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An evaluation of festival activities as motives for festival attendance: A case study of Strawberry festival at the Redberry farm in George, South Africa


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The author asserts that It is imperative that festival organisers understand tourist motivations for attending festivals in order to conduct effective festival planning and furthermore, in order to achieve a more productive festival marketing position and marketing strategy. The purpose of this study was to evaluate festival activities as motives to attend the Strawberry festival in George, South Africa and as a basis for informing marketing and management recommendations aimed at improving the festival experience of visitors. Much research has been conducted around festival-scape factors, however this study opted to focus on specific festival activities that were used in the promotional and advertising material for the festival, breaking the mould of analysing festival attendance motives as previously employed by many studies. The motivation of these attendees is broken down and viewed abstractly from different viewpoints of how the motivation to attend a festival, differs between attendees of varying age, first-time versus repeat visitors, spending patterns, and satisfaction with the range of services that are provided.
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African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, Volume 6 (4) - (2017) ISSN: 2223-814X
Copyright: © 2017 AJHTL - Open Access- Online @ http//:
An evaluation of festival activities as motives for festival
attendance: A case study of Strawberry festival at the
Redberry farm in George, South Africa
Dr Takalani Ramukumba
Tourism Department (George campus)
Nelson Mandela University
The author asserts that It is imperative that festival organisers understand tourist motivations for
attending festivals in order to conduct effective festival planning and furthermore, in order to achieve a
more productive festival marketing position and marketing strategy. The purpose of this study was to
evaluate festival activities as motives to attend the Strawberry festival in George, South Africa and as a
basis for informing marketing and management recommendations aimed at improving the festival
experience of visitors. Much research has been conducted around festival-scape factors, however this
study opted to focus on specific festival activities that were used in the promotional and advertising
material for the festival, breaking the mould of analysing festival attendance motives as previously
employed by many studies. The motivation of these attendees is broken down and viewed abstractly
from different viewpoints of how the motivation to attend a festival, differs between attendees of varying
age, first-time versus repeat visitors, spending patterns, and satisfaction with the range of services that
are provided.
Keywords: Strawberry Festival, attendees’ motivations, events.
Festivals and special events have grown in all destinations and are the fastest growing
segment of the tourism field. Special interests in festivals and events such as cultural
preservation, experiencing local foods and cultures, and community involvement in a
destination have led to an increased emphasis on regional and local festivals. According to
Park, Reisinger, & Kang (2008) festivals play a significant role for communities by attracting
tourists, creating positive economic impact, creating opportunities for community involvement
and togetherness, and enhancing the image of the destination.
A number of studies have been conducted on festivals and events with their many advantages
for communities (Getz, 1993). However, due to the competitive nature of festivals, further
research is essential to help both festival managers and marketers to ensure that they can
have effective marketing strategies for their festivals.
The study done by Kim, Goh, and Juan (2010) found that it was widely accepted that
understanding travel motivations is vital in predicting future travel patterns. This idea was
further supported by Park, Reisinger, and Kang (2008) who stressed that understanding
consumers’ motivations is a key prerequisite to creating desirable experiences and satisfaction
for customers. In the same notion and views of the authors above, Xie, Costa, & Morais (2008)
were of the opinion that by understanding tourists’ motivations, their needs can be fulfilled
through marketing activities. Fodness (1994) also stated that effective marketing is impossible
without identifying, understanding, and prioritising consumers’ motivation. Increasing interest
and more involvement in festivals has contributed to the growth of festivals. However, little
attention has been paid to strawberry festivals in South Africa and especially to attendee’s
motivation and satisfaction levels during these festivals.
African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, Volume 6 (4) - (2017) ISSN: 2223-814X
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Significance of festivals
According to Allen, O’Toole, Harris & McDonnell (2011: 14) festivals are known to be an
important expression of human activity that contributes to our social cohesion and our cultural
life. The same authors went on to indicate that these events have become a pervasive feature
of our cultural landscape that constitutes a vital and growing component of the event industry.
The views of Wamwara-Mbugua & Cornwell (2009) are that other commonly recognized
positive outcomes for the community include: provision of economic support, authenticity, and
community cohesion. In the opinions of Loots, Ellis & Slabbert (2011) festivals may also
generate business activity and income for their host communities, as they can directly and
indirectly increase tourism revenue. They further went on to indicate that these events can be
a ‘financial injection’ to their host economies, and one that governments, businesses, and
residents rely on and Saayman (2004) proposed that the contribution of these events to tourism
in the area is especially seen in that they offer entertainment and serve as an attraction for
their host community. This idea is further supported by Prentice and Anderson (2003), who
indicated that festivals can be considered destinations in and of themselves.
Visitors to festival
According to Felsenstein & Fleischer (2003) local festivals are increasingly being utilised to
promote tourism and further boost the local economy. Based on studies done by Bagelym &
Mokhtarian (2002) and Cole & Illum (2006), these authors recognise the different types of
visitors who attend festivals, however, they emphasised the difference and importance of local
residents and visitors who do not reside locally due to their distinctive behaviour. Felsenstein
& Fleischer (2003) were of the opinion that attendees who are local residents are found to have
different spending behaviour compared to non-locals. According to Lau & McKercher (2004),
festival attendees can be grouped into two categories: first-time visitors and repeat visitors.
First-time visitors are those attendees who have discovered the festival and are experiencing
it for the first time, while repeat visitors have already acquired familiarity and satisfaction with
the experience (Lau & McKercher, 2004). Both first-time and repeat attendees play a vital role
in the success and sustainability of a festival. It has been found that these two groups differ
significantly in regards to socio-demographics, behavioural characteristics, destination
perception, perceived value, and travel motivations. While first-time attendees have been
found to spend a significant amount of money during the festival, repeat visitors have been
found to stay longer and spend more a testament to their loyalty. Thus, this segment of repeat
visitors represents an attractive and cost-effective market segment for festivals (Kruger,
Saayman, & Ellis, 2010).
Motivation to attend festivals
The success of a festival is heavily dependent on the execution of a strategic marketing plan;
an understanding of the relationship between a destination event and its visitors and the
identification of target markets are critical factors in the process (Thomson and Schoefield,
2009). Festival organizers are likely to assert that their primary goal is to provide high quality,
satisfying experiences that visitors perceive to be good value in order to increase the
probability of the visitors returning in the future and/or recommending the festival to others in
their social circle (Lee, Petrick and Crompton, 2007). Since competition among festivals and
destinations is increasing, the need for information on festivals, specifically analysis of
motivations for attending festivals and events has become important. Moreover, Crompton and
McKay (1997) argue that event managers should make every effort possible to fully understand
the motives of festival attendance in order to provide better services for them; since motives
are a powerful predictor of satisfaction and a significant aspect in the decision making process,
the exploration of the visitors' motives can lead to advanced levels of attendance. For example,
Crompton and McKay (1997) explored festival attendance motivation for the following reasons:
firstly, it gives the opportunity to match the festival's content to the visitors' needs. Furthermore,
it augments the visitors' satisfaction levels since their needs are met; and lastly it increases
African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, Volume 6 (4) - (2017) ISSN: 2223-814X
Copyright: © 2017 AJHTL - Open Access- Online @ http//:
the chances for the visitors to revisit the festival, a fact that plays a key role for the economic
viability of the festival. Schoefield and Thomson (2007) also agree that it is critically important
to discover festival visitor motivations and to measure consumers' satisfaction levels from the
point of view of the consumer. They suggest that from a planning and management perspective
it is vital to determine visitor satisfaction and behavioural intention with respect to repeat visits
and to help identify the factors which affect visitor motivation and their experiential outcomes.
Gelder and Robinson (2009) as well as Bowen and Daniels (2005) state that understanding
why people go to festivals can help planners align their marketing efforts to emphasize the
attributes that best reflect the mission and goals of each event. Nicholson and Pearce (2001)
believe that these factors will become increasingly important as the growing number and
diversity of events, especially festivals, lead to heightened competition , in particular when
events are initiated or expanded to encourage tourism and thus boost local economies
(Daniels, 2004). Getz (1993) also emphasized the importance of analysing visitors' motives for
attending festivals and events. Identifying such motivations is a prerequisite for planning event
programs effectively and marketing them to visitors (Crompton & McKay, 1997). Analysis of
festival motivations also helps event managers to better position their festivals (Scott, 1996).
According to Crompton & McKay (1997), understanding festival motivation is imperative to
design offerings for attendees, identify attendees’ decision making process, and ultimately
increase satisfaction levels. Individualistic motivations for festivals emerged because of the
mixture of recreation for the local residents and tourism offerings for tourists. Previous research
by the following authors (Crompton & McKay, 1997; Formica & Uysal, 1996; Mohr, Backman,
Gahan, & Backman, 1993; Uysal, Gahan, & Martin, 1993) has found that need for excitement,
event novelty, unique experience, socialization, entertainment, involvement are some reasons
why people attend festivals. However, it should be noted that differences in motivations were
revealed across factors such as age, income, local residency and repeat visitation.
Pioneered by Gitelson & Crompton (1984), first-time and repeat visitor studies concluded that
each group had different motivations, leading to different behaviour. Most notable differences
proposed by previous researchers included: socio-demographics, behaviour characteristics,
destination perceptions, satisfaction and image, and travel motivation (Kruger, Saayman, &
Ellis, 2010; Lau & McKercher, 2004; McKercher & Wong, 2004; Shanka & Taylor, 2004).
Repeat visitors have also been found to display a stronger value-loyalty relationship than first-
time festivalgoers (Lee, Lee, & Yoon, 2009). This study took a different view on festival
attendance motivations as done by previous researchers, and focussed on festival activities
as motives as an outline in the festivals marketing and promotional materials to attend the
Festivals and destination management
Festivals have been recognised as one of the most important areas of the tourism industry,
and they have contributed to their host communities in a number of ways: creating economic
impact, enhancing the overall image of the destination, and creating community involvement.
Festivals have also provided the community with the recognition of the destination. According
to Grunwell, Ha, and Martin (2008), festivals could bring a whole new group of tourists to a
destination. When visitors have a positive experience in the host community, they will in all
probability return to that destination in the future (Woosnam, McElroy, & Winkle, 2009).
One of the most distinguished characteristics of festivals is their ability to create high returns
on small investments (Getz, 1993). One way that festivals create less financial responsibilities
for themselves is by holding events in temporary or already existing physical locations
(Gursory, Kim, & Uysal, 2004). Most festivals do not own permanent physical structures that
are a constant financial burden. Additionally, many festivals are managed and operated by a
small staff or volunteers (Gursoy, Kim, & Uysal, 2004), which is beneficial for both the residents
and the festival. Residents benefit by being able to stay active in their community, and the
festival benefits from a labour force that does not require much monetary compensation. These
African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, Volume 6 (4) - (2017) ISSN: 2223-814X
Copyright: © 2017 AJHTL - Open Access- Online @ http//:
characteristics make festivals more tolerant of economic downturns. This resistance to poor
economic environments makes festivals more attractive to communities or organizations
looking to start a new project.
Festivals provide an opportunity for residents and businesses of the local community to get
involved and become active participants in their community. The ability of festivals to involve
members of the host community gives festivals an important role in the preservation of a
community’s culture. During festivals, an atmosphere is created with valuable and cultural
ideas, practices, and traditions that can be shared with others. New members of a community
can learn about a community’s culture from festivals conducted by the hosting community.
Festival events create a sense of community and cohesiveness among community members
(Gursoy, Kim, & Uysal, 2004). Festivals can celebrate the music, art, food, strawberry, or
countless other aspects of a community’s culture and heritage. Thus, festivals are ideal
projects for developing unique aspects of the community’s culture. A sense of pride is
developed as a community celebrates together. This pride and excitement from the host
community can be important factors in attracting non-resident tourists to a festival as well as
in providing a great opportunity for residents to be involved in community events. According to
Lee, Lee, and Wicks (2004), festivals enhance tourists’ experiences by using the local
community’s culture to create a unique experience.
In order to complete the study, a self-completing questionnaire was administered on-site to
visitors attending Strawberry festival in 2016 over the duration of the festival. Attendees to the
festival completed the questionnaire on the exit gates to ensure that only those who have had
the experience can complete based on their overall experience of the festival on the day.
Study site
This study was conducted at the Strawberry festival at the Redberry farm in George. Although
the strawberry emporium is the major purpose of a festival, the festival also includes live
entertainment, cycling competition, food and wine tasting and sales, stalls selling various
merchandise, social events, and children’s activities.
Instrument and motivation measurements
The instrument for this study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of festival activities
as motives for festival attendance at the Strawberry festival at the Redberry farm in George.
The research used ten (10) main activities of the festival as published on the festival website
and other promotional materials used to promote the festival. Using undergraduate students,
a pilot test was conducted to establish reliability. Experts in tourism research and in festivals
also reviewed a draft of the instrument to determine validity. Comments and inputs were used
for development of the final instrument.
The final instrument was a three-page questionnaire consisting of three sections: socio-
demographics, promotional mediums, travel and ticket arrangements and main festival
activities that induce motivation to attend the festival. Attendees were asked choose the main
activity that convinced them to attend the festival and they were allowed to choose more than
Data collection and analysis
Data were collected at the Strawberry festival at the Redberry farm in George on Saturday 1st
and Sunday 2nd October 2016. Four undergraduate students from the Nelson Mandela
University tourism department at the George campus administered and collected the surveys
under the supervision of an academic researcher. Attendees were randomly approached,
African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, Volume 6 (4) - (2017) ISSN: 2223-814X
Copyright: © 2017 AJHTL - Open Access- Online @ http//:
asked if they were willing to participate in the study and the purpose of the study was explained.
It was only those visitors who accepted to participate in the study that were given the
questionnaire to complete. Attendees completed the survey in front of the research assistants,
and the surveys were checked briefly and collected immediately after completion. A total of
137 attendees agreed to complete the questionnaire. The statistical Package for Social
Science (SPSS 15.0 for Windows) was used for data analysis. After encoding data in SPSS,
the data were screened for usability and descriptive statistics were used to represent the
Research findings and discussion
This section provides a discussion on the findings of the research. Whilst the purpose of this
study was to evaluate festival activities as motives to attend the Strawberry festival held at the
Redberry farm in George, South Africa, it was deemed necessary as part of the findings to
include the profile of the festival attendees as well as their views on satisfaction levels based
on facilities and services rendered during the festival.
Visitor profiles
Table 1: Gender of visitors
Table 2: Age of visitors
56 And Above
Table 3: Visitor spending at the festival
Amount of money spent at festival
R100 or less
R101 - R500
R501 - R1 000
R1001 - R2 000
R2 001 and more
The results of the study, as shown in Tables 1 3 (visitor profile) above, show that the
proportion of female visitors is marginally higher at 54% than the male visitors at 46%. The
age distribution shows a relatively young group of visitors with 32.8% being 18 -25 years old,
slightly followed by those between the ages 26 -35 at 26.8 %. Those aged between 36 -45
years were at 20% and the least age representation was for those who were 56 years and
above with 7.7%.
African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, Volume 6 (4) - (2017) ISSN: 2223-814X
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The majority of visitors (61.4%) have indicated spending between R101 R500 during the
festival. The second highest spent was recorded for those who spent between R501 and
R1 000 with 22.5%, whilst the least spent was recorded for those who spent R2 001 and above
represented by 0.4%.
Visitor characteristics
Table 4: Travelling form of the visitors
Travelling party
Family members
Just me
Prefer not to say
Participation in festivals would be more exciting in groups family members and friends; this
supported by results showing 48.3% of those who came with family members and 30.5 % who
attended the festival with friends respectively. The results of the study also show that this
festival is least interesting to those who travel alone at 4.2% and those who prefer not to say
about their travel status at 3.4%. Interestingly, 13.6% attend the festival with their spouses
which may infer that this festival is good as an outing destination for spouses.
Table 5: Times of attending the festival
Times attending this festival
First time
Second time
Third time
More than three times
Most festivals draw from a relatively local area whereby their continued viability and
sustainability depends on a high level of repeat visitation (Crompton and McKay 1997).
Interestingly, as shown in table 5 above, just above half of the visitors (51.1%) were attending
the festival for the first time, slightly followed at 33.8% who were attending the festival for the
second time. It seems the festival is struggling to convince visitors to return for three times and
more as shown by 8.9% of those who were attending the festival for the third time and 6.3%
of visitors who were attending the festival for more than three times.
Table 6: Number of days attending the festival
Days of festival attend
The strawberry festival is a two-day event, and the majority of the visitors (92.4%) indicated
attending the festival for only one day with only 7.6% attending the full two days of the festival
as shown in Table 6 above. This finding may infer that visitors do not find the festival to have
enough activities to do over a period of two days.
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Festival atmosphere
Table 7: Rating of the festival services and facilities by visitors
Festival’s overall
Quality of food
Availability of parking
Quality of entertainment
Cleanliness of bathrooms
Waiting times to be served
The delivery of service and the provision of facilities influence the satisfaction of visitors to the
destination and therefore an analysis of the perception of the visitors to the event will enable
the organisers and marketers to gauge the satisfaction levels of the visitors since perception
will indicate the actual experience of the visitors on the services and facilities provided. In this
study, visitors were asked to rate their satisfaction and experiences during the festival on a
Likert scale of 1 (strongly agree) to 5 (strongly disagree). These results are presented (Table
7 above) descending from the most positive to the least positive as rated by the visitors. The
results of the study infer that the visitors were mostly satisfied by the service quality and
standards of the facilities during the festival. This is supported by a standard deviation for all
the items evaluated which was recorded at above 70% for all the items.
The highest ranked festival service and facility were waiting times to be served and cleanliness
of the bathrooms with a mean scores of 2.0 each and these were slightly followed by availability
of parking and quality of entertainment with mean scores of 1.9 each. The least important
festival services and facilities were overall festival atmosphere and quality of food with mean
scores of 1.8 each. The results also show that if the responses of those who strongly agreed
and those who agreed are combined together, the results show an overwhelming majority of
participants in favour of the service standards and quality of facilities provided during the
festival. The highest combined percentage of those who strongly agreed and agreed is for the
quality of food at a combined 85% and this was slightly followed by the overall atmosphere of
the festival recorded at 84.3%. Overall, all the combined scores of those who strongly agreed
and those agreed which is recorded above 70% indicates the great satisfaction levels by the
Marketing strategies and media
Word of mouth
Street posters
Street banners
Algoa FM
School communicator
Official website
The results of the study indicate that most of the festival attendees knew of the festival through
word of mouth (42.6%) and that was slightly followed by Facebook page of the festival (34.2%).
African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, Volume 6 (4) - (2017) ISSN: 2223-814X
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The least marketing medium that attendees got festival information from was Twitter (1.3%).
Street posters (18.6%) and street banners (17.7%) proved to be important marketing mediums
for the festival as well. Strawberry festival is an annual event used to promote the Redberry
farm and its activities, one that attracts a diverse range of people from varying socio-
demographic backgrounds. Based on the visitor profile data, organisers may wish to revisit the
marketing strategies and media currently being used to attract visitors to the event.
Visitor motivation
Table 8: Motives to attend the festival
Festival activities
Strawberry Emporium
Food and wine testing
Country market
Children activities
Free entertainment
Craft beer tastings
Headline performer Jesse Clegg
Trail run
Mountain Biking (MTB)
Table 8 above, show the results relating to what motivated the attendees to attend the festival.
The results of the study indicate that the important motivation for visiting the festival was the
strawberry emporium (33.3%), slightly followed by those who were motivated by food and wine
testing (31.6%). The third-ranked motive for visiting the festival was country market (29.5%)
The fourth-ranked motive for visiting the festival was children activities (28.7%). The least
motivator for visiting the festival was mountain biking (5.9%) which was slightly followed by
trail run (10.1%). With respect to visitor motivations for visiting Strawberry festival, the most
important motives were strawberry emporium and food and wine testing whilst there is an
argument that country market and children activities could be considered important motivations
to visit the festival. This finding is consistent with Crompton and McKay’s (1997) assertion that
individuals are likely to attend a festival based on the motivations of novel value, education
and socialisation. Moreover, the findings support those of Crompton and McKay (1997) and
Scott (1996) who found varying levels of importance placed on certain motivations for visiting.
Given that the most important motive for visiting Strawberry festival was strawberry emporium,
special attention must be made and acted upon to ensure the festival meets the visitor’s desire
to gain knowledge and expand intellectual horizons. Failure to meet these needs (as well as
their secondary needs i.e. food and wine tasting, country market and children activities) seems
likely to reduce visitor satisfaction and the likelihood of repeat visitation which may in turn affect
the likelihood of success of future Strawberry festivals.
Based on the visitor profiles, the findings suggest that this particular festival could do a better
job of marketing itself. With the motives of strawberry emporium, country market, food and
wine tasting as well as children activities being the main reasons for visitors to attend
Strawberry festival, promotional materials might need to incorporate (or even develop
products) that address how the festival satisfies these needs. In terms of product development,
ideas such as offering discounted group ticket sales or offering combined festival-entry and
festival activity tickets may appeal to the festival attendees. Increasing the number of
information lectures/sipping sessions and providing information about strawberry education
classes might appeal to those who visited Strawberry festival primarily for strawberry
emporium motives.
African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, Volume 6 (4) - (2017) ISSN: 2223-814X
Copyright: © 2017 AJHTL - Open Access- Online @ http//:
In conclusion, there is certainly scope for further research on motivations for attending a festival
based on specific motives that are used to market and promote the festival, and such research
would build on the current study’s theoretical, methodological and practical contributions to
festivals and events sectors of the tourism industry. The purpose of this study was to evaluate
festival activities as motives to attend the Strawberry festival held at the Redberry farm in
George, South Africa and as a basis for informing marketing and management
recommendations aimed at improving the festival experience of visitors. The literature review
could not confirm that similar research has been conducted at any festival as this was done
focusing on motivations to attend festivals based on activities specific to the festival, which is
an indication that this is an area where more research is required. Previous research done was
found to be mainly on established models of festival attendance rather than specific festival
activities. This study is significant since the festival sector is growing in South Africa and as
such, this sector creates more opportunities for festival entrepreneurs both current and
potential. The study results infer an indication that the visitors were satisfied overall with the
facilities and services rendered during the festival which is good for the sustainability of the
festival as such.
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African Journal of Hospitality, Tourism and Leisure, Volume 6 (4) - (2017) ISSN: 2223-
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... Event image is previously known to affect destination image and vice versa, but the intensity of such influence still requires investigation. Another unresolved issue is the uncertainty about whether event image and destination image mutually affect each other as well as their effect on visitor satisfaction and behavioural intention (Lai, Hitchcock, Lu & Liu, 2018;Ramukumba, 2017). ...
... They found that satisfaction will have a more significant effect on return intention than word of mouth, and the more conferences an attendee attends, the more positive recommendation an attendee will promote, and therefore, event image positively affects visitor satisfaction. Fundamentally, there is a need to understand how event image can affect visitor satisfaction that can contribute to enhancing the level of satisfaction among all visitors and attendees at festivals events in developing countries (Ramukumba, 2017;Viviers & Slabbert, 2014). ...
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Understanding the variables that influence visitor satisfaction and intention to revisit within the context of events has not been widely observed in the developing countries. This study investigated whether the influence of event image and destination image with each other and their effect on visitor satisfaction and intentions to revisit by examining Jerash and Fuheis festivals events in Jordan and their differences based on the frequency of visit. Data were collected face to face by the author from 223 visitors' attended festivals events. Multiple regressions were used to evaluate the hypotheses of this study. The results revealed as follow: 1) the positive effects of destination image on event image; 2) the positive effects of the event and destination images on visitor satisfaction and intention to revisit; 3) the higher the frequency of visits to the event, the longer the time spent in the destination with more satisfaction and intention to revisit. The key contribution of this study showed clearly the importance of collaborations between event organisers and destination marketers is discussed along with the significance of visitor satisfaction and intention to revisit as a driver of event and destination images formation.
... In the literature related to food events, there are numerous publications and research descriptions about the motivation and participation goals of visitors, e.g., young people's motivation at wine festivals [12]; the impact of the festivalscape on loyalty and motivation [13]; the review and discussion of the main motivational factors used in previous studies [14]; specific motives-the strawberry event case study [15]; the examination of motivation viability for festival market segmentation [16]; differentiation in motivation between different types of food festivals [17]. Research on the participation of exhibitors, vendors and food producers in food festivals is much less prevalent. ...
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This paper aims to present the motivation of exhibitors participating in food festivals to establish and run a business. The conducted research is an attempt to fill the gap in research on exhibitors who participate in food festivals. During three different Polish culinary festivals, 58 in-depth interviews with exhibitors were conducted. Based on the research, the main startup business motives were identified. The current goals of exhibitors’ participation in culinary festivals were also analyzed. Based on the list of motives and goals, three groups of exhibitors were distinguished with similar characteristics (starting own business, continuation of family traditions, and culinary interest). The study also takes into account the changes that have occurred between the startup’s business motives and the goals of participation in the festival (“business-business”, “business-business-business-family”, and “business-passion-passion-business”). The comparison of the initial motives for setting up a business with the current goals of participating in food festivals shows that, regardless of the initial motives, the exhibitors currently focus on business goals.
Popular culture (pop culture) events have the potential to promote tourist destinations and to generate tourism income. Travel motivation is a critical consideration for reaping these benefits since it serves as a stepping stone for event attendance and it initiates a desire to act. The purpose of this paper therefore is to determine the travel motivations of pop culture fans. Data was gathered from 576 pop culture fans attending a pop culture event in Gauteng, South Africa, using a structured questionnaire. The data were analysed using exploratory factor analysis. The findings revealed nine travel motivations which were labelled brand visibility, event participation, acquire pop culture knowledge, escapism, celebrity fandom, value for money, exclusive merchandise, social enjoyment and novelty. The paper highlights novelty as the most important travel motivation for attending the specific pop culture event and it is therefore argued that pop culture fans attend these events to experience something new and different. In line with the findings of this research, it is recommended that pop culture event marketers pay close attention to all nine identified travel motivations to retain their current fans and to remain competitive.
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The aim of this research is to segment visitors to one of South Africa's biggest arts festivals based on the frequency of visits in order to distinguish between fi rst-time and repeat festival attendees. Both fi rst-time and repeat visitor groups play a fundamental role in the overall well-being and success of a festival, and festival organisers must strive to achieve a balance between fi rst-time and repeat visitors. Festival managers should therefore be aware of the festival attributes that diff erentiate between the fi rst-time visitor group and repeat visitors attending the festival. These diff erences include socio-demographics, behavioural characteristics, destination perception, perceived value and travel motivations. This article therefore compares fi rst-time and repeat visitors to the Klein Karoo National Arts Festival based on these categories. A questionnaire survey (N = 555) was conducted at the festival, and the fi ndings indicate that there are signifi cant diff erences between fi rst-time and repeat visitors at the festival. First-time visitors spend a signifi cant amount of money during the festival and are mainly motivated by Relaxation and socialisation and Festival shows/productions, while repeat visitors are loyal visitors who stay longer and spend more money, especially on tickets supporting the festival's shows/ productions. Results reveal that both fi rst-time and repeat visitor groups are important for the long-term sustainability of the festival. This method of segmentation has proved to be successful and is used as the basis for proposing managerial and marketing implications for the festival organisers.
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The objective of this study was to identify the major factors that motivated visitors to attend the South Beach Wine and Food Festival in Miami Beach, Florida, and determine whether these factors varied among the visitors from the United States, Canada, South America, Europe, and Asia. A survey of 475 visitors to South Florida was conducted in February 2006. Forty-four motivational items were factor analyzed. The seven factors that motivated first-time visitors to the festival were the desire to taste new wine and food, enjoy the event, enhance social status, escape from routine life, meet new people, spend time with family, and get to know the celebrity chefs and wine experts. A significant difference in motivation among the five national groups of visitors was found in the area of family influence. Implications of the study results are discussed.
Events are one of the fastest growing tourism attractions in South Africa. This has various implications for the role players involved in hosting the event, especially the community. It is important to obtain the support and loyalty of residents so that potential conflicts can be avoided. However, residents are not always involved in the planning and management of the event, which raises questions about the real benefits they receive. It is therefore the aim of this research to determine the factors predicting community support in the case of a South African arts festival. A survey was done in 2007 at the Klein Karoo National Arts Festival (KKNK), which is one of the largest arts festivals in the country. A stratified random sampling procedure was followed in the community of Oudtshoorn, and 279 questionnaires were completed by residents. Structural equation modelling was done, based on the study of Gursoy and Kendall (2006), to explore the factors and identify its influence on support for the event. It was found that community attachment, costs and benefits perceived were the most important factors predicting community support for the festival, which differs from the results of previous studies. In the case of this study, ecocentric attitudes and issues of community concern did not influence the level of community support the event was given
This article reviews ‘event tourism’ as both professional practice and a field of academic study. The origins and evolution of research on event tourism are pinpointed through both chronological and thematic literature reviews. A conceptual model of the core phenomenon and key themes in event tourism studies is provided as a framework for spurring theoretical advancement, identifying research gaps, and assisting professional practice. Conclusions are in two parts: a discussion of implications for the practice of event management and tourism, and implications are drawn for advancing theory in event tourism.
This study is an examination of the relationships between visitors' perceived service quality, perceived service value, satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Respondents were visitors who attended the Cajun Catfish Festival in Conroe, Texas and were systematically selected. Findings revealed that: (a) a structural model operationalizing perceived ser- vice quality as a set of attributes predicted visitors' intention to visit the festival better than an alternative model that measured quality by using a visitor's judgment about a ser- vice's overall excellence or superiority; (b) among the con- structs analyzed, perceived service value appeared to be the best predictor of behavioral intentions; and (c) of the four dimensions of service quality of a festival, generic features and comfort amenities had the most influence on determin- ing perceived service quality.
While many events individually claim varied successes, it is worth acknowledging the growing competition between events and festivals in attracting and retaining repeat visitors. In particular, it is of interest to investigate festivals which have established a 'following' of visitors, and to establish what could sustain their attendees' interest for staging of future festivals. Event managers should be aware of the festival attributes that differentiate between two distinct visitor groups – the first-time visitor group versus the repeat visitors attending an annual festival on a regular basis. This paper investigates the attributes associated with the successful staging of a wine festival staged over a five-weekend period during the autumn of 2002 to determine which of the attributes significantly discriminate between first-time and repeat visitor groups. Results identified two attributes and four visitor characteristics that showed discriminating ability. The two festival attributes with discriminating abilities between the first-time visitors and repeat visitors were parking and services, while the four visitor characteristics that showed discriminating effects were age, place of residence, group composition, and information sources utilised. Results are discussed and implications for the festival organisers are proposed.
Although tourism studies have shown that improved service quality will contribute to increased visitor satisfaction, and both of them influence visitors’ future behavioral intentions, there is still a lack of guidance in the tourism marketing literature in understanding the interrelationships among service quality, visitor satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Findings on the mediating role of visitor satisfaction in the relationship between service quality and behavioral intentions are mixed, and thus it needs further investigation. This study adopted Cole and Scott’s1 touristexperience model, which portrays a sequential pattern among performance quality/attribute-level service quality, experience quality/transactionlevel satisfaction, overall satisfaction, and behavioral intentions. The model was tested using data collected from 413 visitors to a rural heritage festival. Structural equation modeling analysis procedures were applied and the mediating role of transaction-level satisfaction and global-level satisfaction was confirmed. In addition, experience quality was found to have a direct impact on visitors’ future behavioral intentions. The practical implications for festival organizers and limitations of the study were discussed.