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SUBJETIVIDAD SOCIOESPACIAL Y GESTIÓN DE LA DIVERSIDAD EN LAS PRINCIPALES CIUDADES ESPAÑOLAS. LO QUE LOS ÍNDICES DE SEGREGACIÓN NO PUEDEN REFLEJAR

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Abstract

RESUMEN La medición de la diversidad y segregación etnoracial en el espacio urbano se ha centrado en la aplicación de índices que ofrecen información sobre la distribución y concentración de la población de diferentes nacionalidades. Sin embargo dichos índices no analizan la inciden-cia psicosocial en la sociedad de acogida, aspecto a tener en cuenta a la hora de una correcta gestión de la diversidad. En este sentido se ha desarrollado el índice de aloctonía percibida, con el objeto de partir de la subjetividad socioespacial de la sociedad receptora respecto a la población extranjera para determinar aquellos ámbitos de la ciudad donde sería recomen-dable desarrollar políticas de gestión de la diversidad. Este análisis aplicado en las ciudades de Madrid, Barcelona, Valencia y Sevilla, ha mostrado como a pesar de los bajos valores de los tradicionales índices de segregación residencial existen amplias zonas de estas ciudades donde la gestión de la diversidad sería recomendable sin que apenas haya actuación de las administraciones públicas.

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... 16 In the Spanish cities, there has been an influx of foreigners in recent years, which makes it difficult to socially assimilate immigration changes. 18 Due to the difficulties in approaching these Chinese immigrants, such as language and cultural differences, 19 a convenience sample and a "snowball sampling" procedure were used. All individuals signed an informed consent to participate. ...
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... Método de investigaciónEl análisis de la estructura social de las ciudades es una de las líneas tradicionales de investigación en la geografía urbana, pero, en las últimas décadas está adquiriendo un mayor auge debido principalmente al desarrollo de las nuevas tecnologías que permiten el análisis de conjuntos de datos masivos y complejos(Wu et al., 2014). Por otra parte, también hay que considerar que la segregación residencial se debe analizar desde una perspectiva multidimensional, introduciendo en nuestro análisis múltiples variables relativas a la segregación social, como podrían ser la condición étnica, el nivel educativo, el estatus socioeconómico, las variables demográficas, etc. Por tanto, la cuantificación del fenómeno de segregación conlleva diversos problemas conceptuales y metodológicos(Grzegorczyk & Jaczewska, 2015;Iglesias, 2017) entre los que se pueden destacar la propia definición que se realice de la propia segregación, el establecimiento de los grupos de población objeto de estudio y del espacio temporal que se considere, la discrecionalidad en la Boletín de la Asociación de Geógrafos Españoles, 81, 2763, 1-35 ...
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Residential segregation is an undeniable fact in any city of the world. On the premise that segregation is a multidimensional process and that the territorial diagnosis is the first step in order to launch any kind of policy, in this article, we establish a characterization and taxonomy of the boroughs of Bilbao. The research methodology relies on a cluster analysis resulting from the processing and debugging of several statistical sources: municipal, regional and national data. Our analysis suggests that the variables related to income and immigration status are the responsible ones, which condition such segregation. Identifying the different types of neighborhoods will allow redirecting local policies to solve the areas that are particularly affected.
... Despite the small number of economic migrants, it is worth noting that residential segregation indices for different nationalities point to Seville as having the highest levels of immigrant population segregation above all other Spanish cities (Palacios & Vidal, 2014). The extent of this segregation is related to a high residential concentration that particularly affects African and Latin American immigrants in some city neighbourhoods ( Figure 1) and which, in part, makes it possible to visualise the rejection they receive from the host society (Iglesias-Pascual, 2017b). This residential concentration ( Figure 2) particularly applies to the District 2 (Macarena) and District 4 (Cerro-Amate) neighbourhoods, and also ties in with the characteristics of the housing market in Seville. ...
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Immigrants’ neighbourhood choices are key to understanding today’s dominant socio-territorial dynamics, especially in urban areas. We analysed the factors involved in the housing search at the early stages of the economic migrant influx in Seville, Spain (Andalusia region, Europe’s southern border) and their impact on the development of residential segregation in this city. Using a qualitative methodology approach based on focus groups, unstructured interviews and discourse analysis, the implicit and explicit social determinants that influence economic migrants’ residential behaviours were examined. In line with previous studies, the results highlight the importance of socio-economic determinants and a trend towards self-segregation. Social discourse analysis reveals how the host society’s ethnoracial preferences and prejudices – from the outset of the economic migrant influx – translate into barriers to accessing the housing market, which plays a crucial role in understanding economic migrant residential mobility and its impact on and consequences for the residential segregation process.
... Community-based resources available in the city should be recognised as having professionals that not only possess the skills and knowledge to be effective in interacting with immigrants but who also have the ability to bring about the necessary organisational changes that give this population access to quality community services (García-Ramírez, Hernández-Plaza, Albar, Luque-Ribelles, & &Suarez-Balcazar, Y.,2012). Lastly, and in a cross-sectional manner, intervention measuresshould not be restricted to districts with the highest share of immigrants(Iglesias-Pascual, 2017b). For these measures to be effective, interventions at a district level should alternate with municipal-wide ones. ...
Article
Studies addressing contextual factors associated with anti‐immigrant prejudice have focused on out‐group size and rapid demographic changes in receiving locations. However, the territorial concentration and distribution of ethnic minorities at a local and intraurban level has received little attention. We analyse the relationship between emerging territorial concentration points—alongside other contextual variables—by Moroccans and receiving society's growing prejudice towards them in a city experiencing the start of a migrant influx. We combine survey and census data from five Seville districts (southern Spain). Our results show how rapid changes in the general population's ethnic composition, coupled with Moroccan and economic migrants' territorial concentration, correlate strongly with negative attitudes towards Moroccans at this early stage. However, a weaker relationship between the immigrant percentage and degree of prejudice by the receiving group is observed. We also discuss guidelines for ensuring good, local diversity management to prevent socioterritorial fragmentation in multicultural cities.
... Así, tradicionalmente en la literatura académica, especialmente la anglosajona y más recientemente en la europea, se ha analizado el impacto que la llegada de diferentes grupos étnicos presenta en la sociedad de acogida y el desarrollo del proceso de segregación residencial de dicha población. Más recientemente algunas de estas investigaciones han señalado la importancia de analizar el papel de las percepciones e imaginarios sociales a la hora de entender cómo se desarrolla el proceso de integración residencial y social de la población inmigrante o las minorías étnicas en una sociedad (Crowder y Krysan, 2016;Iglesias Pascual, 2016;2017b). De ahí la importancia de realizar un acercamiento teórico a las reacciones que genera la llegada de población inmigrante y su impacto sobre la subjetividad socioespacial de la sociedad de acogida. ...
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Resumen: La creciente importancia que adquiere la inmigración y su proceso de integración social, hace que junto a su análisis sociodemográfico resulte fundamental abordar el estudio de las percepciones que desarrolla la sociedad de acogida sobre la población inmigrante, para asegurar adecuados niveles de cohesión social. Por ello se ha desarrollado una propuesta didáctica para el tratamiento de la inmigración en las aulas de secundaria desde un doble enfoque, de cara tanto a dar a conocer al alumnado las características demográficas de dicha población, como a generar actitudes positivas ante el incremento de la diversidad etnocultural que conlleva la creciente presencia de población inmigrante en las sociedades europeas. Palabras clave: Inmigración; estereotipos; competencias educativas; Geografía.
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Residential segregation is a well studied subject especially after the publication of the pioneering and seminal contribution of Duncan and Duncan (Am Sociol Rev 41:210–217, 1955). Considering the theoretical and methodological advances made since then, the contribution endeavours in describing and understanding the differences in residential segregation in an international perspective using 2011 population census data. The contribution analyses the residential segregation of migrants (here foreign citizens or foreign born) usually resident in the 493 Functional Urban Areas (FUAs) of selected European Union countries. The analysis is conducted using 2011 census data on regular grid (100 mt × 100 mt) provided by the Data Challenge on ‘Integration of Migrants in Cities’ (D4I) and refers to all migrants and to two sub groups (EU 28 and non EU 28). In a first step the levels and spatial patterns of residential segregation across all FUAs of France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Spain, The Netherlands and the United Kingdom are analysed. Particular attention is paid to identifying differences and similarities between the FUAs, among and within the single countries. In a further analysis the relationship between the level of residential segregation in the metropolitan FUAs of the selected EU countries and contextual demographic and socio-economic factors are investigated. Results indicate that, even if, the larger metropolitan areas attract more migrants, the highest levels of residential segregation are observed in smaller urban areas. Moreover important national peculiarities emerge clearly with countries of northwestern Europe recording lower levels of residential segregation compared to the Southern European countries. Finally, residential segregation shows clear relationships with some contextual factors, especially the ones related to economic well-being and the labour market in a positive manner.
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La presente investigación está fundamentada en cuatro investigaciones previas acerca de la importancia de la densidad de inmigrantes en el análisis de la xenofobia. Las dos primeras (Herranz, 2008) fueron financiadas por dos organismos de la Junta de Andalucía: la primera, por el Centro de Estudios Andaluces y la Dirección General de Políticas Migratorias en 2004; la segunda, por el Centro de Estudios Andaluces en 2005. La primera investigación se centró en una investigación de tipo cuantitativo a través de una encuesta en municipios almerienses de alta densidad de inmigrantes. La segunda, a través de la misma técnica, en barrios de municipios almerienses de alta densidad de inmigrantes. El objetivo de ambas investigaciones era el mismo: medir el índice de xenofobia en ámbitos geográficos de alta densidad de inmigrantes, ya que se partía de la idea de que el análisis de la xenofobia debía estar segmentado atendiendo a la densidad de inmigración, ya que las encuestas a muestras totales de la población reflejaban y reflejan opiniones y actitudes ante la inmigración poco reales, al asignarle el mismo peso a personas que viven en zonas con más de un 17 % de extranjeros.
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El estudio de las concepciones espaciales subjetivas puede aportar nuevos elementos de análisis para entender los procesos de segregación y marginalidad que se producen en áreas urbanas y rururbanas con alta tasa de inmigración. Consideramos que dichas concepciones se forman a través tanto de las percepciones, como de los imaginarios urbanos de los residentes y no residentes en estas áreas. Dichas concepciones originan imágenes parciales del entorno, construidas en muchas ocasiones con informaciones sacadas de los medios de comunicación y los diversos contactos sociales , que no se ajustan completamente a la realidad de la zona. El carácter cada vez más disperso del hecho urbano y las nuevas realidades sociales, dificulta y desorienta a los ciudadanos en la tarea de crear una información espacial precisa. Por tanto, dichas concepciones las consideramos fundamentales para entender de una manera más completa, el proceso de progresiva y acelerada segregación de estas zonas ya que determinan de forma clara las dinámicas espaciales y residenciales de los individuos. Entendemos que para un estudio más completo de las concepciones espaciales subjetivas debemos tener en cuenta ciertos aspectos que hasta ahora solo suelen ser analizados desde el punto de vista de la geografía postmoderna, pero que resultan fundamentales en las dinámicas urbanas actuales. En el nuevo modelo social y urbano la idea de la seguridad y el miedo ha adquirido un papel crucial como elemento creador de dinámicas sociales y espaciales en la ciudad. En relación a la ciudad se puede hablar de los "espacios del miedo", del miedo a la precariedad laboral, a los costes de la vivienda, al debilitamiento del Estado del Bienestar, a la discriminación; al vertiginoso ritmo de vida urbana o a la posibilidad de ser objeto de agresión o accidente. A estos miedos debemos sumar otros miedos o temores estrechamente relacionados con la oscilación de la coyuntura económica, la confrontación geopolítica, la posibilidad de ataques terroristas. Aunque el temor mayor es a la inseguridad ciudadana y la delincuencia y a "los otros" o alteralidad, a los desconocidos, es decir a la población inmigrante, a los que forman parte de colectivos ajenos a nuestro círculo de relaciones personales más cotidianas, elementos cruciales para entender la segregación urbana y la afloración creciente de conductas xenófobas. Estos aspectos relacionados con el miedo y la inseguridad, se basan en gran medida en lo que denominamos las concepciones espaciales subjetivas de los ciudadanos, las cuales se alimentan de las nuevas dinámicas de la sociedad postindustrial y de la desorientación que estas producen. A su vez consideramos de gran importancia nuevas realidades a tener en cuenta, como los espacios de la comunicación en la ciudad (Clua, 2006), los cuales pueden llegar a levantar el mismo tipo de fronteras que tradicionalmente se han establecido en el espacio físico de la trama urbana, donde los centros y las periferias continúan reproduciéndose en base a la limitación del acceso de la ciudadanía a la producción de discursos propios creados por los medios de comunicación locales.
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Resumen La medición de la segregación residencial de población extranjera, tradicionalmente se ha cen-trado en analizar su localización, distribución y concentración en el espacio urbano. Este artículo se centra en analizar el umbral de segregación a partir del cual sería necesaria la intervención social en aras de una correcta gestión de la diversidad étnica y cultural. Para ello, a través de una metodología basada en el análisis de las actitudes hacia el extranjero, analizamos la relación entre la segregación y la xenofobia. Consideramos que en el origen de la segregación residencial de la población extranjera, además de elementos económicos y residenciales, se puede encontrar un trasfondo de subjetividad socio-espacial, estrechamente relacionado con la aparición de la xeno-fobia. Esto resulta crucial para analizar la manera en que los ciudadanos generan su imagen sobre las zonas segregadas, ya que dicha construcción social determina el inicio o desarrollo del proce-so de segregación. En el caso de Sevilla, esta metodología ha servido para identificar tres ámbitos y dimensiones diferenciadas de segregación. Barrios donde el extranjero está claramente segre-gado, barrios marginalizados y segregados, así como zonas donde el extranjero resulta invisible. Palabras clave: segregación residencial, xenofobia, concepciones espaciales subjetivas, población extranjera, Sevilla. Abstract Residential segregation, subjective spatial conceptions and xenophobia. Setting the threshold for social intervention The evaluation of residential segregation of foreigners has been traditionally focused on the analysis of localization, distribution and concentration of foreigners' populations within urban areas. Nevertheless, those parameters alone are poorly useful to uncover the social consequences associated to residential segregation. Here, we have studied spatial segregation to identify a threshold from which social intervention should be required to properly manage ethnic and cultural diversity. Based on the people's attitudes toward the foreigners, we have investigated the relationship between segregation and xenophobia. We have found that residential segregation is caused, not
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La creciente complejidad de las dinámicas socioespaciales desarrolladas en el ámbito metropolitano incrementa la importancia de la intersubjetividad espacial a la hora de comprender globalmente el hecho urbano. Así, una de las variables que mayor impacto tiene sobre el imaginario social es la inmigración. Para su comprensión, es necesario realizar un enfoque analítico que aborde holísticamente la dimensión socioespacial intersubjetiva del imaginario sobre la inmigración y su papel en la ciudad. Por ello, proponemos, en el presente artículo, el concepto de espacio inducido y, en concreto, el desarrollo de una propuesta metodológica basada en el análisis del discurso, orientada a determinar el papel del imaginario social metropolitano sobre inmigración, en los procesos de segregación residencial de aquellos barrios que albergan altos porcentajes de población extranjera. Todo ello, desarrollado en el área metropolitana de Sevilla, ha mostrado cómo el espacio inducido desempeña un papel crucial en la realización de los procesos de segregación y estigmatización socioterritorial de aquellos ámbitos percibidos socialmente como «barrios de inmigrantes».
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The housing search process is an overlooked mechanism in the scholarly research that seeks to understand the causes of persistent racial residential segregation in the United States. Past research has explored in detail the preferences people hold in terms of the racial and ethnic composition of their neighborhoods, and more recently some have also examined the correspondence between racial and ethnic neighborhood preferences and current neighborhood racial/ethnic composition. But an intermediate stage-the racial/ethnic composition of where people search-has not been investigated. We analyze a subsample (n = 382) from the 2004-2005 Chicago Area Study to demonstrate the value of systematically studying the matches-or mismatches-between preferences, search locations, and neighborhood outcomes. We find that for whites, not only their current neighborhoods but also the neighborhoods in which they search for housing have larger percentages of whites than they say they prefer. In contrast, blacks-and to a lesser extent Latinos-search in neighborhoods that correspond to their preferences, but reside in neighborhoods with a larger percentage own group. Logistic regression analyses reveal that mismatches are associated with both a lack of information and inadequate finances, but also may be due to socially desirable responding for whites in particular. Our results provide suggestive evidence of the importance of unpacking the search process more generally and draw attention to what are likely to be productive new future data collection efforts as well as an area potentially ripe for policy interventions.
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This paper aims at achieving a better understanding of rental housing market discrimination against ethnic minorities. There remain substantial lacunae in the scientific knowledge about the association between the concentration of ethnic minorities in the neighbourhood and discrimination, and possible differences in discrimination based on host society language proficiency. Although these associations have been considered in the USA, they have been neglected in the European context, which is quite different. A telephone survey offered data on 579 properties that is linked to (i) whether the fictitious ethnic minority candidate masters the host society language or not, (ii) the rent of the offered unit, (iii) the percentage of minorities in the neighbourhood and (iv) the socioeconomic background of the neighbourhood. Using multilevel modelling, we found (i) that host society language proficient migrants are discriminated against as often as non-proficient migrants and found (ii) a curvilinear association between rent and discrimination, with more discrimination for both cheaper and more expensive rental offers. We found (iii) no association between the presence of minorities in the neighbourhood and the occurrence of discrimination, contrary to previous research in the USA, and found (iv) no association between discrimination and the socioeconomic background of a neighbourhood.
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As the currents of globalisation edge the number and proportion of immigrant groups in towns and cities throughout the world ever higher, the question of whether and how ethnic diversity affects the social cohesion of communities has become an increasingly prominent and contested topic of academic and political debate. The majority of extant empirical investigations of this question have considered the effect of diversity across a national distribution of neighbourhoods. In this paper we focus on a single city: London. As possibly the most ethnically diverse conurbation on the planet, London serves as a particularly suitable test-bed for theories about the effects of ethnic heterogeneity on pro-social attitudes. Counter to the majority of existing studies, we find neighbourhood ethnic diversity in London to be positively related to the perceived social cohesion of neighbourhood residents, once the level of economic deprivation is accounted for. Ethnic segregation within neighbourhoods, on the other hand, is associated with lower levels of perceived social cohesion. Both effects are strongly moderated by the age of individual residents; diversity has a positive effect on social cohesion for young people but this effect dissipates in older age groups, the reverse pattern is found for ethnic segregation.
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Are small or large outgroup populations more closely related to an ingroup's prejudice? This paper addresses this question with national probability survey data from Germany focused on resident foreigners. Two interlocking processes underlie the complex relationship between population proportions and prejudice. Typically, larger outgroup population proportions simultaneously increase both threat and intergroup contact. The first process increases prejudice, the second decreases it. Using structural equation modelling, our analysis reveals that these two processes can be effectively combined into one complex model. Threat is perceptual; it involves what people think is the outgroup proportion and thus can be easily manipulated by political leaders and the mass media. Contact is experiential; it can reduce individual and collective threat as well as prejudice. The intricate relationship between threat and contact can be substantially altered by numerous moderators. Hence, rigid group segregation can limit contact, while unemployment can amplify threat. The paper provides evidence that reductions in prejudice have important consequences for intergroup relations.
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This article studies the importance of international theoretical and empirical analyses in order to explain residential segregation of foreign immigrants in one of the most multi-ethnic areas of Spain, the province of Almería. To find out the processes leading to segregation, we have analysed urban growth and the context of reception as the key elements in designing immigrant incorporation. The results show that the main cause of segregation is ethno-discrimination based on native residential preferences for the endogroup. En este artículo se analiza la importancia y el grado de aplicación que tienen los análisis teóricos y empíricos internacionales en la explicación de la segregación residencial que padecen los inmigrantes extranjeros en una de las zonas más multiétnicas de España: la provincia de Almería. Para conocer los procesos que llevan a la segregación hemos analizado las particularidades del crecimiento urbano y el contexto de recepción, como elementos claves a la hora de diseñar la incorporación de los inmigrantes. Los resultados muestran que la principal causa de la segregación es la etnodiscriminación, fundamentada en las preferencias residenciales de los nacionales por el endogrupo.
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In this paper we focus on opposition among European citizens to the granting of civil rights to legal migrants, a phenomenon considered to be a crucial aspect of ethnic exclusionism. We set out to establish to what extent differences in support of ethnic exclusionism can be explained in terms of effects of particular (a) individual and (b) contextual characteristics, and in terms of (c) interactions between contextual and individual characteristics. We have systematically derived hypotheses from Ethnic Competition Theory. We used cross-national comparable data from 15 European countries and performed multi-level analyses (total N = 12,728). We found that people living in individual competitive conditions perceive ethnic out-groups as a threat, and that this in turn reinforces ethnic exclusionism. Contextual competitive conditions, particularly the presence of non-EU citizens, also affect ethnic exclusionism.
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Este artículo examina la xenofobia existente en dos niveles de densidad poblacional en la provincia de Almería: en municipios de la provincia de Almería con alta densidad de inmigración y en barrios de alta densidad de inmigración. De nuestro estudio se desprende que la densidad de inmigrantes fomenta las conductas y actitudes xenófobas de la población, tanto de aquellos individuos que viven en municipios como en barrios de la provincia de Almería, así como la diferenciación (segmentación) de la xenofobia atendiendo al lugar de origen. Además, los estereotipos negativos sobre los inmigrantes indiferenciados tienen un referente xenófobo más alto, percepción que va disminuyendo a medida que existe un mayor nivel de relación, conocimiento, etc., como son los casos de vecindad.
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We have examined the extent to which ethnic diversity in neighbourhoods and municipalities in The Netherlands is related to personal contact with neighbours from ethnic in-groups and out-groups among the native majority as well as among ethnic minorities. The results indicate that ethnic diversity is negatively related to personal contacts with native neighbours, but positively to personal contacts with neighbours from other ethnic groups. This applies equally to native respondents and Turks and Moroccans, rejecting Putnam's hunkering-down hypothesis and ethnic competition theory. Instead, ethnic diversity increases meeting opportunities with ethnic minorities while decreasing meeting opportunities with the native majority.
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The residential segregation of ethnic groups in urban areas remains an issue of importance for policy-making in multicultural societies, such as England's, with levels of segregation frequently linked to questions of social exclusion and equal treatment. But how segregated are ethnic groups in England? Most studies answer this question using single indices which address one aspect only of a multidimensional concept. In this paper, an alternative approach is used which identifies residential area types according to the degree of ethnic mixing; we evaluate their relative importance in 18 English cities in the light of Boal and Peach's arguments regarding the processes and patterns involved in segregation. We find little evidence of significant segregation of Black ethnic groups, but more with regard to Asian groups-especially outside London.
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What could be more inherently geographical than segregation? However, the richness of the spatial variations in segregation is seldom captured by the dominant genre of empirical research. Returning the ‘geography’ to segregation research, we argue that local areas need to be given considerably more attention, using measures that explicitly reveal the spatial fabric of residential clustering along racial/ethnic lines. We first critique global measures such as the Dissimilarity Index and its spatial counterparts. Attention then turns to local measures such as the Location Quotient and Local Moran's I, applying them to Franklin County, Ohio, the core of Columbus MSA (Metropolitan Statistical Area). Our interpretation of the findings also employs local knowledge concerning neighbourhood characteristics, ongoing urban processes, historical occurrences, and the like. Thus, while local indices based on secondary data expose the terrain of clustering/segregation, follow-up fieldwork and/or secondary data analysis in a mixed-methods framework provides a better understanding of the ground-level reality of clustering/segregation. Tangible evidence of the gain from this approach is provided by our evaluation of conventional frameworks for understanding racial/ethnic aspects of residential patterning – assimilation, stratification and resurgent ethnicity – and in our proposal for a new framework, ‘market-led pluralism’, which focuses on market makers who represent the supply side of housing. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Ethnic diversity is increasing in most advanced countries, driven mostly by sharp increases in immigration. In the long run immigration and diversity are likely to have important cultural, economic, fiscal, and developmental benefits. In the short run, however, immigration and ethnic diversity tend to reduce social solidarity and social capital. New evidence from the US suggests that in ethnically diverse neighbourhoods residents of all races tend to ‘hunker down’. Trust (even of one's own race) is lower, altruism and community cooperation rarer, friends fewer. In the long run, however, successful immigrant societies have overcome such fragmentation by creating new, cross-cutting forms of social solidarity and more encompassing identities. Illustrations of becoming comfortable with diversity are drawn from the US military, religious institutions, and earlier waves of American immigration.
Article
A meta-analysis was performed concerning the prejudice-discrimination relationships using 60 studies published in 53 documents. The estimate for the population correlation between prejudice and discrimination was .286 (after correction for attenuation = .364). The corresponding estimate for the relation of prejudice and intention was .368 (corrected .449) and for the discrimination-intention relationship .488 (corrected .488). More specific analyses showed that the strength of the correlation depended heavily on (a) the behavioral categories, (b) target groups, (c) assessment strategies for prejudice and discrimination, and (d) the time intervals between measurements.
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A través del contexto madrileño el siguiente artículo analiza la problemática residencial de los inmigrantes económicos en base a los procesos de exclusión residencial y segregación espacial con el fin de demostrar hasta que punto ambos llegan a coincidir. Para ello se aplican indicadores residenciales claves e índices de segregación, obtenidos a partir de fuentes de análisis secundarias (Encuesta de Estructuras Salariales, Censo de Población y Viviendas, Padrón de Habitantes) y cuyos resultados conducen a afirmar que existe un intenso proceso de exclusión residencial que no se ve secundado por un proceso de segregación espacial. Por tanto la segregación se presenta como un indicador espacial poco fiable y confuso en la representación de la problemática residencial de la población estudiada.
Article
Shaw and McKay's influential theory of community social disorganization has never been directly tested. To address this, a community-level theory that builds on Shaw and McKay's original model is formulated and tested. The general hypothesis is that low economic status, ethnic heterogeneity, residential mobility, and family disruption lead to community social disorganization, which, in turn, increases crime and delinquency rates. A community's level of social organization is measure in terms of local friendship networks, control of street-corner teenage peer groups, and prevalence of organizational participation. The model is first tested by analyzing data for 238 localities in Great Britain constructed from a 1982 national survey of 10,905 residents. The model is then replicated on an independent national sample of 11,030 residents of 300 British localities in 1984. Results from both surveys support the theory and show that between-community variations in social disorganization transmit much of the effect of community structural characteristics on rates of both criminal victimization and criminal offending. Sociology
Article
Residential segregation has traditionally been measured by using the index of dissimilarity and, more recently, the P * exposure index. These indices, however, measure only two of five potential dimensions of segregation and, by themselves, understate the degree of black segregation in U.S. society. Compared with Hispanics, not only are blacks more segregated on any single dimension of residential segregation, they are also likely to be segregated on all five dimensions simultaneously, which never occurs for Hispanics. Moreover, in a significant subset of large urban areas, blacks experience extreme segregation on all dimensions, a pattern we call hypersegregation. This finding is upheld and reinforced by a multivariate analysis. We conclude that blacks occupy a unique and distinctly disadvantaged position in the U.S. urban environment.
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