Article

Emotion Transmission in the Classroom Revisited: A Reciprocal Effects Model of Teacher and Student Enjoyment

Authors:
  • Ludwig-Maximilian-University of Munich (LMU); Australian Catholic University (ACU)
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Abstract

Enjoyment is one of the most relevant and frequently experienced discrete emotions for both teachers and students in classroom learning contexts. Based on theories of emotion transmission between interaction partners, we propose a reciprocal effects model linking teachers’ and students’ enjoyment in class. The model suggests that there are positive reciprocal links between teachers’ and students’ enjoyment and that these links are mediated by teachers’ and students’ observations of each other’s classroom behaviors. The model was tested using 3-wave longitudinal data collected across the 1st 6 months of a school year from N = 69 teachers (78% female) and their 1,643 students from Grades 5 to 10 (57% female). A multilevel structural equation model confirmed our mediation hypotheses. Teacher enjoyment at the beginning of the school year (Time 1 [T1]) was positively related to student perceptions of teachers’ enthusiasm during teaching 4 weeks later (T2), which was positively related to student enjoyment at midterm (T3). Further, student enjoyment at T1 was positively related to teacher perceptions of their students’ engagement in class at T2, which was positively related to teacher enjoyment at T3. This study is the first to provide longitudinal evidence of reciprocal emotion transmission between teachers and students. Implications for future research and teacher training are discussed.

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... In short, teachers' error orientations have the potential to influence teachers' and students' emotions. Moreover, prior studies have found that teachers' emotions would influence students' emotions [22,[28][29][30]. Therefore, based on the analysis of the influence of teachers' error orientations and emotions on students' achievement emotions, we further explored the mediating role of teacher emotions. ...
... The existing literature on the influence of teacher emotions on student learning mainly focuses on students' interests [53] and achievement emotions [22,28,54,55]. In terms of the influence of teacher emotions on student emotions, little consensus has been achieved in the existing research. ...
... In terms of the influence of teacher emotions on student emotions, little consensus has been achieved in the existing research. Several studies found that higher levels of teachers' enjoyment produce higher levels of student enjoyment [4,56]; the mathematics anxiety of female teachers increases the mathematics anxiety of female students in primary schools [30]; the enjoyment of middle school teachers in mathematics teaching has a positive impact on students' mathematics enjoyment [22,28]. However, some studies reported that "teachers' enjoyment in mathematics cannot predict students' enjoyment at the end of the school year, partly because teachers' enjoyment is relatively unstable" [36]. ...
Article
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Several attempts have been made to explore the factors influencing teacher emotions, most of which focus on external factors such as student behaviors and classroom teaching. However, research on the links between internal factors and teacher emotions is scant. Based on the control value theory, this article explored the influence of junior secondary mathematics teachers’ error orientations on their emotions, and how teachers’ error orientations and emotions were related to students’ mathematics learning strategies. A sample of 70 junior high school mathematics teachers and their students (N = 2453) in mainland China participated in this study. Confirmatory factor analysis and multilevel structural equation modeling were used to analyze the data. The results showed that teachers’ positive error orientation increased their positive emotions and reduced their negative emotions, whereas teachers’ negative error orientation increased their negative emotions and reduced their positive emotions. Regarding the effects of teacher emotions, teachers’ positive emotions increased students’ positive mathematics achievement emotions and reduced their negative emotions. Meanwhile, students’ negative mathematics achievement emotions significantly reduced their adoption of desirable mathematics learning strategies. The findings highlight the importance of teachers’ positive error orientation and positive emotion for students’ mathematics learning.
... Some recent studies of secondary schools have focused on studentperceived teacher enthusiasm (Frenzel, Goetz, Lüdtke, Pekrun, & Sutton, 2009;Frenzel, Becker-Kurz, Pekrun, Goetz, & Lüdtke, 2018;Keller, Goetz, Becker, Morger, & Hensley, 2014) and humor (S. Bieg, Grassinger, & Dresel, 2017 as important affectively toned facets of teaching, with the assumption of being more directly linked to students' emotions (S. ...
... However, enthusiastic teaching must be separated from teachers' enjoyment, which is the experience behind their enthusiastic behavior ). An important longitudinal school study by Frenzel et al. (2018) showed that student-perceived teacher enthusiasm mediates the effect of teachers' enjoyment on students' enjoyment. Cross-sectional results for ninth graders revealed that student-perceived teacher enthusiasm acts as a mediator between dispositional teacher enthusiasm and students' interest . ...
... Constructs such as academic emotions and teaching characteristics are frequently conceptualized as relatively stable, trait-like constructs (e.g., Pekrun, et al., 2011;Frenzel et al., 2018;S. Bieg et al., 2017). ...
Article
Following Pekrun’s (2006) control-value theory of achievement emotions, we investigated carry-over effects and cross-lagged relationships between student-perceived teacher enthusiasm and humor and students’ enjoyment and boredom both within and between university lectures. We used a latent state-trait approach to acknowledge the role of situational factors in this relationship. Data were collected from 559 university students (76% female, mean age 21.6 years) from seven different lecture courses. We assessed students’ self-reported emotions and student-perceived teacher enthusiasm and content-related humor over a period of four lectures at three random points during each lecture course. The analyses revealed that all variables were influenced by previous measures within lectures; however, between lectures, only previous enjoyment and humor influenced the subsequent measure. When students experienced boredom, they perceived less teacher enthusiasm and humor. On the other hand, perceived teacher humor positively affected enjoyment within lectures.
... Enjoyment is critical to optimizing student achievement (e.g., Frenzel et al., 2018). Students who enjoy learning tend to be more motivated and engaged (Renninger & Hidi, 2016). ...
... Teachers' enjoyment is also important. It is not only associated with better teaching quality and lower burnout (e.g., Chang, 2013), but also favorably impacts student learning (Frenzel et al., 2018). Hatfield et al. (1994) proposed the concept of emotional contagion, indicating that emotions can be transmitted from one individual to the next. ...
... In the classroom, teachers usually project enjoyment of teaching in their behaviors, which make students feel more enjoyment themselves (Keller et al., 2016). Studies have shown that teachers' enjoyment potentially predicts students' enjoyment (e.g., Becker et al., 2014;Frenzel et al., 2018). ...
Article
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We investigated whether perceived teacher enjoyment of teaching predicted student achievement via students’ enjoyment across Eastern and Western contexts. Data came from the Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018 focusing on the reading domain. The respondents were 84,017 adolescents (51% girls) with a mean age of 15.17 years old from both the West (US, UK, Australia, and New Zealand) and the East (Mainland China, Hong Kong SAR, Macau SAR, Taipei, Singapore, Japan, and Korea). The results show that perceived teachers’ teaching enjoyment and reading enjoyment predicted reading achievement in both the Western and Asian students. Perceived teacher enjoyment related to student enjoyment demonstrating emotional contagion, and the association between perceived teacher enjoyment and student achievement was mediated by student enjoyment. We did not find cross-cultural differences in the strength of emotional contagion demonstrating cross-cultural universality. Implications for education and cross-cultural research are discussed.
... In addition, previous research has shown that emotional exhaustion leads to more absenteeism from work (Swider & Zimmerman, 2010), resulting in fewer learning opportunities for students, which could also explain the link between teachers' emotional exhaustion and student performance. Finally, it could be argued that the association between teachers' emotional exhaustion and student outcomes can be explained by contagion (Frenzel et al., 2018). In particular, for self-concept and interest, it could be speculated that exhaustion and perceived accomplishment, which is a typical symptom of burnout, directly affect students' subject-related enjoyment and self-concept. ...
Article
A negative association between symptoms of teacher burnout (e.g., emotional exhaustion) and students’ academic outcomes has been demonstrated in previous research. Although, in theoretical models, it has been suggested that this association can be explained through changes in teachers’ instructional behavior, these mediating processes have not yet been empirically tested. Therefore, in the present study, we examined (a) whether teachers’ emotional exhaustion is related to students’ self-concept, interest, and achievement and (b) whether aspects of instructional quality, indicated by teachers’ emotional support and classroom organization, serve as mediators. The study is based on secondary data from the German and English classes of ninth-grade students (N = 17,280 in German; N = 17,225 in English) and their teachers (N = 987 in German; N = 1,060 in English) from 840 secondary schools. Using multilevel analyses, we found a negative association between teachers’ emotional exhaustion and students’ self-concept, interest, and achievement in German. Emotional exhaustion was associated with less emotional support and classroom organization in both subjects and the lower levels of instructional quality partially mediated the association between teachers’ exhaustion and student outcomes. These results suggest that supporting teachers’ well-being is not only important for the teachers themselves, but also it is important for students’ academic development.
... For example, a research study conducted in Turkey with 581 teachers demonstrated that positive emotions were correlated with higher levels of job satisfaction [67]. Other studies demonstrated that engaging in activities in classroom settings and establishing positive teacher-student relationships enhance teachers' wellbeing at work [68,69]. However, most kindergarten teachers reported low job satisfaction caused by lower salaries and excessive work pressure compared to other professions [70,71]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Kindergarten teachers’ emotions are an essential factor in their physical and psychological wellbeing. Previous studies mainly focused on the relationship between kindergarten teachers’ emotions and their students’ emotions while ignoring the important relationships between kindergarten teachers’ emotions and their own wellbeing (e.g., teachers’ health, job satisfaction, burnout). Therefore, this study explores teacher emotions as predictor variables, illness symptoms, and job satisfaction as criterion variables, and emotional exhaustion as a mediator. In total, 1997 kindergarten teachers completed the Teacher’s Emotion Scale, the Occupational Emotional Exhaustion Scale, the Illness Symptoms Scale, and the Job Satisfaction Scale. Results revealed that enjoyment negatively predicted illness symptoms and positively predicted job satisfaction via the mediating role of emotional exhaustion. The opposite relationships were found with anger, also confirming the mediating role of emotional exhaustion. Anxiety positively predicted illness symptoms, completely mediated by emotional exhaustion, but no relationship was found with job satisfaction. The function of emotions in teachers’ physical and mental health, implications for kindergartens’ research and practice, and suggestions for future research are discussed.
... In an ongoing collaboration, we combine theories and findings of two very different fields of study within the same discipline: educational and general psychology. In particular, the reported study combines ACF's expertise in achievement emotions (e.g., Frenzel et al., in press;Frenzel et al., 2018), a construct traditionally researched in applied academic settings, with HRL's expertise in visual working memory (e.g., Constant & Liesefeld, 2021;Liesefeld et al., 2020;, typically researched in basic lab contexts. By our interdisciplinary approach, we were able to gain novel insights into both constructs, which bear important implications for both basic visual working memory research and applied achievement emotion research. ...
Preprint
The ability to temporarily hold information in visual working memory (VWM) is among the most crucial and most extensively examined human cognitive functions. Here, we empirically confirm previous speculations (1) that a standard VWM task arouses emotions in participants and (2) that these task-induced emotions are related to VWM performance. In a first qualitative study (N = 19), by adapting a qualitative method of inquiry, the think-aloud technique, we found that the task induced different positive and negative emotions, such as joy and anger, which varied on the inter- as well as on the intra-individual level. The emotional experiences seemed to be tied to the implicit achievement requirement of the VWM task (getting it right vs. wrong). Encouraged by these findings, two quantitative studies (N = 45, and N = 44, respectively) revealed that VWM performance was positively linked to joy and pride, and negatively linked to anger, frustration and boredom on the inter- and on the intra-individual level. Notably, these emotions were also affected by an experimental manipulation of task difficulty (set-size 4 vs. 8). Further, the findings from Study 3 were replicated in a fourth high-powered online study (N = 110). This research is the first to demonstrate that a task designed to measure VWM in itself triggers emotions, specifically achievement emotions, which, in turn, are linked with VWM performance. Our findings suggest that these task-induced emotions should be considered as potential confounding variables in future research on VWM and in cognitive research in general.
... likely to pursue professional careers in the same areas of expertise. In their research,Frenzel et al. (2018) studied the association between educator and learner enjoyment in technical classes. Results indicated that learner and educator enjoyment were positively associated even when controlling for students' previous technical studies enjoyment, and that the consequences of tutor enjoyment on learner enjoyment was facilitated by teacher enthusiasm. ...
Research
Educational Institutions, and classrooms in particular, are emotional settings. Emotional experiences of both the educators and the learners, in higher education, can have a profound effect on their cognitive capacity to teach and learn. However, past studies have indicated to the fact that research in educational practices has often overlooked or neutralized the power of emotions. Owing to advancements in neuroscience, it has been scientifically proved that almost 90 percent of our judgements and decisions are motivated by emotion and not based on rational thinking or methodical considerations but relatively how we feel. This paper on the one hand, aims at analyzing how some emotions act as an impediment to tutor's and learner's classroom practices. On the other hand, this study also looks at the positive impact of emotions in education, and how they can contribute to self-regulation. Positive emotions such as delight, optimism and self-importance are believed to amplify both inner and outer motivation, and encourage the usage of adaptive teaching and learning methodologies.
... Another interesting study reports (Frenzel, Becker-Kurz, Pekrun, Goetz, & Lüdtke, 2018) that happier teachers provide better teaching. The authors describe examples for desirable teaching behaviour such as clarity and variety of instruction, acceptance of errors and teacher caring after failure. ...
Chapter
Social and emotional learning (SEL) constitutes a powerful tool for professional teacher development. Recent research shows that in-service teachers are convinced that SEL is essential, they show a great readiness to implement SEL, and they profit from SEL trainings. To date, professional opportunities tend to be inadequate or insufficient in preparing teachers to incorporate SEL into their classrooms. Teachers need understanding and knowledge of social, emotional and cognitive processes, and research findings on SEL. There is a need to implement SEL approaches earlier and with regard to SEL principles in the teacher education programmes. This paper is based on a literature review and follows three main theses: A focus on SEL can foster professional teacher development. A focus on SEL can develop social and emotional competencies in student teacher and support the successful mastery of study. In the long run, the focus on SEL can qualify future teachers for the successful transfer of SEL principles, programmes and approaches in working with students in the classroom. The three theses raise the question: how can teacher educators, or more precisely universities, create supportive, caring and participative learning environments for future teachers? To answer this, strategies to integrate SEL into initial teacher education are presented.
... Lehrkräfte können ihre Schülerinnen und Schüler durch Lernunterstützung und mit enthusiastischem Verhalten für ein Fach motivieren (z. B.Dietrich et al. 2015;Frenzel et al. 2018). Werden Schülerinnen und Schüler hingegen im Regelunterricht nicht hinreichend dabei unterstützt, Freude an und Motivation für Mathematik zu entdecken und aufrechtzuerhalten, kann eine zielgerichtete Intervention ein Schlüsselmoment sein, das die Motivation der Schülerinnen und Schüler umso stärker beeinflusst.Bezüglich der subjektiven Kosten und der Leistung der Schülerinnen und Schüler fanden wir entgegengesetzte Hinweise zur Wirkweise der motivationalen Unterrichtspraktiken, die somit eher auf eine Potenzialperspektive hindeuteten (siehe auch rechte Hälfte von Abb. ...
Chapter
In den vergangenen Jahren wurden zahlreiche Motivationsinterventionen entwickelt und auf ihre Wirksamkeit in der Förderung der Schülerinnen- und Schülermotivation überprüft. Dabei ist eine offene Frage, ob eine Motivationsintervention in Abhängigkeit motivationaler Unterrichtspraktiken im Regelunterricht in jeder Klasse gleichermaßen wirksam ist. Diese Frage bleibt aufgrund mangelnder Power jedoch oftmals unbeantwortet. Anhand einer exemplarischen, auf Klassenebene randomisierten kontrollierten Interventionsstudie mit 82 neunten Klassen (n = 1916) wurde daher untersucht, (1) welche kleinstmöglichen Moderationseffekte unter gegebenen Parametern mit wünschenswerter Power aufgedeckt werden können und (2) wie viele Klassen für vergleichbare Studien zur Untersuchung von Moderationsfragestellungen mit adäquater Power rekrutiert werden müssten. Zudem wurde untersucht, (3) ob die Effekte der Intervention auf die Wertüberzeugungen und Leistung in Mathematik durch motivationale Unterrichtspraktiken im Regelunterricht moderiert wurden. Die Poweranalysen wiesen auf die Einschränkungen der Studie zur Untersuchung solcher Moderationseffekte hin. Es zeigten sich vereinzelte signifikante Moderationseffekte durch motivationale Unterrichtspraktiken. Diese Ergebnisse und deren Bedeutung für die Planung vergleichbarer Interventionsstudien zur Untersuchung von Moderationseffekten auf Klassenebene werden hinsichtlich der Power und der benötigten Klassenanzahl diskutiert.
... This leads to the important role of foreign language teachers, as they can strongly affect learners' perceptions of a foreign language, and teacher-learner reciprocal emotion transmission (Frenzel et al., 2018) can be both positive and negative (Arnold, 2011;Dewaele et al., 2018). To create a positive emotional atmosphere and positive learning experiences for their learners, foreign language teachers need to use non-threatening techniques, including the support and promotion of group solidarity and the creation of an emotionally safe classroom environment that supports linguistic experimenting (Arnold, 2011;Baider et al., 2015;Borg, 2006;Dewaele, 2015;Dörnyei & Csizér, 1998;Gregersen & MacIntyre, 2014;MacIntyre & Gregersen, 2012;Williams et al., 2004). ...
Article
Full-text available
Positive emotional stimuli, when compared to neutral memories, persist longer in memory and are recalled with greater accuracy and readiness, which might be rather significant in foreign language learning. The primary objective of this study was to determine whether or not positive emotional stimuli enhance remembering of new foreign language vocabulary. The pre-test/post-test design was applied, and both declarative and procedural vocabulary knowledge were tested in control and experimental groups before and after the intervention. Participants՚ emotional comfort and foreign language enjoyment were evaluated by two standardized scales and their perception of the intervention was investigated through a feedback questionnaire. The findings revealed a significant increase of declarative vocabulary knowledge and foreign language enjoyment in the experimental group.
... Academic enjoyment is one of activity-related and pleasure emotions most frequently reported by middle school students. [6][7][8][9][10] The experienced enjoyment regarding different academic situations can differ as well. 11 The present study focus on the class-related enjoyment, which is operationally defined as the activity-related pleasant emotion that students experience during class attendance. ...
Article
Full-text available
Ying Liu,1,* Yu Wang,2,* Ru-De Liu,3 Yi Ding,4 Jia Wang,5 Xinyi Mu1 1School of Education, Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China; 2Faculty of Education, Hui Hua College of Hebei Normal University, Shijiazhuang, People’s Republic of China; 3Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Psychology Education, Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China; 4Graduate School of Education, Fordham University, New York, NY, USA; 5Teachers’ College, Beijing Union University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workCorrespondence: Ru-De Liu, Beijing Key Laboratory of Applied Experimental Psychology, National Demonstration Center for Experimental Psychology Education, Faculty of Psychology, Beijing Normal University, Beijing, People’s Republic of China, Email rdliu@bnu.edu.cnPurpose: Substantial literature has documented the influence of classroom environment on academic enjoyment. However, little is known about the mediating and moderating mechanisms underlying this relationship. Based on the control-value theory and the individual-context interaction model, a moderated mediation model was constructed in this study to further examine whether academic self-concept mediated the relation between classroom environment and enjoyment in mathematics and whether this mediating effect was moderated by academic achievement.Methods: We recruited 750 Chinese middle school students and they completed the classroom environment, academic self-concept, and academic enjoyment questionnaires.Results: After controlling for gender and grade, the results of structural equation modeling showed that academic self-concept partially mediated the association between classroom environment and enjoyment in mathematics. The mediating path from classroom environment to academic self-concept was moderated by academic achievement. Classroom environment positively predicted academic self-concept for the higher achieving students. However, the effect of classroom environment on academic self-concept was not significant for the lower achieving students.Conclusion: These findings highlight that classroom environment has a more salient impact on academic self-concept and enjoyment for higher achieving students than for lower achieving students. The study results provide guidelines for educators regarding effective interventions for fostering positive academic emotions.Keywords: academic enjoyment, classroom environment, academic self-concept, academic achievement
... Unfortunately, this cross-sectional study could not reveal the dynamism of teacher enjoyment. An illuminating longitudinal study conducted by Frenzel et al. (2018) shows that teacher enjoyment changes with the going on of teaching in a school year. For example, at the beginning of the school year, teacher enjoyment was positively related to students' perceptions of teachers' enthusiasm, while at midterm, it was positively related to student enjoyment. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study examines the emotional experience and expression of Chinese tertiary-level English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers and their interaction with their students. Data were drawn from semi-structured in-depth interviews with 10 EFL teachers recruited from seven universities of different levels in China and were analyzed in light of Emotional Geography Theory. The results reveal that Chinese tertiary-level EFL teachers experience more negative emotions than positive ones. The emotions most frequently reported by them are anger, enjoyment, anxiety, disappointment, and ambivalence. When it comes to emotional expressions, Chinese tertiary-level EFL teachers tend to display positive emotions by following the emotional rules of school settings. This study also uncovers that EFL teaching in Chinese universities is characterized by EFL teachers’ physical and moral distance from but political closeness to students, all of which are the sources of EFL teachers’ negative emotions. The need for providing positive psychology intervention for EFL teachers is then suggested.
... By using shared humor and encouragement, the team teachers were able to maintain or even increase positive emotions within the team and the classroom. In this regard, team teachers' authentic display of positive emotions and possible transmission thereof in the classroom (Frenzel et al., 2009a(Frenzel et al., , 2018 can positively affect the learning atmosphere (Fredrickson, 2001). ...
Article
Full-text available
An important facet of teachers’ competence is their ability to regulate their emotions in the classroom in an adaptive manner. Recently, the advantages of teacher collaboration have sparked novel educational practices, such as team teaching, where two teachers are responsible for classroom teaching. Within this setting of complex interactions, not only students but also partner teachers are additional sources of teachers’ emotions and ensuing emotion regulation strategies. How team teachers choose to regulate and communicate their emotions, triggered by their team partners, may have significant consequences for collaborative practices and teacher well-being. Based on the process model on emotion regulation and the concepts of co- and shared regulation, the present study aimed to enhance our understanding of team teachers’ perspectives on how to regulate and communicate emotions. To this end, a qualitative interview study was conducted among 30 Austrian team teachers teaching in lower secondary schools. The results of a structuring qualitative content analysis revealed that team teaching is an educational practice that requires high amounts of emotion regulation. It was shown that team teachers regularly use strategies such as attentional deployment or reappraisal to prevent the experience of negative emotions. Team teachers’ rules regarding displays of emotion stipulated that positive emotions can be authentically shown, while negative emotions must be suppressed in front of students. Engaging in discussion with the partner teacher after class is frequently used to handle negative experiences. By making use of co- and shared regulation of emotions (e.g., situation modification), teachers also exploit the potential of team teaching concerning emotional support and workload relief. Encouragement, (shared) praise, and shared humor were also considered to be useful strategies to maintain positive emotions in order to foster successful collaboration. Implications concerning adaptive emotion regulation to foster fruitful team teaching practices are discussed.
... In an ongoing collaboration, we combine theories and findings of two very different fields of study within the same discipline: educational and general psychology. In particular, the reported study combines ACF's expertise in achievement emotions (e.g., Frenzel et al., 2018;Frenzel et al., forthcoming), a construct traditionally researched in applied academic settings, with HRL's expertise in visual working memory (e.g., Constant and Liesefeld, 2021;Liesefeld et al., 2020;Liesefeld and Müller, 2019), typically researched in basic lab contexts. By our interdisciplinary approach, we were able to gain novel insights into both constructs, which bear important implications for both basic visual working memory research and applied achievement emotion research. ...
Article
Full-text available
The ability to temporarily hold information in visual working memory (VWM) is among the most crucial and most extensively examined human cognitive functions. Here, we empirically confirm previous speculations (a) that a standard VWM task arouses emotions in participants and (b) that these task-induced emotions are related to VWM performance. In a first qualitative study (N = 19), by adapting a qualitative method of inquiry, the think-aloud technique, we found that the task induced different positive and negative emotions, such as joy and anger, which varied on the inter- as well as on the intraindividual level. The emotional experiences seemed to be tied to the implicit achievement requirement of the VWM task (getting it right vs. wrong). Encouraged by these findings, two quantitative studies (N = 45, and N = 44, respectively) revealed that VWM performance was positively linked to joy and pride, and negatively linked to anger, frustration, and boredom on the inter- and on the intraindividual level. Notably, these emotions were also affected by an experimental manipulation of task difficulty (set size 4 vs. 8). Further, the findings from Study 3 were replicated in a fourth high-powered online study (N = 110). This research is the first to demonstrate that a task designed to measure VWM in itself triggers emotions, specifically achievement emotions, which, in turn, are linked with VWM performance. Our findings suggest that these task-induced emotions should be considered as potential confounding variables in future research on VWM and in cognitive research in general. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... 13 Some studies have shown that eustress-related factors increase distance learning satisfaction. 59 Therefore, we expect distance learning eustress to affect distance learning satisfaction positively. ...
... Conceptualization. Beside the long tradition of considering teacher enthusiasm in terms of instructional behavior, which influences student's motivation and performance [8,12,25,[34][35][36][37], a second conceptualization considers teacher's self-reported enthusiasm as a factor of a positive affective orientation manifested in teachers' joy and excitement about their subject and teaching [6,7,32]. Keller and colleagues [32] even propose use of the terms 'enjoyment' or 'passion' rather than 'enthusiasm'. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to obtain a holistic understanding of pre-service teachers’ enthusiasm for teaching (a subject) by examining its structure as well as relevant factors that may be related to it in the first phase of teacher education. For this purpose, we considered two strands of research: educational science and organizational psychology. Accordingly, the professional competence model and the job demands and resources model helped to identify factors that are associated with pre-service teachers’ enthusiasm for teaching. Responses of 211 pre-service biology teachers indicated that enthusiasm for teaching can be considered as one-dimensional. Moreover, we found positive relationships between enthusiasm for teaching and academic self-concept, intrinsic career choice motives and occupational commitment. In contrast, we detected negative relations between enthusiasm for teaching and both emotional exhaustion and intention to quit. No significant relations could be found for enthusiasm for teaching and both professional knowledge and extrinsic career choice motives. Our findings highlight the importance of enthusiasm for teaching in the earliest stage of teachers’ careers. Thus, our study points out relevant factors that could help to maintain high enthusiasm and to keep (pre-service) teachers healthy and in the profession.
... Under this novel emotion wave, researchers extended their scholarly attention from an exclusive preoccupation on negative emotions involved in L2 learning and teaching, notably foreign language classroom anxiety (FLCA), to encompass investigations of positive experiences contributing to language learners' well-being and academic performance (Seligman, 2011). Among the wide spectrum of positive emotions L2 learners encounter, enjoyment, is the most frequently experienced and best studied affect (Frenzel et al., 2018;Piniel and Albert, 2018;Dewaele and Li, 2020) since Dewaele and MacIntyre (2014) first introduced the notion of Foreign Language Enjoyment (hereafter FLE) to the field. ...
Article
Full-text available
Foreign Language Enjoyment (FLE), as the most prevalent positive emotion predicting L2 learners' academic performance and well-being, and a critical factor contributing to the creation of positive micro-institutions (e.g., the classrooms), has received remarkable scholarly attention across the globe in the past eight years. Despite the fact that FLE is the most extensively investigated positive emotion and extant research has yielded rich and invaluable findings, it is far from being adequately studied, leaving vast lacunas to be explored. Therefore, this conceptual review article is written to familiarize language education researchers, practitioners, instructors, and learners with the current status of FLE research and its potential applications in L2 education, and suggest potential avenues for future research. To this aim, by making a diachronical and synchronical delineation of extant literature with regard to the conceptualization and theorization of FLE, and the methodology of FLE research, we argue that it is incumbent on researchers to make a new line of enquiry into the actualization of the ascertained affordances of FLE and its transmission in the microsystem of the classroom. Subsequently, by drawing on the broaden-and-build theory and the control-value theory, we highlight the significance of conducting FLE research with theoretical triangulation and methodological diversity to validate the data and minimum bias. Next, while highlighting the critical role of FLE in L2 education, we suggest some pedagogical implications with the hope of enlightening the practice of key stakeholders such as instructors, teacher educators, and teacher recruiters. In the end, the limitations of existing literature are explicated, and avenues for future studies on FLE in L2 education domain are put forward for interested researchers.
... A further route would be to gauge teacher emotions in addition to student emotions. This might be critical for understanding associations between relationship quality and emotional experiences due to possible emotional transmission processes taking place in the classroom (see Frenzel et al., 2009;Frenzel, Becker-Kurz, Pekrun, Goetz, & Lüdtke, 2018). ...
Preprint
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Relationship quality and emotional experience are both important constructs in learning environments but the question of how they are linked requires more attention in empirical research. We hypothesized reciprocal associations between student-teacher relationship quality (i.e., interpersonal closeness) and students' emotions in the classroom (i.e., enjoyment, pride, anxiety, anger, boredom, and shame). Data from a two-wave longitudinal study with annual assessments in grade 10 (Time 1) and 11 (Time 2) were used to test this hypothesis (N = 535; mean age at Time 1: 16.7 years, SD = 0.6). Student-perceived relationship quality and students’ emotions were assessed in the academic domains of mathematics, German, English, and French. In line with our hypothesis, cross-lagged panel models showed reciprocal associations: Higher relationship quality was associated with stronger positive emotions and weaker negative emotions over time. In turn, lower negative emotions and higher positive emotions were associated with higher relationship quality. The association between initial emotions and student-teacher relationship quality one year later was stronger than the reverse association. Further, the links between relationship quality and emotions were largely equivalent across school domains but differed in strength across emotions. Implications for future research and educational practice are discussed.
... Institutional factors (e.g., school, classroom, and teaching quality) have a collective influence on the affective growth of students (Gabryś-Barker, 2016). Specifically, a classroom environment with harmonious relationships, enjoyment, and mastery goal orientation positively predicts learner commitment and achievement (Frenzel et al., 2018). A positive classroom climate characterized by teacher support and student cohesiveness also yields learner enjoyment (Khajavy et al., 2018). ...
Article
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This article reports on a study that took a Dynamic Systems Theory (DST) perspective to second language (L2) motivational self system (L2MSS). More specifically, it investigated the influence of an Intensive English Reading course based on the Production-Oriented Approach (POA) upon the L2MSS of Chinese university English majorsfrom the DST perspective. To this end, two intact classes composed of 50 students were assigned into experimental group (EG) ( N = 23) and control group (CG) ( N = 27), who responded to an L2MSS scale before and after the one-semester intervention. Eight and five students were respectively selected using the purposive sampling method from the experimental and control groups for follow-up semi-structured interviews. The quantitative results revealed that the overall and dimensional (Ideal L2 Self and L2 Learning Experience) levels of L2MSS were significantly strengthened over time in the EG while kept stable in the CG. The qualitative results suggested that the enhanced Ideal L2 Self of the participants stemmed from an attractor basin that was deepened by a number of attractors encompassing Output Tasks and Peer Performance . The interview results also showed that the increased L2 Learning Experience of the participants pertained to an attractor basin that was consolidated by an array of attractors containing Output Tasks , Teacher Guidance , Group Discussion , and Peer Assessment . The findings indicated that the attractors at the subjective and social dimensions in the POA-based course collectively worked together to cause changes in L2MSS among the participants. The implications for intervening L2 motivation from a POA approach in English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classrooms were discussed.
... Estas emociones pueden jugar un importante rol en las relaciones que establecen los educadores con sus estudiantes y sus familias, impactando en las experiencias afectivas de los propios alumnos (Frenzel et al., 2017;Giovannini y Vezzali, 2011;Hagenauer et al., 2015;Verkuyten et al., 2019). Además, estos sentimientos negativos de los educadores pueden dificultar la participación de los padres en la escuela, profundizando las disonancias culturales entre los valores y conductas que la familia y el centro preescolar promueven (Calzada et al., 2014). ...
Article
El aumento de la matrícula de niños de origen inmigrante está generando nuevos desafíos para la educación Preescolar en Chile. Sin embargo, son escasas las investigaciones que indagan tanto en las actitudes de las educadoras hacia el colectivo inmigrante latinoamericano como en otras variables que pueden incidir en su construcción. Esta investigación exploratoria tuvo como objetivo analizar las relaciones entre la amenaza exogrupal, la autoeficacia cultural y el prejuicio afectivo en una muestra de 153 estudiantes de la carrera de educación Preescolar; además, se buscó determinar la contribución de la amenaza exogrupal y la autoeficacia cultural percibida en la explicación del prejuicio. Los resultados indican que la percepción de amenaza exogrupal y la autoeficacia cultural explican el 34.4% variabilidad del prejuicio afectivo de las participantes. Se discute acerca de la relevancia de estos resultados en la formación de las estudiantes.
... Those shared inner states must refer to a specific target referent; the second condition (aka the "aboutness principle") must be met (Echterhoff et al., 2009). Shared reality would not occur if two people simply align in their physiological stress (Timmons et al., 2015) or anxious moods (Berg et al., 2011;Ruffman et al., 2017;Frenzel et al., 2018) in the absence of an external stimulus. Instead, shared reality can only occur if people align in their interpretation of the same situation. ...
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When a person faces a stressor alongside someone else, do they get more or less stressed when the other person agrees that the situation is stressful? While an equally stressed partner could plausibly amplify stress by making the situation seem more real and worthy of distress, we find that social validation during co-experienced stressors reduces reactivity. Specifically, the psychological experience of shared reality calms some people down. In Study 1, 70 undergraduate females who jointly faced a stressful event with someone else reported feeling less anxious when the other person felt the same way about the stressor, relative to when the other person appraised the situation in the opposite way or provided no indication of their appraisal. These findings were reflected in participants’ physiological reactivity, especially in the parasympathetic nervous system. In Study 2, we generalize these findings to co-experienced stressors in the daily lives of 102 heteronormative romantic couples in the New York City area. In line with tend-and-befriend theory, we found that shared reality during co-experienced stressors reduced anxiety for almost all females (99% of the sample) and for a minority of males (42% of the sample). Together, these findings unify major theories in health and social psychology by implying that shared reality reduces stressor reactivity, and that this effect is partially moderated by sex.
... Research has shown that teaching is a high-stress profession, in which burnout is a prevalent phenomenon (Aloe et al., 2014;Buric et al., 2019;Pillay et al., 2005). With the increasing research interest in the topic of teacher well-being in recent years, teacher wellbeing has been recognised as a significant factor for students' well-being, student learning outcomes (Frenzel et al., 2018;Harding et al., 2019;Jennings & Greenberg, 2009;Roffey, 2012), and teachers' commitment to their teaching career . Yet, many studies mainly focus on the "dark side" of teacher wellbeing (e.g., exhaustion, burnout, or turnover rate) using the between-individual approach (Hagenauer et al., 2015;Simbula, 2010), and little is known about what contributes to teachers' well-being considering the classroom context where teachers interact with students in real-time, from one lesson to the other, day to day. ...
Article
Given the high stress and attrition rate among teachers, there is a need to expand knowledge on situational experiences that contribute to teacher well-being. We investigated the links between student lesson-specific behaviour (disruptive behaviour, engagement), teachers' lesson-specific (positive, negative) emotions, daily (morning and end-of-working), and personal general well-being of 20 Taiwanese primary school teachers using a micro-longitudinal approach. By specifying multilevel structural equation models (MSEM), we found student behaviour predicts teachers' lesson-specific emotions, and this association varied across days and teachers. Teachers' lesson-specific positive emotions predict teachers’ well-being, suggesting positive emotions can be a protective factor for teachers.
... (2) This model by Zhu et al. (2018) is suitable for classroom activities, text interpretation analysis, and classroom validity testing and other levels of college English classroom teaching design. The specific application steps and important links are described in detail in the paper; (3) The peer mutual aid team under the guidance of the model enables teachers to have "models" to follow, "models" to follow, clear goals, advance together, and effectively (4) Peer mutual aid enhances teachers' individual work efficiency and teaching and research ability, which has positive practical significance for promoting teachers' professional development proposed by Frenzel et al. (2018). In the questionnaires, interviews, and reflection sheets, the research subjects all recognized and affirmed the role of the team in teaching design, personal learning, and professional development (Badia and Iglesias, 2019;Dilekli and Tezci, 2019;Moskowitz and Dewaele, 2021;Purwanto et al., 2021). ...
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Teachers’ teaching psychological behavior and classroom development are the current research hotspots in the field of educational psychology. How to realize the data analysis of teachers’ teaching psychological behavior and classroom development is a problem that researchers urgently need to solve. Based on the theory of data correlation analysis, this paper uses modern Internet technology and big data analysis teacher teaching system to quantitatively and qualitatively analyze the potential of students, and build a corresponding model. Through rule correlation technology, the article studies various internal correlations between teachers’ teaching psychological behavior, extracts valuable information from various daily data of students through big data analysis technology, and the WEB teacher’s teaching psychological behavior analysis system based on B/S structure solves the problem that the traditional model cannot measure. In the simulation process, the system is implemented by MVC three-tier architecture, the database uses MYSQL 5.0, the prediction questionnaire is formulated on the basis of the literature method and interviews, and the scale is compiled and tested after repeated revisions. Project analysis and factor analysis are performed on the data obtained from the table test to construct and screen indicators. The experimental results show that the teacher’s classroom teaching behavior index system adopted by the system is practical and feasible, including three first-level indicators, 10 s-level indicators, and 21 third-level indicators. The system has 87.1% completeness, which effectively improves teachers’ teaching psychology.
... Teachers can support students' emotional development by providing high-quality instruction that is clearly structured, personalized in terms of adapting task demands and expectations to students' competencies, and suited to promote students' sense of autonomy and relatedness (Linnenbrink-Garcia et al., 2016;Pekrun, 2014). In addition, teachers can support students by developing and displaying their own positive emotions (Frenzel et al., 2018), by creating mastery goal structures in the classroom, and by scaffolding students' regulation of emotions. ...
Article
Based on control-value theory, we expected reciprocal associations between school grades and students' achievement emotions. Existing research has employed between-person designs to examine links between grades and emotions, but has failed to analyze their within-person relations. Reanalyzing data used by Authors (2017) for between-person analysis, we investigated within-person relations of students’ grades and emotions in mathematics over 5 school years (N = 3,425 German students from the PALMA longitudinal study; 50.0% female). The findings from random-intercept cross-lagged modeling show that grades positively predicted positive emotions within persons over time. These emotions, in turn, positively predicted grades. Grades were negative predictors of negative emotions, and these emotions, in turn, were negative predictors of grades. The within-person effects were largely equivalent to between-person relations of grades and emotions. Implications for theory, future research, and educational practice are discussed.
... Consistent with the results obtained in the literature (Patrick et al., 2000;Frenzel et al., 2009Frenzel et al., , 2010Frenzel et al., , 2018Kunter et al., 2013;Keller et al., 2014;Lazarides et al., 2019), our results confirm the effect of teacher enthusiasm on the intrinsic motivation of the student. Thus, when the teacher speaks with enthusiasm, the students show greater interest in the text and the presentation time seems shorter. ...
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This study aims to analyze the effects of teacher enthusiasm and type of text on student motivation and achievement. The participants were 369 elementary school students. We used four videos showing a teacher presenting two texts (narrative or descriptive) in two conditions of enthusiasm (high or neutral). A MANOVA revealed additive effects due to enthusiasm and text type on motivation and achievement, but no interaction. Mediation analyzes indicated that enthusiasm showed direct and indirect effects through motivation only for descriptive text. Therefore, the motivational mediation between teacher enthusiasm and student achievement could be especially important when the text is descriptive.
... A meta-analysis by Rivis & Sheeran (2003) revealed that scholars always use norms as an additional predictor in the TPB to environmental behavior studies (Oteng-Peprah et al., 2020;Tan et al., 2017;Clark et al., 2019;Esfandiar et al., 2020;Han & Hyun, 2017). Over the decades, research on emotion has increased in a variety of fields, including medicine (Ferrer, & Mendes, 2018;Kozlowski et al., 2017), education (Frenzel et al., 2018;Morrish et al., 2018) and computer science (Egger et al., 2019;Tarnowski et al., 2017). Eng et al (2022) encourage researchers to consider the inclusion of emotional responses as antecedents to TPB outcomes as it could shape our behavior. ...
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In sustainable ecotourism, responsible ecotourist behaviour towards purchasing local products and services is vital to alleviate poverty in local communities and help wildlife conservation. Using an extended Theory of Planned Behaviour, this study investigates the relationship between attitude, anticipated emotion, and environmental concern. This pilot study was conducted to test the reliability of the questionnaire instrument before conducting the actual research. Data collection was conducted in Penang National Park, and questionnaires were distributed face to face among the ecotourist. Samples were obtained using the purposive sampling method. Statistical Software Packages, namely SPSS version 26.0, were used to perform data analysis. The high internal consistency of items among the constructs shows that the questionnaires are reliable in conducting actual research in predicting responsible ecotourist behaviour (Cronbach Alpha value ranges from 0.883 to 0.604).
... In contrast, qualitative, open-ended questions gave students the opportunity to provide unique answers, which allowed for individualized and richer information on their experience. Thus, we used closed-ended questions to assess the assignment's potential effects on student enjoyment (Chen et al., 2020;Frenzel et al., 2018;Pekrun et al., 2002;), comprehension of course material (Mulligan & Kirkpatrick, 2010;Tlhoaele et al., 2015), perspectives on science communication and publishing (Lovelace & Brickman, 2013;Landry et al., 2006), and plans for continuing science writing in the future (Fredricks & McColskey, 2012;Sinatra et al., 2015). We used openended questions to identify specific elements that students enjoyed and made the assignment successful, as well as opportunities where the assignment could be improved to better engage with students and foster learning. ...
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The practice of writing science blogs benefits both the scientist and society alike by providing professional development opportunities and delivering information in a format that is accessible to large and diverse audiences. By designing a project that introduced upper‐level undergraduate students to science blog writing with a focus on plant biology, we piqued students' interest in science writing and the content of a popular plant science blog website. If adopted more widely, this work could broaden the scope of science education and promote the development of effective science communication skills for the next generation of scientists. Successful scientists must communicate their research to broad audiences, including distilling key scientific concepts for the general public. Students pursuing careers in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) fields benefit from developing public communication skills early in their careers, but opportunities are limited in traditional biology curricula. We created the “Plant Science Blogging Project” for a Plant Biology undergraduate course at the University of Pittsburgh in Fall 2018 and 2019. Students wrote blog posts merging personal connections with plants with plant biology concepts for the popular science blogs Plant Love Stories and EvoBites. By weaving biology into their narratives, students learned how to share botanical knowledge with the general public. The project had positive impacts on student learning and public engagement. In post‐assignment surveys, the majority of students reported that they enjoyed the assignment, felt it improved their understanding of plant biology, and piqued their interest in reading and writing science blogs in the future. Approximately one‐third of the student‐authored blogs were published, including two that rose to the top 10 most‐read posts on Plant Love Stories. Some dominant themes in student blogs, including medicine and culture, differed from common story themes published on the web, indicating the potential for students to diversify science blog content. Overall, the Plant Science Blogging Project allows undergraduate students to engage with plant biology topics in a new way, sharpen their scientific communication skills in accordance with today's world of mass information sharing, and contribute to the spread of scientific knowledge for public benefit. The practice of writing science blogs benefits both the scientist and society alike by providing professional development opportunities and delivering information in a format that is accessible to large and diverse audiences. By designing a project that introduced upper‐level undergraduate students to science blog writing with a focus on plant biology, we piqued students' interest in science writing and the content of a popular plant science blog website. If adopted more widely, this work could broaden the scope of science education and promote the development of effective science communication skills for the next generation of scientists.
... Teacher emotions can influence students' learning, school climate, and the overall quality of education (Frenzel, 2014;Frenzel et al., 2018Frenzel et al., , 2021. In addition to teacher emotions' having a significant influence on the quality of education, they can also impact teachers' well-being and health (Huang et al., 2020a(Huang et al., , 2020bSkaalvik and Skaalvik, 2010). ...
Article
Teacher emotions could make a difference to the development of technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK), a complicated knowledge essential for effective teaching with technology. Both experienced and novice teachers reported having experienced a series of emotional challenges as they acquire technology integration skills. Self-regulated learning (SRL), a series of cognitive and metacognitive learning processes in problem-solving, is associated with learners’ emotions as well. In this paper, we examine the influence of teaching experience and SRL on teachers’ emotions in the context of TPACK development. Particularly, we identify two distinct groups of teachers based on the extent to which they experience positive and negative emotional experience in the task using the clustering analysis method. Binary logistic regression was applied to test whether the model of teaching experience and SRL can predict previous emotion groups. Although the overall model was significant, only SRL was a significant individual predictor in this context. Regression analysis revealed a positive association between SRL and teacher emotions. We used a qualitative method to analyze teachers’ think-aloud protocols to further determine teaching experience and SRL’s influence on teacher emotions. The results supported previous findings that SRL can positively predict teachers’ emotions during the TPACK development task. Implications were discussed for providing emotional support to teachers during TPACK development.
... Teacher emotions also affect students' emotions [15]. Although Chinese students often attained high mathematics achievement in international assessments, they exhibited higher levels of negative emotions and mathematics anxiety than their counterparts from Western countries [16,17]. ...
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Understanding the emotional dimension of classroom practices benefits sustainable education. However, the dynamic nature of teacher emotions during teaching remains understudied. To acquire an “in-depth” description of the emotional phenomena during teaching, a case study was adopted to examine the pattern and dynamics of a senior secondary mathematics teacher’s teaching-related emotions. Seven new mathematics lessons were observed and videotaped, and three video-stimulated, post-lesson teacher interviews were conducted. Based on appraisal theories of emotions, thematic analysis and content analysis were mainly used to analyse the data. The study revealed that the teacher most frequently experienced happiness/satisfaction as positive emotions and confusion/surprise as negative emotions. The emotions followed a three-stage process: perceptions, multilevel appraisals, and responses. The teacher most often perceived her students’ cognitive accuracy and adopted goal/need conduciveness/attainment, the discrepancy from expectations, and causal attribution as core appraisal dimensions. Teacher emotions in classrooms were also often hierarchical and cumulative, shifting from more negative at the beginning of a new semester to more positive at the middle of the semester. This study shed light on the dynamic development of teacher emotions, extending the theories and process models of emotions from the psychological field to educational research and facilitating teachers’ sustainable professional development.
... Teachers represent a large working population of more than 90 million individuals all around the world [1]. Teacher wellbeing is a key factor of students' academic achievement, but more globally, of the wellbeing of tomorrow's adults [2][3][4][5], and as such, is a major asset for society. During a crisis, whatever its type (security, health, economic etc.), the promotion of teachers' health is even more important as they act as "shock absorbers" for young people and ultimately for society as a whole [6]. ...
Article
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To highlight effective levers to promote teachers’ wellbeing worldwide, particularly during difficult times such as the COVID-19 pandemic, we investigated work-related factors associated with teacher wellbeing, across borders and cultures. In six countries/territories, we examined the factors that were most consistently and strongly associated with two indicators of wellbeing at work: (i) job satisfaction; and (ii) work/life balance, and three indicators of general wellbeing: (i) subjective health; (ii) mental health; and (iii) life satisfaction. Between May and July 2021, after 18 months of the pandemic, 8000 teachers answered the first edition of the International Barometer of Education Personnel’s Health and Wellbeing (I-BEST): 3646 teachers from France, 2349 from Québec, 1268 from Belgium, 302 from Morocco, 222 from The Gambia, and 215 from Mexico. For each country/territory and each wellbeing indicator, we used a forward stepwise regression procedure to identify important determinants among a carefully selected set of 31 sociodemographic, private, and professional life factors. Aside from healthcare access, the factors most consistently and strongly associated with teacher wellbeing in France, Québec and Belgium (samples whose size were ≥1000) were related to the psychosocial and the organizational dimensions of work, namely: feeling of safety at school, autonomy at work, and the quality of relationships with superiors and quality of relationships with students. In the smaller samples of teachers from the three remaining countries (Morocco, The Gambia and Mexico), exploratory analyses showed that the feeling of safety and autonomy at work were, there too, consistently associated with wellbeing indicators. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the factors most consistently associated with teachers’ wellbeing across countries were related to security and autonomy at work, supporting the importance to consider these aspects in a continuous, structural way at school. Factors associated with teachers’ wellbeing in very different contexts require further cross-cultural study.
... For example, in the 2012 cycle of the OECD Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA), students' anxiety and achievement in mathematics correlated negatively in all of the 64 participating countries, and all of these correlations but one were signi cant (OECD, 2013). Beyond anxiety, teachers' enjoyment of teaching and expressed enthusiasm positively in uence students' enjoyment of learning (Frenzel et al., 2018). Finally, research on the e ects of classroom composition has found that higher class-average achievement reduces students' positive emotions and increases their negative emotions, such as maths anxiety (Pekrun et al., 2019). ...
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The overall goal of the ISEE Assessment is to pool multi-disciplinary expertise on educational systems and reforms from a range of stakeholders in an open and inclusive manner, and to undertake a scientifically robust and evidence based assessment that can inform education policy-making at all levels and on all scales. Its aim is not to be policy prescriptive but to provide policy relevant information and recommendations to improve education systems and the way we organize learning in formal and non-formal settings. It is also meant to identify information gaps and priorities for future research in the field of education.
... Moreover, teachers' emotions are also closely related to their students' emotions. Indeed, a recent study's results based on longitudinal data demonstrates evidence of the reciprocal transmission of teacher and student emotions (Frenzel et al., 2018). ...
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The purpose of the current study is to determine whether the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire for Teachers (AEQT) is a psychometrically sound instrument to measure prospective teachers' teaching-related emotions. The three-factor model of the AEQT was confirmed in a prospective teacher sample. Also, reliability results showed that the AEQT is a reliable measurement tool. Measurement invariance results revealed that configural, metric, and scalar invariance were provided across gender. These findings support the use of the AEQT when examining differences based on achievement emotions across gender. For teacher training programs, only configural invariance was provided. Although configural invariance suggests that the three-factor structure of the AEQT is the same across the teacher training programs, the lack of metric invariance indicates that the relationship between the items and the underlying latent variable the AEQT factors is not the same across these groups. The observed variables are not related to the latent variable equivalently across teacher training programs. This result does not allow the comparison of path coefficients and covariances between observed and latent variables across teacher training programs. Also, the lack of scalar invariance indicates that different teacher training programs may interpret some items differently and prevent a comparison of averages between these groups.
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The present contribution provides a conceptualization of teacher emotions rooted in appraisal theory and draws on several complementary theoretical perspectives to create a conceptual framework for understanding the teacher emotion–student outcome link based on three psychological mechanisms: (1) direct transmission effects between teacher and student emotions, (2) mediated effects via teachers’ instructional and relational teaching behaviors, and (3) recursive effects back from student outcomes on teacher emotions, both directly and indirectly via teachers’ appraisals of student outcomes and their correspondingly adapted teaching behaviors. We then present a tour d’horizon of empirical evidence from this field of research, highlighting valence-congruent links in which positive emotions relate to desirable outcomes and negative emotions to undesirable outcomes, but also valence-incongruent links. Last, we identify two key challenges for teacher emotion impact research and suggest three directions for future research that focus on measurement, research design, and an extended scope considering emotion regulation.
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This article presents and focuses on the Institutional Support Questionnaire (ISQ) that was developed and validated to complement the Learning Needs Questionnaire (LNQ). While the LNQ, validated and published earlier, assessed students’ perceived learning needs, the ISQ assesses students’ psychological perspectives of their institution, particularly how they perceive their institution supports their learning. Both questionnaires work in tandem to support resource optimisation efforts in establishing targeted academic support structures within teaching-focused tertiary institutions. This study found that the 42-item ISQ had adequate psychometric properties and that institutional support could be represented by four factors (i.e., academic competency support, teaching practices, tutors’ characteristics, and use of technology in instruction) that reflected in large part the factors characterised by the LNQ (i.e., perceived academic competency, time management, preferred tutors’ characteristics, and use of technology). Practical applications of the use of both the ISQ and LNQ (i.e., how both could be applied in a tertiary education setting to identify perceived students’ learning needs and whether an institution is providing adequate support to meet these needs) and limitations on their use are discussed.
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Thanks to the inflow of positive psychology (PP) in language education in general and language learning in particular, extensive consideration has been drawn to the role of emotion in second language acquisition (SLA). Enjoyment as a mutual constructive sensation experienced by students has engrossed academic attention. Likewise, teachers are redirected as the most remarkable figure of any educational association, and their enthusiasm is substantial for students in the classroom. In line with the inquiries of teacher enthusiasm, principles of PP, and classroom enjoyment, the current review strives for this form of connection and its impacts on learners’ achievement. Subsequently, the suggestions of this review for teachers, learners, and educator trainers are deliberated.
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Emotions are fundamental to teachers' lives. However, until recently, there is relative lack of attention given to emotions in teacher education. Moreover, teacher emotions are often viewed as a function of external factors, neglecting the role of emotion mindset (i.e., beliefs regarding the malleability of emotions) in affecting teachers' emotions and subsequent outcomes. Hence, this research intends to provide a better understanding of how teachers' emotion mindset and emotions contribute to their engagement. We examined a model of growth emotion mindset predicting engagement via positive and negative emotions. We tested this model among in-service (Study 1) and preservice (Study 2) teachers using structural equation modeling (SEM). Results of the SEM showed that an implicit belief in the malleability of emotions (i.e., growth emotion mindset) predicted higher engagement through increased positive emotions and decreased negative emotions. This pattern held for both in-service and preservice teachers. The findings highlight the importance of emotion mindset and emotions for teachers in both work and learning contexts. Implications for teacher education for both practicing and prospective teachers are discussed.
Article
Background College instruction has experienced a significant movement toward increased online learning course options. Without appropriate supports, students in virtual learning environments often face greater challenges with self-regulation, motivation, and recognizing the personal relevance of course content. Objective The current study focuses on the prevalence of personal relevance and its associated impact on cognitive and motivational variables including achievement emotion, intrinsic value, self-efficacy, test anxiety, cognitive strategy use, self-regulation, and metacognition in a virtual learning environment. Method Students in two online graduate level human development courses completed a series of questionnaires ( N = 73) for course credit. Results Results show the high transformative experience (TE) group reported significantly higher positive emotions, interest, intrinsic value, self-efficacy, cognitive strategy use, test anxiety, and self-regulation, giving them more cognitive and motivational benefits than those who experienced low levels. They also show no relationship between TE and course grade. Conclusion Future research in this area may benefit from focus on ways to intentionally increase TEs from online contexts to real-life contexts. Teaching Implications Such research would allow instructors intentionality in pedagogical endeavors while allowing students to integrate course information into their daily lives.
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Despite existing studies on teachers’ emotional labour having been primarily correlational in nature, most researchers to date have assumed teachers’ emotional labour to predict well-being outcomes (e.g. job satisfaction, burnout). Moreover, although it is commonly understood that teachers strategically manipulate their expressions of emotions (e.g. intentional displays of anger or disappointment) as effective classroom management strategies, the predictive relationship between their emotional labour and student engagement lacks empirical investigation. The present short-term longitudinal study addresses these research gaps by evaluating the directionality of relationships between teachers’ emotional labour, psychological well-being, and perceived student engagement in 1,086 Canadian practicing teachers. Structural equation modelling analyses showed both teachers’ well-being and perceived student engagement to directly predict their use of emotional labour strategies rather than vice versa. Further theoretical and pedagogical development implications are discussed.
Article
El aprendizaje del inglés como lengua extranjera es un reto vigente para los países de habla hispana y, en este marco, para la ciudad de Medellín; convirtiéndose así en una de las principales metas educativas del mundo globalizado. En esta meta influye la personalidad del docente en el autoconcepto y proceso de atención del estudiante, para favorecer o no este aprendizaje. El objetivo de la presente revisión es describir los factores de la personalidad docente que repercuten en lo antes mencionado, para mejorar el aprendizaje del inglés como lengua extranjera; para ello, se revisaron artículos indexados en diferentes bases de datos, dentro del rango de años 2015-2020. Los resultados indican que los factores de la personalidad del docente, como la apertura a la experiencia, la amabilidad y la extraversión, tienen un impacto positivo frente al desarrollo del autoconcepto del estudiante y, por ende, impactan en su proceso de atención. Estos resultados destacan, en su mayoría, la importancia de forjar la personalidad del docente dentro del proceso de aprendizaje de una segunda lengua.
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It is plausible to assume that teachers need motivation, emotions, and self-regulation to teach and promote students’ learning. However, as documented in this special issue, extant research is inconsistent and has documented weak effects of these teacher variables at best. I discuss possible reasons for this paradoxical failure to more fully document the importance of motivation, emotion, and self-regulation. Specifically, in addition to conceptual problems, research has focused too much on using between-person designs, variables with truncated distributions and reduced variance, and samples from single Western countries. To better understand the effects of teacher variables on student outcomes, we need to (1) develop and test more fine-grained theoretical models explaining the mechanisms mediating these effects, (2) complement between-teacher research by within-teacher studies, and (3) examine teacher-student processes across cultural and historical contexts. Collaboration with other disciplines may be needed, including economics, sociology, political science, computer science, and history.
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Educational psychologists have traditionally been far more interested in the psychology of students than teachers. However, interest in conceptualizing and examining teachers’ emotions, motivations, and self-regulation, as well as corresponding implications for the instructional process and students’ educational outcomes, has increased in recent years. Accumulating evidence suggests that these teaching-related psychological characteristics can shape teachers’ professional decision-making, work engagement, occupational well-being, and approaches to teaching. Theoretically grounded links with students’ educational outcomes, however, remain elusive. Articles and commentaries in this special issue examine possible reasons for these puzzling results and strive to lay the foundation for theoretical cross-fertilization and an integrated research agenda focusing on whether, when, how, and why teachers’ teaching-related emotions, motivations, and self-regulation may influence—and be influenced by—students’ educational outcomes.
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As estratégias de regulação emocional podem ser ensinadas aos estudantes, contribuindo para melhor desempenho no contexto educativo. É importante, pois, identificar se os alunos conhecem e utilizam estratégias para regular suas emoções. Assim, o presente estudo objetivou realizar uma revisão sistemática da literatura acerca das pesquisas referentes às estratégias de regulação emocional de estudantes universitários, predominantemente de cursos de formação de professores. Foram analisados artigos internacionais e nacionais publicados entre 2015 a 2020 indexados nas bases de dados APA, BVS-Psi, ERIC, SciELO, Science Direct, Scopus e Redalyc. Após a aplicação dos critérios de inclusão, cinco estudos foram selecionados. Os resultados revelaram que os estudantes relatam empregar diferentes estratégias para regular suas emoções. Os instrumentos empregados nas pesquisas e as variáveis associadas ao uso dessas estratégias foram também identificadas. Destaca-se a necessidade de ampliação das investigações acerca dessa temática, no contexto nacional, considerando um maior número de variáveis de interesse.
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Learning engagement is recognized as a critical indicator in the evaluation of online courses, as it is related to the quality of online education and students' performance. Prior studies have found that interactions among learners, instructors, and content were associated with students' learning engagement, yet gaps remain in identifying the internal mechanisms. To contribute to this gap in the knowledge, this study uses self-report survey to examine the mediating roles of online learning self-efficacy and academic emotions in the relationship between interaction and learning engagement in online learning. Data were collected from 474 college students who participated in online courses in China. Multiple mediation analysis showed that (1) learner-content interaction and learner-learner interaction, but not learner-instructor interaction, could predict online learning engagement; (2) online learning self-efficacy and academic emotions (enjoyment; boredom) mediated the link between interactions (learner-content interaction and learner-learner interaction) and learning engagement; (3) both learner-content interaction and learner-learner interaction could predict learning engagement through the sequential mediation of online learning self-efficacy and academic emotions (enjoyment; boredom). This research sheds light on the internal mechanism of different interactions on learners' learning engagement, and provides important theoretical and practical implications for promoting learners' learning engagement in the online learning context.
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Die Förderung der Motivation von Schülerinnen und Schülern zählt zu den zentralen Zielsetzungen von Unterricht. Lehrermotivation und Unterrichtsmerkmale gelten dabei als wichtige Einflussgrößen auf die Motivation der Lernenden. Allerdings besteht ein Mangel an theoretischen Modellen und empirischen Befunden zur Beschreibung jener Prozesse, die den Zusammenhängen von Lehrermotivation, Unterrichtsgestaltung und der motivationalen Entwicklung Lernender zugrunde liegen. Der Beitrag greift dieses Desiderat auf und stellt ein integratives Theoriemodell der unterrichtsbezogenen Sozialisation motivationaler Entwicklung vor. Dabei werden Modelle aus Erziehungswissenschaft (Angebots-Nutzungs Modell) und Pädagogischer Psychologie (erweiterte Erwartungs-Wert-Theorie von Eccles), die eine Beschreibung motivationsförderlicher Unterrichtsprozesse beinhalten, zusammengeführt. Anhand des vorgeschlagenen Modells werden zukünftige Forschungsthemen und handlungspraktische Implikationen im Bereich der Lehrer- und Schülermotivation diskutiert.
Book
Der Band führt empirische Forschung aus Erziehungswissenschaft, Pädagogischer Psychologie und Fachdidaktiken systematisch zusammen, die sich mit schulischen und unterrichtlichen Bedingungen der Motivation Lernender befasst.
Article
The purpose of this study is to explore the effects of an affective recommendation system on the developmental trajectories of prospective teachers' emotional patterns, integrated with a Simulated Virtual Classroom (SVC) platform called SimInClass. SVC exposes teachers to a range of student discourses in the form of unexpected stimuli. Fifteen prospective teachers participated in a study consisting of two practicum sessions in the SVC. Participants did not receive any affective recommendation after the first session but did receive it after the second session. Additional data were collected during both sessions in SVC, including the physiological responses, such as electroencephalogram (EEG), galvanic skin response (GSR), and facial expressions. L metric and Lag sequential analysis were employed in determining teachers' transitional emotional patterns. The results showed that participants did not maintain disgust after receiving affective recommendations, although they maintained sadness. This result indicates that the given affective recommendation has an inherent effect on negative emotions that are felt less intensely. Different or longer-term interventions may be needed for more intense and long-lasting negative discrete emotions such as sadness. Also, participants transitioned to happiness and sadness instead of maintaining their neutral status after receiving an affective recommendation. This result demonstrates that affective recommendations encourage participants to use the cognitive reappraisal necessary for emotion regulation. When the participants' emotional patterns are examined on the basis of student discourse, the results are more complex and the emotional patterns differ according to the function of the discourse triggered by virtual students.
Article
This study investigates the patterns of relations between beliefs, emotions, and job satisfaction in 249 Italian in-service teachers. Participants were assessed on their growth and fixed mindsets, self-efficacy beliefs, emotions associated with various components of their professional engagement and job satisfaction. Mediational analyses shed light on the mediating role of teaching and role emotions in the relation between beliefs and job satisfaction. Specifically, teachers' high self-efficacy beliefs positively impact on job satisfaction if negative teaching and role emotions are contained at low levels.
Article
Student–teacher relationships are crucial for adolescents’ adjustment in the school context. The aim of the present study was to examine the role of teacher closeness in academic emotions and achievement among adolescents with and without learning difficulties during the first year in lower secondary school. Students’ learning difficulties (LDs) were identified based on tested reading and math skills. In addition, students evaluated their teacher relationships and rated academic emotions in literacy and math domains. The results indicated that higher teacher closeness was related to increasing positive emotions and increasing literacy achievement during seventh grade, whereas lower levels of teacher closeness were associated with increasing learning-related anger and boredom. The results were mostly similar for students with and without LDs, which indicates that students in general benefit from close teacher relationships during the first year in lower secondary school.
Chapter
Making selection decisions is, at its heart, a prediction about future effectiveness. For teacher training, the key predictive question is, Will this applicant succeed in our program? For teaching jobs, the central predictive question is, Will this applicant have a positive influence on student achievement and wellbeing? In this chapter, we provide a working definition of teacher effectiveness and explore theories and models of teacher effectiveness. Next, we consider the challenges inherent in measuring teacher effectiveness, with a look at value-added approaches, classroom observations, and student ratings. Understanding how teacher effectiveness changes over time raises important implications for teacher selection, and building our knowledge about the academic, psychological, and even financial outcomes of selecting the most effective teachers is crucial to building the teacher workforce.
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Teacher emotions are of growing interest in educational research, but empirical findings are still scarce. In their recent model illustrating the possible causes and effects of teacher emotions, Frenzel and colleagues argue that emotions are driven by subjective appraisals of success and failure. Specifically, these authors propose that teachers judge their teaching success based on specific dimensions of student behaviors (output orientation). Moreover, there are multiple models on instructional quality detailing which teacher behaviors characterize successful teaching (input orientation). To date, however, it is unknown how and when teachers themselves appraise their teaching as successful. To gain insight into teachers’ appraisals of success, 307 mathematics teachers responded to an open-ended question about their criteria for math teaching success. Results showed that teachers’ responses could be organized into six categories that mapped partly onto Frenzel’s output-oriented model and partly onto the input-oriented instructional quality literature: (1) students’ mathematical skills, (2) students’ engagement, (3) students’ social skills, (4) cognitive activation and structured presentation of the learning content, (5) structured organization of the learning environment and (6) feedback. These findings highlight student behavior, teacher behavior and feedback as key sources for mathematics teachers’ subjective definitions of successful teaching and ultimately their emotional lives in the mathematics classroom.
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The emotions of teachers are considered relevant not only for their own well-being but also for the functioning of classrooms. Nevertheless, research on teacher emotions has been slow to emerge, and scales for their assessment via self-report are generally lacking. In the present research we developed four-item scales for three emotions considered most relevant in the context of teaching: enjoyment, anger, and anxiety (Teacher Emotions Scales, TES). Based on data of 944 teachers, we tested German and English language versions of the TES for reliability, internal and external validity, and cross-language equivalence, while exploring the utility of both a general and a student-group specific variant. All scales proved to be highly reliable, and confirmatory factor analysis supported internal validity by showing that three-factor models (enjoyment, anger, and anxiety) were superior to single-factor or two-factor (positive vs. negative affect) models. The external validation analyses provided consistent evidence for theoretically meaningful relations with teachers’ general affect, burnout, job satisfaction, and teacher self-efficacy. These findings were robust across multiple studies. In addition, consistent relationships with student ratings of teaching behaviors were found. Analyses of measurement invariance revealed that the English and the German language versions were fully structurally equivalent und displayed metric invariance.
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The last review on teacher enthusiasm was 45 years ago, and teacher enthusiasm remains a compelling yet complex variable in the educational context. Since Rosenshine’s (School Review 78:499–514, 1970) review, the conceptualizations, definitions, methodology, and results have only become more scattered, and several related constructs have emerged that may or may not be synonymous with teacher enthusiasm. In this review, we delve into the past four decades of teacher enthusiasm research to provide a potential starting point for a new, consolidated direction in teacher enthusiasm research based on a proposed, holistic definition of enthusiasm which brings together research from the past and can fuel research for the future. We begin by reviewing definitions of teacher enthusiasm and related constructs and, thereafter, put forward a new and integrative definition of teacher enthusiasm that combines the two most prevalent conceptualizations of the construct, namely experienced enjoyment and expressive behavior. Bearing our proposed definition in mind, we go on to present numerous measures that assess teacher enthusiasm, detail research evidence related to its correlates, and finally derive several research implications that, when considered in future research, promise to advance the field.
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Engagement is one of the hottest research topics in the field of educational psychology. Research shows that multifarious benefits occur when students are engaged in their own learning, including increased motivation and achievement. However, there is little agreement on a concrete definition and effective measurement of engagement. This special issue serves to discuss and work toward addressing conceptual and instrumentation issues related to engagement, with particular interest in engagement in the domain of science learning. We start by describing the dimensional perspective of engagement (behavioral, cognitive, emotional, agentic) and suggest a complementary approach that places engagement instrumentation on a continuum. Specifically, we recommend that instrumentation be considered on a “grain-size” continuum that ranges from a person-centered to a context-centered orientation to clarify measurement issues. We then provide a synopsis of the articles included in this special issue and conclude with suggestions for future research.
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The present study focuses on the relationship between teachers' emotions, their instructional behavior, and students' emotions in class. 149 students (55% female, M age = 15.63 years) rated their teachers' emotions (joy, anger, anxiety) and instructional behavior, as well as their own emotions in an experience-sampling study across an average of 15 lessons in four different subject domains. Intraindividual, multilevel regression analyses revealed that perceived teachers' emotions and instructional behavior significantly predicted students' emotions. Results suggest that teachers' emotions are as important for students' emotions as teachers' instructional behavior. Theoretical implications for crossover theory and practical recommendations for teachers are discussed.
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This article presents a motivational conceptualization of engagement and disaffection: First, it emphasizes children's constructive, focused, enthusiastic participation in the activities of classroom learning; second, it distinguishes engagement from disaffection, as well as behavioral features from emotional features. Psychometric properties of scores from teacher and student reports of behavioral engagement, emotional engagement, behavioral disaffection, and emotional disaffection were examined using data from 1,018 third through sixth graders. Structural analyses of the four indicators confirm that a multidimensional structure fits the data better than do bipolar or unidimensional models. Validity of scores is supported by findings that teacher reports are correlated with student reports, with in vivo observations in the classroom, and with markers of self-system and social contextual processes. As such, these measures capture important features of engagement and disaffection in the classroom, and any comprehensive assessment should include markers of each. Additional dimensions are identified, pointing the way to future research.
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Compared with other professions, teachers in P-12 schools appear to experience a higher level of emotional exhaustion (see review in Maslach et al. in Ann Rev Psychol 52(1):397, 2001; Schaufeli and Enzmann in The burnout companion to study and practice: a critical analysis, Taylor & Francis, Philadelphia, 1998). The purpose of this study is to examine teacher emotions within the context of teachers’ appraisals and the ways they regulate and cope with their emotions. The study explores teachers’ appraisals of disruptive classroom behavior situations and investigates the adaptive coping and emotion regulation strategies that ease teacher burnout. Data were collected from 492 teachers in the US Midwest and subjected to hypothesis testing using structural equation modeling. The model provides evidence supporting a pathway between teachers’ antecedent judgments and their experience of emotion, as well as providing evidence for how the consequent emotions contribute to teachers’ feelings of burnout. This study further validates the relationships between the appraisals teachers make about an incident and the correlative intensity of emotions. Several hypotheses are either supported or partially supported after testing alternate models. Discussion and implications regarding teacher emotion regulation and coping are provided.
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For structural equation models, a huge variety of fit indices has been developed. These indices, however, can point to conflicting conclusions about the extent to which a model actually matches the observed data. The present article provides some guide-lines that should help applied researchers to evaluate the adequacy of a given struc-tural equation model. First, as goodness-of-fit measures depend on the method used for parameter estimation, maximum likelihood (ML) and weighted least squares (WLS) methods are introduced in the context of structural equation modeling. Then, the most common goodness-of-fit indices are discussed and some recommendations for practitioners given. Finally, we generated an artificial data set according to a "true" model and analyzed two misspecified and two correctly specified models as examples of poor model fit, adequate fit, and good fit. In structural equation modeling (SEM), a model is said to fit the observed data to the extent that the model-implied covariance matrix is equivalent to the empirical co-variance matrix. Once a model has been specified and the empirical covariance matrix is given, a method has to be selected for parameter estimation. Different estimation meth-ods have different distributional assumptions and have different discrepancy functions to be minimized. When the estimation procedure has converged to a reasonable
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This meta-analysis reviews the findings of 81 studies (N=24,474) examining the relationship between teachers' verbal or nonverbal immediacy (or both) and students' learning outcomes. The cumulative evidence indicates meaningful correlations between teachers' nonverbal immediacy and student reports of perceived learning (r=.51) and affective learning (r=.49), but only a slight correlation with students' performance on cognitive learning measures (r=.17). Teachers' verbal immediacy was found to correlate with students' perceived learning (r=.49) and affective learning (r=.49), but again the relationship with performed cognitive learning was notably smaller (r=.06). Average effect sizes were generally smaller in experimental research designs than in survey-type research, and generally larger when verbal/nonverbal immediacy was measured as a single construct. The cumulative results of this meta-analysis confirm that teacher immediacy has a substantial relationship with certain attitudes and perceptions of students in relation to their learning, but a modest relationship with cognitive learning performance.
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The present study tested the hypothesis that burnout and work engagement may crossover from husbands to wives and vice versa. Data were collected among 323 couples working in a variety of occupations. The Job Demands-Resources model was used to simultaneously examine possible correlates of burnout and engagement for each partner separately. The results of a series of hierarchical regression analyses provide evidence for the crossover of burnout (exhaustion and cynicism) and work engagement (vigor and dedication) among partners. The crossover relationships were significant and about equally strong for both partners, after controlling for some important characteristics of the work and home environment. These findings expand previous crossover research, particularly by showing that positive experiences at work may be transferred to the home domain. We argue that the crossover of positive feelings among partners should be placed more prominently on the research agenda.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to provide theoretical and practical insight into the process of crossover with the proposition that affect intensity is an important explanatory mechanism of crossover. Design/methodology/approach – This paper provides an empirical and conceptual overview of the construct of crossover, and addresses key gaps in the literature by proposing a process of discrete emotional crossover. It is proposed that individual differences in affect intensity may moderate and/or explain the crossover of discrete emotions in the workplace. Findings – This paper responds to the call of various researchers within the crossover field by putting forth a unique explanation for the occurrence of crossover. This explanation draws significantly on emotions theory and research. Originality/value – This paper is unique in its presentation of affect intensity as a moderator of the crossover process and in its discussion of the crossover of discrete emotions such as joy and fear rather than the crossover of emotional or psychological states.
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Previous research on multiple role stress has hypothesized the existence of two types of stress contagion: spillover, in which the stresses experienced in either the work or home domain lead to stresses in the other domain; and crossover, in which the stresses experienced by one's spouse at work lead to stresses for oneself at home. However, empirical evidence of these processes has been largely indirect and qualitative. This study provides the first direct quantitative evidence on the causal dynamics of stress contagion across work and home domains in married couples. Contrary to previous thinking, results indicate that husbands are more likely than their wives to bring their home stresses into the workplace. Also, stress contagion from work to home was evident for both husbands and wives. Furthermore, the contagion of work stress into the home sets in motion a process of dyadic adjustment, whereby individuals, particularly wives, appear to modify their housework efforts to compensate for the work stresses of their spouses. Such findings provide important insights into the dynamics of gender differences in role stress and confirm the value of studying chronic stress processes at the level of analysis where such stresses are inevitably manifest—in day-to-day events and activities.
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Previous research suggests that people in close relationships with depressed others are at heightened risk for developing depression themselves. This phenomenon has been termed contagious depression. The purpose of the current investigation was twofold: (1) to more rigorously test a direct contagion model by controlling for concurrent relationship satisfaction, and (2) to examine reassurance-seeking as a potential moderator of contagion. 105 undergraduate dating couples completed measures of depression, relationship satisfaction, and reassurance-seeking tendencies. Results suggested a significant correspondence between partners' levels of depressive symptoms, even after controlling for relationship satisfaction. Further, reassurance-seeking tendencies moderated contagion within couples. That is, high reassurance-seeking target individuals were more vulnerable to contagion via their partners than low reassurance-seeking targets. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA )
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Research on classroom management is reviewed, with an emphasis on lines of inquiry originating in educational psychology with implications for teacher education. Preventive, group based approaches to management provide a basis for teachers to plan and organize classroom activities and behaviors. Studies of teacher expertise and affect provide additional perspective on teacher development and on factors that influence management. Cooperative learning activities and inclusion of children with special needs illustrate particular contexts that affect management. Utilization of classroom management content in educational psychology components of teacher preparation is discussed.
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On the basis of a new model of motivation, the authors examined the effects of 3 dimensions of teacher ( n = 14) behavior (involvement, structure, and autonomy support) on 144 children's (Grades 3–5) behavioral and emotional engagement across a school year. Correlational and path analyses revealed that teacher involvement was central to children's experiences in the classroom and that teacher provision of both autonomy support and optimal structure predicted children's motivation across the school year. Reciprocal effects of student motivation on teacher behavior were also found. Students who showed higher initial behavioral engagement received subsequently more of all 3 teacher behaviors. These findings suggest that students who are behaviorally disengaged receive teacher responses that should further undermine their motivation. The importance of the student–teacher relationship, especially interpersonal involvement, in optimizing student motivation is highlighted. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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recently, we have begun to explore . . . [the] process of emotional contagion / people's conscious analyses give them a great deal of information about their social encounters / [people] can also focus their attention on their moment-to-moment emotional reactions to others, during their social encounters / this stream of reactions comes to them via their fleeting observations of others' faces, voices, postures, and instrumental behaviors / further, as they nonconsciously and automatically mimic their companions' fleeting expressions of emotion, people also may come to feel as their partners feel / by attending to the stream of tiny moment-to-moment reactions, people can gain a great deal of information on their own and their partners' emotional landscapes begin by defining emotion and emotional contagion and discussing several mechanisms that we believe might account for this phenomenon / review the evidence from a variety of disciplines that "primitive emotional contagion" exists / examine the role of individual differences in emotional contagion / outline some of the broad research questions researchers might profitably investigate (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Aside from test anxiety scales, measurement instruments assessing students’ achievement emotions are largely lacking. This article reports on the construction, reliability, internal validity, and external validity of the Achievement Emotions Questionnaire (AEQ) which is designed to assess various achievement emotions experienced by students in academic settings. The instrument contains 24 scales measuring enjoyment, hope, pride, relief, anger, anxiety, shame, hopelessness, and boredom during class, while studying, and when taking tests and exams. Scale construction used a rational–empirical strategy based on Pekrun’s (2006) control-value theory of achievement emotions and prior exploratory research. The instrument was tested in a study using a sample of university students (N = 389). Findings indicate that the scales are reliable, internally valid as demonstrated by confirmatory factor analysis, and externally valid in terms of relationships with students’ control-value appraisals, learning, and academic performance. The results provide further support for the control-value theory and help to elucidate the structure and role of emotions in educational settings. Directions for future research and implications for educational practice are discussed.Research highlights► First comprehensive instrument measuring students’ multiple achievement emotions. ► Findings corroborate Pekrun’s control-value theory of achievement emotions. ► Need to differentiate between various discrete emotions. ► Achievement emotions linked to motivation, strategies, self-regulation, performance.
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Studies investigating the crossover of job stress and strain between partners have shown that job demands are transmitted from job incumbents to their partners, affecting their psychological and physical health. Based on the crossover literature and on models of job stress and the work-family interface, this study develops a comprehensive framework to integrate the literature conceptually, delineating the mechanisms that underlie the crossover process. Key constructs include job stress, life events, strain, personal attributes and interpersonal factors. The literature pertaining to each construct in the model is reviewed and summarized. Gaps in the literature are identified, recommendations for future research are proposed, and the implications for organizational theory and practice are discussed.
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In educational research, characteristics of the learning environment are generally assessed by asking students to evaluate features of their lessons. The student ratings produced by this simple and efficient research strategy can be analysed from two different perspectives. At the individual level, they represent the individual student’s perception of the learning environment. Scores aggregated to the classroom level reflect perceptions of the shared learning environment, corrected for individual idiosyncrasies. This second approach is often pursued in studies on teaching quality and effectiveness, where student-level ratings are aggregated to the class level to obtain general information about the learning environment. Although this strategy is widely applied in educational research, neither the reliability of aggregated student ratings nor the within-group agreement between the students in a class has been subject to much investigation. The present study introduces and discusses different procedures that have been proposed in the field of organisational psychology to assess the reliability and agreement of students’ ratings of their instruction. The application of the proposed indexes is demonstrated by a reanalysis of student ratings of mathematics instruction obtained in the Third International Mathematics and Science Study (N=2,064 students in 100 classes).
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In this chapter we focus on teacher emotions resulting from appraisals of success or failure (i.e., teachers' achievement emotions) with respect to achieving instructional goals. We present our theoretical assumptions and empirical findings regarding the antecedents and effects of achievement emotions more generally, and specify those for the context of teaching. Assuming that teachers' emotions impact their instructional behaviour and are affected by their appraisals regarding succeeding or failing during instruction, we propose a model depicting the interplay between teachers' emotions, their instructional behaviour, and student outcomes. We present results from two quantitative studies testing assumptions brought forward by the model.
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This article is a methodological-substantive synergy. Methodologically, we demonstrate latent-variable contextual models that integrate structural equation models (with multiple indicators) and multilevel models. These models simultaneously control for and unconfound measurement error due to sampling of items at the individual (L1) and group (L2) levels and sampling error due the sampling of persons in the aggregation of L1 characteristics to form L2 constructs. We consider a set of models that are latent or manifest in relation to sampling items (measurement error) and sampling of persons (sampling error) and discuss when different models might be most useful. We demonstrate the flexibility of these 4 core models by extending them to include random slopes, latent (single-level or cross-level) interactions, and latent quadratic effects.Substantively we use these models to test the big-fish-little-pond effect (BFLPE), showing that individual student levels of academic self-concept (L1-ASC) are positively associated with individual level achievement (L1-ACH) and negatively associated with school-average achievement (L2-ACH)—a finding with important policy implications for the way schools are structured. Extending tests of the BFLPE in new directions, we show that the nonlinear effects of the L1-ACH (a latent quadratic effect) and the interaction between gender and L1-ACH (an L1 × L1 latent interaction) are not significant. Although random-slope models show no significant school-to-school variation in relations between L1-ACH and L1-ASC, the negative effects of L2-ACH (the BFLPE) do vary somewhat with individual L1-ACH.We conclude with implications for diverse applications of the set of latent contextual models, including recommendations about their implementation, effect size estimates (and confidence intervals) appropriate to multilevel models, and directions for further research in contextual effect analysis.
Article
Research on teacher enthusiasm has, to date, neglected how expressing enthusiasm influences teachers, particularly if they do not enjoy teaching at sufficiently high levels. To address this issue, we investigated whether teachers express teaching enthusiasm and experience teaching-related enjoyment at varying levels, and if so, how these varying levels relate to teachers' occupational well-being. In a preliminary study, we investigated whether teachers' (N = 67) and students' (N = 1489) ratings of teacher's expressed enthusiasm corresponded with one another and found that teachers can accurately assess their own level of expressed enthusiasm. Next, in two samples of teachers (N1 = 188 and N2 = 263), using latent profile analyses we indeed found a latent group that was high in expressed teacher enthusiasm and comparably low in experienced teaching-related enjoyment. As expected, relative to the other groups in the samples, these groups had the most negative profiles with respect to their occupational well-being.
Book
I: Background.- 1. An Introduction.- 2. Conceptualizations of Intrinsic Motivation and Self-Determination.- II: Self-Determination Theory.- 3. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Perceived Causality and Perceived Competence.- 4. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Interpersonal Communication and Intrapersonal Regulation.- 5. Toward an Organismic Integration Theory: Motivation and Development.- 6. Causality Orientations Theory: Personality Influences on Motivation.- III: Alternative Approaches.- 7. Operant and Attributional Theories.- 8. Information-Processing Theories.- IV: Applications and Implications.- 9. Education.- 10. Psychotherapy.- 11. Work.- 12. Sports.- References.- Author Index.
Book
The Power of Interest for Motivation and Engagement describes the benefits of interest for people of all ages. Using case material as illustrations, the volume explains that interest can be supported to develop, and that the development of a person’s interest is always motivating and results in meaningful engagement. This volume is written for people who would like to know more about the power of their interests and how they could develop them: students who want to be engaged, educators and parents wondering about how to facilitate motivation, business people focusing on ways in which they could engage their employees and associates, policy-makers whose recognition of the power of interest may lead to changes resulting in a new focus supporting interest development for schools, out of school activity, industry, and business, and researchers studying learning and motivation. It draws on research in cognitive, developmental, educational, and social psychology, as well as in the learning sciences, and neuroscience to demonstrate that there is power for everyone in leveraging interest for motivation and engagement.
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Classroom research has typically focused on the role of teaching practices and the quality of instruction in children’s academic performance, motivation and adjustment—in other words, classroom interactions initiated by the teacher. The present article presents a model of classroom interactions initiated by the child, that is, the notion that a child’s characteristics and active efforts may evoke different instructional patterns and responses among teachers. Then follows a review of previous research on the role of children’s academic performance, their motivation and their socio-emotional characteristics in their teachers’ instruction methods and teacher–child relationships. Some of the mechanisms that may be responsible for these “evocative impacts” are discussed. Classroom interactions initiated by the child, and those initiated by the teacher will then be considered from the perspective of the transactional theory of teacher–child interactions. Finally, some conclusions are drawn concerning possible future classroom research.
Chapter
This chapter considers the relationships of student engagement with ­academic achievement, graduating from high school, and entering postsecondary schooling. Older and newer models of engagement are described and critiqued, and four common components are identified. Research on the relationship of each component with academic outcomes is reviewed. The main themes are that engagement is essential for learning, that engagement is multifaceted with behavioral and psychological components, that engagement and disengagement are developmental and occur over a period of years, and that student engagement can be modified through school policies and practices to improve the prognoses of students at risk. The chapter concludes with a 13-year longitudinal study that shows the relationships of academic achievement, behavioral and affective engagement, and dropping out of high school.
Chapter
Emotions are ubiquitous in academic settings, and they profoundly affect students’ academic engagement and performance. In this chapter, we summarize the extant research on academic emotions and their linkages with students’ engagement. First, we outline relevant concepts of academic emotion, including mood as well as achievement, epistemic, topic, and social emotions. Second, we discuss the impact of these emotions on students’ cognitive, motivational, behavioral, cognitive-behavioral, and social-behavioral engagement and on their academic performance. Next, we examine the origins of students’ academic emotions in terms of individual and contextual variables. Finally, we highlight the complexity of students’ emotions, focusing on reciprocal causation as well as regulation and treatment of these emotions. In conclusion, we discuss directions for future research, with a special emphasis on the need for educational intervention research targeting emotions.
Article
Emotions have ubiquitous effects in human affairs. Vivian Gornick, in Fierce Attachments,^ recounts a typ-ical exchange with her mother. Gor-nick always begins these encounters with high hopes. "Somehow," de-spite her best intentions, the conver-sations always spiral downward: Today is promising, tremendously prom-ising I go to meet my mother. I'm flying. Flying! I want to give her some of this shiningness bursting in me, siphon into her my immense happiness at being alive. Just because she is my oldest inti-mate and at this moment I love every-body, even her. "Oh, Ma! What a day I've had," I say. "Tell me," she says. "Do you have the rent this month?" "Ma, listen ..." I say. "That review you wrote for the Times," she says. "Ifs for sure they'll pay you?" "Ma, stop it. Let me tell you what I've been feeling," I say. "Why aren't you wearing something warmer?" she cries. "It's nearly winter." The space inside begins to shimmer. The walls collapse inward. I feel breath-less. Swallow slowly, I say to myself, slowly. To my mother I say, "You do know how to say the right thing at the right time. Ifs remarkable, this gift of yours. It quite takes my breath away." But she doesn't get it. She doesn't loiow I'm being ironic. Nor does she Elaine Hatfield is a Professor of Psychology and Richard L. Rapson is a Professor of History at the Uni-versity of Hawaii. John T. Ca-cioppo is a Professor of Psychology at the Ohio State University. Ad-dress correspondence to Elaine Hatfield, 2430 Campus Rd., Honolulu, HI 96822; BITNET: psych@uhunix; INTERNET: psych@uhunix.uhcc.hawaii.edu. know she's wiping me out. She doesn't know I take her anxiety personally, feel annihilated by her depression. How can she know this? She doesn't even know I'm there. Were I to tell her that it's death to me, her not knowing I'm there, she would stare at me out of her eyes crowd-ing up with puzzled desolation, this young girl of seventy-seven, and she would cry angrily, "You don't under-stand! You have never understood!" (pp. 103-104)
Article
Positive emotions are essential for human behaviour and adaption. They help to envision goals and challenges, open the mind to thoughts and problem-solving, protect health by fostering resiliency, create attachments to significant others, lay the groundwork for individual self-regulation, and guide the behaviour of groups, social systems, and nations. In spite of their many functions, however, positive emotions have been neglected by psychology. Until recently, psychology has focused on the dark side of human life. Psycho-pathological behaviour, negative emotions emanating from stress, and coping with stress and negative emotions have been studied extensively, whereas adaptive behaviour, positive emotions, and proactive coping did not receive that much attention (cf. Frydenberg 1997; Fredrickson 2001). Furthermore, traditional theories addressing the functions of positive emotions for cognition and behaviour have focused on negative effects of positive emotions, instead of their regulatory benefits (cf. Aspinwall 1998). Educational settings are of specific importance for shaping human self-regulation and development, and students' and teachers' positive emotions can be assumed to be central to attaining these educational goals. However, educational psychology and educational research in general were no exception in neglecting positive emotions. Specifically, whereas students' test anxiety has been studied extensively, positive emotions related to learning and achievement have rarely been analysed. This seems to be true, in spite of the fact that anti-cipatory hope and pride relating to success and failure were deemed key determinants of achievement motivation and task behaviour by traditional theories of achievement moti-vation, along with anticipatory fear and shame (cf. Atkinson 1964; Heckhausen 1980). Studies on achievement motivation included items pertaining to these emotions in global measures of achievement motives, but rarely studied emotions in their own right. Specifically, this pertains to the positive emotions of hope and pride which were only regarded as components of the motive to achieve success. The motive to avoid failure, on' the other hand, has <;:>ften been equated with test anxiety on an operationallevel, having been assessed by test anxiety questionnaires in many studies (Atkinson 1964). Concerning positive emotions relating to learning, instruction, and achievement, the only major tradi-tion of research addressing such emotions directly was attributional theory originating from Bernard Weiner's programme of research on achievement emotions (cf. Weiner 1985). This research produced a sizable number of studies analysing links between causal attributions of success andJailure, and a variety of positive achievement-related emotions.
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