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Utilization of Moringa oleifera in ruminant nutrition (Review article)



The present review provides information regarding the nutritional importance of bioactive components of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) for ruminants. Moringa leaves have high quality of protein balanced with its amino acids, thus the leaves are the most part used as a source of protein, however; it is well known for high ruminal degradability of protein and organic matter. Moreover, in comparison with leaves of other shrubs like leucaena, moringa leaves containing around 200g/kg DM crud protein (CP), thus it cannot consider as a potent source of high protein supplement. Despite the CP content, every part of moringa plant is containing several bioactive components and found to have specific nutritional characteristics. Many studies have shown that the leaf, seeds, root, flower, bark and gum exhibit several activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anthelmintic. Thus it can suggested that moringa has more nutritional mode of action; thereby improve the ruminal degradability, digestion, health and production performance of the animals. So the whole tree is recommended to be planted extensively and studied for further nutritional research aspects.
3rd. International conference "Sustainable Development of Livestock's Production Systems"
(sdlps2017)" from 7-9 November, 2017. Department of Animal production, Faculty of Agriculture,
Alexandra University, Egypt)"
Utilization of Moringa oleifera in ruminant nutrition (Review article)
Y.A. Soltana*, A.S. Morsyb, N.M. Hashema, S.M. Sallama
aAlexandria University, Faculty of Agriculture, Animal and fish Production Department, Alexandria, Egypt
bCity of Scientific Research and Technological Applications, Arid Lands Cultivation Research Institute,
Livestock Research Department, New Borg El-Arab, Alexandria, Egypt
* Corresponding author. Tel: +201203307920; Fax: +203-5922780
E-mail (Y.A. Soltan)
The present review provides information regarding the nutritional importance of
bioactive components of Moringa (Moringa oleifera) for ruminants. Moringa leaves have
high quality of protein balanced with its amino acids, thus the leaves are the most part
used as a source of protein, however; it is well known for high ruminal degradability of
protein and organic matter. Moreover, in comparison with leaves of other shrubs like
leucaena, moringa leaves containing around 200g/kg DM crud protein (CP), thus it
cannot consider as a potent source of high protein supplement. Despite the CP content,
every part of moringa plant is containing several bioactive components and found to have
specific nutritional characteristics. Many studies have shown that the leaf, seeds, root,
flower, bark and gum exhibit several activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant,
anthelmintic. Thus it can suggested that moringa has more nutritional mode of action;
thereby improve the ruminal degradability, digestion, health and production performance
of the animals. So the whole tree is recommended to be planted extensively and studied
for further nutritional research aspects.
1. Introduction
Feed deficiencies are one of the most serious problems worldwide and it
represents a challenge for ruminant livestock productivity in many developing countries.
In this regard, forage legume browses seem promising in overcoming the limitations of
feed sources as they can be grown by small scale farmers and contain higher amounts of
protein than grasses (Soltan et al., 2012). Even though these legumes are useful as feed
alternatives to low quality diets, the potential of their bioactive components in terms of
animal nutrition is still limited (Cieslak et al., 2013). Moringa (Moringa oleifera) is a
popular multipurpose legume tree, small, fast growing, evergreen, or deciduous tree that
usually grows up to 10 or 12 m in height (Mishra et al., 2011). It can tolerate
unfavourable environmental conditions of many developing countries of Asia, Africa and
Latin America. Moringa is well known to have nutritional and pharmacological
properties (Soliva et al., 2005). Many parts of moringa tree were found to have various
industrial and medicinal applications thus it is known as ‘tree of life’ or the miracle tree
(Soliva et al., 2005; FAO, 2014; Shah et al., 2016).
Moringa leaves are the most part that attracted the attention of ruminant's
nutritionists as a source of protein, due to the optimal balanced composition of their
amino acid, and high digestible protein content (Babiker et al., 2017). It considered as
alternative to soybean meal and rapeseed meal as protein sources for ruminants (Soliva et
al., 2005). Leaves also were used as a protein supplement and found to improve the
growth performance of growing lambs, milk yield and composition of sheep and goats
(Babiker et al., 2017). On other side, moringa leaves are not suggested as a source of
rumen-protected protein due to the high ruminal degradability of its protein (Soliva et al.,
2005). In addition, the leaves containing around 200g/kg DM crud protein (CP), thus it
considered as a poor undegradable protein supplement for ruminants (Kakengi et al., 2005)
in comparison with other shrubs like leucaena leaves (containing CP from 270 to 350g/kg
DM) (Soltan et al., 2017). In other side, many parts of moringa are recommended to use
as supplementation when minerals or vitamins are limited or unavailable (FAO, 2014). In
addition, various phytochemicals with high potency as antifertility, cardiotonic, anti-
cancerous, antianthelmintic, antitubercular, antispasmodic, abortifacient, nantilithic, anti-
inflammatory, and antimicrobial properties were presented in moringa leaves as well as
in other parts of moringa tree (Sholapur and Patil 2013; Wang et al., 2016). These
phytochemicals including saponins, terpenoids, tannins, quercetin, kaempferol, sterols,
anthraquinones, glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, glycoside compounds and glycerol-1-9-
octadecanoate Table 1 (Berkovich et al., 2013; Shah et al., 2016; Saini et al. 2016; El-
Desoky et al., 2017). Despite considerable interest in the use of moringa as a source of
protein for ruminants, there is no elaborate information on the effects of its
phytochemicals in ruminant's performance. Therefore in order to more accurately
describe moringa tree feeding value for ruminants, a closer look on the possible effects of
its bioactive compounds on ruminal fermentation as well as animal health are discussed
in this review.
2. Moringa plantation
Moringa oleifera is a perennial evergreen tree of 2.510 m in height, when
matured, the fruit becomes brown and has 1050 seeds inside (Vlahof et al., 2002).
Moringa originated in India, but has spread to many semiarid, tropical, and subtropical
areas of other countries of the world, because it tend to be sensitive to drought and winds,
and can be grown widely with a temperature around 2535 C (Gopalakrishnan et al.,
2016). It tolerates a wide range of soil conditions, but prefers a neutral to slightly acidic
(pH 6.3 to 7.0), well-drained sandy or loamy soil (Thurber et al., 2010). Under intensive
farming conditions, a very high biomass production of moringa leaves over 100 ton of
dry matter (DM)/ha can be achieved (Foidl et al., 2002). This makes moringa viable as a
potential nutraceuticalany where in the world (Gopalakrishnan et al., 2016). Thus, a
large-scale of moringa cultivation has been initiated in many countries (Makkar and
Becker, 1996). For example moringa has been introduced to Egypt over the last few years
and is grown on in a various land use patterns (Abd El Baky and El Baroty, 2013).
Table 1. Moringa oleifera bioactive constituents
Moringa part
Bioactive component*
9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid, Rhamanose, Pterygospermin, Isothiocyanates.
4-(4'-O-acetyl-a-Lrhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate, Glycoside
niazirin, niazirinin and three mustard oil glycosides, 4-[4’-O-acetyl- α -L-
rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] isothiocyanate, niaziminin, vitamins (A, B and E,
ascorbic acid), Folates, 2, 6-dihexadecanoate, tetraacetyl-D-xylonic nitrile,
phytol and isobenzofuran-1-one 3-acetic acid, flavonol glycosides (glucosides,
rutinosides, malonyl glucosides), quercetin (kaempferol), amino acids
(Arginine, Histidine, Lysine, Tryptophan, Phenylanaline, Methionine
Threonine, Leucine, Isoleucine, Valine), Oxalic acid, and minerals (Fe, Ca,
Cu, Mg, P, S), Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids
Riseofulvin, dechlorogriseofulvin, 8-dihydroramulosin and mullein, Crude
protein, Crude fat, carbohydrate, methionine, cysteine, 4--L-
rhamnopyranosyloxy) benzylglucosinolate, benzylglucosinolate, moringyne,
mono-palmitic, di-oleic triglyceride, folates, amino acids (Arginine, Histidine,
Lysine, Tryptophan, Phenylanaline, Methionine Threonine, Leucine,
Isoleucine, Valine), Oxalic acid, minerals (Fe, Ca, Cu, Mg, P, S), linoleic acid,
linolenic acid and oleic acid.
4--L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate and benzylglucosinolate,
glucotropaeolin, Folates
D-mannose, D-glucose, protein, ascorbic acid, polysaccharide, Carotenoids
(all-E-luteoxanthin, 13-Z -lutein, all-E-zeaxanthin,and 15-Z-b-carotene),
Omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids
Nitriles, isothiocyanate, thiocarbanates, 0-[2-hydroxy-3’-(2’’-heptenyloxy)]
propylundecanoate, 0-ethyl-4-[( α -1-rhamnosyloxy)-benzyl] carbamate,
methyl-p-hydroxybenzoate and β-sitosterol, Carotenoids (all-E-luteoxanthin,
13-Z -lutein, all-E-zeaxanthin,and 15-Z-b-carotene), Omega-3 and omega-6
polyunsaturated fatty acids
4-hydroxymellein, vanillin, β-sitosterone, octacosanic acid and β-sitosterol
L-arabinose, D-galactose, D-glucuronic acid, L-rhamnose, D-mannose, D-
xylose and leucoanthocyanin
* Cited from Berkovich et al. (2013), Shah et al. (2016), Saini et al. (2016) and El-Desoky
et al., (2017)
3. Moringa oleifera antimicrobial bioactive compounds
Antimicrobial activity against opportunistic diseases is the most studied property
of moringa (Wang et al., 2016). Especially with the development of drug resistance
among many virulently pathogenic bacteria which happened by the indiscriminate use of
antibacterial drugs, moringa was found to be a valuable natural source of antimicrobial
agents against these resistant microbes (Wang et al., 2016). Both Gram-negative and
Gram-positive bacteria were found to be sensitive by several antibacterial components of
moringa. Different leaf extracts of moringa showed different inhibition patterns against
Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcinalutea, Escherichia coli,
Acid fast Mycobacterium phlei, Enterobacter aerogenes, Klebsiella pneumonia,
Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Providencia stuartii (Wang et al., 2016). Many bioactive
components exist in leaves thought to be responsible of the antibacterial activity,
specifically; these compounds include glucosinolates, rhamanose, pterygospermin, and
isothiocyanates. 4-(4'-O-acetyl-a-Lrhamnopyranosyloxy) benzyl isothiocyanate (Shah et
al., 2016).
Parts other than leaves exhibited also a strong antibacterial activity against
Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Cladosporium
cladosporioides and Penicillium sclerotigenum (Oluduro et al., 2010) due to the high
content of 4--L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl isothiocyanate, methyl N-4--L-
rhamnopyranosyloxy)benzyl carbamate, and 4--D-glucopyranosyl-1→4-α-L-
rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzyl thiocarboxamide of moringa seed. Moringa pods and
flowers could effectively inhibit three strains of Vibrio cholera, Vibrio vulnificus and
Vibrio mimicus (Brilhante et al., 2015). Moringa roots and root barks were confirmed by
early observations against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria like Staphylococcus
aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella gallinarum and Pseudomonas aeruginosa due to
containing 4--L-rhamnopyranosyloxy)-benzylglucosinolate and benzylglucosinolate
(Dewangan et al., 2010).
Moringa seeds exhibited high antifungal activity against the both human and plant
pathogenic fungi like Trichophyton rubrum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes,
Epidermophyton floccosum and Microsporum canis (Chuang et al., 2007). A thermo-
stable protein named chitin-binding protein (Mo-CBP3) was isolated from the seeds of
Moringa and found to have antifungal activity against Fusarium solani, Fusarium
oxysporum, Colletotrichum musae and Colletotrichum gloesporioides (Batista et al.,
2014). Zhao et al. (2012) isolated the active antifungal components of moringa seeds and
identified them as riseofulvin, dechlorogriseofulvin, 8-dihydroramulosin and mellein.
By reviewing the studies discussed in this section, it can speculated that however
numerous antibacterial compounds have been isolated from every part of moringa tree,
but no information are available concerning the effects of these components on ruminal
microbial ecosystem, just a few studies suggested that moringa affected the ruminal
fermentation through its tannin and saponins content, however no specific bioactive
components were subjected to any laboratory determinations. When taking into account
that the rumen comprises a diverse, symbiotic population of bacteria, fungi and protozoa
which play a key role in the feed utilization by ruminants (Forsberg and Cheng, 1992).
Thus including moringa in ruminates diets would affect the activity of the ruminal
microbes, and as a consequence ruminal fermentation, digestibility and the allover animal
performance not only through its protein content but also buy these bioactive
4. Moringa oleifera and ruminal fermentation and degradability
The major results of the ruminal fermentation are short chain fatty acids (SCFAs),
ammonia (NH3), methane (CH4), CO2 and microbial protein (Marhaeniyanto1 and
Susanti, 2014). Moringa leaves was found to be methanogen inhibitor, thus it was
suggested to be an alternative to replace critical antibiotics feed additives to alternate the
ruminal fermentation pathways (Soliva et al., 2005), however no information are
available concerning the effects of moringa against ruminal methanogens. Soltan et al.
(2014) evaluated the dose (10, 100, and 1000 µg/ 500 mg dry matter diet) response
effects of the ethanolic extracts of Moringa oleifera leaves and root bark as natural
alternatives to monensin for sheep diets on rumen CH4, extracts of Moringa leaves (all
doses) and root bark at (10 and 1000 µg) presented similarity in CH4 reduction with
monensin and the authors concluded that moringa leaves, root bark could be used as
effective natural intervention to monensin in sheep diets, not only to reduce CH4
production but also to enhance the ruminal efficiency of dietary nutrient use. Similarly,
Soliva et al. (2005) found that the in vitro degradability of organic matter of diets
containing moringa leaves or its extract were similar or even higher compared to those
containing rapeseed meal or soybean meal. Methane production was inhibited by 17% (P
< 0.05) with the complete moringa leaves diet as compared to the diets containing
rapeseed meal or soybean meal. Similarly, Dey et al. (2014) reported an achievement of
methane reduction combined with increases in total gas production and degradability of
organic matter in vitro by wheat straw supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaves in
buffalo diet. The authors of the studies discussed in this section suggested that such
effects might relate to existence of saponins or tannins in moringa leaves.
In other side, Hoffmann et al. (2003) found that the in vitro incubation of
aqueous extract of moringa seeds with pure carbohydrates at a concentration of 1 mg/ ml
reduced the degradation of the total true protein using the dot blot assay which able to
directly detect true protein in rumen fluid samples. The total protein degradation was thus
delayed by approximately 9 h. When fermented along with wheat straw, leaf protein was
almost entirely protected during 12 h of fermentation. The degradation of soy proteins
was retarded by at least 4 ± 6 h, depending on the protein band. The authors concluded
that a new substance, which is neither a tannin nor a saponin, is the responsible of these
effects and can considered as an alternative to replace critical synthetic feed additives
(such as antibiotics) for high yielding dairy cows. There is evidence that the positive
effects of leaves of moringa on the ruminal fermentation might not related to the protein
content. Recently, Babiker et al. (2017) replaced alfalfa with moringa leaves in the diets
of lactating ewes and goats; they concluded that, although the protein of alfalfa was
tended to be higher than that of moringa leaves, the latter positively affected the milk
yield, composition and quality and growth performance of kids and lambs. Moreover,
moringa leaves resulted in an increase of the total antioxidant capacity and vitamin C in
milk and serum of goats and ewes compared with alfalfa diet. The authors suggested that
this could be due to the high antioxidant activity present in moringa leaves and to the
presence of adequate macro- and micro-minerals, vitamins which enhance the efficiency
of rumen microbial growth, fermentation, and absorption of moringa nutrients such as
minerals, vitamins and protein by the goats, which are essential for milk production and
quality. Thus it can be suggested that the high antioxidant activity of moringa could lead
to better utilization of feed nutrients in ruminant diets.
5. Moringa oleifera antioxidant activity
Ruminal microbes are predominantly strictly anaerobes with less developed
antioxidant capacity than facultative anaerobic and aerobic microbes (Morsy et al., 2015).
Thus antioxidants supplementations in ruminant diets (like mimosine) would lessen
oxidative stress, consequently promote more nutrients channelled towards optimal
microbial growth and a consequence better microbial protein synthesis (Soltan et al.,
2017). Moringa leaves are well known to have potent antioxidant activity against free
radicals, prevent oxidative damage to major biomolecules and provide significant
protection against oxidative damage (Sreelatha and Padma, 2009). Seeds and leaves of
moringa were found to have potential source of natural antioxidants and high antioxidant
activity higher than alpha Tocopheryl (Shah et al., 2016). The leaves contain up to 8%
natural antioxidants on dry matter basis due to containing ascorbic acid and flavonoids
which possess the antioxidant activity (Nadeem et al., 2013). El-Desoky et al. (2017)
reported that moringa leaves extract contained high amounts of compounds with
antioxidant activity, they were ascorbic acid (9.60% l-(+)-ascorbic acid 2, 6-
dihexadecanoate), tetraacetyl-D-xylonic nitrile, phytol and isobenzofuran-1-one 3-acetic
acid. The leaves also containing, high amount of quercetin and kaempferol was found to
be in the range of 0.071.26 and 0.050.67 %, respectively which posses high antioxidant
activity, moreover these two componants have been confirmd to decrease cell viability of
the human cancer (KB). (Saini et al., 2016). Anwar et al. (2003) characterized different
antioxidants of moringa leaves and found them effective in the inhibition of
autooxidation and to enhance the oxidative stability of sunflower oil for 90 days at
ambient storage temperature. Moringa leaf extract enhanced the storage stability of butter
stored at refrigeration temperature for three months with acceptable sensory
characteristics (Nadeem et al., 2013). The antioxidant potential of seed extracts of
moringa also was investigated by Lalas and Tsaknis (2002) and they reported that seeds
are rich in phenolic antioxidants (78% on dry mass basis) and they recommend the
stabilization of vegetable oils by the seed extract of moringa. The enrichment of moringa
in these phenolic components leads to add another property to this miraculous tree as an
anthelmintic activity for ruminants.
6. Moringa oleifera anthelmintic activity
Ruminant production remains limited by the gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) in
many developing countries (Mortensen et al., 2003). For example, Haemonchus
contortus, it sucks blood voraciously inside the goat’s abomasum and causes severe
anemia, anasarca and causing acute mortality (Mortensen et al., 2003). Recently,
Moringa oleifera seed ethanolic and aqueous extracts were found to have multiple
mechanisms in killing the Haemonchus contortus eggs and infective stage larvae (L3s),
which then limit the likelihood of developing anthelmintic resistance (Cabardo Jr and
Portugaliza, 2017). Similar study was done using aqueous and ethanolic leaf extracts of
moringa confirmed the validity of leaves to suppress activities of Haemonchus contortus
eggs and larvae (L1 and L2) (Tayo et al., 2014). On the whole, Moringa oleifera shows
high potential in the control of parasites, which could inhibit the spread of related
diseases (Cabardo Jr and Portugaliza, 2017). An in vivo study found that supplementation
of moringa leaves may suppress the burden of strongyle worms in naturally infected West
West African Dwarf goats (Asaolu et al., 2012) and cross-bred Xhosa lop eared goats
(Moyo et al., 2013). These studies describe the potential use of moringa seeds, leaves and
gum extracts in controlling nematode parasites through containing potential secondary
metabolites (tannins, saponins, alkaloids, isophlaphoiods) responsible for over 90% egg
hatch inhibition. Tannins have attracted most attention for their effect on internal
nematodes in ruminants, not only directly through their antiparasitic activity but might
also act indirectly by increasing host resistance (Hoste et al., 2006). Tannins are known to
reduce the motility of the L3s of Haemonchus contortus, which may indicate paralysis
and interference to neuromuscular coordination of the larvae (Hoste et al., 2006).
Saponins are reported as an excellent source of cytotoxic and anthelmintic constituents
that warrant its isolation and purification for new drug development (Ali et al., 2011).
The ability of moringa seeds to reduce helminth eggs is not only thought the
gastrointestinal tract of ruminants but also in the water purifying process from helminth
parasite and their eggs (Wang et al., 2016). Seeds are used in water purification for a long
time in underdeveloped countries. The mechanism of moringa seeds as water purifying
agents was shown by the flocculent protein from moringa seed forming flocculate
particles in suspension in water (Pramanik et al., 2016). In many developing countries all
over the world, irrigation water is widely used in urban farming, which can get polluted
by the helminth parasite and their eggs. Therefore, moringa seeds were used to reduce
helminth eggs and turbidity in irrigation water (Sengupta et al., 2012).
7. Other activates of Moringa oleifera
Other components were detected in moringa like lactogogue, which made of
phytosterols, acts as a precursor for hormones required for reproductive growth. Moringa
is rich in phytosterols like stigmasterol, sitosterol and kampesterol which are precursors
for hormones. These phytochemicals alongside with high amino acids content can
enhance the estrogen excretion, which in turn stimulates the proliferation of the
mammary gland ducts to produce milk (Gopalakrishnan et al., 2016). Recently, moringa
leaves as a supplement in ruminant diets was found to enhance milk yield and
composition as well as minimizing the oxidative damage of milk and serum of ewes and
goats (Babiker et al., 2017). Moringa can be considered as good source of amino acids,
leaves, pods and flowers have 440, 300 and 310 g/kg DM amino acids, respectively
(Gopalakrishnan et al., 2016). Moringa also was recommended as a source of minerals,
because it can provide 7 times more vitamin C than oranges, 10 times more vitamin A
than carrots, 17 times more calcium than milk, 9 times more protein than yoghurt, 15
times more potassium than bananas and 25 times more iron than spinach (Rockwood et
al., 2013). Moreover, the seeds are rich in linoleic acid, linolenic acid and oleic acid;
these fatty acids have the ability to control cholesterol. Moringa seed oil presented around
76% of these fatty acids, making it ideal for use as a substitute for olive oil (Lalas and
Tsaknis). Thus, milk low in cholesterol could be obtained by feeding lactating animals on
moringa leaves. The reduced cholesterol content in milk of ewes and goats fed with
moringa leaves could be ascribed to its functional effect of phenolic acids and antioxidant
activity (Babiker et al., 2017). The unique combination of moringa active components
leading to occur several other activities including coagulant, biosorbent, antihypertensive,
antitumor, anticancer, antidiabetic, antipyretic, anti-asthmatic, cardiac and circulatory
stimulant, analgesic, antipyretic, wound healing (Shah et al., 2016). All of these activities
should positively affect the animal health and production as a consequence.
8. Conclusion
In conclusion, every part of Moringa oleifera, nearly all parts of this tree are full
of several bioactive components with different activities, thus we can speculated that
moringa affect the ruminant production by various mechanism of actions (e.g.
antimicrobial and antioxidant), thus it can be used in the development of promising
natural feed additives for ruminants. In contrast to the dietary antibiotics, residual of
these bioactive components in the milk produced by animals fed with moringa probably
has a benefit for human health. Thus Moringa oleifera tree needs to be widely cultivated
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... Moreover, M. oleifera seed oil contains many other bioactive compounds including polyphenolic, tannins, and saponins other than fatty acids. These phytochemicals are mainly responsible for its biological activity to manipulate rumen fermentation and also it's potential as an alternative to replace synthetic feed additives (such as antibiotics) for high yielding dairy animals (Nouman et al., 2014, Soltan et al., 2017. Main objective of this study was to evaluate effect of Moringa seed oil on rumen fermentation and productive performance of lactating ewes. ...
... Moreover, MSO also showed considerable contents of palmetic acid (8.11%), linoleic acid (2.31%), and behenic acid (5.72%). Fatty acids profile of MSO observed in this study is quiet similar to previous studies conducted on Moringa trees under different conditions and methods of extraction (Sonntag 1982;Tsaknis et al., 1999;Tsaknis, 2002, andSoltan et al., 2017). Moreover, Moringa oil has comparable oleic acid contents with olive oil and avocado oil (Banerji et al., 2003). ...
... Furthermore, Plant extracts has shown its ability to control ammonia synthesis and nitrogen binding activity which is responsible for potential decrease in ammonia production during fermentation (Kutlu et al., 2007). These findings revealed potential of Moringa seed extract or oil to be a good alternative of synthetic feed additives (antibiotics) being utilized in ruminant to decrease protein degradation and deamination in the rumen in order to bypass it for post-rumen digestion for better feed efficiency and performance (Kutlu et al., 2007;Soltan et al., 2017, andEbeid et al., 2019). ...
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Moringa seed oil (MSO) was used as a feed additive to evaluate its potential to manipulate rumen fermentation and productive performance in lactating Ossimi ewes. Cold extracted MSO was supplemented at four different levels (1, 2, 3, and 4%) in diet using in vitro batch culture system for optimizing the best supplementation level for sheep. Results of in vitro study revealed a non-significant (P>0.05) effect of MSO on true dry matter degradability (TDMD) up to 3% inclusion level, however, a decrease in TDMD was observed by 4% MSO supplementation as compared to control and other treatment groups. Accumulated gas production was significantly (P<0.05) increased by MSO supplementation while a non-significant decrease in ammonia concentration was observed. Fermentation pattern and TDMD revealed 1% MSO as an appropriate level for supplementation, which was further evaluated by in vivo trial. Fourteen lactating Ossimi ewes (about 3 years old with an average body weight of 51 ± 0.5 kg after 5 days of parturition) were randomly assigned into two experimental groups (seven each). One group was fed a basal diet without any supplementation and served as control. Other group was fed the basal diet supplemented with 1% MSO on a dry matter basis. Animals were fed these diets for a period of 45 days. Nutrient digestibility, milk production and composition were determined. Results revealed that supplementation of MSO significantly (P<0.05) increased milk yield and fat corrected milk. Similarly, it is also significantly (P<0.05) increased yield of milk components (protein, lactose, and SNF) as compared to the control group. However, milk composition (%) was not significantly (P>0.05) affected by treatment. Our study revealed that MSO could be used as a natural fat supplement to meet the energy requirements of lactating sheep. Moreover, antioxidants and other bioactive compounds, present in MSO can effectively modulate rumen fermentation which makes it a potential alternative of chemical feed additives (especially antibiotics) to improve feed digestibility and utilization for increasing animal productivity.
... Besides being nutritious, moringa products are also known for harboring a variety of functional compounds, including myricetin, quercetin, moringyne, vanillin, rutins, tannins, gallic acid, and kaempferol [9]. Many compounds present in moringa hold anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, and, importantly, antioxidant properties [10]. However, the composition and quantity of the functional compounds vary greatly among leaf and seed portions of the plant [9]. ...
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Moringa oleifera by-products such as seed cake and leaves are protein-rich ingredients, while raw propolis has the potential to influence ruminal protein metabolism. These substances are also known to be sources of functional compounds. With these properties, they could modulate ruminal fermentation activities. Using the rumen simulation technique, we investigated ruminal fermentation and the antioxidant properties of four dietary treatments. These included a control diet (CON) without supplementation; the CON diet top-dressed on a dry matter (DM) basis, either with moringa seed cake (MSC, containing 49% crude protein (CP)), moringa leaf powder (ML, containing 28% CP), or raw propolis (PRO, 3% CP). MSC, ML, and PRO accounted for 3.8, 7.4, and 0.1% of the total diet DM, respectively. Both ML and MSC resulted in 14 and 27% more ammonia concentration, respectively than CON and PRO (p < 0.05). MSC increased the propionate percentage at the expense of acetate (p < 0.05). Both ML and MSC decreased methane percentages by 7 and 10%, respectively, compared to CON (p < 0.05). The antioxidant capacity of the moringa seed cake, moringa leaf powder, and raw propolis were 1.14, 0.56, and 8.56 mg Trolox/g DM, respectively. However, such differences were not evident in the fermentation fluid. In conclusion, the supplementation of moringa seed cake desirably modulates rumen microbial activities related to protein and carbohydrate metabolism.
... On the other side. Moringa oleifera tree requests to be extensively cultured in most of the regions where climatic conditions errand its best growth like Egypt (Soltan et al., 2017). ...
... Moringa trees (Moringa oleifera) belonging to the Moringaceae family, have been used as an antibiotic in traditional medicine dates back thousands of years in many developing countries (Soliva et al., 2005 andSoltan et al., 2018). Among moringa parts, the leaf was the most part rich in various phytochemicals with high potency as antimicrobial, anti-cancerous, antianthelmintic, antispasmodic, anti-inflammatory properties (Sholapur and Patil 2013;Wang et al., 2016 andSoltan et al., 2017a). Thus there are many studies confirmed moringa leaves as dietary feed additives in livestock production, however, most of these studies were done for the whole leaf, while eliminating its extractions. ...
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IMPACT OF SUPPLEMENTARY MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAF EXTRACT ON RUMINAL NUTRIENT DEGRADATION AND MITIGATING METHANE FORMATION IN VITRO Yosra A. Soltan1*, A. S. Morsy2, Nesreen M. Hashem1, and S. M.A. Sallam1 1 Department of Animal and Fish production, Faculty of Agriculture, Alexandria University, Alexandria, Egypt. 2 Livestock Research Department, Arid Land Cultivation Research Institute, City of Scientific Research and Technological Applications, Alexandria, Egypt. *Corresponding author. Email: (Received 6/2/2019, accepted 27/3/2019) SUMMARY lant extracts may be highly effective as natural dietary supplementation options to alternate the dietary antibiotics as growth promotors in ruminant diets. The current study was conducted to evaluate the dose response effects of the moringa (Moringa oleifera) leaf extract (MLE) as a natural alternative to monensin in sheep diets, on ruminal methane production (CH4), gas production (GP), nutrient degradability and fermentation parameters. The in vitro semi-automatic system of GP was used. The treatments were MLE added to a basal diet (consisted of 50 concentrate: 50 forage) at 0 (control), 50 (MLE low) and 500 (MLE high) mg/ kg dry matter, and the ionophore antibiotic monensin was added at 40 mg/kg dry matter. Abundant quantities of essential amino acids, monosaccharides, glycosides and benzene derivatives phytochemicals components were detected by the GC–MS analysis of MLE. The most effective treatments to decrease (P < 0.05) CH4 were monensin and MLE high, while only MLE high enhanced (P < 0.05) the overall mean of total volatile fatty acids (VFAs) concentrations compared to the other treatments and the molar proportion of acetate compared to monensin. A decline (P < 0.05) in protozoal count was observed by monensin, while such effect did not appear at other treatments. No significant differences were observed among the experimental treatments in the ruminal degradability, ammonia concentrations or GP. This study demonstrated efficiency of MLE as an effective natural intervention to monensin in sheep diets. Keywords: Methanogenesis, monensin, ruminal fermentation and moringa leaf.
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Haemonchus contortus is one of the prevalent and pathogenic ruminant parasites that has grown resistance to common anthelmintic treatment. This study evaluated the anthelmintic potential of Moringa oleifera seed ethanolic and aqueous extracts against H. contortus eggs and infective stage larvae (L3s). The efficacy of five extract concentrations (0.95, 1.95, 3.9, 7.8, and 15.6 mg/mL) were tested through egg hatch assay and larval motility test. Phytochemical tests were conducted to detect the different plant secondary metabolites in the extracts. In the ovicidal assay, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed 95.89% and 81.72% egg hatch inhibition at 15.6 mg/mL, respectively. The ovicidal activity of 15.6 mg/mL ethanolic extract was comparable with that of albendazole (p > 0.05). The LC50 against the eggs was recorded at 2.91 and 3.83 mg/mL for ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. In the larvicidal assay, the ethanolic and aqueous extracts exhibited 56.94% and 92.50% efficacy at 7.8 mg/mL, respectively. The larvicidal activity of 7.8 mg/mL aqueous extract was similar statistically with that of ivermectin (p > 0.05). The LC50 against L3s was recorded at 6.96 and 4.12 mg/mL for ethanolic and aqueous extracts, respectively. The secondary metabolites detected were tannins in ethanolic extract and saponins in aqueous extract. Both extracts inhibited larvae formation inside the eggs and rendered the L3s immobile. Therefore, M. oleifera seed extracts contained plant bioactive compounds with anthelmintic property against the eggs and L3s of H. contortus.
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Exposure of rabbit bucks to summer heat stress reduces their homeostasis and semen quality leading to a temporal subfertility. The potentiality of ethanolic extract of Moringa oleifera leaves (M. oleifera ethanolic extract (MLEE)) to reduce negative impacts of heat stress on physiological and semen quality traits was investigated. A total of 28 adult V-line rabbit bucks were randomly distributed among four experimental groups of seven rabbits each. The first group received water (placebo) and served as a control (M0). The other three groups were given orally MLEE at levels of 50 (M50), 100 (M100) and 150 (M150) mg/kg BW every other day for 12 consecutive weeks during the summer season. Chemical constituents of MLEE were detected by gas chromatography/MS. During the experimental period, ambient temperature and relative humidity were recorded daily and were used to estimate temperature and humidity index. Feed intake, BW, rectal temperature were recorded and blood serum biochemical attributes were determined. Semen samples were collected weekly and were analyzed for semen quality traits. Results showed that MLEE contained high percentages of long-chain fatty acids and antioxidant agents. Feed intake and BW were not affected significantly by the treatment, however rectal temperature was decreased significantly by 0.42°C, 0.24°C and 0.40°C in the M50, M100 and M150 groups, respectively, compared with the M0 group. Treatment with 50 mg/kg BW increased concentration of serum albumin (115%; P
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Moringa oleifera Lam., also known as the ?drumstick tree,? is recognized as a vibrant and affordable source of phytochemicals, having potential applications in medicines, functional food preparations, water purification, and biodiesel production. The multiple biological activities including antiproliferation, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antiatherosclerotic, oxidative DNA damage protective, antiperoxidative, cardioprotective, as well as folk medicinal uses of M. oleifera (MO) are attributed to the presence of functional bioactive compounds, such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, phytosterols, natural sugars, vitamins, minerals, and organic acids. The low molecular weight of M. oleifera cationic proteins (MOCP) extracted from the seeds is very useful and is used in water purification, because of its potent antimicrobial and coagulant properties. Also, the M. oleifera methyl esters (MOME) produced from the oil of the seeds meet the major specifications of the biodiesel standard of Germany, Europe, and United States (US). Thus, MO is emerging as one of the prominent industrial crops for sustainable biodiesel production in tropical and subtropical countries. In view of the high nutritional, nutraceutical, and industrial values, it is important to compile an updated comprehensive review on the related aspects of this multipurpose and miracle tree. Hence, the present study is focused on the nutritionally significant bioactives and medicinal and biological properties, to explore the potential applications of MO in nutritionally rich food preparations. Furthermore, water coagulation, proteins, and fatty acid methyl esters from the MO seeds are reviewed, to explore their possible industrial applications in biodiesel production and water purification. In addition, the future perspectives in these areas are suggested.
A Comparative study on feeding value of Moringa leaves diet (MOD) as a partial replacement for alfalfa hay diet (AHD) in ewes and goats was carried out. Twenty animals from each group were used in a 6-week experiment. Each group of the animals was divided into two groups with 10 animals in each group and arranged in a replicated 2×2 crossover design. Differences in MOD value vs. AHD were analysed by using Student's t-tests. MOD had significantly (p≤0.05) higher ash, fat, nitrogen-free extracts, metabolizable energy, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity than AHD. However, crude protein, fibre, neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre were significantly higher in AHD than MOD. Milk yield was significantly greater when goats and ewes were fed MOD than AHD. Feeding MOD to ewes and goats significantly affected milk composition with higher fat, lactose, and solid non-fat contents than AHD. Milk energy contents and outputs were significantly (p≤0.01) higher in ewes and goats fed MOD than AHD. Goats and ewes fed MOD had significantly lower malondialdehyde (MDA) in their milk and serum than that fed AHD. Catalase content in milk and serum of goats and ewes fed MOD was significantly (p≤0.05) higher than that of animals fed AHD. The total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and vitamin C were higher in milk and serum of goats and ewes fed MOD than that fed AHD. Lower cholesterol and glucose contents were noted in the serum of goats and ewes fed MOD. Average daily gain by kids and lambs was significantly (p≤0.01) higher in kids and lambs fed MOD than that fed AHD. Replacement of alfalfa with M. oleifera had a positive effect on milk yield, composition and quality of ewes and goats and growth performance of kids and lambs.
Two in vitro assays were accomplished to assess whether low or high mimosine naturally found in leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala), contribute to methane (CH4) suppression. The first assay aimed to detect the effects of leucaena samples containing low or high mimosine levels on tannin bioactivity and ruminal CH4 production. Samples containing 43.9 ± 1.9 g condensed tannin (CT)/kg DM were divided into two groups based on their mimosine contents (n = 4/group): low (2.3 ± 0.1) and high (11.1 ± 1.5) g mimosine/kg DM. Leucaena incubations were made with or without polyethylene glycol (PEG). In the second assay, two leucaena samples similar in CT content and chemical composition were selected from the first assay to examine the effect of level of mimosine naturally found in leucaena, as well as the direct effect of mimosine when added to Tifton (Tifton 85; Cynodon dactylon (L.) and lucerne (Medicago sativa L.) hays on ruminal fermentation and nutrient degradation. The results of the first assay showed that leucaena containing low mimosine with or without PEG decreased (P < 0.01) gas production (GP), but presented higher values of the percent increase in gas (P = 0.03) and CH4 (P < 0.01) production after PEG addition compared to leucaena containing high mimosine. The addition of PEG in the second in vitro assay enhanced GP (P = 0.007) and CH4 (P < 0.05) by both types of leucaena, while decreased (P = 0.01) propionate, and increased (P = 0.003) C2/C3 and NH3-N (P = 0.02) concentrations by leucaena containing low mimosine compared with PEG non-supplemented leucaena. However, such an effect did not occur by leucaena containing high mimosine. L-mimosine recorded 27% (P = 0.02) and 10% (P = 0.08) CH4 reduction when supplemented at a high level with Tifton and lucerne, respectively, while enhanced (P < 0.05) the true degradability of organic matter (TDOM), acetate and NH3-N, compared with zero mimosine supplementation. Forages without any supplementation also affected the ruminal fermentation; similar reduction (P < 0.05) of CH4 production was found for both leucaena samples compared to Tifton and lucerne. Leucaena containing high mimosine enhanced TDOM (P < 0.01), acetate (P = 0.01) and NH3-N (P = 0.05). These results indicated that leucaena containing high mimosine modulated ruminal fermentation in a different way than did the leucaena containing low mimosine.
Moringa oleifera is a kind of woody tree traditionally used as a nutritional source and as a medicinal plant. It grows wild in the tropical and subtropical areas of Asia, Africa and the Middle East. In China, Moringa oleifera trees are planted at a large scale in Yunnan, Guangdong and Guangxi Provinces. As a nutritional and medicinal plant, Moringa oleifera is a rich source of bioactive compounds with diverse pharmacological activities. It has been widely used in the treatment of certain diseases as a traditional medicinal herb. Antimicrobial activity is the most studied property of Moringa oleifera. Many studies have shown that the leaf, flower, bark, root, seed, and nearly all types of Moringa oleifera tissues exhibit antimicrobial activity including antibacterial, antifungal, antiviral and antiparasitic activity. This review describes progress on research conducted to understand the antimicrobial activity and related bioactive properties of Moringa oleifera compounds, and discusses the potential use of Moringa oleifera in the control of pathogenic microbes.
Moringa oleifera Lam. (Moringaceae) is traditionally known as mystical miracle tree or the tree of life. Moringa can withstand both severe drought and mild frost conditions and hence widely cultivated across the world. Various parts of this plant such as the leaves, roots, seed, bark, fruit, flowers and immature pods used since ancient times. It used as extremely rich in vital nutrients and medicinal value, known to heal and ease many diseases: from various inflammations to parasitic diseases, diabetes, cardiac, circulatory stimulants, antipyretic, antitumor, anti-inflammatory, antiepileptic, diuretic, antiulcer, antispasmodic antihypertensive, cholesterol lowering, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antibacterial, hepatoprotective, antifertility, antifungal activities and cancer else. The present review is therefore, an effort to give a detailed survey of the literature on its nutritional and pharmacological properties.
Moringa Oleifera, native to India, grows in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is commonly known as ‘drumstick tree’ or ‘horseradish tree’. Moringa can withstand both severe drought and mild frost conditions and hence widely cultivated across the world. With its high nutritive values, every part of the tree is suitable for either nutritional or commercial purposes. The leaves are rich in minerals, vitamins and other essential phytochemicals. Extracts from the leaves are used to treat malnutrition, augment breast milk in lactating mothers. It is used as potential antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic and antimicrobial agent. Moringa Oleifera seed, a natural coagulant is extensively used in water treatment. The scientific effort of this research provides insights on the use of moringa as a cure for diabetes and cancer and fortification of moringa in commercial products. This review explores the use of moringa across disciplines for its medicinal value and deals with cultivation, nutrition, commercial and prominent pharmacological properties of this “Miracle Tree”.