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Abstract

The relationship between recovery and fatigue and its impact on performance has attracted the interest of sports science for many years. An adequate balance between stress (training and competition load, other life demands) and recovery is essential for athletes to achieve continuous high-level performance. Research has focused on the examination of physiological and psychological recovery strategies to compensate external and internal training and competition loads. A systematic monitoring of recovery and the subsequent implementation of recovery routines aims at maximizing performance and preventing negative developments such as underrecovery, non-functional overreaching, the overtraining syndrome, injuries, or illnesses. Due to the inter- and intra-individual variability of responses to training, competition, and recovery strategies, a diverse set of expertise is required to address the multifaceted phenomena of recovery, performance and their interactions to transfer knowledge from sports science to sports practice. For this purpose, a symposium on Recovery and Performance was organized at the Technical University Munich Science and Study Center Raitenhaslach (Germany) in September 2016. Various international experts from many disciplines and research areas gathered to discuss and share their knowledge of recovery for performance enhancement in a variety of settings. The results of this meeting are outlined in this consensus statement that provides central definitions, theoretical frameworks, as well as practical implications as a synopsis of the current knowledge of recovery and performance. While our understanding of the complex relationship between recovery and performance has significantly increased through research, we also elaborate some important issues for future investigations.
Recovery and Performance in Sport: Consensus Statement
Michael Kellmann, Maurizio Bertollo, Laurent Bosquet, Michel Brink, Aaron J. Coutts, Rob Dufeld,
Daniel Erlacher, Shona L. Halson, Anne Hecksteden, Jahan Heidari, K. Wolfgang Kallus,
Romain Meeusen, I ˜nigo Mujika, Claudio Robazza, Sabrina Skorski, Ranel Venter, and Jürgen Beckmann
The relationship between recovery and fatigue and its impact on performance has attracted the interest of sport science for many
years. An adequate balance between stress (training and competition load, other life demands) and recovery is essential for
athletes to achieve continuous high-level performance. Research has focused on the examination of physiological and
psychological recovery strategies to compensate external and internal training and competition loads. A systematic monitoring
of recovery and the subsequent implementation of recovery routines aims at maximizing performance and preventing negative
developments such as underrecovery, nonfunctional overreaching, the overtraining syndrome, injuries, or illnesses. Due to the
inter- and intraindividual variability of responses to training, competition, and recovery strategies, a diverse set of expertise is
required to address the multifaceted phenomena of recovery, performance, and their interactions to transfer knowledge from sport
science to sport practice. For this purpose, a symposium on Recovery and Performance was organized at the Technical University
Munich Science and Study Center Raitenhaslach (Germany) in September 2016. Various international experts from many
disciplines and research areas gathered to discuss and share their knowledge of recovery for performance enhancement in a
variety of settings. The results of this meeting are outlined in this consensus statement that provides central denitions, theoretical
frameworks, and practical implications as a synopsis of the current knowledge of recovery and performance. While our
understanding of the complex relationship between recovery and performance has signicantly increased through research, some
important issues for future investigations are also elaborated.
Keywords: load, monitoring, enhancement, physiology, psychology, fatigue
Denition of Central Terms
Recovery is regarded as a multifaceted (eg, physiological, psy-
chological) restorative process relative to time. In case an indivi-
duals recovery status (ie, his or her biopsychosocial balance) is
disturbed by external or internal factors, fatigue as a condition of
augmented tiredness due to physical and mental effort develops.
1
Fatigue can be compensated with recovery, that is, the organismic
allostatic balance is regained by reestablishing the invested re-
sources on a physiological and psychological level.
2
Recovery is
an umbrella term, which can be further characterized by different
modalities of recovery such as regeneration or psychological
recovery strategies.
Regeneration in sport and exercise refers to the physiological
aspect of recovery and ideally follows physical fatigue induced
by training or competition.
3
Frequently applied and scientically
evaluated regeneration approaches encompass strategies such as
cold-water immersion (CWI) and sleep.
4
In contrast, mental
fatigue (ie, cognitive exhaustion) can mainly be compensated
by using psychological recovery strategies such as cognitive self-
regulation, resource activation, and psychological relaxation
techniques.
3,5
Furthermore, Kellmann
2
distinguishes between passive,
active, and proactive approaches to recovery. Passive methods
may range from the application of external methods (eg, massage)
to implementing a state of rest characterized by inactivity. Active
recovery (eg, cooldown jogging) involves mainly physical activi-
ties aimed at compensating the metabolic responses of physical
fatigue. Proactive recovery (eg, social activities) implies a high
level of self-determination by choosing activities customized to
individual needs and preferences.
3,6
A certain degree of fatigue resulting in functional over-
reaching is required for performance enhancement and can be
compensated through comprehensive recovery. Functional over-
reaching describes a short-term decrement of performance with-
out signs of maladaptation as a consequence of intensive training.
In case systematic and individualized recovery is not achieved
after training and functional overreaching, a continuous imbal-
ance of inadequate recovery and excessive demands could initiate
Kellmann and Heidari are with the Faculty of Sport Science, Ruhr University
Bochum, Bochum, Germany. Kellmann is also with the School of Human Move-
ment and Nutrition Sciences, The University of Queensland, St Lucia, Australia.
Bertollo and Robazza are with the Dept of Medicine and Aging Sciences, University
G. dAnnunzio of Chieti-Pescara, Chieti, Italy. Bertollo is also with the Faculty of
Health and Science, University of Suffolk, Ipswich, United Kingdom. Bosquet is
with the Faculty of Sport Science, Poitiers University, Poitiers, France, and the Dept
of Kinesiology, University of Montreal, Montréal, QC, Canada. Brink is with the
Center for Human Movement Sciences, University of Groningen, Groningen, The
Netherlands. Coutts and Dufeld are with Sport and Exercise Discipline Group,
University of Technology Sydney, Moore Park, Australia. Erlacher is with the Inst
of Sport Science, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland. Halson is with the Div of
Physiology, Australian Inst of Sport, Canberra, Australia. Hecksteden and Skorski
are with the Inst for Sports and Preventive Medicine, Saarland University,
Saarbrücken, Germany. Kallus is with the University of Graz, Graz, Austria.
Meeusen is with the Faculty LKHuman Physiology Research Group, Vrije
Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium, and the School of Public Health, Tropical
Medicine and Rehabilitation Sciences, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD,
Australia. Mujika is with the Dept of Physiology, University of the Basque Country,
Leioa, Basque Country, Spain, and the School of Kinesiology, Finis Terrae
University, Santiago, Chile. Venter is with the Dept of Sport Science, Stellenbosch
University, Stellenbosch, South Africa. Beckmann is with the Dept of Sport and
Health Sciences, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany. Kellmann
(michael.kellmann@rub.de) is corresponding author.
240
International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance, 2018, 13, 240-245
https://doi.org/10.1123/ijspp.2017-0759
© 2018 Human Kinetics, Inc. INVITED COMMENTARY
a cascade of deleterious conditions including underrecovery and
nonfunctional overreaching (NFO). Underrecovery and NFO
represent 2 closely related though slightly different concepts.
While underrecovery appears to delineate a broader condition of
insufcient recovery in reaction to general stress (eg, family,
media), Meeusen et al
7
characterize NFO as training-specic
negative psychological and hormonal alterations and subsequent
decreased performance. Continuous underrecovery and NFO
often serve as a precursor for overtraining syndrome (OTS).
An accumulation of underrecovery in terms of daily life demands
together with long-term NFO in training and competition settings
ultimately manifests in OTS. OTS is marked by physical symp-
toms such as continuous muscle soreness, pain sensations, or
clinical and/or endocrinological disturbances. Underrecovery and
early-stage NFO can be compensated by systematically applying
recovery strategies and rest, along with lifestyle-related strategies
like sleep, diet, and social activities. However, recovering from
OTS requires a continuous restoration consisting of long rest and
recovery periods lasting from weeks to months accompanied by
reduced performance.
Performance can be dened as the accomplishment of goals by
meeting or exceeding predened standards.
8
The multidimensional
concept of performance is linked to physiological and psychologi-
cal inuences in a reciprocal manner. The concept describes
individual or collective patterns of behavior depending on a set
of skills, abilities, and specic performance conditions. Perfor-
mance is therefore determined by the development of specic skills
and abilities to adapt to unexpected environmental inuences and
the continuous and reliable delivery of these skills and abilities in
competitive situations.
3,8
Performance can be affected by physio-
logical capacities such as endurance, strength, speed, or exibil-
ity.
1,9
Psychologically, factors such as concentration, motivation,
and volition may also affect performance.
5
Recovery and fatigue can be seen on a continuum and are
jointly affected by physiological and psychological determinants.
An imbalance of long-term fatigue and insufcient recovery in-
itiates an unfavorable development, resulting in negative conse-
quences such as underrecovery, NFO, or OTS. Ultimately, a long-
term decrement of performance and well-being may manifest.
7
Assessment of Recovery
Due to the multifactorial nature of recovery, the assessment of the
recoveryfatigue continuum should be relative to the demands of
the sport. While performance measures represent the most sport-
specic outcomes, other physiological and psychological measures
provide integral information on an athletes recovery and biophys-
ical balance.
Performance can be characterized by competition outcomes
or the perceptions of the coaching staff, although important maxi-
mal physical capacities are often used as surrogates.
4
However,
imposing a maximal sport-specic task to test the readiness to
perform may be deemed counterproductive. Given the practical
constraints and ambiguity of performance measures, sport scien-
tists rely on feasible and simple measures such as tests of peak
power in jumping-lifting tasks or submaximal efforts in set-
intensity tasks.
10
These measures exemplify convenient proxies
where established gold-standard measures of performance are not
available or are impractical. Considering these limitations, it is
crucial to understand the ecological and construct validity of
the proxy-performance task together with measurement accuracy
(ie, sensitivity and specicity). This knowledge is critical for
developing a performance-relevant task to interpret the state of
recovery and fatigue.
10
A thorough understanding of recovery can
only be garnered from controlled testing in recovered and fatigued
states (ie, sensitivity to load), regardless of laboratory or eld envi-
ronments. More important, tests require practicality in combination
with the athletes belief of the tasks relevance for competitive-
performance outcomes.
Physiological markers are used to infer the extent of allostatic
disruption caused by the training or competition loads. These
physiological measures of recovery should interfere minimally
with the training process and be based on a clear physiological
rationale related to the recoveryfatigue continuum. A common
method involves monitoring the autonomic nervous system via
measures of heart rate and/or heart-rate variability at rest or after
exercise.
11
This method has become increasingly popular due to its
noninvasive, time-efcient, and inexpensive applicability to a large
number of athletes.
12
Correct interpretations need to consider
variations in the training phase and/or load, as well as the individual
error of measurement and the smallest worthwhile change.
12
Alterations in blood-based variables also characterize a prevalent
approach as, for example, blood lactate is often assessed to monitor
recovery and fatigue, although its appropriateness is still debated.
12
Several markers of damage, inammation, or stress, such as
creatine kinase, urea nitrogen, salivary cortisol, free testosterone,
and/or IGF-1 have also been investigated. Creatine kinase has been
proposed as a reliable marker in team sports,
4,13
while urea nitrogen
provides promising results in endurance-based sports.
13
However,
their value when using them on a regular basis remains unclear, as
these measures are prone to large interindividual and intraindivi-
dual variability in both baseline values and the postexercise
response.
13,14
To overcome this deciency, gradual individualiza-
tion of reference ranges based on a Bayesian approach has been
proposed.
15
Despite the importance of performance and physiological
markers, the perception of an athletes readiness to perform de-
scribes a critical determinant of recovery. Commonly applied
psychological measures of individual responses to acute and
chronic training load encompass the rating of perceived exertion
(RPE
16
), the Prole of Mood States,
17
and the Recovery-Stress
Questionnaire for Athletes.
18
RPE and its derivative, session
RPE,
19
represent measures of intensity and load, while the Prole
of Mood States can be rather categorized as a reective measure of
response to training load and other stimuli.
The Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes gauges the
frequency of both current stress symptoms and recovery-associated
activities/states of the previous 3 days and nights and addresses
both nonspecic and sport-specic areas of stress and recovery.
The questionnaire includes 76 statements that are divided into 7
general stress scales, 5 general recovery scales (eg, physical
recovery), 3 sport-specic stress scales (eg, emotional exhaustion),
and 4 sport-specic recovery scales (eg, self-regulation). In addi-
tion, the Rating-of-Fatigue Scale,
20
the Acute Recovery and Stress
Scale (ARSS),
21
and the Short Recovery and Stress Scale (SRSS)
21
have recently been developed as short and economic measures of
recovery and stress. While the Rating-of-Fatigue Scale may serve
as an innovative instrument to register fatigue in various settings,
the ARSS and SRSS qualify for a longitudinal assessment of the
acute recoverystress state in applied settings.
22
Overall, psycho-
logical measures of athlete recovery are characterized by their
sensitivity and feasibility and represent an important component of
the recoveryfatigue-monitoring process.
14
Within the larger scope
of a conceptual framework of recovery assessment, the primary
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challenge stems from the multifaceted nature of the recovery
fatigue continuum. Any single physiological or psychological
parameter will only highlight an isolated aspect of recovery and
fatigue. Multivariate approaches should be employed to assess
postexercise recovery, combining physiological and psychological
measures on a formal or informal level.
Training-Recovery-Performance Models
Monitoring of the recoveryfatigue continuum represents the rst
step toward performance enhancement. Based on a systematic and
comprehensive monitoring of training and competition loads,
interventions need to be derived and established to maximize
performance. Both training and recovery activities can be manipu-
lated by coaches to produce specic physiological and psycholog-
ical outcomes. While recovery may refer to short-term, midterm, or
long-term restoration, a clear categorization based on specic time
frames cannot be provided due to the high intraindividual and
interindividual variability of the recovery process. The required
time for recovery from training-induced fatigue and stress may
differ within and between the different organismic systems of the
human body.
2
Meeusen et al
7
suggest that short-term recovery
interventions (eg, power nap) are applied during periods of heavy
or intensied training to allow athletes to maintain training quality
and physical-performance levels. While this approach has shown to
be effective in the short term,
1
the efcacy of this approach over the
longer term and in combination with other midterm or long-term
recovery interventions (eg, extended periods of night sleep) re-
mains unknown. Muscle damage, metabolic responses, inamma-
tion, and associated fatigue resulting from intensied training are
considered important drivers of adaptation, although chronic use of
short-term recovery activities
2
may blunt these effects.
At present, it remains unclear if the long-term application of
short-term recovery interventions positively affects performance.
Recovery interventions between sessions may lead to greater
recovery in athletes (ie, less soreness and fatigue) and increased
subsequent training quality.
23,24
In contrast, even negative effects
may occur due to repeated blunting of training adaptations. Recent
studies have shown that recovery interventions (eg, CWI) may
diminish physiological and performance adaptations to resistance
training,
25
while others have indicated performance benets
1
and
amplied physiological responses with endurance-exercise tasks.
26
CWI resulted in acceleration of parasympathetic reactivation
compared with active recovery after a constant-velocity exhaustive
test in athletes participating in intermittent sports (eg, football,
basketball).
27
The conicting results may be attributed to differ-
ences in training status, exercise mode (eg, resistance vs endur-
ance), specic outcome measures, and the CWI interventions used
in these studies. Potential short-term recovery benets, but unde-
termined long-term adaptation and performance effects, also apply
to other popular recovery interventions (eg, contrast water therapy,
stretching, whole-body cryotherapy, compression garments, mas-
sage, intermittent pneumatic compression, electrostimulation,
sauna, far-infrared therapy). The outcomes emphasize that the
efcacy of specic recovery interventions needs to be determined
in the context of the athlete and his or her schedule and current
short- and long-term training goals.
In concordance with established periodization approaches in
training, recovery activities should also be periodized and modied
to meet individualsspecic needs. While there is little empirical
information regarding the periodization of recovery interventions,
fundamental assumptions are important to guide an individualized
recovery approach. Recovery activities can be tailored to the nature
of the present stressors, with greater need for midterm and long-
term psychological recovery interventions after mentally fatiguing
tasks. After activities that induce a high level of muscle damage,
recovery should be adapted accordingly, resulting in interventions
(eg, change of environment, exercise, sleep) to reduce pain,
inammation, and soreness. If amplication of training stress
(ie, increased fatigue) is indicated, increased training load and
fewer recovery activities might be prescribed during periods when
performance capacity is less important (eg, preseason/preparatory
training periods). Conversely, lower training loads and targeted
recovery activities may be required before competitions to initiate
dissipation of training fatigue to facilitate maximum performance.
An improved understanding of athletesindividual interac-
tions between training, recovery, and performance may assist
coaches/scientists in determining the necessity of specic recovery
activities. These interactions can be generally explained by the
tnessfatigue model, which describes the relationship between
training load, positive (tness) adaptations, and negative (fatigue)
adaptations.
28
According to this model, performance can be esti-
mated from the difference between the tness and fatigue reactions
to training. An athletestness is thereby operationalized by the
positive inuence of long-term training, while the negative
response is explained by the acute fatigue responses to recent
training stimuli. Due to the interindividual and intraindividual
responses to tness and fatigue, direct monitoring of tness and
fatigue responses has emerged as a common aspect of scientic
support for high-performance athletes.
3
The appropriate applica-
tion and interpretation of available monitoring tools foster a goal-
oriented processing of the obtained information to guide decisions
on training content and recovery activities for individual athletes.
Additional work is required in this area to link athlete monitoring to
meaningful recovery activities for individual athletes in a reliable
manner. Furthermore, holistic training-recovery-performance
models using an integrated and idiographic psychophysiological
approach are advocated.
3
Monitoring Approaches for Training
and Recovery
Athletes and coaches are taking an increasingly scientic approach
to designing training programs and monitoring adaptation. Train-
ing load and recovery monitoring can contribute to assess an
athletes adaptation and ensure an adequate recoverystress bal-
ance. The actual aim is to enhance performance and minimize the
risk of developing NFO, OTS, illness, and/or injury.
29,30
Training monitoring should include assessment of both exter-
nal and internal loads. The external training load denes an
objective measure of the work that an athlete completes during
training or competition. The internal load describes the biological
stress imposed by the training session and is characterized by the
disturbance in homeostasis of the physiological and metabolic
processes during the training session.
9
To gain an understanding of the training load and its effect
on an athlete, a number of training-load indicators have been
introduced, but strong scientic evidence supporting their applica-
bility is often lacking.
31
Monitoring tools to quantify external
loads include, for example, power-output-measuring devices
and timemotion analysis. Internal-load measures encompass
the perception of effort, oxygen uptake, heart-rate-derived
assessments, blood lactate, training impulse, neuromuscular
function, biochemical/hormonal/immunological assessments,
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questionnaires and diaries, psychomotor speed, and sleep quality
and quantity.
14,32
An incongruence between external- and internal-
load units may reveal the current recoveryfatigue continuum of an
athlete.
1
Once coaches and sport scientists have chosen their monitor-
ing tools based on validity, reliability, accessibility, and acceptance
by their athletes, criteria to determine changes in load, perfor-
mance, or recovery need to be established to build a reliable
decision-making process.
33
Change can be dened as a valid
conrmation of an improvement or a deterioration of a measure
over a given time span due to interventions.
34
Reliability outlines a
key feature in tracking change and reects the degree to which
repeated measures vary for individuals and can be assimilated as
measurement error. Several statistical approaches can account for
measurement error in the follow-up of athletes, including the
smallest worthwhile change or the Zscore.
34
Alternatively, if
repeated measurements of the respective athlete are available,
group-based reference ranges may be developed with Bayesian
methods.
15
In case the individual history of data is not available
(eg, when athletes transfer between teams), an alternative reference
is needed. Under these circumstances, the mean of a healthy group
can be calculated with upper and lower boundaries based on the
standard deviation. This provides information on how an individ-
ual compares with the rest of the group. However, coaches and
sport scientists should be aware that the choice of appropriate
monitoring tools and statistical procedure only delineates a cor-
nerstone of their follow-up system. Monitoring systems should be
intuitive, provide efcient strategies for data analysis and interpre-
tation, and enable efcient reporting and visualizing of simple yet
scientically valid feedback.
1
Concurrent assessments of the vari-
ous quantication methods allow researchers and practitioners to
evaluate the recoverystress balance, adjust individual training
programs, and determine the relationships between external load,
internal load, and athlete performance.
32
Consequences for Coaches and Athletes
Strategies to enhance recovery should be implemented as a means
to compensate internal and external loads. Since recovery-related
activities often take place outside the formal training setting, the
evaluation of individual differences appears to be extremely dif-
cult for coaches and may even result in a mismatch between
coachesand athletesperception of recovery.
35
It seems that
coaches tend to overestimate the need for recovery of their athletes.
This misjudgment increases the longer athletes and coaches are
separated, which highlights the importance of coordinated and
prospective recovery monitoring. The establishment of an effective
monitoring routine ideally results in meaningful individualized
interventions that consider the potpourri of psychophysiological
demands placed on athletes in different training and nontraining
situations, as well as in competition settings. Factors such as the
type of sport and training, the training phase of the year,
36
and the
level of participation
37
exemplify situations athletes are confronted
with.
38
Traditional ways of training and competing have revolved
around work-based training, with performance challenges solved
by simply increasing training load. However, periodization of the
season should be addressed, especially during the competition and
tapering phases, for athletes to reach high levels of preparedness.
39
Recovery should be programmed as an integral component of
training via the implementation of recovery microcycles and
recovery strategies.
39
Since psychological problems are frequently
related to underrecovery, the integration of efcient recovery into
athletestraining and competition routines appears to be a buffer
against psychological problems such as burnout and depression.
3
In this context, sleep plays an essential role in physiological
and psychological recovery, as well as general well-being. Athletes
should understand their sleep needs and should be educated
regarding aspects such as sleep hygiene and potential positive
effects of sleep extension.
40
Furthermore, a range of specic
recovery methods are available and could be systematically incor-
porated into the athletes training program at various times to foster
recovery on different levels. Individual and situation-specic
recovery strategies should be selected to address athletesrecovery
needs in line with their psychological perception of the value.
2
Self-
regulation skills play an important role in the process of recovery
enhancement and should be learned and practiced to facilitate the
realization and efciency of recovery programs in sports.
5
Considering the implementation of recovery strategies in team
settings, an individualized approach to the use of recovery modali-
ties should be promoted. Athletes should engage in a combination
of recovery modalities since this method appears to result in the
most-rapid rates of recovery and continuous high-level perfor-
mance.
3,5
Behavioral and cognitive underpinnings of all parties
involved (ie, coaches, athletes, researchers, policy makers, and
health care professionals) should be considered when designing
recovery interventions. The ideal recovery routine would consist of
a positive perception of recovery while also addressing the appro-
priate physiological and psychological mechanisms necessary to
effectively recover from training.
In applied settings, successful implementation of a system to
identify and monitor the recoveryfatigue continuum depends on
cooperation of a multidisciplinary team. Commitment and agree-
ment regarding the elements and strategies of monitoring should be
acquired from participating parties (eg, coach, sport scientist, sport
psychologist) to ensure a high quality of the overall process.
Coaches should consider monitoring and recovery management
as a reasonable addition to their training routine. Communication
represents a key factor in this interplay, while regular meetings and
the exchange of ideas may foster an atmosphere of compliance and
meaningfulness to obtain a common goal. With regard to their
athletes, coaches should be aware that engagement in recovery
activities should be contemplated as supportive instead of being
seen as a burden. The improvement of performance is not achieved
through a high quantity of recovery activities but, rather, through a
high-quality, well-matched, and individualized approach to recov-
ery. A cycle to improve recovery might encompass debrieng,
smiling (or laughing), restoring, and restarting.
Conclusion
The measurement and monitoring of recovery and fatigue in
training and competition contexts constitute a complex task.
Expertise in physiology, psychology, and sport science is required
to enable a high quality in the overall process. We give some
general recommendations that may contribute to successful imple-
mentation of a monitoring routine to maintain and enhance recov-
ery in sports. During the planning phase of the monitoring routine,
training- and competition-related goals should be set in close
cooperation with athletes and the coaching staff. Recovery should
be prescribed by taking the current period of the season and the
nature of the applied training stimulus (eg, muscle damaging vs
cognitively fatiguing vs metabolically demanding) into account.
This approach connects to the topic of individualization of recovery
monitoring in sports. Individualized measurement of recovery
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should be followed by an individualization of recovery methods
according to athletessituation-specic needs. Therefore, the indi-
vidualization process is one of the most pivotal and challenging
tasks in current monitoring research and practical environments.
Periodization of training loads and recovery activities to promote
adaptation and/or performance outcomes over longer periods (ie,
>6 mo) can only be achieved by referring to individual long-term
data. Based on the collected data, tools and screenings to direct the
selection of evidence-based recovery activities can be developed.
Future recovery studies should develop holistic models to derive
practical rules for diagnostic, intervention, and evaluation
purposes.
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... Melalui pendekatan ilmiah, periodisasi latihan digunakan bertujuan untuk mengatasi tingkat kelelahan baik saat berlatih maupun bertanding, sehingga proses pemulihan harus diatur secara terprogram, terencana, dan terpantau secara berkala untuk memenuhi kebutuhan spesifik individu. Studi literatur yang dilakukan (Kellmann et al., 2018) mengungkapkan, program pemulihan dapat disesuaikan dengan sifat tekanan (stressor) yang diberikan saat menjalankan program latihan. Hal tersebut guna untuk memulih asalkan energi yang telah habis terpakai, dan memperbaiki kerusakan pada jaringan-jaringan organ dalam tubuh setelah melakukan aktivitas fisik latihan. ...
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This study aims to analyze the effect of differences resulting from the combination of HIIT with recovery models in active and passive forms on the quality of VO2max and monitoring of heart-rate recovery. This study was designed using a quasi-experimental design, and 30 participants participated voluntarily in the study which was further divided into three groups: HIIT-PP experiment (n:10; Age: 21.0±0.82; Weight: 67.2±13.6; Height: 1.68±0.07), HIIT-PP experiment (n=10; Age: 21.1±1.20; Weight: 64.9±6.07; Height: 1.68±0.04), and control group (n=10; Age: 21.09±1.29; Weight: 69.3±5.46; Height 1.69±0.05). This research instrument uses Multistage Fitness Test (MFT) and Heart-Rate Monitoring. The procedure for analyzing the statistical research data used the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test with a p-value <0.05. The results showed that the parameter differences between the experimental and control groups significantly improved the quality of VO2max and monitoring of heart-rate recovery (HRM, and HRR 2min, 5min, 10min). This study can conclude that using HIIT with recovery models in passive forms for eight weeks resulted in a change in the quality of VO2max and monitoring of heart rate recovery.
... Well structured program is essential to improve the performance of elite athletes and avoid excessive muscle fatigue. Inadequate training load and recovery can be stressful for athletes and can reduce their performance [20]. Although many studies conducted mid-to long-term experiments of more than 6 weeks to confirm the effect of HIIT intervention, and most reported positive results [21,22], some reported positive results even in studies of 4 weeks duration or less [23][24][25]. ...
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In the last stage of rehabilitation, high-intensity interval training (HIIT) for improving physical fitness is appropriate for return-to-play; however, some youth athletes visit the rehabilitation center less frequently due to conflict with their distance to center, and academic schedule. We tested the effects of short-term low-frequency HIIT in 54 youth male soccer players, after dividing them into a low-frequency group (LFG, n = 27 players) and a high-frequency group (HFG, n = 27 players). Muscle mass and body fat were measured using a body composition test, and VO2peak and exercise duration were measured using a treadmill. Five sets of anaerobic peak power and fatigue were measured repeatedly using the Wingate test. To evaluate knee joint muscle function, 60°/s, 180°/s, and 240°/s were measured using the isokinetic muscle function equipment. HIIT sessions were conducted twice a week for LFG and five times a week for HFG for 4 weeks. In this study, Wilcoxon signed-rank test and Mann–Whitney U test were mainly used for analysis. Significant improvements in VO2peak, anaerobic peak power, and knee strength were observed after intervention in both groups (p < 0.05). In the post test, there were significant differences between groups in VO2peak (LFG, 56.4 vs. HFG, 57.1 mL/kg/min; p = 0.035), exercise duration (LFG, 972.3 vs. HFG, 990.4 s; p = 0.041), Wingate anaerobic peak power 5 sets (LFG, 606.3 vs. HFG, 629.3 Watt; p = 0.039), and muscle function test 240°/s (LFG, 68.5 vs. HFG, 70.2 Jouls; p = 0.010). However, neither group showed significant changes in body composition, such as muscle mass or body fat (p > 0.05). In conclusion, although it is a short-term training, the effect of HIIT was shown in the HFG as well as LFG. Although HFG improved physical fitness, significant improvement was also achieved in LFG. Therefore, in the last stage of rehabilitation, low frequency as well as high frequency HIIT would be an appropriate training method to improve physical fitness for youth soccer players.
... Here, we also speculate that BET may have made the players more resilient to overreaching, which has a strong psychological component. 24 ...
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Purpose: Brain endurance training (BET)—the combination of physical training with mentally fatiguing tasks—could help athletes adapt and increase their performance during sporting competitions. Here we tested whether BET completed after standard physical training improved physical and mental performance more than physical training alone during a preseason football training camp. Methods: The study employed a pretest/training/posttest design, with 22 professional football players randomly assigned to BET or a control group. Both groups completed 40 physical training sessions over 4 weeks. At the end of a day of physical training, the BET group completed cognitive training, whereas the control group listened to neutral sounds. Players completed the 30–15 Intermittent Fitness Test, repeated sprint ability random test, soccer-specific reactive agility test, and Stroop and psychomotor vigilance tests pretraining and posttraining. Mixed analysis of variance was used to analyze the data. Results: In the posttest (but not pretest) assessments, the BET group consistently outperformed the control group. Specifically, the BET group was faster (P=.02–.04) than the control group during the 30–15 Intermittent Fitness Test, the directional phase of the repeated sprint ability random test, and the soccer-specific reactive agility test. The BET group also made fewer errors (P = .02) during the soccer-specific reactive agility test than the control group. Finally, the BET group responded faster (P = .02) on the Stroop test and made fewer (P = .03) lapses on the psychomotor vigilance test than the control group. Conclusion: The inclusion of BET during the preseason seems more effective than standard physical training alone in improving the physical, cognitive, and multitasking performance of professional football players.
... Competition-driven sports training programs require high volume and intensity training loads with aiming to continuously improve sports performance that must be balanced with strategies for appropriate recovery in order to optimize morphological and metabolic adaptive processes, eventually leading to the improvement of sports performance (Issurin, 2010;Meeusen et al., 2013) However, there is an inherent complexity regarding the determination of the most appropriate proportion between training load and recovery aiming to achieve more robust improvements in performance (Kellmann et al., 2018). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a day with two separate training sessions (morning and afternoon) of rhythmic gymnastics on erythrocytes, leukocytes, muscle damage, oxidative stress, and hydration of Brazilian team [age 17.7 (±1.1) years; body height 165 (±0.5) cm; body mass 49.7 (±4.2) kg]. Heart rate and session - ratings of perceived exertion were used to monitor training intensity. Blood samples were collected immediately before (M1) and after (M2) the training day for analyzing erythrocytes, leukocytes, plasma creatine kinase activity, lactate dehydrogenase, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, ferric reducing ability plasma, thyroid-stimulating hormone, and free T4. Saliva was collected for cortisol analysis. After 24 hours rest (M3), blood collection was performed to analyze creatine kinase and lactate dehydrogenase. The moderate-intensity training day induced significant elevations of total leukocytes (5,163.3 to 9,617.8), lymphocytes (1,752.7 to 2,729.7), neutrophils (2,873.9 to 6,163.6), monocytes (255.7 to 519.1), platelets (280,000.0 to 300,666.7), aspartate aminotransferase (13.1 to 25.6), lactate dehydrogenase (102.5 to 249.1), thyroid-stimulating hormone (1.0 to 3.2), and ferric reducing ability plasma (136.8 to 165.4), as well as significant reductions in red cells (4,691,111.1 to 4,497,777.8), hematocrit (42.1 to 39.3), and hemoglobin (12.9 to 12.5) at M2. There were also significant increases in creatine kinase (144.2 to 519.3) and lactate dehydrogenase (102.5 to 538.2) at M3. The average dehydration rate was 1.3%. A moderate-intensity day of training in rhythmic gymnastics of 8h21min duration caused hemolysis, leukocytosis, muscle damage, redox status perturbations, and insufficient hydration status. These findings show that athletes are exposed to physiological vulnerabilities that can possibly harm their performance and health.
... When in a state of FOR a short-term decrement in performance may occur (Halson et al., 2002) but with sufficient recovery a "supercompensatory" effect on performance may be seen (Birrer et al., 2013). However, if recovery is not implemented at the appropriate moment, athletes may enter a state of NFOR (Kellmann et al., 2018) which could take weeks or months for full recovery to occur (Meeusen et al., 2013). If NFOR is left undiagnosed, and the training/recovery imbalance continues, athletes experience a heightened risk of suffering from the OTS, which can take months to years to fully recover (Meeusen et al., 2013). ...
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Background: Intensified training coupled with sufficient recovery is required to improve athletic performance. A stress-recovery imbalance can lead to negative states of overtraining. Hormonal alterations associated with intensified training, such as blunted cortisol, may impair the immune response. Cortisol promotes the maturation and migration of dendritic cells which subsequently stimulate the T cell response. However, there are currently no clear reliable biomarkers to highlight the overtraining syndrome. This systematic review and meta-analysis examined the effect of intensified training on immune cells. Outcomes from this could provide insight into whether these markers may be used as an indicator of negative states of overtraining. Methods: SPORTDiscus, PUBMED, Academic Search Complete, Scopus and Web of Science were searched until June 2022. Included articles reported on immune biomarkers relating to lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and cytokines before and after a period of intensified training, in humans and rodents, at rest and in response to exercise. Results: 164 full texts were screened for eligibility. Across 57 eligible studies, 16 immune biomarkers were assessed. 7 were assessed at rest and in response to a bout of exercise, and 9 assessed at rest only. Included lymphocyte markers were CD3 ⁺ , CD4 ⁺ and CD8 ⁺ T cell count, NK cell count, NK Cytolytic activity, lymphocyte proliferation and CD4/CD8 ratio. Dendritic cell markers examined were CD80, CD86, and MHC II expression. Cytokines included IL-1β, IL-2, IL-10, TNF-α and IFN-γ. A period of intensified training significantly decreased resting total lymphocyte ( d= − 0.57, 95% CI − 0.30) and CD8 ⁺ T cell counts ( d= − 0.37, 95% CI − 0.04), and unstimulated plasma IL-1β levels ( d= − 0.63, 95% CI − 0.17). Resting dendritic cell CD86 expression significantly increased ( d = 2.18, 95% CI 4.07). All other biomarkers remained unchanged. Conclusion: Although some biomarkers alter after a period of intensified training, definitive immune biomarkers are limited. Specifically, due to low study numbers, further investigation into the dendritic cell response in human models is required.
... Cardiocirculatory fitness is a critical component of performance in many sports. To produce optimal adaptations, it is paramount to establish an appropriate balance between a training load that is potent enough to sufficiently stimulate the athlete's physiological systems and a subsequent recovery period which is adequately extensive to prevent the athlete from experiencing a state of nonfunctional overreaching or overtraining [1]. Information on an athlete's physical response to a given training stimulus can be used to optimize performance levels by adjusting training frequency, volume, and intensity [2]. ...
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This systematic review provides a synthesis of research investigating submaximal protocols to monitor changes in cardiocirculatory fitness in running-based sports. Following PRISMA guidelines, 2,452 records were identified and 14 studies, representing 515 athletes, satisfied the eligibility criteria. While most studies found large associations between changes in heart rate at standardized, submaximal running speeds and changes in aerobic fitness (r=0.51–0.88), three studies failed to establish a relationship (r=0.19–0.35). The intensity of the submaximal protocols seems to be relevant, with changes in running speeds at 90% of maximal heart rate showing larger relationships with changes in aerobic fitness (r=0.52–0.79) compared to 70% of maximal heart rate (r=0.24–0.52). Conversely, changes in post-exercise heart rate variability were very largely associated with changes in aerobic fitness when the testing protocols were less intense (70% of maximal heart rate) (r=0.76–0.88), but not when the test required participants to achieve 90% of their maximal heart rate (r=−0.02–0.06). Studies on post-exercise heart rate recovery revealed inconclusive results (r=−0.01– −0.55), while rate of heart rate increase may be a promising athlete monitoring metric (r=0.08– −0.84) but requires further research. In summary, when executed, analyzed, and interpreted appropriately, submaximal protocols can provide valuable information regarding changes in athlete cardiocirculatory fitness.
... Dans l'esprit de chacun, les stratégies de récupération sont régulièrement mises en place avec pour objectif de favoriser le retour de l'organisme à un état d'homéostasie, qui avait été modifié suite à l'accumulation de fatigue après un match ou un entrainement (Kellmann et al., 2018). Même si ces éléments restent à confirmer avec une population d'athlètes de haut niveau, il s'avère que la mise en place de stratégies de récupération et notamment d'immersion en eau froide peut dans certains cas, comme pour l'entrainement neuromusculaire, altérer certaines adaptations, voire induire certains effets délétères, qui ne s'expriment pas pour la performance cycliste en endurance par exemple. ...
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The repeated sprint ability (RSA) was considered as a major physical determinant of performance in rugby union. However, some studies from rugby league highlighted that the simple RSA is not sufficiently representative of the physical constraints of the sport and does not prepare properly the players to the game. In this context, the ability to repeat high intensity efforts (RHIE) is suggested as a physical quality more specific to rugby union and thus more discriminant of the performance. The RHIE topic is address in 3 different steps : the evaluation, the development and the optimization. In a first study, the assessment of metrological properties of key outcomes from sprint and tackle performance is made using a RHIE test, specifically modified to represent the physical demands of rugby union. Results show that only sprint indices have a sufficient level of reliability to be used with players. Measures of tackle intensity are too variable for an appropriate interpretation. However, this test allows practitioners to identify the physical qualities associated with RHIE, in order to prescribe coherent development strategies with rugby union players. This topic is discussed during the second study. In this context, body composition, maximal sprinting speed and aerobic capacity are the major performance determinants of the RHIE. Therefore, they should be integrated to specific strength and conditioning programs in rugby union. To verify this hypothesis is the aim of the third study, during which an improvement in RHIE ability is observed after a training block composed of an integrated high intensity interval method. Furthermore, results show that coaches or athletes could benefit from a training methodology based on the alternation of contacts and movements, without limiting the adaptation process. The third part of this thesis focus on the RHIE optimization specially to prepare key games or playoffs, periods during which a taper strategy seems to be preferred by coaches. However, the meta-analysis and review of literature performed during the fourth study of this thesis highlight that although a taper is effective to improve neuromuscular and cardiovascular qualities, there is no information available concerning the RHIE ability. In this context, the fifth study consists in the implementation of a taper strategy following an overload training block, with a focus on the influence of the pre-taper fatigue level on the RHIE supercompensation process. Results confirm the improvement of RHIE after the taper, and highlight an inverted U relationship between the pre-taper fatigue level and the magnitude of improvement in performance. Despite minor performance consequences, players on the left side of the relationship do not benefit from the taper due to a too small accumulated fatigue level. However, the situation of those on the right side of the relationship is more problematic. These players do not benefit from the taper due to an incomplete recovery provoked by a too severe state of accumulated fatigue considering the taper implemented. This phenomenon could be observed during short-term taper, often the only solution available within the context of professional sport. By including sleep quality as a moderator of the taper benefits, results of the sixth study show that poor sleep quality predispose athletes to a severe state of accumulated fatigue and therefore to a reduced taper efficiency with a higher risk of injury and upper respiratory tract infections. This thesis is based on scientific studies providing key information to coaches wishing to focus on the evaluation, development and optimization of their players’ repeated high intensity efforts ability. This work leads to key practical applications, which should guide coaches in their understanding of the RHIE.
Article
Objective: Our objective was to determine the efficacy of cold-water immersion (CWI) on the management of muscle soreness to identify the impact of immersion time, water temperature, CWI protocol, and type of exercise on this outcome. Design: Intervention systematic review and meta-analysis. Setting: MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Central, and SPORTDiscus databases were searched from their earliest record to July 30, 2020. Only randomized controlled trials that assessed muscle soreness comparing CWI and control were included. Studies were pooled in different subgroups regarding the used protocol: water temperature (severe or moderate cold), immersion time (short, medium, or longer time), CWI protocol (intermittent or continuous application), and type of exercise (endurance or resistance exercise). Data were pooled in a meta-analysis and described as weighted mean difference (95% confidence interval, P < 0.05). Participants: Athletes and nonathletes. Interventions: Cold-water immersion and control condition. Main outcome measures: Muscle soreness. Results: Forty-four studies were included. For immediate effects, CWI was superior to control regardless of water temperature and protocol, and for short and medium immersion times and endurance exercises. For delayed effects, CWI was superior to control in all subgroups except longer immersions time. Conclusions: This study suggests that CWI is better than control for the management of muscle soreness and water temperature and CWI protocol do not influence this result, but only short and medium immersions times presented positive effects. Aiming immediate effects, the best results suggest CWI application only after endurance exercises, while delayed effect CWI was superior both after endurance and resistance exercises.
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Background Adequate sleep is of great importance in recovering from and preparing for training and competition. Objective This study aimed to investigate subjective sleep quality and daytime sleepiness of the German women’s junior national ice hockey team before and after a training camp immediately preceding the World Championship Division IA tournament. Materials and methods Twenty athletes (16.40 ± 0.68 years) completed German paper–pencil versions of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) before the training camp (T1, day 1) and on the final day of the training camp (T2, day 7). Results Paired t -tests indicated a significant decrease in PSQI global scores from pre- to post-training camp assessments ( t = 2.33, p = 0.031, df = 19), with a medium effect size ( d = 0.52). Regarding ESS global scores, results of the paired t -test indicated no significant pre- to post-training camp differences ( t = 0.67, p = 0.510, df = 19) and the effect size was trivial ( d = 0.15). Mean scores were reduced for both PSQI (T1 = 5.90 ± 2.36, T2 = 4.65 ± 2.18) and ESS (T1 = 9.00 ± 3.58, T2 = 8.60 ± 4.04) after the training camp. When analyzed according to the position of the players, no statistically significant intergroup differences were found. Conclusion This study underlines the need for monitoring and screening youth athletes’ sleep before special sports events in order to identify a potential need for intervention as early as possible, to prevent serious consequences for athletes’ performance capability and well-being.
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In elite athlete several metabolic changes occur during regular training. These modifications are associated with changes in blood metabolic profile and can lead to adaptive mechanisms aimed at establish a new dynamic equilibrium, which guarantees better performance. The goal of this study was to characterize the plasma metabolic profile and redox homeostasis, in athletes practicing two different team sports such as soccer and basketball in order to identify potential metabolic pathways underlying the differences in training programs. A cohort of 30 male, 20 professional players (10 soccer and 10 basketballs) and 10 sedentary males as control were enrolled in the study. Plasma redox balance, metabolites and adiponectin were determined. The results show low levels of oxidative species (25.5%), with both high antioxidant capacity (17.6%) and adiponectin level (64.4%) in plasma from basketball players, in comparison to soccer players. Metabolic analysis indicates in basketball players a significant high plasma level of amino acids Valine and Ornithine both involved in redox homeostasis and anti-inflammatory metabolism.
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Objective The purpose of these experiments was to develop a rating-of-fatigue (ROF) scale capable of tracking the intensity of perceived fatigue in a variety of contexts. Methods Four experiments were carried out. The first provided the evidential basis for the construction of the ROF scale. The second tested the face validity of the ROF, and the third tested the convergent and divergent validity of the ROF scale during ramped cycling to exhaustion and 30 min of resting recovery. The final experiment tested the convergent validity of the ROF scale with time of day and physical activity (accelerometer counts) across a whole week. ResultsModal selections of descriptions and diagrams at different levels of exertion and recovery were found during Experiment 1 upon which the ROF scale was constructed and finalised. In Experiment 2, a high level of face validity was indicated, in that ROF was reported to represent fatigue rather than exertion. Descriptor and diagrammatic elements of ROF reportedly added to the coherence and ease of use of the scale. In Experiment 3, high convergence between ROF and various physiological measures were found during exercise and recovery (heart rate, blood lactate concentration, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide production, respiratory exchange ratio and ventilation rate were all P < 0.001). During ramped cycling to exhaustion ROF and RPE did correspond (P < 0.0001) but not during recovery, demonstrating discriminant validity. Experiment 4 found ROF to correspond with waking time during each day (Mon–Sun all P < 0.0001) and with physical activity (accelerometer count) (Mon–Sun all P < 0.001). Conclusions The ROF scale has good face validity and high levels of convergent validity during ramped cycling to exhaustion, resting recovery and daily living activities. The ROF scale has both theoretical and applied potential in understanding changes in fatigue in a variety of contexts.
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Purpose: To determine the sensitivity of a range of potential fatigue measures to daily training load accumulated over the previous two, three and four days during a short in-season competitive period in elite senior soccer players (n=10). Methods: Total high-speed running distance, perceived ratings of wellness (fatigue, muscle soreness, sleep quality), counter-movement jump height (CMJ), submaximal heart rate (HRex), post-exercise heart rate recovery (HRR) and heart rate variability (HRV: Ln rMSSD) were analysed during an in-season competitive period (17 days). General linear models were used to evaluate the influence of two, three and four day total high-speed running distance accumulation on fatigue measures. Results: Fluctuations in perceived ratings of fatigue were correlated with fluctuations in total high-speed running distance accumulation covered on the previous 2-days (r=-0.31; small), 3 -days (r=-0.42; moderate) and 4-days (r=-0.28; small) (p<0.05). Changes in HRex (r=0.28; small; p= 0.02) were correlated with changes in 4-day total high-speed running distance accumulation only. Correlations between variability in muscle soreness, sleep quality, CMJ, HRR% and HRV and total high-speed running distance were negligible and not statistically significant for all accumulation training loads. Conclusions: Perceived ratings of fatigue and HRex were sensitive to fluctuations in acute total high-speed running distance accumulation, although, sensitivity was not systematically influenced by the number of previous days over which the training load was accumulated. The present findings indicate that the sensitivity of morning-measured fatigue variables to changes in training load is generally not improved when compared with training loads beyond the previous days training.
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Athlete self-report measures (ASRM) have the potential to provide valuable insight into the training response, however there exists a disconnect between research and practice which needs to be addressed. Namely, the measure or methods used in research are not always reflective of practice, or data primarily obtained from practice lacks empirical quality. This commentary reviews existing empirical measures, and the psychometric properties required to be considered acceptable for research and practice. This information will allow discerning readers to make a judgement on the quality of ASRM data being reported in research papers. Fastidious practitioners and researchers are also provided with explicit guidelines for selecting and implementing an ASRM, and reporting these details in research papers.
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Practitioners in sport psychology have long sought the establishment of a viable profession. Professions develop best when they have a standardized system to train and validate the learning of the knowledge and skills delineated for the profession. Although sport psychology is an emerging profession, challenges remain in part because of no formal answer to the question, ?What does the practice and profession of sport psychology entail?? To provide clarity, we offer a definition of applied sport psychology as a subfield of performance psychology. This definition creates a consistent core identity by putting the focus on the purpose of the profession's work.
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Objectives: The aim of this study was to examine how matches affect self-report measures of physical, mental, and emotional states in order to set a base for developing specific recovery approaches. Methods: A total of 25 players (Mage = 17.5, SD = .5 yrs.) of an U19-Junioren-Bundesliga team participated over the entire 6-month assessment period. The players completed the Short Recovery and Stress Scale twice a week on Monday and Friday mornings between 7 and 9am. During the assessment period the players participated in 12 match days. Results: Wilcoxon signed-rank tests revealed significant main effects for changes from Friday to Monday ratings in players who played more than 60 min (regular players) and less than 60 min (substitutes). The regular players were more physically and mentally stressed after matches whereas the substitutes experienced higher emotional stress when comparing Mondays’ and Fridays’ stress ratings. Conclusions: Therefore, matches affect those who played more than 60 min differently compared to those who played less than 60 min. This was the case not only for physical recovery-stress ratings but also for mental, emotional and overall self-reports. Consequently, coaches should take the self-ratings of their players into account to create efficient training regimens to prevent negative consequences such as underrecovery or overtraining.
Article
The Acute Recovery and Stress Scale (ARSS) and the Short Recovery and Stress Scale were first established in German for the purposes of monitoring athletes' current recovery-stress states in an economical and multidimensional manner. The aim of this paper is to document the development and initial validation of the English versions of these two psychometric monitoring tools. A total of 267 English-speaking athletes from a variety of team and individual sports participated in the study. The English versions demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency for both instruments (Cronbach α of .74-.89). Furthermore, good model fit was found for the eight scales of the ARSS, matching the structure and results of the German counterparts. Correlations among and between the scales reciprocate the theoretical constructs of stress and recovery, supporting the construct validity of the scales. Correlation coefficients within stress and recovery ranged between rs = .29 and .68. The correlations between stress and recovery varied between rs = -.29 and -.64. These constructs were further supported by correlations with the scores of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes, thereby showing convergent validity. The findings demonstrate initial validity and reliability of the two measures and reflect the results of the German versions. However, further research is needed before applying these scales in practical settings.
Article
Purpose: The aims of this study are to determine match exertion, subsequent recovery and to investigate to what extent the coach is able to estimate players' match exertion and recovery. Methods: Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and Total quality of recovery (TQR) of 14 professional basketball players (age 26.7±3.8 y, height 197.2±9.1 cm, weight 100.3±15.2 kg, body fat 10.3±3.6 %) were compared with observations of the coach. During an in-season phase of 15 matches within 6 weeks, players gave RPE after each match. TQR scores were filled out before the first training session after the match. The coach rated observed exertion (ROE) and recovery (TQ-OR) of the players. Results: RPE was lower than ROE (15.6±2.3 and 16.1±1.4; p=0.029). Furthermore, TQR was lower than TQ-OR (12.7±3.0 and 15.3±1.3; p<0.001). Correlations between coach' and players' exertion and recovery were r=.25 and r=.21, respectively. For recovery within 1 day the correlation was r=.68 but for recovery after 1-2 days no association existed. Conclusion: Players perceive match exertion hard to very hard and subsequent recovery reasonable. The coach overestimates match exertion and underestimates degree of recovery. Correspondence between coach and players is thus not optimal. This mismatch potentially leads to inadequate planning of training sessions and performance decrease during fixture congestion in basketball.
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Purpose: Assessment of muscle recovery is essential for the daily fine-tuning of training load in competitive sports, but individual differences may limit the diagnostic accuracy of group-based reference ranges. We report an attempt to develop individualized reference ranges using a Bayesian approach comparable to that developed for the athlete biological passport. Methods: Urea and creatine kinase (CK) were selected as indicators of muscle recovery. For each parameter, prior distributions and repeated measures standard deviations were characterized based on data of 883 squad athletes (1758 data points, 1-8 per athlete, years 2013-2015). Equations for the individualization procedure were adapted from previous material to allow for discrimination of 2 physiological states (recovered; non-recovered). Evaluation of classificatory performance was carried out using data from 5 consecutive weekly microcycles in 14 elite junior swimmers and triathletes. Blood samples were collected every Monday (recovered) and Friday according to the repetitive weekly training schedule over five weeks. On the group level, changes in muscle recovery could be confirmed by significant differences in urea, CK and validated questionnaires. Group-based reference ranges were derived from that same dataset to avoid overestimating the potential benefit of individualization. Results: For CK error rates were significantly lower with individualized classification (p vs. group-based: test-pass error rate: p=0,008; test-fail error rate: p<0,001). For urea numerical improvements in error rates failed to reach significance. Conclusions: Individualized reference ranges seem to be a promising tool to improve accuracy of monitoring muscle recovery. Investigating application to a larger panel of indicators is warranted.
Article
Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to the training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because the external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate concentration. Other methods in use in endurance sports include speed measurement and the measurement of power output, made possible by recent technological advances, such as power meters in cycling and triathlon. Among subjective methods of quantification the RPE stands out because of its wide use. Concurrent assessments of the various quantification methods allow researchers and practitioners to evaluate stress/recovery balance, adjust individual training programmes and determine the relationships between external load, internal load and athletes' performance. This brief review summarizes the most relevant external and internal workload quantification methods in endurance sports, and provides practical examples of their implementation to adjust the training programmes of elite athletes in accordance to their individualized stress/recovery balance.