an intermediate position regarding the indicators of the cardiovascular system in the initial state, which indicates that they are more adapted to physical exercises than untrained individuals, but less adapted than bodybuilders.
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The purpose of the present study was to evaluate muscular adaptations between heavy- and moderate-load resistance train-ing (RT) with all other variables controlled between conditions. Nineteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a strength-type RT routine (HEAVY) that trained in a loading range of 2-4 repetitions per set (n = 10) or a hypertro-phy-type RT routine (MODERATE) that trained in a loading range of 8-12 repetitions per set (n = 9). Training was carried out 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Both groups performed 3 sets of 7 exercises for the major muscle groups of the upper and lower body. Subjects were tested pre- and post-study for: 1 repetition maximum (RM) strength in the bench press and squat, upper body muscle endurance, and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, elbow extensors, and lateral thigh. Results showed statistically greater increases in 1RM squat strength favoring HEAVY compared to MODERATE. Alternatively, statistically greater increases in lateral thigh muscle thickness were noted for MODERATE versus HEAVY. These findings indicate that heavy load training is superior for maximal strength goals while moderate load training is more suited to hypertrophy-related goals when an equal number of sets are performed between conditions.
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The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the current literature and elucidate the effects of total weekly resistance training (RT) volume on changes in measures of muscle mass via meta-regression. The final analysis comprised 34 treatment groups from 15 studies. Outcomes for weekly sets as a continuous variable showed a significant effect of volume on changes in muscle size (P = 0.002). Each additional set was associated with an increase in effect size (ES) of 0.023 corresponding to an increase in the percentage gain by 0.37%. Outcomes for weekly sets categorised as lower or higher within each study showed a significant effect of volume on changes in muscle size (P = 0.03); the ES difference between higher and lower volumes was 0.241, which equated to a percentage gain difference of 3.9%. Outcomes for weekly sets as a three-level categorical variable (<5, 5-9 and 10+ per muscle) showed a trend for an effect of weekly sets (P = 0.074). The findings indicate a graded dose-response relationship whereby increases in RT volume produce greater gains in muscle hypertrophy.
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We reported, using a unilateral resistance training (RT) model, that training with high or low loads (mass per repetition) resulted in similar muscle hypertrophy and strength improvements in RT-naïve subjects. Here we aimed to determine whether the same was true in men with previous RT experience using a whole-body RT program and whether post-exercise systemic hormone concentrations were related to changes in hypertrophy and strength. Forty-nine resistance-trained men (mean ± SEM, 23 ± 1 y) performed 12 wk of whole-body RT. Subjects were randomly allocated into a higher-repetition (HR) group who lifted loads of ~30-50% of their maximal strength (1RM) for 20-25 repetitions/set (n=24) or a lower-repetition (LR) group (~75-90% 1RM, 8-12 repetitions/set, n=25), with all sets being performed to volitional failure. Skeletal muscle biopsies, strength testing, DXA scans, and acute changes in systemic hormone concentrations were examined pre- and post-training. In response to RT, 1RM strength increased for all exercises in both groups (p < 0.01), with only the change in bench press being significantly different between groups (HR: 9 ± 1 vs. LR: 14 ±1 kg, p = 0.012). Fat- and bone-free (lean) body mass, type I and type II muscle fibre cross sectional area increased following training (p < 0.01) with no significant differences between groups. No significant correlations between the acute post-exercise rise in any purported anabolic hormone and the change in strength or hypertrophy were found. In congruence with our previous work, acute post-exercise systemic hormonal rises are not related to or in any way indicative of RT-mediated gains in muscle mass or strength. Our data show that in resistance-trained individuals load, when exercises are performed to volitional failure, does not dictate hypertrophy or, for the most part, strength gains.
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Background: It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Materials and methods: Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. Results: After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp(2) = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp(2) = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. Conclusions: This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training.
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Hypertrophic effect of strength training is known to originate from mechanical and metabolic stimuli. During exercise with restricted blood supply ofworking muscles, that is under conditions of intensified metabolic shifts, training effect may be achieved with much lower external loads (20% of one repetition maximum (1 RM)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of 8 wks high-intensity (80-85% MVC) strength training and low-intensity (50% 1 RM) training without relaxation. The high-intensity strength training leads to somewhat higher increments in strength and size of trained muscles than training without relaxation. During high-intensity training an increase of area occupied by type II fibers at muscle cross section prevails while during training without relaxation - an increase of area occupied by type I fibers takes place. An exercise session without relaxation leads to a more pronounced increase in secretion of growth hormone, IGF-1 and cortisol. Expression of gene regulating myogenesis (Myostatin) is changed in different ways after high-intensity strength exercise session and after exercise session without relaxation. Low-intensity strength training (50% 1 RM) without relaxation is an effective way for inducing increases of strength and size of trained muscles. This low intensive type of training may be used in restorative medicine, sports and physical culture.
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This investigation compared the effect of high-volume (VOL) versus high-intensity (INT) resistance training on stimulating changes in muscle size and strength in resistance-trained men. Following a 2-week preparatory phase, participants were randomly assigned to either a high-volume (VOL; n = 14, 4 × 10-12 repetitions with ~70% of one repetition maximum [1RM], 1-min rest intervals) or a high-intensity (INT; n = 15, 4 × 3-5 repetitions with ~90% of 1RM, 3-min rest intervals) training group for 8 weeks. Pre- and posttraining assessments included lean tissue mass via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, muscle cross-sectional area and thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), pectoralis major, and triceps brachii muscles via ultrasound images, and 1RM strength in the back squat and bench press (BP) exercises. Blood samples were collected at baseline, immediately post, 30 min post, and 60 min postexercise at week 3 (WK3) and week 10 (WK10) to assess the serum testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), cortisol, and insulin concentrations. Compared to VOL, greater improvements (P < 0.05) in lean arm mass (5.2 ± 2.9% vs. 2.2 ± 5.6%) and 1RM BP (14.8 ± 9.7% vs. 6.9 ± 9.0%) were observed for INT. Compared to INT, area under the curve analysis revealed greater (P < 0.05) GH and cortisol responses for VOL at WK3 and cortisol only at WK10. Compared to WK3, the GH and cortisol responses were attenuated (P < 0.05) for VOL at WK10, while the IGF1 response was reduced (P < 0.05) for INT. It appears that high-intensity resistance training stimulates greater improvements in some measures of strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men during a short-term training period. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
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Key points: The prevalence of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) non-response gradually declines in healthy individuals exercising 60, 120, 180, 240 or 300 min per week for 6 weeks. Following a successive identical 6-week training period but comprising 120 min of additional exercise per week, CRF non-response is universally abolished. The magnitude of CRF improvement is primarily attributed to changes in haemoglobin mass. The potential for CRF improvement may be present and unveiled with appropriate exercise training stimuli in healthy individuals without exception. Abstract: One in five adults following physical activity guidelines are reported to not demonstrate any improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). Herein, we sought to establish whether CRF non-response to exercise training is dose-dependent, using a between- and within-subject study design. Seventy-eight healthy adults were divided into five groups (1-5) respectively comprising one, two, three, four and five 60 min exercise sessions per week but otherwise following an identical 6-week endurance training (ET) programme. Non-response was defined as any change in CRF, determined by maximal incremental exercise power output (Wmax ), within the typical error of measurement (±3.96%). Participants classified as non-responders after the ET intervention completed a successive 6-week ET period including two additional exercise sessions per week. Maximal oxygen consumption (V̇O2 max ), haematology and muscle biopsies were assessed prior to and after each ET period. After the first ET period, Wmax increased (P < 0.05) in groups 2, 3, 4 and 5, but not 1. In groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5, 69%, 40%, 29%, 0% and 0% of individuals, respectively, were non-responders. After the second ET period, non-response was eliminated in all individuals. The change in V̇O2 max with exercise training independently determined Wmax response (partial correlation coefficient, rpartial ≥ 0.74, P < 0.001). In turn, total haemoglobin mass was the strongest independent determinant of V̇O2 max (rpartial = 0.49, P < 0.001). In conclusion, individual CRF non-response to exercise training is abolished by increasing the dose of exercise and primarily a function of haematological adaptations in oxygen-carrying capacity.
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German Volume Training (GVT), or the 10 sets method, has been used for decades by weightlifters to increase muscle mass. To date, no study has directly examined the training adaptations following GVT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a modified GVT intervention on muscular hypertrophy and strength. Nineteen healthy males were randomly assign to 6 weeks of 10 or 5 sets of 10 repetitions for specific compound resistance exercises included in a split-routine performed 3 times per week. . Total and regional lean body mass, muscle thickness, and muscle strength were measured before and after the training program. Across groups, there were significant increases in lean body mass measures, however greater increases in trunk (p = 0.043; ES = -0.21) and arm (p = 0.083; ES = -0.25) lean body mass favored the 5-SET group. No significant increases were found for leg lean body mass or measures of muscle thickness across groups. Significant increases were found across groups for muscular strength, with greater increases in the 5-SET group for bench press (p = 0.014; ES = -0.43) and lat pull-down (p = 0.003; ES = -0.54). It seems that the modified GVT program is no more effective than performing 5 sets per exercise for increasing muscle hypertrophy and strength. To maximize hypertrophic training effects it is recommended that 4-6 sets per exercise be performed, as it appears gains will plateau beyond this set range and may even regress due to overtraining.
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The overarching aim of this study was to compare volume-equated high repetition daily undulating periodization (DUPHR) vs. a low repetition daily undulating periodization (DUPLR) program for muscle performance. Sixteen college-aged (23±3yrs) resistance-trained males were counterbalanced into one of two groups: 1) DUPHR (n=8), with a weekly training order of 12 repetitions (Day 1), 10 repetitions (Day 2), and 8 repetitions (Day 3) or 2) DUPLR (n=8), with a weekly training order of 6 repetitions (Day 1), 4 repetitions (Day 2), and 2 repetitions (Day 3). Both groups trained 3x/wk. for 8 weeks on non-consecutive days with pre- and post-training testing during weeks 1 and 8. Participants performed only the squat and bench press exercises each session. Changes in one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength, muscle thickness (MT), and muscle endurance (ME) were assessed. Both groups significantly increased 1RM strength for both squat and bench press (p<0.01), however, no group differences existed (p>0.05). Similarly, both groups experienced significant increases in chest, lateral quadriceps distal, and anterior quadriceps MT (p<0.05), but no change was present in either group for lateral quadriceps mid MT (p<0.05). No group differences were discovered for changes in MT (p>0.05). ME did not significantly change in the squat or bench press for either group (p>0.05), however, for squat ME, a moderate effect size was observed for DUPHR (0.57) vs. a trivial effect for DUPLR (0.17). Our findings suggest, in previously trained males, training volume is a significant contributor to strength and hypertrophy adaptations, which occur independent of specific repetition ranges.