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The manipulation of resistance training (RT) variables is widely considered an essential strategy to maximize muscular adaptations. One variable that has received substantial attention in this regard is RT volume. This paper provides evidence-based guidelines as to volume when creating RT programs designed to maximize muscle hypertrophy.
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... In this regard, resistance training is considered the gold standard for increasing muscle mass, which is based on three key variables such as mechanical stress, metabolic stress, and muscle damage (Ahtiainen et al., 2003). Traditionally, resistance training focused on hypertrophy is characterized by moderate load, high total volume load and short rest periods (Kraemer and Ratamess, 2005), although the effects of resistance programs vary depending on the manipulation of its variables (Schoenfeld and Grgic, 2017). Since promising effects related to the increase of muscular size on both performance and health have been previously reported (Maestroni et al., 2020), it seems justified to search for the most effective methods to generate hypertrophy. ...
... Volume is commonly defined as the total amount of work performed (Schoenfeld and Grgic, 2017) and can be expressed as the total number of sets/repetition per exercise (Wernbom et al., 2007;Schoenfeld et al., 2017a) or the total number of repetitions multiplied by the amount of weight used in an exercise across sets (Schoenfeld et al., 2016b). This variable has received a great deal of attention with respect to enhancing muscle hypertrophy (Schoenfeld and Grgic, 2017), since it has been traditionally assumed that prescribing high-volume during resistance training programs will produce greater gains in muscle mass (McCall et al., 1999). ...
... Volume is commonly defined as the total amount of work performed (Schoenfeld and Grgic, 2017) and can be expressed as the total number of sets/repetition per exercise (Wernbom et al., 2007;Schoenfeld et al., 2017a) or the total number of repetitions multiplied by the amount of weight used in an exercise across sets (Schoenfeld et al., 2016b). This variable has received a great deal of attention with respect to enhancing muscle hypertrophy (Schoenfeld and Grgic, 2017), since it has been traditionally assumed that prescribing high-volume during resistance training programs will produce greater gains in muscle mass (McCall et al., 1999). This statement is supported by the fact that, when the rest of the variables remain constant, increases in volume will necessarily increase the overall time-under-tension, which has been proposed as an important driver of anabolism . ...
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This umbrella review aimed to analyze the different variables of resistance training and their effect on hypertrophy, and to provide practical recommendations for the prescription of resistance training programs to maximize hypertrophy responses. A systematic research was conducted through of PubMed/MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus and Web of Science following the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses statement guidelines. A total of 52 meta-analyses were found, of which 14 met the inclusion criteria. These studies were published between 2009 and 2020 and comprised 178 primary studies corresponding to 4784 participants. Following a methodological quality analysis, nine meta-analyses were categorized as high quality, presenting values of 81-88%. The remaining meta-analyses were rated as moderate quality, with values between 63-75%. Based on this umbrella review, we can state that at least 10 sets per week per muscle group is optimal, that eccentric contractions seem important, very slow repetitions (≥10s) should be avoided, and that blood flow restriction might be beneficial for some individuals. In addition, other variables as, exercise order, time of the day and type of periodization appear not to directly influence the magnitude of muscle mass gains. These findings provide valuable information for the design and configuration of the resistance training program with the aim of optimizing muscle hypertrophy.
... At weeks 19-30 (phase 1), participants were randomly assigned to four groups to perform a 12-week RT program according to the respective exercise order (MJ-SJ-U, SJ-MJ-U, MJ-SJ-L, and SJ-MJ-L). In the following, participants underwent 12 weeks of detraining (weeks [34][35][36][37][38][39][40][41][42][43][44][45], in which they were asked not to engage in any physical exercise program during this period. Finally, in weeks 49-60 (phase 2), a crossover between the MJ-SJ and SJ-MJ conditions was carried out as follows: participants who had performed MJ-SJ-U in phase 1 then performed SJ-MJ-U; those who had performed SJ-MJ-U then performed MJ-SJ-U; those who had performed MJ-SJ-L then performed SJ-MJ-L, and those who had performed SJ-MJ-L then performed MJ-SJ-L. ...
... In the present study, the similar training volumes between groups might be translated into similar gains in muscular strength, muscle mass, and functionality. This is especially valid for LST changes, given that training volume highly influences hypertrophy (41). ...
Article
Purpose: To compare the effects of four resistance exercise orders on muscular strength, body composition, functional fitness, cardiovascular risk factors, and mental health parameters in trained older women. Methods: The intervention lasted 63 weeks. Sixty-one physically independent women (> 60 years) after completing a 12-week resistance training (RT) pre-conditioning phase were randomized into four different exercise orders groups to perform 12 weeks of RT: multi- to single-joint and upper- to lower-body (MJ-SJ-U), single- to multi-joint and upper- to lower-body (SJ-MJ-U), multi- to single-joint and lower- to upper-body (MJ-SJ-L), and single- to multi-joint and lower- to upper-body (SJ-MJ-L). This was followed by a 12-week detraining period and another 12-week RT in which exercise orders were crossed-over between MJ-SJ and SJ-MJ conditions. Body composition (DXA), muscular strength (1RM tests), functional fitness (gait speed, walking agility, 30-s chair stand, and 6-min walk tests), cardiovascular risk factors (glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, LDL-c, HDL-c, C-reactive protein, AOPP, TRAP, and NOx), depressive (GDS-scale), and anxiety symptoms (BAI), cognitive performance (MoCA, Trail Making, verbal fluency, and Stroop test) were analyzed. Results: Following the final training period, all groups presented significant improvements (P < 0.05) in almost all analyzed variables (muscular strength, body composition, functional tests, blood biomarkers, and mental health parameters), without significant difference among exercise orders. Conclusions: Our results suggest that RT exercise orders in which MJ, SJ, upper, or lower-body exercises are performed first have similar effects on health parameters in trained older women.
... El entrenamiento con sobrecarga puede mejorar la fuerza, la salud y la esperanza de vida en diferentes poblaciones (Schoenfeld & Grgic, 2018;Folland & Williams, 2007;Suchomel et al., 2016;Mesquita et al., 2020;Ibañez et al., 2005;Srikanthan et al., 2016;Grgic et al., 2020). ...
... Para conseguir adaptaciones estructurales y maximizar la hipertrofia, las variables del entrenamiento deben ser controladas, como por ejemplo el volumen, frecuencia, intensidad, densidad, selección y orden de los ejercicios, rango de movimiento, así como la duración de la repetición (tempo) (Schoenfeld et al., 2017a;Schoenfeld & Grgic, 2018;Schoenfeld et al., 2017b;Schoenfeld, 2018Schoenfeld, , 2020Baz-Valle et al., 2018). ...
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En el contexto del entrenamiento con sobrecargas, la duración de la repetición (tempo) hace referencia al tiempo total que dura una sola repetición dentro de una serie de un ejercicio, siendo el resultado de la suma entre la fase concéntrica, isométrica y excéntrica del levantamiento (o viceversa, dependiendo del ejercicio). Ha existido controversia los últimos años respecto a la duración de la repetición (y sus fases) y su impacto en la hipertrofia. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar los efectos de programas de entrenamiento donde se hayan comparado distintos tempos de levantamiento y su impacto en la hipertrofia. Se realizó una búsqueda de literatura en la base de datos electrónica Pubmed, con los siguientes criterios de inclusión: i) programas de entrenamiento que induzcan fallo volitivo, ii) que los estudios se hayan realizado bajo acciones dinámicas y con ≥4 semanas de intervención y iii) que los sujetos de estudio sean mayores de 18 años hasta mediana edad. De un total de 473 estudios, cuatro fueron incluidos, donde participaron 113 sujetos (79 hombres y 34 mujeres) y los tempos utilizados variaron entre 1.5 y 90 segundos, con menores tempos asociados a mayor efecto hipertrófico. Un tiempo entre 2 y 6 segundos sería efectivo para inducir adaptaciones hipertróficas.
... Early stretching studies using animal models reported significant muscle anabolic effects with sustained intermittent stretching, although the durations were far longer than could be tolerated by humans [43]. Greater time under tension can be a potent stimulus for strength and hypertrophy gains with resistance training [44]. Thus, future studies on FR should apply a high-volume stimulus to investigate whether performance parameters can be affected by the comprehensive time under tension. ...
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Foam rolling (FR) is a new and popular technique for increasing range of motion. While there are a few studies that demonstrate increased performance measures after an acute bout of FR, the overall evidence indicates trivial performance benefits. As there have been no meta-analyses on the effects of chronic FR on performance, the objective of this systematic meta-analytical review was to quantify the effects of FR training on performance. We searched PubMed, Scopus, the Cochrane library, and Web of Science for FR training studies with a duration greater than two weeks, and found eight relevant studies. We used a random effect meta-analysis that employed a mixed-effect model to identify subgroup analyses. GRADE analysis was used to gauge the quality of the evidence obtained from this meta-analysis. Egger’s regression intercept test (intercept 1.79; p = 0.62) and an average PEDro score of 6.25 (±0.89) indicated no or low risk of reporting bias, respectively. GRADE analysis indicated that we can be moderately confident in the effect estimates. The meta-analysis found no significant difference between FR and control conditions (ES = −0.294; p = 0.281; I2 = 73.68). Analyses of the moderating variables showed no significant differences between randomized control vs. controlled trials (Q = 0.183; p = 0.67) and no relationship between ages (R2 = 0.10; p = 0.37), weeks of intervention (R2 = 0.17; p = 0.35), and total load of FR (R2 = 0.24; p = 0.11). In conclusion, there were no significant performance changes with FR training and no specific circumstances leading to performance changes following FR training exceeding two weeks.
... Resistance exercise is highly effective for improving muscular strength and size (i.e., muscular hypertrophy) (42). The recommended resistance exercise prescription to develop muscular strength and hypertrophy spans a wide range of training volumes (i.e., 4-10 1 sets per muscle group per week) (47) and loading intensities (i.e., 40-100% one repetition maximum [1RM]) (42). To further optimize the adaptive response, rest period length (17), exercise selection (51), and movement velocity (7,19) should be considered when devising resistance exercise programs. ...
Article
Davies, TB, Halaki, M, Orr, R, Mitchell, L, Helms, ER, Clarke, J, and Hackett, DA. Effect of set structure on upper-body muscular hypertrophy and performance in recreationally trained men and women. J Strength Cond Res 36(8): 2176–2185, 2022—This study explored the effect of volume-equated traditional-set and cluster-set structures on muscular hypertrophy and performance after high-load resistance training manipulating the bench press exercise. Twenty-one recreationally trained subjects (12 men and 9 women) performed a 3-week familiarization phase and were then randomized into one of two 8-week upper-body and lower-body split programs occurring over 3 and then progressing to 4 sessions per week. Subjects performed 4 sets of 5 repetitions at 85% one repetition maximum (1RM) using a traditional-set structure (TRAD, n = 10), which involved 5 minutes of interset rest only, or a cluster-set structure, which included 30-second inter-repetition rest and 3 minutes of interset rest (CLUS, n = 11). A 1RM bench press, repetitions to failure at 70% 1RM, regional muscle thickness, and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry were used to estimate changes in muscular strength, local muscular endurance, regional muscular hypertrophy, and body composition, respectively. Velocity loss was assessed using a linear position transducer at the intervention midpoint. TRAD demonstrated a significantly greater velocity loss magnitude (g = 1.50) and muscle thickness of the proximal pectoralis major (g = −0.34) compared with CLUS. There were no significant differences between groups for the remaining outcomes, although a small effect size favoring TRAD was observed for the middle region of the pectoralis major (g = −0.25). It seems that the greater velocity losses during sets observed in traditional-set compared with cluster-set structures may promote superior muscular hypertrophy within specific regions of the pectoralis major in recreationally trained subjects.
... Despite the mixed quality of evidence, we observed consistent findings that this particular NMES-RT protocol effectively increases SMM in persons with motor complete SCI. In the non-SCI literature, a substantial amount of research has been conducted which explores how training volume and variables (e.g., number of weekly sessions, number of sets and reps, training load) can be manipulated to optimise muscle hypertrophy [80,81]. Subsequently, additional research is warranted to explore the dose-and intensity-response relationship of NMES-RT volume on SMM in this population. ...
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Purpose: The purpose of this review was to compare all intervention modalities aimed at increasing skeletal muscle mass (SMM) in the paralysed limbs of persons with chronic (>1-year post-injury), motor complete SCI. Methods: A systematic review of EMBASE, MEDLINE, Scopus and SPORTDiscus databases was conducted from inception until December 2021. Published intervention studies aimed to increase SMM (measured by MRI, CT, ultrasound, muscle biopsy, or lean soft tissue mass by DXA) in the paralysed limbs of adults (>18 years) with SCI were included. Results: Fifty articles were included that, overall, demonstrated a high risk of bias. Studies were categorised into six groups: neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) with and without external resistance, functional electrical stimulation cycling, walking and standing-based interventions, pharmacological treatments, and studies that compared or combined intervention modalities. Resistance training (RT) using NMES on the quadriceps produced the largest and most consistent increases in SMM of all intervention modalities. Conclusions: Current evidence suggests that clinical practise aiming to increase SMM in the paralysed limbs of persons with motor complete SCI should perform NMES-RT. However, more high-quality randomised control trials are needed to determine how training variables, such as exercise volume and intensity, can be optimised for increasing SMM.
... The classical proposed mechanism for muscle strength adaptations consists of neural adaptations followed by contributions from muscle hypertrophy [46,47]. However, it is important to note that recent experimental studies [48][49][50] showed evidence against changes in muscle size as a major mechanism contributing to increases in muscular strength, which more recently increased the discussion about this topic [51][52][53]. Neural adaptations such as changes in the primary motor cortex [54], spinal cord [55], motor neuron alterations [56], and/or fiber level alterations (e.g., myosin motors, myofibrillar ATPase adaptations, the pattern of calcium release, and/or changes in the major components involved in the excitation-contraction coupling process) [57,58] are proposed to explain the gains in muscle strength following RT. ...
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A detraining period after resistance training causes a significant decrease in trained-induced muscular adaptations. However, it is unclear how long muscle strength and hypertrophy gains last after different detraining periods. Thus, the present systematic review with meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the chronic effects of detraining on muscle strength and hypertrophy induced by resistance training. Searches were conducted on PubMed, Scopus, EBSCO, CINAHL, CENTRAL, and Web of Science. The difference in means and pooled standard deviations of outcomes were converted into Hedges’ g effect sizes (g). Twenty randomized and non-randomized trials (high and moderate risks of bias, respectively, and fair quality) were included for qualitative analysis of muscle strength and hypertrophy, while only two studies were included in the meta-analysis for maximum muscle strength. The resistance training group presented a significant increase in one-repetition maximum (1RM) chest press (g: 4.43 [3.65; 5.22], p < 0.001) and 1RM leg press strength (g: 4.47 [2.12; 6.82], p < 0.001) after training. The strength gains observed in the resistance training group were also maintained after 16–24 weeks of detraining (g: 1.99 [0.62; 3.36], p = 0.004; and g: 3.16 [0.82; 5.50], p = 0.008; respectively), when compared to the non-exercise control group. However, 1RM chest press and leg press strength level was similar between groups after 32 (g: 1.81 [−0.59; 4.21], p = 0.139; and g: 2.34 [−0.48; 5.16], p = 0.104; respectively) and 48 weeks of detraining (g: 1.01 [−0.76; 2.79], p = 0.263; and g: 1.16 [−1.09; 3.42], p = 0.311; respectively). There was not enough data to conduct a meta-analysis on muscular hypertrophy. In conclusion, the present systematic review and meta-analysis demonstrated that, when taking random error into account, there is no sufficient high-quality evidence to make any unbiased claim about how long changes in muscle strength induced by RT last after a DT period. Moreover, the effect of different DT periods on muscle hypertrophy induced by RT remains unknown since there was not enough data to conduct a meta-analysis with this variable.
... Previous studies, however, have reported that increase in muscle thickness in the upper body are greater and occur earlier compared to the lower extremity, during the first 12 weeks of a total body dynamic resistance training program [46,48]. Because of the characteristics of our physical exercises, it may be possible that the effects on muscle mass, and secondarily of the active supplement, could have been optimized by the use of training protocols with greater volume loads and repetitions [49]. ...
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The aim of a 12-week randomized double-blind placebo-controlled study was to assess the effect of daily supplementation with a natural extract of Spinacia oleracea L. (4 × 500 mg cap-sules/day; total 2 g per day) combined with a moderate-intensity training program (1 h session/3 times a week) on skeletal muscle fitness in adults over 50 years of age. Muscle strength assessed by isokinetic and isometric dynamometry improved significantly in the experimental (n = 23) and the placebo (n = 22) groups, but the magnitude of improvement was higher in the experimental group, with between-group differences in almost all variables, including isokinetic at 60° s −1 in knee extension , peak torque (p < 0.007); total work per repetition maximum (p < 0.009); isokinetic at 180°s −1 in knee extension, peak torque (p < 0.002); total work (p < 0.007); total work per repetition maximum (p < 0.005); average power (p < 0.027); isometric in knee extension, peak torque (p < 0.005); and average peak torque (p < 0.002). Similar findings were observed for muscle quality. Changes in quality of life (SF-36) were not found, except for improvements in the role physical (p < 0.023) and role emotional (p < 0.001) domains, likely as a result of the physical training sessions. A nutritional survey did not revealed changes in dietary habits. No adverse events were recorded. In subjects over 50 years of age, moderate-intensity strength training combined with daily supplementation for 12 weeks with a natural extract of Spinacia oleracea L. improved muscle-related variables and muscle quality. Maintaining muscle health is a key component of healthy aging.
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The duration of the repetition (tempo) refers to the total time that a single repetition lasts within a set, being the result of the sum between the concentric, isometric and eccentric phase of the lift. There is controversy regarding the duration of the repetition (and its phases) and its impact on muscle hypertrophy. The objective of this review was to analyze the effects of training programs using different lifting tempos and their impact on hypertrophy. METHODOLOGY. A literature search was carried out in the Pubmed electronic database, with the following inclusion criteria: i) training programs that induce volitional failure, ii) studies had been carried out under dynamic actions and with ≥4 weeks of intervention, and iii) the study included participants >18 years of age. RESULTS. From 473 studies, 4 were included, including 79 men and 34 women, and the tempos varied between 1.5 and 90 seconds, with lower tempos associated with greater hypertrophic effect. CONCLUSION. Tempos between 2 and 6 seconds seems effective in inducing hypertrophic adaptations.
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We studied the changes in central hemodynamics in the early recovery period after physical load in 28 young men. Dynamic loading was induced using a modified Martine functional test, static loading - by maintaining on the standing dynamometer DS-200 muscle effort in the amount of 50% of maximum standing force. The change in central hemodynamic para- meters was recorded by tetrapolar thoracic impedance rheo- plethysmogram using a computerized diagnostic complex «Cardio +». Dynamic exercise during early recovery did not lead to a significant increase in heart rate, however, it caused a decrease in the resistance of resistive blood vessels and an increase in pulse blood pressure. The increase in minute blood volume in our study is mainly due to an increase in stroke volume, pointing for high functional reserves of the heart. In the case of static physical activity, the adaptive reactions of central hemodynamics and the course of the processes of early recovery of the circulatory system are radically different from similar indicators during dynamic physical activity. In subjects with a normodynamic type of response of the cardiovascular system to dynamic load, no significant changes in the minute volume of blood flow were registered at a similar volume of active muscle mass static load. In subjects with a normodynamic type of cardiovascular response to dynamic load, no significant changes in cardiac output were observed at a similar static load in terms of active muscle mass. However, during early recovery period, the total peripheral vascular resistance and systolic arterial pressure were increased. The increase in total peripheral resistance may be due to reactive hyperemia in ischemic skeletal muscle caused by increased blood flow to the capillaries after muscle relaxation and delayed outflow into the veins. The significant increase in systolic blood pressure can be explained by the mechanical obstruction of blood flow in the muscle capillaries during prolonged static contraction.
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The purpose of the present study was to evaluate muscular adaptations between heavy- and moderate-load resistance train-ing (RT) with all other variables controlled between conditions. Nineteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to either a strength-type RT routine (HEAVY) that trained in a loading range of 2-4 repetitions per set (n = 10) or a hypertro-phy-type RT routine (MODERATE) that trained in a loading range of 8-12 repetitions per set (n = 9). Training was carried out 3 days a week for 8 weeks. Both groups performed 3 sets of 7 exercises for the major muscle groups of the upper and lower body. Subjects were tested pre- and post-study for: 1 repetition maximum (RM) strength in the bench press and squat, upper body muscle endurance, and muscle thickness of the elbow flexors, elbow extensors, and lateral thigh. Results showed statistically greater increases in 1RM squat strength favoring HEAVY compared to MODERATE. Alternatively, statistically greater increases in lateral thigh muscle thickness were noted for MODERATE versus HEAVY. These findings indicate that heavy load training is superior for maximal strength goals while moderate load training is more suited to hypertrophy-related goals when an equal number of sets are performed between conditions.
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The purpose of this paper was to systematically review the current literature and elucidate the effects of total weekly resistance training (RT) volume on changes in measures of muscle mass via meta-regression. The final analysis comprised 34 treatment groups from 15 studies. Outcomes for weekly sets as a continuous variable showed a significant effect of volume on changes in muscle size (P = 0.002). Each additional set was associated with an increase in effect size (ES) of 0.023 corresponding to an increase in the percentage gain by 0.37%. Outcomes for weekly sets categorised as lower or higher within each study showed a significant effect of volume on changes in muscle size (P = 0.03); the ES difference between higher and lower volumes was 0.241, which equated to a percentage gain difference of 3.9%. Outcomes for weekly sets as a three-level categorical variable (<5, 5-9 and 10+ per muscle) showed a trend for an effect of weekly sets (P = 0.074). The findings indicate a graded dose-response relationship whereby increases in RT volume produce greater gains in muscle hypertrophy.
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We reported, using a unilateral resistance training (RT) model, that training with high or low loads (mass per repetition) resulted in similar muscle hypertrophy and strength improvements in RT-naïve subjects. Here we aimed to determine whether the same was true in men with previous RT experience using a whole-body RT program and whether post-exercise systemic hormone concentrations were related to changes in hypertrophy and strength. Forty-nine resistance-trained men (mean ± SEM, 23 ± 1 y) performed 12 wk of whole-body RT. Subjects were randomly allocated into a higher-repetition (HR) group who lifted loads of ~30-50% of their maximal strength (1RM) for 20-25 repetitions/set (n=24) or a lower-repetition (LR) group (~75-90% 1RM, 8-12 repetitions/set, n=25), with all sets being performed to volitional failure. Skeletal muscle biopsies, strength testing, DXA scans, and acute changes in systemic hormone concentrations were examined pre- and post-training. In response to RT, 1RM strength increased for all exercises in both groups (p < 0.01), with only the change in bench press being significantly different between groups (HR: 9 ± 1 vs. LR: 14 ±1 kg, p = 0.012). Fat- and bone-free (lean) body mass, type I and type II muscle fibre cross sectional area increased following training (p < 0.01) with no significant differences between groups. No significant correlations between the acute post-exercise rise in any purported anabolic hormone and the change in strength or hypertrophy were found. In congruence with our previous work, acute post-exercise systemic hormonal rises are not related to or in any way indicative of RT-mediated gains in muscle mass or strength. Our data show that in resistance-trained individuals load, when exercises are performed to volitional failure, does not dictate hypertrophy or, for the most part, strength gains.
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Background: It has been hypothesized that the ability to increase volume load (VL) via a progressive increase in the magnitude of load for a given exercise within a given repetition range could enhance the adaptive response to resistance training. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to compare changes in volume load (VL) over eight weeks of resistance training (RT) in high-versus low-load protocols. Materials and methods: Eighteen well-trained men were matched according to baseline strength were randomly assigned to either a low-load RT (LOW, n = 9) where 25 - 35 repetitions were performed per exercise, or a high-load RT (HIGH, n = 9) where 8 - 12 repetitions were performed per exercise. Both groups performed three sets of seven exercises for all major muscles three times per week on non-consecutive days. Results: After adjusting for the pre-test scores, there was a significant difference between the two intervention groups on post-intervention total VL with a very large effect size (F (1, 15) = 16.598, P = .001, ηp(2) = .525). There was a significant relationship between pre-intervention and post-intervention total VL (F (1, 15) = 32.048, P < .0001, ηp(2) = .681) in which the pre-test scores explained 68% of the variance in the post-test scores. Conclusions: This study indicates that low-load RT results in greater accumulations in VL compared to high-load RT over the course of 8 weeks of training.
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Hypertrophic effect of strength training is known to originate from mechanical and metabolic stimuli. During exercise with restricted blood supply ofworking muscles, that is under conditions of intensified metabolic shifts, training effect may be achieved with much lower external loads (20% of one repetition maximum (1 RM)). The aim of the study was to compare the effects of 8 wks high-intensity (80-85% MVC) strength training and low-intensity (50% 1 RM) training without relaxation. The high-intensity strength training leads to somewhat higher increments in strength and size of trained muscles than training without relaxation. During high-intensity training an increase of area occupied by type II fibers at muscle cross section prevails while during training without relaxation - an increase of area occupied by type I fibers takes place. An exercise session without relaxation leads to a more pronounced increase in secretion of growth hormone, IGF-1 and cortisol. Expression of gene regulating myogenesis (Myostatin) is changed in different ways after high-intensity strength exercise session and after exercise session without relaxation. Low-intensity strength training (50% 1 RM) without relaxation is an effective way for inducing increases of strength and size of trained muscles. This low intensive type of training may be used in restorative medicine, sports and physical culture.
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This investigation compared the effect of high-volume (VOL) versus high-intensity (INT) resistance training on stimulating changes in muscle size and strength in resistance-trained men. Following a 2-week preparatory phase, participants were randomly assigned to either a high-volume (VOL; n = 14, 4 × 10-12 repetitions with ~70% of one repetition maximum [1RM], 1-min rest intervals) or a high-intensity (INT; n = 15, 4 × 3-5 repetitions with ~90% of 1RM, 3-min rest intervals) training group for 8 weeks. Pre- and posttraining assessments included lean tissue mass via dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, muscle cross-sectional area and thickness of the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), pectoralis major, and triceps brachii muscles via ultrasound images, and 1RM strength in the back squat and bench press (BP) exercises. Blood samples were collected at baseline, immediately post, 30 min post, and 60 min postexercise at week 3 (WK3) and week 10 (WK10) to assess the serum testosterone, growth hormone (GH), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), cortisol, and insulin concentrations. Compared to VOL, greater improvements (P < 0.05) in lean arm mass (5.2 ± 2.9% vs. 2.2 ± 5.6%) and 1RM BP (14.8 ± 9.7% vs. 6.9 ± 9.0%) were observed for INT. Compared to INT, area under the curve analysis revealed greater (P < 0.05) GH and cortisol responses for VOL at WK3 and cortisol only at WK10. Compared to WK3, the GH and cortisol responses were attenuated (P < 0.05) for VOL at WK10, while the IGF1 response was reduced (P < 0.05) for INT. It appears that high-intensity resistance training stimulates greater improvements in some measures of strength and hypertrophy in resistance-trained men during a short-term training period. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.
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German Volume Training (GVT), or the 10 sets method, has been used for decades by weightlifters to increase muscle mass. To date, no study has directly examined the training adaptations following GVT. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of a modified GVT intervention on muscular hypertrophy and strength. Nineteen healthy males were randomly assign to 6 weeks of 10 or 5 sets of 10 repetitions for specific compound resistance exercises included in a split-routine performed 3 times per week. . Total and regional lean body mass, muscle thickness, and muscle strength were measured before and after the training program. Across groups, there were significant increases in lean body mass measures, however greater increases in trunk (p = 0.043; ES = -0.21) and arm (p = 0.083; ES = -0.25) lean body mass favored the 5-SET group. No significant increases were found for leg lean body mass or measures of muscle thickness across groups. Significant increases were found across groups for muscular strength, with greater increases in the 5-SET group for bench press (p = 0.014; ES = -0.43) and lat pull-down (p = 0.003; ES = -0.54). It seems that the modified GVT program is no more effective than performing 5 sets per exercise for increasing muscle hypertrophy and strength. To maximize hypertrophic training effects it is recommended that 4-6 sets per exercise be performed, as it appears gains will plateau beyond this set range and may even regress due to overtraining.
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The overarching aim of this study was to compare volume-equated high repetition daily undulating periodization (DUPHR) vs. a low repetition daily undulating periodization (DUPLR) program for muscle performance. Sixteen college-aged (23±3yrs) resistance-trained males were counterbalanced into one of two groups: 1) DUPHR (n=8), with a weekly training order of 12 repetitions (Day 1), 10 repetitions (Day 2), and 8 repetitions (Day 3) or 2) DUPLR (n=8), with a weekly training order of 6 repetitions (Day 1), 4 repetitions (Day 2), and 2 repetitions (Day 3). Both groups trained 3x/wk. for 8 weeks on non-consecutive days with pre- and post-training testing during weeks 1 and 8. Participants performed only the squat and bench press exercises each session. Changes in one-repetition maximum (1RM) strength, muscle thickness (MT), and muscle endurance (ME) were assessed. Both groups significantly increased 1RM strength for both squat and bench press (p<0.01), however, no group differences existed (p>0.05). Similarly, both groups experienced significant increases in chest, lateral quadriceps distal, and anterior quadriceps MT (p<0.05), but no change was present in either group for lateral quadriceps mid MT (p<0.05). No group differences were discovered for changes in MT (p>0.05). ME did not significantly change in the squat or bench press for either group (p>0.05), however, for squat ME, a moderate effect size was observed for DUPHR (0.57) vs. a trivial effect for DUPLR (0.17). Our findings suggest, in previously trained males, training volume is a significant contributor to strength and hypertrophy adaptations, which occur independent of specific repetition ranges.