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Learning and gamification: a possible relationship?

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Learning and gamification: a possible relationship?

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One of the most interesting and disruptive trends in the current elearning scenario is gamification, that is, the use of game design elements in non-game contexts. After providing a brief overview of the main contemporary gamification applications in organizations, this paper especially focuses on gamification in the educational field. It discusses the existing studies on the effectiveness of gamification for learning purposes, analyzing their impact on students’ attitude, knowledge and behavior. Finally, it highlights the main gaps in the current literature, pointing to new directions of research.
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Learning and gamification: a possible relationship?
L. Caporarello1,*, M. Magni1 and F. Pennarola1
1SDA Bocconi School of Management, and Department of Management and Technology, Bocconi University, Milano, Italy
Abstract
One of the most interesting and disruptive trends in the current elearning scenario is gamification, that is, the use of game
design elements in non-game contexts. After providing a brief overview of the main contemporary gamification
applications in organizations, this paper especially focuses on gamification in the educational field. It dis-cusses the
existing studies on the effectiveness of gamification for learning purposes, ana-lyzing their impact on students attitude,
knowledge and behavior. Finally, it highlights the main gaps in the current literature, pointing to new directions of
research.
Keywords: e-learning, gamification, game-based learning, instructional design
Received on 4 December 2017; accepted on 12 December 2017; published on 19 December 2017
Copyright © 2017 Leonardo Caporarello et al., licensed to EAI. This is an open access article distributed under the terms
of the Creative Commons Attribution license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unlimited use,
distribution and reproduction in any medium so long as the original work is properly cited.
doi: 10.4108/eai.19-12-2017.153488
*Corresponding author. Email:leonardo.caporarello@unibocconi.it
1. Introduction
Learning is one of the most relevant evolutionary and
development processes of hu-man beings, which has been
studied and modeled by a wide number of different
theories and approaches. In the last decades, the overall
learning scenario has seen a dis-ruption due to the digital
revolution started in the latter half of the 20th century.
Digital innovation has indeed brought to an expansion of
the learning scenario towards e-learning, both vertically
and horizontally. This shift has been pushed further by the
increased connection of younger generations of learners to
the digital world.
Among the other digital tools, videogames have aroused
particular interest due to their diffusion among the
younger generations. As a result, e-learning has paid in-
creasing attention to the gaming universe, from the first
attempts to the most sophisticated systems. One of the
most appropriate definitions for this trend is Game Based
Learning (GBL)††: with Game Based Learning, it is
†† For the purposes of this paper the term “Game Based
Learning” will be used as a comprehensive label that
addressed the use of educational-related digital games that
allow learners to play and experience situations that,
other-wise, would have been impossible for cost, time,
logistical or safety issues.
One of the most interesting and disruptive GBL trends is
the gamification one due to its complexity, its
completeness, and versatility. Although until now
literature does not provide a standard definition of
gamification, maybe one of the simplest but more
appropriate definitions is the one by Deterding et al. [1]
describing it as the use of game design elements in non-
game contexts; therefore, gamification represents the use
of game mechanics, dynamics, and frameworks not just in
education, but poten-tially in any field, from retail to
behavioral change.
In this paper, after providing a brief overview of the main
contemporary gamification applications in organizations,
we shall focus on education, at all levels, proposing a
specific definition of gamification in this field; we shall
then review the studies on the effectiveness of
gamification for learning purposes, and discuss them
includes all the learning techniques using digital games
and game mechanics.
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critically; and finally, we shall point to new directions of
research in the field.
2.Gamification applications
Due to their flexibility, from the very beginning
applications of gamification to products and services have
been used in several industries, including but not limited
to: retail and consumer goods; entertainment; media and
publishing; healthcare; e-commerce; BFSI; education;
travel and logistics; and government.
In order to draw a meaningful picture of gamification
applications, nevertheless, an industry classification
seems not to be the best solution. Even though such a
classification of the existing implementations would be
easy to outline at first, it would actually create confusion
among examples due to their functional applications: it is
indeed common to find the same gamified processes and
functionalities cross-industry (e.g. in the marketing or HR
departments). A more meaningful classification of
gamification systems can be made according to their
function in supporting processes such as:
Sales: gamified strategies can be applied to sales
from two perspectives. On the one hand, they can be
considered a means to promote products or services
on the market. For example, customers-players can
accumulate points and win badges or discounts to
spend in real-world experiences through some
gamified systems. An example of this strategy is
FourSquare, an app that allow customers to visit real
shops to “check-in” and gain rewards. On the other
hand, gamified systems can be applied to sales on a
business perspective, to motivate the salesforce to
promote companies’ products and services. For
example, the sales activity itself can be seen as a
game, where employees can record their activities
measuring KPIs, giving and receiving feedbacks, and
setting realistic goals. These systems can be used as
proper performance-enhancing and accountability
tools. Examples of solutions like this are
implemented by software houses such as Salesforce
or ad hoc com-panies like Gameffective.
Human Resources: Human Resource Management
can be enhanced with gamification in several ways
and at different stages, from the recruiting phase, to
employee training and engagement. The benefits of
games, in fact, are cross-functional when directly
applied to human connections, since they can express
all their potential to connect people through
interaction, motivate them in the short term and
reward them. Moreover, games can be useful for
both employees and employers to understand not just
hard-skills, but also soft skills, inclinations and
attitudes. An example of a HR management game is
Wasabi Waiter, designed in order to select and train
employees as managers of a busy sushi restaurant. It
must be said that nowadays the use of HR gamified
systems is heavily debated. In fact, the morality of
people evaluation through machines is a hot topic in
the whole HR management field.
Marketing: the application of gamification to
marketing is accounted as part of the service
marketing sphere‡‡. Here, games are seen as co-
produced by the game developer and the player(s)§§.
An example are loyalty programs enhanced by
games. Marketers, in fact, gamify loyalty programs
in order to encourage a deeper customer engagement
with the brand. An example is My Starbucks
Rewards, an app that rewards customers for visiting
the cafes with points and badges. Another example
of gamified marketing are communities. Their
gamification, in fact, can increase customer
engagement both with the brand and other users.
Companies commonly use Points, Badges, Leader-
boards, and Challenges to promote challenges, the
sharing of ideas, and the creation of new
connections. A third example is the gamification of
software: gamified systems are used to reduce the
hostility of employees and customers towards new
solutions, and encourage their initial adoption.
Support/Assistance: gamified support and assistance
are among the most diffused applications. They can
be both stand-alone games and system
implementations of more complex business realities.
First, self-referring gamified processes provide one-
to-one support to their users with respect to a specific
topic. For example, they enact game logics to push
gamers to per-form in-game actions that have a direct
effect on everyday life. An example is training and
fitness apps that use points and achievements to
motivate their users to exercise more. Second,
gamified implementations of more complex services
are commonly used as part of the customer service
management or the company internal Enterprise
Resource Planning software. As far as customer
service implementations are concerned, gamified
solutions can provide useful information, be an
effective solution for problem management, and give
customers the possibility to evaluate and contribute
to the customer service itself. As far as internal
business processes are concerned, instead, their
gamification can be a supportive solution that makes
them easier and more enjoyable to adopt and to use.
Behavioral change: when talking about behavioral
change, two different streams of gamified systems
should be mentioned. One, in fact, is aimed at
inducing behavioral change, while the other is built
‡‡ The Service marketing logic was born in 2004. It is
based on the concept that the customer is a co-producer of
the value, and the value perceived is a value-in-use.
§§ The developer is responsible of the creation of
storyline, rules, game patterns and visuals, while players
take part in the co-production of value every time the
game is played.
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in order to study it. As far as the former is concerned,
the games are usually aimed to promote positive life-
style changes, social responsibility, and awareness.
This kind of gamified systems are especially used by
governments and public offices in order to encourage
best practices or solve social issues. Examples of
public usage of games for these purposes are apps to
stimulate the reduction of pollution or energy
consumption. The same concept has been applied in
the private sector as well. Examples are apps such as
Chore Wars and EpicWin that encourage players to
complete daily chores. As far as study-oriented
games are concerned, instead, they can be seen as a
tool of Behavioral Change sciences, used to provide
accurate pictures of preferences and attitudes.
Product development: another application of
gamification to business that leverages on co-
production by customers, is product development.
Here users are seen as part of the service itself.
Interacting with the game, in fact, they are guided
through all the steps of the development of a real
product, ready to be produced and commercialized.
In this view, gamification can be accounted as part of
the crowd searching innovation paradigm. Indeed,
through gaming companies could not just gather
information and feedbacks, but also keep their
customers engaged and committed. Indeed, on the
one hand customers are rewarded with status,
identity, or real-life gains such as winning and
purchasing personalized products. On the other hand,
companies obtain real time feedback and detailed
information about their customer preferences,
increase their brand identity, the loyalty of their
customer base and the interest in their products.
Examples are common in the fashion industry, where
users are encouraged to express their creativity and
their style by designing personalized items.
The wider the application fields of gamification have
become, the more their characteristics have changed and
differentiated the ones from the others, although some
general trends can be observed. A common evolution
pattern in gamification applications can be seen especially
in their design. Early gamification strategies, in fact, used
simple components such as points or rewards to engage
players, in order to motivate them to accomplish desired
tasks. Over time, the approach shifted towards a more
implicit and deep level. Indeed, the aim of gamified
systems has increasingly become to make users feel to be
like in a game. This has been possible not only by
employing game components, but also by leveraging on
game logics and the related aesthetics a key aspect in
the development of gamification applications for learning
purposes.
3. Gamification in learning
When talking more specifically about gamification of
learning processes, the spectrum of possible applications
is extremely wide and diversified. In fact, gamified
learning systems are used in different contexts (work,
school or personal life) with different aims (initiation,
engagement and evaluation of the learning process).
When talking about the use of gamification at school,
several applications can be seen, from first-grade school
to executive education and MBA programs. Indeed,
solutions differ deeply the ones from the others according
to the target audience and to the quality of information
transferred. An example of gamification applied to a first
level classroom is the teaching of mathematical principles
through the filling of puzzles and quizzes. When talking
about learning in a business context, instead, the target
audience is just adults. Also here solutions are several,
even if less diversified in terms of game thinking than the
schooling ones. An example of gamified learning applied
to the work environment is the one of change
management. Thanks to desktop or mobile games,
employees can be involved in learning activities through
games crafted to overcome their hostility towards changes
or their low proactive attitude. Together with the other
traditional activities, games can make it fun to learn new
information about subject matters, languages,
organization, processes, technologies, products and
services.
In the field of gamification for learning, at all levels, there
is increasing awareness about the “double soul” of
gamification processes. On the one hand, there is the
“gaming” part of the process, the one that allows users to
interact with the system. On the other, there is the specific
subject’s part. This should never be just considered as the
filling content of the system, because it represents the
core of the learning activity itself and gives to the entire
process the theoretical validation and justification. Each
valuable gamified process, in fact, should be designed
accordingly to specific aims supported by field’s previous
research and experience.
4. Theoretical framework
As far as gamification for learning purposes is concerned,
the whole phenomenon can’t be reduced nor to just one
learning theory, nor to a single design and develop-ment
strategy [2]. Implications aroused by gamification of
learning processes can be summarized in two main groups
of theories explaining the learning dimension of
gamification:
how learning occurs on networks by connection
(Connectivism approach to knowledge transfer) or
collaboration (Constructivism approach to
knowledge transfer);
how the learning activity can be enhanced through
immersion and experience in a process of continuous
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learning through actions (Self-Determination the-ory
and related sub-theories).
In addition to this, researchers focused on the support
dimension of gamification:
how people accept multimedia and interactive
delivery methods (gamification is here considered as
an evolutional step of the Digitization of learning
trend)
how people perceive games both as entertainment
and in their application to the learning dimension
(gamification as a Game Based Learning trend).
These dimensions, moreover, are strictly interconnected
and an appropriate comprehension of the topic is possible
just through its complete overview. Nevertheless, we shall
provide a brief outline of gamification characteristics,
means and aims when applied to education, based on the
gamification literature addressing its definition [1; 3; 4; 5]
through the various learning and gaming frameworks.
In this view, a new definition of gamification for learning,
summarizing the related literature, can be the following:
Gamification of learning consists in the use of game
logics [6] (components, mechanics and dynamics) and
game aesthetics [7] designed with the aim to promote and
enhance learning through motivation [8; 9; 10] (seen as
the combination of the elements of attention, relevance,
confidence and satisfaction***).
Learning is the final outcome of a complex process
entirely studied for and performed by the user. The
stimuli of the gamified system, according to literature,
leverage on its interest curve [3], connection and
collaboration among participants [12], feedbacks and
rewards [13], freedom to fail [3], storytelling, problem
solving challenges and emotional engagement [14].
In this perspective, a definition of the system allowing the
enhancing of the learning activity through gamification
can be stated as:
A gamified system is a digital structure built on game
logics [6] and game aesthetics [7] to create student-
centered learning experience [15] in order to enhance it
in a self-determination perspective [16].
A schematization of the gamification of learning process
as analyzed until now is provided in Figure 1.
*** Among the different theories on the motivational
dimension on learning, one of the most complete is the so-
called ARCS model of motivational design [11]
5. Studies on effectiveness
A whole branch of studies analyzed gamification
performances as a learning tool through experiments with
students. Indeed, several gamified systems were ad hoc
created to test whether they were effective. For others,
instead, existing gamified tools or game-based-learning
tools were tested on individuals to study which
dimensions of learning experience were impacted. Indeed,
studies on the enhancement of the learning processes
through gamification can be split into three inter-
connected sub-categories, defined by outcome measure:
Change in attitude;
Change in behavior;
Change in knowledge.
For the purposes of this paper, a consolidation of the
results was carried out based on this three-dimensional
perspective of effectiveness.
Evidence from the analyzed studies showed that the most
frequently occurring outcomes are positive changes in
attitude towards learning (more than 70% of the analyzed
Figure 1. The gamification for learning framework:
from the game design to the learning experience
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studies), followed by changes in knowledge/content
understanding (almost 50% of the analyzed studies)
(Table 1). This reflects the parallel interests in the
engaging features of games as an entertainment medium
and increasingly also their use for learning. Evidence in
behavioral changes is instead less strong, where most of
the studies (almost 60% of them) didn’t notice any change
in users’ behavior. Among these, moreover, one study
reported also a negative result, where behaviour was
found not changed at all ††† [17].
Some studies appeared effective in every dimension. One
example is the contribution of Fujimoto et al. [18], who
conducted an experiment using a card game called
JobStar. The results of a pre- and post-survey for
participants indicated that the game offered an engaging
opportunity that enhanced social interactions and
facilitated participants’ learning. Participants gained a
positive attitude regarding their future paths and
experiencing with the game made them more confident
about their competence in choosing their future
occupations.
Table 1. Study on gamification effectiveness in
changes in attitude, behavior and knowledge
acquisition
Change in
attitude
Change in
behavior
Change in
knowledge
Positive
15
8
10
Negative
0
1
0
Neutral
6
12
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Another example is the study of Morrison [19] that ran an
experiment on students with BrainPlay, an artefact
designed to teach and practice primary school subjects
and test explicit memory acquisition. The research
showed that games are useful above all to represent
complexity. Indeed, they often possess mechanisms that
make learning more effective through mimicking
behaviors required for study (call to focus, increasing
levels of difficulty of skill, repetition and the need for
players to regularly remember elements such as rules or
previous moves). In the repetition of the learning activity,
these elements have a positive effect on learners’ attitude
towards school as well.
Another interesting result about how gamified systems are
able to impact on people’s behavior, is the study of
Przybylski et al. [20]. The study is based on the
motivational model associated to videogames and proves
that videogames are a key tool for influencing cognitive
††† For the sake of accuracy, it should be mentioned that
most of the times changes in behaviors were out of scope
of the analyzed papers. This means that evidence was not
found, sometimes also because not specifically addressed.
evaluation. Indeed, the findings showed that different
games are able to induce different decisions. That means,
they change users’ behaviors. Deep immersion in natural
environments resulted positively correlated with more
prosocial goals and decision-making, whereas high levels
of immersion in less natural contexts produced more self-
interested orientations.
These are among the best representative outcomes for
highly effectiveness gamification systems. A complete
overview of the studies, nevertheless, highlights that
results appear overall highly heterogeneous. Indeed, a
deeper analysis of the studies’ characteristics could
explain why the outcomes are not uniform. First, every
gamified system is different from the others. A direct
comparison among different systems, due to the
importance of game logic design and desired aesthetics,
wouldn’t be reliable. Second, studies differed for learning
topics and objectives. This is for sure a further obstacle in
the comparison of different research works, since the
effectiveness of knowledge acquisition doesn’t just
depend on the means involved, but also on the complexity
of what is taught/learned. Last but not least, some
differences concern the target users involved in the
gamified experiences. Indeed, almost every study devoted
some effort to the definition of the target users. As
mentioned before, in fact, the personal background of
learners is fundamental both during the game play and in
its approach.
6. Discussion
As emerged in the screening of the literature on
gamification, until now researchers have mostly focused
especially on the definition and evaluation of two aspects
of gamification for education: its design and its
educational effectiveness.
As far as the design of gamified systems and their relative
definition and classification are concerned, a branch of the
studies aimed to create a systematic review of all the
gamification theorization attempts, based on its
frameworks. Indeed, they suggested specific definitions
and evaluation criteria starting from the educational and
gaming literature. Here, references to other learning tools
such as serious games, simulations, and business cases are
common. For example, Frost et al. organized a literature
re-view on gamification based on previous attempts of
incorporation of game dynamics in learning [21]. Another
example is the one of Connolly et al, who in 2012
examined the literature on computer games and serious
games with regard to their potential positive impacts on
users in terms of learning and acquisition of skills [14].
One of the most significant attempts to define
gamification, indeed, remains the one of Huotari and
Hamari, that in 2012 defined gamification in a marketing-
service perspective [22].
As far as the measure of effectiveness is concerned,
instead, literature focused on the three dimensions of
possible change induced by gamification: changes in
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attitude, in behavior and in knowledge. Indeed, the vast
majority of the studies on gamification applications to
learning provided positive or neutral results. Gamification
resulted to be at least not significantly correlated to
student’s performances in everyone of the case studies.
This is not a minor outcome. Indeed, negative effects of
both digital learning systems and gaming tools have been
found. As far as digital learning is concerned, for
example, Sereetrakul [23] tested Facebook as a facilitator
of connection among people to enhance a learning goal.
Nevertheless, they found that it had a negative impact on
students’ performance, due to its distracting potential.
Most of the empirical studies on gamified systems
focused on during-the-experience evaluation and after-
the-experience evaluation. Indeed, just a very limited
number of studies focused consistently on before-the-
experience evaluation. The dimension, nevertheless, is far
from being easy to address. Expectations towards
gamified learning systems, in fact, involve both elements
coming from the socio-demographic background and
from the personal learning, gaming and ICT perception.
Moreover, expectations appear to be fundamental in order
to predict the motivation to use a gamified system and,
indeed, the intention to use it.
In particular, people’s expectations towards gamification
should not be underestimated due to two main reasons
regarding both the first adoption and the iteration in using
gamified systems. First of all, expectations are crucial
when evaluating the intention of people to start using a
gamification method for the first time. Indeed, the
choosing process of whether put effort in a new activity or
not was theorized by the so-called Expectancy Theory of
Motivation [24]. This model is based on the concept of
scarcity, and proposes that individuals are motivated to
choose a certain behavior over others, based on what they
expect the result of that behavior will be [25]. Indeed,
people would be motivated to choose gamification over
other learning methods just if their expectations towards
gamification will be higher than the ones towards
traditional learning. According to this theory,
underestimating or overestimating the evaluation of
people’s expectations would lead to a misrepresentation
of their motivation to take part in the gamified experience.
That means, consequently, an erroneous prediction of
prospect users’ intention to participate.
Another support to the importance of expectations not just
in the phase of first adoption of the gamified system, but
also in its further iterated use, is the expectation dis-
confirmation theory (EDT) [26]. In IT context, EDT
explains how technology satisfaction is created as users
form initial expectations of the technology, use it and
com-pare technology performance against initial
expectations. Indeed, expectations are seen as user’s
anticipated perceptions of the future experience itself.
Although apparently self-explaining, the results of the
model are far from being obvious, especially if combined
with the Expectancy Theory of Motivation’s ones.
For example, according to the Expectations
Disconfirmation Theory, higher satisfaction is easier to
reach when expectations are low, and vice-versa. When
pre-test expectations are extremely high, it is harder to
overcome them and consequently the post-test evaluation
is more likely to show a medium-low satisfaction.
Nevertheless, low expectations are not always a good
index at all. Without a reasonably high level of
expectations, in fact, according to the Expectancy Theory
of Motivation people will not be motivated enough to live
the experience itself.
Indeed, it is due to the fundamental role of motivation in
gamification literature that a study wholly devoted to its
connection to expectations is needed. Motivation, in fact,
is important in gamification for more than one reason: on
the one hand, it allows users to play the gamified system
action after action, enacting, one step after the other, the
whole learning path. On the other hand, as mentioned
before, the motivational incentive is critical in the
approach to the gamified system itself.
Despite the rich theoretical evidence for the importance of
expectations and motivation of prospect users towards
gamified learning systems, just a very limited number of
studies focused on the before-the-experience moment.
Moreover, none of the investigated studies went deeper in
the analysis of general expectations towards gamified
learning systems, and of the intention whether to use
them. Most of the studies testing expectations and
perceptions of gamified systems, in fact, were conducted
in already existing classes. Even though different studies
were conducted in classes differing for both dimension
and school grade, any comparison among results of the
existing literature appears to be difficult run due to several
reasons.
First, most of the times results show per se a scarce
significance. At first, this limit may be explained because
the topic is almost never the main research purpose. A
deeper analysis of the reasons behind a low significance
of results shows that students in the same class tend to
have a similar background. Analyzed records, in fact, will
be likely to be really close to each other, representing a
poor estimation model not able to predict expected
behaviors. What could happen is that apparently identical
children under the considered dimensions would take
opposite decisions without apparent reason.
A practical example of this limitation was described in the
research of Cheong et al. [6] that focused on the
perception of gamified learning in a group of 51
undergraduate IT students. The study consisted in a
before-the-experience evaluation and was centered on the
perception of game elements. Indeed, among the
limitations of the study the researchers reported the
extremely similar background of participants that did not
allow researchers to specifically find some significant
trends. In literature, the fact that gamified experiences are
usually offered to homogeneous classes leads to both a
scarce consistency of the tested model and a low
representativeness of the results for a wider public.
Second, experiments are hard to compare since students
living in-class experiences are really likely to be
influenced by contingent extra-experiment interactions.
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Indeed, this could happen in both the instructor-student
relationship and the student-student one. As far as the first
kind of connection is concerned, studies are not
comparable since the personality of the instructors and
their relationship with the class (which usually fall outside
the scope of gamifications studies) is a potentially
extremely high bias in expectations’ measurement.
Whether a teacher is considered reliable by his students,
for example, could significantly influence learners’
expectations.
As far as the relationship among classmates is concerned,
instead, the bias stems from the different nature of
classmates’ relationships in different classes (e.g.
relationships among primary school children vs.
relationships among MBA students). It should also be
considered that in almost every study, interactions
happened both online and offline. Indeed, a further
problem concerns the tracking of interactions in order to
measure their relevance and relative influence in the
measured outputs. Once again, the heterogeneity of the
samples, even if potentially positive for its broad
spectrum, does not allow an effective comparison of
results. Last but not least, it should be mentioned that the
analyzed studies don’t even share a common definition of
gamification: as it has been seen, in fact, definitions
substantially differ the ones from the others.
7. Research proposition
What appears to be useful in order to overcome all of
these limits is a cross-sectional study on the topic. Indeed,
an ad-hoc designed cross-sectional study may help
investigate different people’s expectations and motivation
to take part in a gamified learning system. A deeper
analysis of literature in this direction showed that some
cross-sectional surveys have already being carried out
with the aim to investigate the willingness to use
gamification. A meaningful example is the study of
Hamari and Koivisto [27], which focused on the social
factors predicting attitudes towards gamification and
intention to continue using a gamified service (Fitocracy)
for physical exercise. As it can be easily argued,
nevertheless, the study is not related to learning at all.
Other studies have been carried out but none of them
specifically addressed gamification for learning. Indeed,
these studies could not be significant for this purpose for
two reasons. First, the personal background of individuals
involved in the learning experience is not accounted for.
Second, the expectations towards the effectiveness of
gamification as a learning tool are totally missing.
Moreover, none of them adopted the aforementioned
theoretical framework connecting expectations towards
gamification to motivation and, in the end, the intention to
really use it.
Indeed, this is why further study on the topic is needed. In
particular, it could be interesting to examine which
aspects of the personal background majorly impact on
prospect users’ expectations. Moreover, the expectation
dimension could be analyzed taking into account both the
learning aspect and the interactive and connecting one.
Indeed, assumed that the final aim of the gamified
experience is the acquisition of knowledge through a non-
conventional method, this study might also help
understand how different dimensions of expectations
affect people’s motivation to take part in the process.
These findings, in the end, may be a significant addition
to gaming and learning literature, not just towards
designing successful gamified systems, but also towards
properly tailoring them to their prospect users’
background and expectations.
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