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An illustrated guide to the land snails and slugs of Vietnam

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Abstract

illustrated guide to Vietnamese snails and slugs
... So far, gastropods have been collected in Vietnam in several sampling sites in the north (Long Son, Mau Son, Cuc Phuong, Ba Vi) and the south (Cat Tien, Bidoup Nui Ba) of the country. Terrestrial gastropods in Vietnam are highly diverse and represented by more than 850 species of over 30 families belonging to the three major groups within the Mollusca, i.e., the Caenogastropoda, Neritimorpha, and Pulmonata (Raheem et al., 2017). In this study, land gastropods collected in Cat Tien National Park were represented by 20 species belonging to the Caenogastropoda and Pulmonata, many being infected by rhabditids. ...
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Phasmarhabditis quinamensis sp. n. was recovered from several tropical terrestrial gastropod species collected in Cat Tien National Park in southern Vietnam with the snail, Sesara sp., designated as the type host. Phasmarhabditis quinamensis sp. n. is recognised by males and females with a lip region set off by the circle of six triangular low probolae, three bilobed, separated lips, stoma nearly as wide as long, the first genital papilla in males not incorporated into the bursa, the ensheathed dauer juveniles more than 1 mm long and with two circles of papillae at the head end and prominent amphidial apertures, a long filamentous tail and, when exsheathed, with a short, conical tail ending with two tiny spikes. The head structure of P. quinamensis sp. n. differentiates it from all nominal species of Phasmarhabditis. Phasmarhabditis quinamensis sp. n. is the second species of the genus found in Cat Tien National Park. The sympatric species P. meridionalis was also found during the present study. Phylogenetically, both species belong to different lineages within Phasmarhabditis . The molecular analysis based on partial sequences of LSU rDNA, and ITS rDNA regions showed P. kenyaensis to be the closest species to P. quinamensis sp. n.
... A direct searching method [25] was used to locate the snails from suitable habitats, such as under stones, in wall crevices, among rocks and in leaf litter. All specimens were identified through comparisons of shell morphology, with reference to Tumpeesuwan et al. [15], Sutcharit & Panha [26] and Panha et al. [27] using key characters such as shape, terminology of whorls and sutures, presence and types of umbilicus, apertural lip, shell colour and surface markings. Confirmation of identification was done by comparing shell with voucher specimens at the Natural History Museum, London. ...
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A total of 30 specimens belonging to five species, namely; Cryptozona siamensis, Sarika resplendens and Sarika sp. from the family Ariophantidae as well as Quantula striata and Quantula sp. from the family Dyakiidae were collected from the Langkawi Island in Northern Peninsular Malaysia. All specimens were identified through comparisons of shell morphology and amplification of a 500 bp segment of the 16S rRNA mtDNA gene. To assess phylogenetic insights, the sequences were aligned using ClustalW and phylogenetic trees were constructed. The analyses showed two major lineages in both Maximum Parsimony and Neighbour Joining phylogenetic trees. Each putative taxonomic group formed a monophyletic cluster. Our study revealed low species and intraspecies genetic diversities based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences. Thus, this study has provided an insight of land snail diversity in populations of an island highly influenced by anthropogenic activities through complementary use of shell morphological and molecular data.
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Cryptozona siamensis, one of the most widespread land snails, is native to Thailand, and plays a key role as an agricultural pest and intermediate host for Angiostrongylus spp. However, its genetic diversity and population structure has not yet been investigated, and are poorly understood. Therefore, a genetic analysis of the C. siamensis population in Thailand was conducted, based mitochondrial 16S rRNA (402 bp) and COI (602 bp) gene fragment sequences. Cryptozona siamensis randomly collected from 17 locations in four populations across Thailand, between May 2017 and July 2018. Fifty-eight snails were used to examine the phylogeny, genetic diversity, and genetic structure. The maximum likelihood tree based on the 16S rRNA and COI fragment sequences revealed two main clades. A total of 14 haplotypes with 44 nucleotide variable sites were found in the 16S rRNA sequences, while 14 haplotypes with 57 nucleotide variable sites were found in the COI sequences. The genetic diversity of C. siamensis in term of the number of haplotypes and haplotype diversity, was found to be high but the nucleotide diversity showed low levels of genetic differentiation for the COI sequence as also noted with the 16S rRNA sequence. The population genetic structure of C. siamensis revealed genetic difference in most populations in Thailand. However, low genetic difference in some populations may be due to high gene flow. This study provides novel insights into the basic molecular genetics of C. siamensis.
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The insular limestone karsts of northern Vietnam harbor a very rich biodiversity. Many taxa are strongly associated with these environments, and individual species communities can differ considerably among karst areas. The exact processes that have shaped the biotic composition of these habitats, however, remain largely unknown. In this study, the role of two major processes for the assembly of snail communities on limestone karsts was investigated, interspecific competition and filtering of taxa due to geographical factors. Communities of operculate land snails of the genus Cyclophorus were studied using the dry and fluid‐preserved specimen collections of the Natural History Museum, London. Phylogenetic distances (based on a Bayesian analysis using DNA sequence data) and shell characters (based on 200 semilandmarks) were used as proxies for ecological similarity and were analyzed to reveal patterns of overdispersion (indicating competition) or clustering (indicating filtering) in observed communities compared to random communities. Among the seven studied karst areas, a total of 15 Cyclophorus lineages were found. Unique communities were present in each area. The analyses revealed phylogenetic overdispersion in six and morphological overdispersion in four of seven karst areas. The pattern of frequent phylogenetic overdispersion indicated that competition among lineages is the major process shaping the Cyclophorus communities studied. The Coastal Area, which was phylogenetically overdispersed, showed a clear morphological clustering, which could have been caused by similar ecological adaptations among taxa in this environment. Only the community in the Cuc Phuong Area showed a pattern of phylogenetic clustering, which was partly caused by an absence of a certain, phylogenetically very distinct group in this region. Filtering due to geographical factors could have been involved here. This study shows how museum collections can be used to examine community assembly and contributes to the understanding of the processes that have shaped karst communities in Vietnam.
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