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Toxic effects of plastic on human health and environment : A consequences of health risk assessment in Bangladesh


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Plastics are used widely everywhere in our life and without plastic, modern civilization would indeed look very diverse. This study focuses on the toxic effects of plastic on human health and environment and possible consequences of health risk assessment in Bangladesh. Plastics are essential materials in modern civilization, and many products manufactured from plastics and in numerous cases, they promote risks to human health and the environment. Plastics are contained many chemical and hazardous substances such as Bisphenol A (BPA), thalates, antiminitroxide, brominated flame retardants, and poly- fluorinated chemicals etc. which are a serious risk factor for human health and environment. Plastics are being used by Bangladeshi people without knowing the toxic effects of plastic on human health and environment. Different human health problems like irritation in the eye, vision failure, breathing difficulties, respiratory problems, liver dysfunction, cancers, skin diseases, lungs problems, headache, dizziness, birth effect, reproductive, cardiovascular, genotoxic, and gastrointestinal causes for using toxic plastics. Plastics occur serious environment pollution such as soil pollution, water pollution, and air pollution. Application of proper rules and regulations for the production and use of plastics can reduce toxic effects of plastics on human health and environment.
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International Journal of Health, 6 (1) (2018) 1-5
International Journal of Health
doi: 10.14419/ijh.v6i1.8655
Review paper
Toxic effects of plastic on human health and environment
: A consequences of health risk assessment in Bangladesh
Ram Proshad 1 *, Tapos Kormoker 2, Md. Saiful Islam 1, Mohammad Asadul Haque1,
Md. Mahfuzur Rahman1, Md. Mahabubur Rahman Mithu 3
1 Department of Soil Science, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh
2 Department of Emergency Management, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh
3 Faculty of Nutrition and Food Science, Patuakhali Science and Technology University, Dumki, Patuakhali-8602, Bangladesh
*Corresponding author E-mail:
Plastics are used widely everywhere in our life and without plastic, modern civilization would indeed look very diverse. This study fo-
cuses on the toxic effects of plastic on human health and environment and possible consequences of health risk assessment in Bangladesh.
Plastics are essential materials in modern civilization, and many products manufactured from plastics and in numerous cases, they pro-
mote risks to human health and the environment. Plastics are contained many chemical and hazardous substances such as Bisphenol A
(BPA), thalates, antiminitroxide, brominated flame retardants, and poly- fluorinated chemicals etc. which are a serious risk factor for
human health and environment. Plastics are being used by Bangladeshi people without knowing the toxic effects of plastic on human
health and environment. Different human health problems like irritation in the eye, vision failure, breathing difficulties, respiratory prob-
lems, liver dysfunction, cancers, skin diseases, lungs problems, headache, dizziness, birth effect, reproductive, cardiovascular, genotoxic,
and gastrointestinal causes for using toxic plastics. Plastics occur serious environment pollution such as soil pollution, water pollution,
and air pollution. Application of proper rules and regulations for the production and use of plastics can reduce toxic effects of plastics on
human health and environment.
Keywords: Plastic; Bisphenol A; Phthalates; Pollution; Bangladesh.
1. Introduction
Plastic has changed our everyday life. We are involved with plas-
tic made products in various ways. Plastic plays an important part
in our life. Plastics are used widely everywhere in our life. Plastic
makes our life easier and better. They are composed of a network
of molecular monomers bound together to form macromolecules
of infinite use in human society. Day by day peoples are becoming
more and more dependent on the use of plastics because of the
characteristics of plastic such as inert, durability, flexibility and
versatility and so on. The durability of plastics and their potential
for diverse applications, including widespread use of disposable
items, were anticipated, but the problems associated with waste
management and plastic debris were not (Yarsley & Couzens
1945). Plastic has some special properties such as; high heat com-
bustion, the water content of the plastics is far lower than the wa-
ter content in the biomass, plastics do not absorb much moisture
and increasing availability in the local community. Plastics have
many benefits and without plastic, modern society would indeed
look very different. Most important advantages of plastic are med-
ical uses and applications in public health. Plastics are cost-
effective, require little energy to produce, and are lightweight and
biocompatible. Plastic is soft, transparent, flexible, or biodegrada-
ble and many different types of plastics function as innovative
materials for use in engineered tissues, absorbable sutures, pros-
thetics, and other medical applications (Andrady & Neal 2009).
However, plastics also have numerous disadvantages, such as
toxic substances that may leak out and adversely affect humans
and other organisms. There are about 20 types of prime plastics
use in the worldwide (APME 2006). Scientists have shown in the
study that the use of plastic bottles or containers increases health
risk due to long-term use. Typically, there are many chemical
substances present in plastic bottles or containers, many of which
are a serious risk factor for health. For example, potentially dan-
gerous human exposure to toxic components such as Bisphenol A
(BPA), thalates, antiminitroxide, brominated flame retardants, and
poly-fluorinated chemicals etc. are notable (Halden 2010). BPA
and phthalates are found in many mass-produced products includ-
ing medical devices, food packaging, perfumes, cosmetics, toys,
flooring materials, computers and CDs and can represent a signifi-
cant content of the plastic. For instance, phthalates can constitute a
substantial proportion, by weight, of PVC while BPA is the mon-
omer used for the production of polycarbonate plastics as well as
an additive used for the production of PVC. Phthalates can leach
out of products because they are not chemically bound to the plas-
tic matrix, and they have attracted particular attention because of
their high production volumes and wide usage (Wagner & Oeh-
lmann 2009). Phthalates and BPA are detectable in aquatic envi-
ronments, in dust and, because of their volatility in the air (Rudel
et al. 2001; 2003). There is considerable concern about the adverse
effects of these chemicals on wildlife and humans (Meeker et al.
2009). It may be a great concern to use and disposal of plastic.
Worldwide polymer production was estimated to be 260 million
metric tons per annum in the year 2007 for all polymers including
thermoplastics, thermoset plastics, adhesives, and coatings, but not
synthetic fibers (Plastics Europe 2008). This indicates a historical
growth rate of about 9 percent p.a. Thermoplastic resins constitute
around two-thirds of this production and their usage is growing at
about 5 percent globally. Approximately 50 percent of plastics are
used for single-use disposable applications, such as packaging,
agricultural films and disposable consumer items, between 20 and
25 percent for long-term infrastructure such as pipes, cable coat-
ings and structural materials, and the remainder for durable con-
sumer applications with intermediate lifespan, such as in electron-
ic goods, furniture, vehicles, etc. Post-consumer plastic waste
generation across the European Union (EU) was 24.6 million tons
in 2007 (Plastics Europe 2008). The plastic industry in Bangla-
desh uses imported polymer granules. During the period 1989 to
2007, the import of polymers increased from 10,000 tons to
289,000 tons per year. At present total consumption of polymers
including imported polymers and recycled plastic wastes is
750,000 tons in FY 2010-2011. This corresponds to the per capita
consumption of plastics in Bangladesh 5 kg per year against the
world average 30 kg. Per capita consumption in India and ASEAN
countries are 8kg and 17kg respectively. Quite a few decades ago,
Bangladesh was not familiar with the multiple uses of plastics. But
in recent years, particularly its large cities have experienced a
widespread and growing use of plastic products. As a result, Bang-
ladesh is also facing all of the environmental, economic and health
problems caused by plastic pollution. Taking the environmental
issue into account, Bangladesh government imposed a ban on poly
bags on 1st March 2002. But, unfortunately, of late polybag and
other poly products are gradually coming backing in business.
Notwithstanding the current relatively low use of plastic products,
this is an opportune time for policymakers to formulate measures
and for general users to change their habit and choice to environ-
ment-friendly natural fiber products as practical alternatives. Oth-
erwise, the longer we shall wait, the more difficult it will be to
change people's habit.
2. Categories of plastics
2.1. Type 1 polyethylene terephthalate or stomach plas-
Stomach plastic is usually used to make disposable water bottles.
Apart from this, stomach plastics are used to make different uten-
sils or containers used for various types of juice, soft drinks, butter,
salad dressing, vegetable oil, mouthwash, cosmetics etc. The
stomach plastic weight is thin, transparent and smooth. Due to
being fully liquid and anti-inflammatory, the stomach is very pop-
ular among plastic water and another food packaging. Being anti-
air, the stomach plastic prevented the entry of oxygen. Drinking or
liquids are not easily washed inside the stomach bottles. Type 1
plastic bottle does not have any harmful bacteria or thalates, but its
use is used in antimony trioxide. Antimony acts as a possible car-
cinogen in the human body. Antimony is emitted from the con-
tainer for long periods of contact with drinking water. As long as
the beverage is in contact with the container, the likelihood of
antimony excretion increases. It has been found in the study that
the use of long-time heat is toxic antimony from the stomach bot-
tle. So it is vital to keep these stomach bottles away from high
temperatures. Note that type 1 or stomach plastic is prepared for
'once use only' (one time use only). The stomach bottle is relative-
ly safe in the 'once used' field.
2.2. Type 2 High-density polyethylene
Polyethylene is the most used plastic in the world. High-density
polyethylene made from petroleum, a type of heat-resistant plastic.
Type 2 plastic is used in making milk containers, detergent bottles,
refrigerators, toys, various types of plastic grocery bags, etc. High-
density polyethylene is relatively strong, irritable and 'heat-prone'
in nature. It does not contain harmful BPA or thalates. There is no
known health risk for this type of plastic use. Although some stud-
ies have shown, if the sunlight is kept in a long time, then the
nanalifenal is extracted from type 2 plastic to ultraviolet rays.
Compared to type 1, type 2 container is considered safer for food
and drink.
2.3. Type 3 plastic containers
They are used for fruit juice, cooking oil etc. Polyvinyl Chloride
(PVC) is a type of 'heat-resistant' polymer. Depending on non-
plasticization, type 3 plastic is flexible and unobtrusive. Normally
the thalates are used to make PVC flexible, which is harmful to
the human body. Plasticized PVC pipes and siding also have
thalates. PVC contains many toxic chemical substances such as
BPA, thalates, led, dioxin, crater, and cadmium. The whole life
cycle of PVC, production, use and disposable is related to severe
health risks and environmental pollution, due to which PVC use
has reduced considerably. However, because of the cost-effective
and versatile use, PVC is still very popular in the case of consum-
er products. Due to poisonous use of PVC plastic due to health
risk and environmental pollution. It can cause cancer, birth defects,
genetic changes, chronic bronchitis, ulcers, skin diseases, deafness,
vision failure, indigestion, and liver dysfunction.
2.4. Type 4 low-density polyethylene
A type of 'heat-resistant' polymer made of type 4 plastic petroleum,
which can be both transparent and opaque. Low-density polyeth-
ylene is flexible and rigid but fragile. These plastic are used in
packaging of frozen foods and preparation of juices and milk car-
tons. There is no loss of contact with the container or bottled fluid.
Because the type 4 plastic containers do not contain any harmful
components of the human body, their use is safe for food and bev-
2.5. Type 5 polypropylene
Polypropylene is a type of plastic polymer, usually strong and
semi-transparent, strong, high in heat and hydrophobic. They are
stronger and heavier than polyethylene. Polypropylene is com-
monly used for packing yogurt, medicine, beverage, ketchup etc.
It should be noted here that no harmful substances are found in
food or water from polypropylene plastic. Most polypropylene
plastic is microwaveable and washing with dishwasher, but they
do not cause any harm. Like type 4 plastic, polypropylene con-
tainers are not harmful, they are considered safe for the human
body for food and beverages.
2.6. Type 6 polystyrene
Polyethylene is one type of petroleum-based plastic. 'Benzene' is
used in the preparation of polystyrene, which is known as a car-
cinogen for the human body. Polystyrene is widely used in making
packaging materials and insulating. Styrene is very risky for health.
Studies have shown that, due to long exposure, steroid also pro-
vides neurotoxic, hematological, cytogenetic and carcinogenic
effects. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)
identified Styrene as the human carcinogen.
2.7. Type 7 polycarbonate
Except for the type mentioned, all plastics are labeled as Type 7
plastics. Polycarbonate container is made of BPA. So, the bever-
age or food stored in them, the BPA is released from the container.
Due to the BPA's health risk being proven in multiple studies, the
use of type 7 or polycarbonate plastic has recently decreased
greatly. Polycarbonate is basically used for packaging consumer
goods. Type 7 plastic is used in baby bottles, 3 and 5 gallons of
bottles (reusable) etc. Due to health risk type 7 or polycarbonate
plastic use is unsafe.
International Journal of Health
3. Effects of plastic on human health
Human health risks from plastics can stem from their monomeric
building blocks (e.g., Bisphenol A), their additives (e.g., plasticiz-
ers) or from a combination of the two (e.g., antimicrobial polycar-
bonate) (Rahman & Brazel 2004). There are several toxic materi-
als which are secreted by plastics. Among them, we concentrate
on plastics components and additives of principal concern such as
Bisphenol A and phthalates. Bisphenol A (BPA) is best known as
the monomeric building block of polycarbonate plastics. It was
first synthesized in 1891 and used frequently as an additive to
other plastics such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) (Dodds & Lawson
1936). The annual output of BPA in the worldwide was 2.2 mil-
lion metric tons in 2003. A sizable fraction of this mass comes
into contact with food. Because the polymerization of BPA leaves
some monomers unbound, BPA molecules can be released from
beverage and food containers into drink and food over time. The
leaching process is accelerated by repeated washing of containers
and when storing in the acidic or basic items that break down the
polymer. As a result, reusable water bottles, baby bottles, and the
inner linings of food cans, all made by using BPA, are known to
leach the controversial monomer into food over time, particularly
at elevated temperatures (Raloff 1999; Kang et al. 2003). Studies
have indicated that food and drinks stored in such containers in-
cluding those ubiquitous clear water bottles hanging from just
about every hiker’s backpack can contain a trace amount of Bi-
sphenol A (BPA) that may interfere with the body’s natural hor-
monal messaging system. Food and inhalation are considered the
main source of exposure to BPA in the human body (Wilson et al.
2007). The BPA is considered to be a hormone because it is the
mimics of reproductive hormones 'estrogen'. As found in various
studies, BPA has been associated with a number of health prob-
lems such as ovarian chromosomal damage, decreased sperm pro-
duction, rapid puberty, rapid changes in immune system, type-2
diabetes, cardiovascular disorder, obesity etc. Some studies have
also claimed that BPA increases the risk of breast cancer, prostate
cancer, pains, metabolic disorders, etc. BPA in women and im-
paired health, including obesity, endometrial hyperplasia, recur-
rent miscarriages, sterility, and polycystic ovarian syndrome
(Warner et al. 2002; Rayner et al. 2004; Eskenazi et al. 2007).
Levels of unconjugated BPA in human blood and tissues are in the
range of 0.1 to 10 μg/L in the human body and is assessed in
blood serum and urine (Ikezuki et al. 2002; Schonfelder et al.
2002). BPA is determined by enzyme-linked immune sorbent
assay (ELISA). Geometric means for daily intake of BPA estimat-
ed from urinary levels are higher for males than females (53.8
versus 41 ng/kg/day) and higher in children and adolescents (64.6
and 71 ng/kg/day, respectively) than in adults, whose exposure
levels decrease with age from 52.9 ng/kg/day in 2039-year olds
to 33.5 ng/kg/day in seniors 60 years and older (Lakind & Naiman
2008). Elevated exposure of women of childbearing age and of
children are of particular concern because of known windows of
vulnerability to BPA that put the developing fetus and children at
elevated risk, compared with adults exposed to identical levels of
the contaminant (Vandenberg et al. 2009).
Fig. 1: Chemical Structures of Bisphenol A and Di-(2-Ethylhexyl)
Phthalate (DEHP), which Illustrate the Use of Endocrine-Disrupting Mon-
omers and Plasticizers in Contemporary Plastics.
In its determination of a reference dose for humans, the U.S. EPA
arrived at a value of 50 μg per kg per day by applying a safety
factor, to account for extrapolation from animals to humans, vari-
ability in the human population, and extrapolation from sub-
chronic to chronic exposures (Welshons et al. 2003). This refer-
ence dose for BPA was calculated on the basis of the lowest ob-
servable adverse effect level (LOAL) as adverse responses were
found even at the lowest dose tested (Vandenberg et al. 2009).
Today’s concerns about BPA are driven primarily by low-dose
effects observed in human populations, and by the recognition that
biologically active levels of BPA detectable in human blood are
within or above the range of concentrations demonstrated in vitro
to cause changes in the function of human tissues (Vom & Hughes
2005). Phthalates are a diverse group of compounds that represent
diesters of phthalic acid, a compound also known as 1, 2-
benzenedicarboxylic acid produced in large quantities since the
1930s. The properties of phthalates are dependent on the length
and branching of the dialkyl or alkyl/aryl side chains, i.e., the
alcohol moiety of the ester. Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP),
produced at annual quantities of 2 million tons and widely used in
medical devices. Important routes of human exposure to
phthalates include, most notably, medical exposures caused by
direct release of phthalates into the human body, e.g., through
dialysis, blood transfusions, and extracorporeal membrane oxy-
genation (ECMO); ingestion of contaminated materials, including
contaminated food, house dust etc. (Sathyanarayana 2008; Kamrin
2009; Meeker et al. 2009). Thalates usually work to increase plas-
tic flexibility or flexibility. Here is an example of adding some
plastic such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) thalates. Thales like BPA
has hormonal imbalances, which also cause them to disrupt hor-
mones normal and daily work. Both BPA and thalates can enter
the body of the newborn through pregnancy and through fetal and
breastfeeding, they will be able to harm them. However, it is im-
portant to remember that, Thales is a little less damaging to human
than the BPA. So all kinds of plastic containers have harmful BPA
and thalates.
Fig. 2: Impact of Plastics on Human Health.
4. Effects of plastic on the environment
The distribution of plastic debris is highly variable as a result of
certain factors such as wind and ocean currents, urban areas, and
trade routes. Human population in certain areas also plays a large
role in this plastics can also be used as vectors for chemical con-
taminants such as persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals
(Barnes et al. 2009). Toxic chemical release during manufacture is
another significant source of the negative environmental impact of
plastics. A whole host of carcinogenic, neurotoxic, and hormone-
disruptive chemicals are standard ingredients and waste products
of plastic production, and they inevitably find their way into our
ecology through water, land, and air pollution. Some of the more
familiar compounds include vinyl chloride (in PVC), dioxins (in
PVC), benzene (in polystyrene), phthalates and other plasticizers
(in PVC and others), formaldehyde, and Bisphenol-A, or BPA (in
polycarbonate). Many of these are persistent organic pollutants
(POPs)some of the most damaging toxins on the planet, owing
to a combination of their persistence in the environment and their
high levels of toxicity. Their unmitigated release into the envi-
ronment affects all terrestrial and aquatic life with which they
come into contact. The manufacturing process of plastic products
in plastic industries releases a huge quantity of dangerous gaseous
chemicals into the air including carbon monoxide, dioxin, and
hydrogen cyanide. These gases pollute air seriously. The presence
of these gases in air at high proportion is detrimental to both hu-
man and animal health. They may cause respiratory diseases,
nervous system disorders and reduction in immunity to diseases.
Chlorinated plastic can release harmful chemicals into the sur-
rounding soil, which can then seep into groundwater or other sur-
rounding water sources and also the ecosystem. This can cause
serious harm to the species that drink the water. Landfill areas
contain many different types of plastics. In these landfills, there
are many microorganisms which speed up the biodegradation of
plastics. The microorganisms include bacteria such as Pseudomo-
nas, nylon-eating bacteria, and Flavobacteria. These bacteria break
down nylon through the activity of the nylonase enzyme. When
biodegradable plastics are broken down, methane is released,
which is a very powerful greenhouse gas that contributes signifi-
cantly to global warming (Biello 2013). Apart from the above
impacts, some scientists believe that the bobbing bits of polymer
in the oceans could contribute to global warming by creating a
shaded canopy that makes it harder for plankton to grow. It needs
no telling that the plant kingdom is the universal carbon sink. We
are facing a serious problem of water pollution by plastic waste.
Very often we dispose of discarded plastic products in different
water bodies including lakes, rivers, ponds, etc. The lakes in the
megacity of Dhaka may be the best example of pollution by plas-
tic bottles, canes, bags and other plastic products frequently
thrown by the visitors. The presence of plastic wastes in water
bodies disturbs the natural flow, limits the ability of fish to repro-
duce and destroys helpful organisms.
5. Answerable organizations and rules for re-
ducing plastic toxicity in Bangladesh
The government faces a major challenge for the proper manage-
ment of plastics in Bangladesh. In respect of human health and
environment pollution related concerns, several rules and regula-
tions have been issued and implemented in developing and devel-
oped countries due to control the production and use of plastic
materials. Bangladeshi organizations and agencies are responsible
ensuring the sustainable production, use, and disposal of plastic
and plastic materials like Bangladesh Ministry of Environment
and Forest, Ministry of Health, Mobile court. Bangladesh was the
first country to ban plastic bags to control environmental pollution
and over a decade later several developed countries are still strug-
gling to emulate this achievement. The Environment Conservation
Act was formulated in Bangladesh in 1995. The law of section 1
under this act was reviewed in 2002. According to Rule 6ka of
Clause-5 under Section-9, the constraint has been enacted in the
production and uses of polythene shopping bag. According to the
rule, there is restriction on the production and sale of environmen-
tally detrimental products. If it is proven that any kind of plastic
bags or products made of polyethylene or poly-propylene is detri-
mental for the environment then the government could control or
ban the use of these products to any selected area or all over the
country. According to rule 6ka, the penalty and punishment will
For production, import and marketing 10 years sentence of
vigorous prison, or 1 million taka fine, or both punishments to-
For sale, exhibition for sale, store, distribution, transportation or
use for commercial purpose 6 months sentence of vigorous pris-
on or 10 thousand taka fine, or both punishments together.
6. Conclusions
Toxicity of plastic is a problem in nature on a universal scale,
from the individual level to the level of populations. The study
reveals that the negative consequences of plastic on human health
and environment as a result of exposure to toxic chemicals used in
the production of plastics. Peoples of Bangladesh unconsciously
used those plastics without knowing its toxicity. The toxic effect
of plastics on human health and environment is very much evident
by the most of the reviews. The government, law implementing
agencies and health authorities of the country should take more
steps and pay attention to sustainable production, use, and disposal
of plastics. Phthalates of high concern should be banned and im-
plemented, primary in consumer products or product in contact
with children. Bisphenols should be forbidden from use in materi-
als that come into contact with food and beverages and children
and in the long term in other consumer products like thermal cash
receipt. Every company must take their responsibility in terms of
the reduction of unnecessary plastic consumption. A full of infor-
mation about all existing chemicals in consumer products must be
required so that peoples becomes aware to use of those products.
The authors thank the authority of Patuakhali Science and Tech-
nology University (PSTU), Bangladesh for supporting to complete
this study.
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... Volume-06, July, 2022 ISSN (E): 2754-9291 23 Cities with high COVID-19 incidence and mortality have been struggled to administer the rapid expansion in healthcare waste production. For example, for the year 2020, the total amount of hazardous medical waste dumped by all governmental and private health institutions in Iraq was 7150 tons (According to the statistics announced on the website of the Ministry of Planning -Central Statistical Organization / Republic of Iraq); these pathogenic hospital wastes must be burned at high temperatures to allow sterilization, afterward, the residual ash is disposed of in a landfill. ...
... Plastics have the potential to release a range of harmful substances, like Bisphenol-A (BPA) which is a hormone-like endocrine disruptor that could be leaching from packing material. It seems to be linked to health problems such as reduced male fertility, obesity, and puberty (Proshad et al., 2018). Toxins are so common in our environment that one study indicated that BPA was present in the urine of 94.5% of individuals within the United States (North and Halden, 2013). ...
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Since plastic products are lightweight, economical, long-lasting, sturdy, and easy to manufacture, humans rely heavily on them.
... The prolonged decomposition period of petroleum-based plastics presents a hazard to living organisms, as microplastics can be absorbed into the body through the ingestion of crustaceans and fish [3,4]. The adverse effects of plastics on human health have been extensively documented, with impacts on physiological functions including the digestive, nervous, and respiratory systems [5][6][7]. ...
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Microalgae-based biocomposites are gaining traction as ecofriendly and cost-effective alternatives to conventional petroleum-based plastics. However, achieving a homogeneous dispersion of microalgae within a biocomposite matrix remains a challenge. In this study, we investigated the effect of the size of dried microalgae (Chlorella sp.) on the quality of biocomposites. Ball milling, a mechanical grinding process, was used to control the size of the pretreated dried microalgae. Our results demonstrate that the microalgae size strongly depends on the total weight of the stainless-steel balls, rather than the number of balls used in the milling process. Poly(ethylene-vinyl acetate) (EVA), with functional groups resembling those of Chlorella sp., was incorporated into the ball-milled microalgae to produce homogeneous biocomposites. Smaller Chlorella sp. particles improved the ratio of microalgae and the mechanical properties of the biocomposites. Dried Chlorella sp. particles up to 161.43 μm, which were 72.84% smaller than the untreated microalgae, were obtained after 6 h of ball milling using 3/8-inch balls. This enabled the production of biocomposites with 60 wt.% microalgae and 61.02% of the tensile strength of pure EVA, comparable to traditional polymers. Our findings suggest that controlling the microalgae size through ball milling can improve the quality of microalgae-based biocomposites.
... Plastics, which are high-molecular-weight organic polymers, are composed of molecular monomers which are bound together to form macro-molecules (Proshad et al. 2017). It is a synthetic material composed of organic polymers with numerous properties such as water and shock resistance, high strength-to-weight ratio, being lightweight, having a low melting point, high malleability, and the ease with which it can be modeled into basic or complex forms. ...
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Plastics, which are complex polymers, have been a persistent problem due to their inherent non-biodegradability, despite their numerous applications. The huge piles of accumulated plastic are not only damaging to the environment, but also a major contributing factor to deteriorating human health. Over the years, plastic waste has been recycled and treated using conventional and advanced non-biodegradable waste treatment technologies such as incineration and landfilling, and pyrolysis and thermodegradation. However, these face their own set of challenges, and hence the use of microbial enzyme machineries to degrade plastic has recently garnered attention. We attempted to find the species that degrades mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalic acid (MHET) with the highest efficiency in this study by using in silico screening of the enzyme mono(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalic acid hydrolase (MHETase). Using the MHETase enzyme sequence of Ideonella sakaiensis as the query sequence, BLAST analysis was performed to identify the top 10 homologous sequences in other species. To identify the degrading efficiency, molecular docking using PatchDock between MHETase of different species with MHET as ligand was performed. The species Pigmentiphaga litoralis had the highest docking score of 3634, and this shows that this species degrades MHET most efficiently. The interaction studies showed that this docked molecule has 7 hydrophobic interactions and 1 hydrogen bonds. In the recent years, use of bioinformatics tools is unprecedented, growing fast and it became one of the important component in any biological research activity.
... Plastic litter pollution hinders human activities, diminishes the aesthetic value of the environment, particularly in tourist areas [1,2], and is very expensive to manage which reach around $8,900 per ton of liter [3,4]. In addition, plastic pollution is one of the leading causes of flora extinction [5] and is predicted to affect human health via food chain systems [6]. Due to the high rate of plastic production (reaching 367 million tons per year) and inadequate management [7,8], the quantity of accumulated plastic litter in the environment is increasing. ...
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Trajectory of waste on land is a strategy for preventing and mitigating plastic pollution in the environment and a component of its management strategy. However, basic data related to the dynamics of the movement of plastic waste on land as the main data in the model design process has been limited. This research was conducted to meet this need by reviewing the influence of environmental factors such as wind, air runoff, soil surface, and slope on the movement of plastic waste on land. In this study, primary data collection of plastic movement was simulated in experimental scenarios for different categories of plastic based on wind-propelling factors and physical environmental factors represented by ground surface characteristic and slope variation. The results indicated that (1) the windspeed threshold through all the explanatory variables were significantly different, (2) wind speed shows a strong positive relation with the flux of plastics rate where plastic moves according to wind direction, (3) vegetated areas have become potential accumulation locations, and (4) the plastic rate through the slope variable were not significantly different. In constructing land-based plastic waste trajectory models, plastic type, ground surface, and slope variations can be regarded as the primary variables.
... Pesticides, fertilizers, heavy metals, and industrial chemicals such as benzene and polychlorinated biphenyls are examples of chemical pollutants [7,8]. Exposure to chemical pollutants can lead to acute and chronic health effects such as respiratory problems, neurological damage, cancer, and reproductive problems [9][10][11]. In addition, contaminated water bodies can harm aquatic life and ecosystems, leading to decreased biodiversity and the loss of valuable ecosystem services [12]. ...
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Antibiotics present in aquatic environments can contribute to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains, posing potential threats to public health. Therefore, efficient strategies to remove these compounds from water systems are essential to reduce both ecological and human health risks. This research aimed to assess the photocatalytic removal efficiency of metronidazole (MET) from an aqueous solution using a 15-W bare UVC lamp and magnetic nanocatalysts (Fe-doped TiO2@Fe3O4), which were synthesized using the sol-gel technique. Furthermore, scanning electron microscopy with integrated energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM/EDX), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), Differential reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis were carried out to characterize the synthesized nanocatalysts. The influence of several factors, such as pH, initial MET, and nanocatalysts concentrations during reaction times of 15–120 min, was studied. The characterization results confirmed that Fe and Ti were successfully integrated into the Fe– doped TiO2@Fe3O4 nanocomposite. Highest MET degradation efficiency (99.37 %) was observed at a pH of 3, with an initial MET concentration of 60 mg/L, nanoparticle dosage of 800 mg/L, and a reaction time of 90 min. The stability of the nanocatalyst was acceptable. The results suggest that OH ions may play a crucial role in the degradation of MET demonstrating photocatalytic degradation can be an effective way to remove MET from water resources. This research sets a precedent for future endeavors aimed at harnessing photocatalysis for environmental remediation of pharmaceutical pollutants.
... [190], [191]. Because most plastic cutlery is comprised of a form of plastic known as polystyrene, it cannot be recycled [192]. ...
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Because plastic materials cause a serious problem for both terrestrial and marine habitats, and existing plastic waste reduction tactics, while showing improvement, are not the best suited (incineration). The ever-increasing need for environmentally friendly materials to address a variety of concerns, including environmental issues, economics, sustainability, biodegradability, and biocompatibility, has generated new fields of study that are highly focused on natural-based products. Through the utilization of renewable resources and the decrease of CO2 emissions during polymer synthesis, bio-based and biodegradable plastics can contribute to a more sustainable society. Moreover, biodegradable polymers provide novel end-of-life management options, such as anaerobic digestion or composting, that have little to no environmental effect. Furthermore, producing edible polymers is the best solution to address most of the aforementioned difficulties. Edible polymers have gained tremendous interest in recent decades as an alternative for synthetic plastic owing to their favorable properties such as biodegradability, and they can be safely consumed as part of food items while also being environmentally friendly. The development of novel safe, high-quality, and acceptable food-grade products in functional food sectors, such as edible coatings that protect against nutrient loss, and food packaging material, are extremely important reasons for investigating edible polymers. Edible films, by acting as barriers, might potentially reduce the complexity and hence enhance the recyclability of packaging materials when compared to more traditional non-environmental friendly packaging materials, and have the potential to replace synthetic polymer films. Edible polymers are mainly polysaccharides (hydrocolloids, polypeptide, lipids, and their composites, etc. Edible bioplastic films were synthesized in this study using a variety of resources, including polysaccharide and protein-based resources. Polysaccharide sources included corn starch and rice powder, while animal protein sources included beef gelatin. Glycerol and sorbitol were utilized as plasticizers to create flexible edible films. According to the results, gelatin-based films have better characteristics than other films. The edible films created were renewable, environmentally benign, biodegradable, and inexpensive.
... Smoke from burning vegetation and organic matter contains toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, other greenhouse gases, nitrogen oxides, hydrocarbons, and sufficiently small particles to enter the lungs and affect the respiratory system[23]. These plastics are made up of synthetic organic polymers which are widely used in different applications ranging from water bottles, clothing, food packaging, medical supplies, electronic products, construction materials, etc. [24] and today, environmental pollution by plastic waste is now widely recognized as a major environmental burden [25]. Indeed,the amount of plastic produced in the first ten years of this century will approach that produced in the entire century before it. ...
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Many, if not most, important zoonoses are linked in some way to animals participating in the food production chain. Food therefore becomes an important vehicle for many zoonotic pathogens.We focused here on the risk to human health linked to zoonotic microorganisms present in waste generated by food chains and carried by rodents and insects.It appears from our results that poor management of waste from stores was noted with all the consequences on the possibility of contact between rodents and arthropods, moreover the risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases as well as on the climate by production of gases with environmental effects. greenhouse, consequence of poor waste disposal methods by burning and putrefaction during the storage of household waste.In view of the above, the risk of transmission of zoonotic diseases is evident in the current conditions of our food chains.
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The use of plastic materials has led to the penetration of microplastic (MP) into the aquatic environment. MP is plastic that is less than 5 mm in size. They have received significant attention in recent years due to their impact on humans and organisms as they absorb organic and pathogenic contaminants from the surrounding media. This study aims to analyze MP abundance, shape, color, size, and polymer characteristics at five water sampling stations in Maninjau Lake. Water samples were extracted to obtain MP, then analyzed using a microscope and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. MP abundance in Maninjau Lake water samples ranged from 180 to 335 L-1 particles. The most dominant shape, color, and sizes found in the waters were fragments (12.5%), black (68.37%), and sizes of 101-300 µm (49%). Based on the results of the characterization and interpretation of functional groups in the FTIR spectrum, several types of polymers were found, including polyamide (PA), polypropylene (PP), and polyester (PES).
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Information on practices used by households in disposing waste is crucial for an effective management of household plastics wastes. The research was aimed to study the Mode of disposal of household plastic wastes and awareness on waste management in Kaduna Metropolis, Kaduna State, Nigeria. Exactly 200-households from 10 localities were investigated using a stratified random sampling (SRS) techniques. Structured close-ended questionnaire and interviews were used to collect data from 200 households and analyzed using XRealStats Package for Excel version 7.8 and Microsoft Excel. The result of the study showed that the residents of Kaduna Metropolis usually adopt an informal mode of disposing their waste. About 33% of waste is disposed by wheel-barrow boys, other methods include open-dumping (26%), collection by Government agencies (16%), Private agencies (12%), Burning (6%), Open-drain (5%) and by Burying (2%). The most educated members of the study group practice a proper method of waste disposal (Chi-square test of independence reveals; X 2 (30, N = 42) = 138.27, p < .001). The causes of indiscriminate waste disposal according to the residents are high cost of waste collection services (32%), distance to dumping site (26.5%), absence of dumping site (13%), irregular waste collection (12.5%), lack of waste management services (8.5%), lack of waste bin (4%) and 3.5% encounter no challenge. There was a high level of awareness (77%) among the residents. Improper household plastic waste disposal contributes to disease occurrence. The outcome of this research will inform policymaker on the state of the communities’ mode of plastic waste disposal; helps in designing an effective management strategy and guide educational campaigns and behavioral interventions to promote responsible waste management practices among the public
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Concern exists over whether additives in plastics to which most people are exposed, such as phthalates, bisphenol A or polybrominated diphenyl ethers, may cause harm to human health by altering endocrine function or through other biological mechanisms. Human data are limited compared with the large body of experimental evidence documenting reproductive or developmental toxicity in relation to these compounds. Here, we discuss the current state of human evidence, as well as future research trends and needs. Because exposure assessment is often a major weakness in epidemiological studies, and in utero exposures to reproductive or developmental toxicants are important, we also provide original data on maternal exposure to phthalates during and after pregnancy ( n = 242). Phthalate metabolite concentrations in urine showed weak correlations between pre- and post-natal samples, though the strength of the relationship increased when duration between the two samples decreased. Phthalate metabolite levels also tended to be higher in post-natal samples. In conclusion, there is a great need for more human studies of adverse health effects associated with plastic additives. Recent advances in the measurement of exposure biomarkers hold much promise in improving the epidemiological data, but their utility must be understood to facilitate appropriate study design.
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One of the most ubiquitous and long-lasting recent changes to the surface of our planet is the accumulation and fragmentation of plastics. Within just a few decades since mass production of plastic products commenced in the 1950s, plastic debris has accumulated in terrestrial environments, in the open ocean, on shorelines of even the most remote islands and in the deep sea. Annual clean-up operations, costing millions of pounds sterling, are now organized in many countries and on every continent. Here we document global plastics production and the accumulation of plastic waste. While plastics typically constitute approximately 10 per cent of discarded waste, they represent a much greater proportion of the debris accumulating on shorelines. Mega- and macro-plastics have accumulated in the highest densities in the Northern Hemisphere, adjacent to urban centres, in enclosed seas and at water convergences (fronts). We report lower densities on remote island shores, on the continental shelf seabed and the lowest densities (but still a documented presence) in the deep sea and Southern Ocean. The longevity of plastic is estimated to be hundreds to thousands of years, but is likely to be far longer in deep sea and non-surface polar environments. Plastic debris poses considerable threat by choking and starving wildlife, distributing non-native and potentially harmful organisms, absorbing toxic chemicals and degrading to micro-plastics that may subsequently be ingested. Well-established annual surveys on coasts and at sea have shown that trends in mega- and macro-plastic accumulation rates are no longer uniformly increasing: rather stable, increasing and decreasing trends have all been reported. The average size of plastic particles in the environment seems to be decreasing, and the abundance and global distribution of micro-plastic fragments have increased over the last few decades. However, the environmental consequences of such microscopic debris are still poorly understood.
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This article explains the history, from 1600 BC to 2008, of materials that are today termed 'plastics'. It includes production volumes and current consumption patterns of five main commodity plastics: polypropylene, polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyethylene terephthalate. The use of additives to modify the properties of these plastics and any associated safety, in use, issues for the resulting polymeric materials are described. A comparison is made with the thermal and barrier properties of other materials to demonstrate the versatility of plastics. Societal benefits for health, safety, energy saving and material conservation are described, and the particular advantages of plastics in society are outlined. Concerns relating to littering and trends in recycling of plastics are also described. Finally, we give predictions for some of the potential applications of plastic over the next 20 years.
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Food consumption is an important route of human exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals. So far, this has been demonstrated by exposure modeling or analytical identification of single substances in foodstuff (e.g., phthalates) and human body fluids (e.g., urine and blood). Since the research in this field is focused on few chemicals (and thus missing mixture effects), the overall contamination of edibles with xenohormones is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to assess the integrated estrogenic burden of bottled mineral water as model foodstuff and to characterize the potential sources of the estrogenic contamination. In the present study, we analyzed commercially available mineral water in an in vitro system with the human estrogen receptor alpha and detected estrogenic contamination in 60% of all samples with a maximum activity equivalent to 75.2 ng/l of the natural sex hormone 17beta-estradiol. Furthermore, breeding of the molluskan model Potamopyrgus antipodarum in water bottles made of glass and plastic [polyethylene terephthalate (PET)] resulted in an increased reproductive output of snails cultured in PET bottles. This provides first evidence that substances leaching from plastic food packaging materials act as functional estrogens in vivo. Our results demonstrate a widespread contamination of mineral water with xenoestrogens that partly originates from compounds leaching from the plastic packaging material. These substances possess potent estrogenic activity in vivo in a molluskan sentinel. Overall, the results indicate that a broader range of foodstuff may be contaminated with endocrine disruptors when packed in plastics.
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As a result of concerns about the toxicity of phthalates to humans, several expert panels were convened toward the end of the 1990s to evaluate the implications of the scientific evidence for the risks of phthalates to humans of all ages. These panels concluded that the risks were low although they had concerns about specific applications of some phthalates, e.g., in medical devices. These groups identified data gaps and recommended additional studies on exposure and toxicity be conducted. In light of the additional data, reevaluations of the risks of phthalates were conducted. While these assessments were being undertaken, U.S. state governments and European authorities proposed and promulgated regulations to limit the use of certain phthalates, i.e., di-n-octyl phthalate (DnOP), di-isodecyl phthalate (DIDP), di-isononyl phthalate (DINP), butylbenzyl phthalate (BBP), dibutyl phthalate (DBP), and diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), especially in consumer products to which children are exposed. Very recently, similar regulations were promulgated in the United States under the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008. This article summarizes recent evaluations of the risks of these phthalates, and addresses the public health implications of the regulations that were enacted. The analysis considers biomonitoring studies and epidemiological research in addition to laboratory animal evidence. Analysis of all of the available data leads to the conclusion that the risks are low, even lower than originally thought, and that there is no convincing evidence of adverse effects on humans. Since the scientific evidence strongly suggests that risks to humans are low, phthalate regulations that have been enacted are unlikely to lead to any marked improvement in public health.
THE preparation and physiological properties of synthetic oestrogenic agents were first described in these columns and elsewhere1,2,3. The active compounds described in these publications were derivatives of phenanthrene or 1:2:5:6-dibenzanthracene, and it was noted that at the time of writing no active substances had been discovered which did not contain the phenanthrene nucleus.
IntroductionThe Big Picture—Earth and its EnvironmentThe Small Picture—Business EnterprisesValuation of Environmental ResourcesStewardship of the EnvironmentEnvironmental Issues Related to the Plastics Industry: Global ConcernsEnvironmental Issues Related to the Polymer Industry: Local and Regional ConcernsPresent TreatmentAppendix A: Global WarmingAppendix B: Depletion of Stratospheric Ozone
Plasticizers have long been known for their effectiveness in producing flexible plastics for applications ranging from the automotive industry to medical and consumer products. The plasticizer industry has grown with the use of plastics worldwide. Recent plasticizer research has focused on technological challenges including leaching, migration, evaporation and degradation of plasticizers, each of which eventually lead to deterioration of thermomechanical properties in plastics. Human exposure to certain plasticizers has been debated recently because di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, used in medical plastics, has been found at detectable levels in the blood supply and potential health risks may arise from its chronic exposure. The current paper presents a brief history and an overview of the traditional plasticizers currently available in the world market, discusses some of the problems associated with the end uses of these plasticizers and reviews recent scientific approaches to resolve these problems. The definition of an ideal plasticizer changes with each application; thus, this paper addresses technical issues first from a broad perspective, and then with a focus on leaching, migration, evaporation and degradation issues. Several approaches to reduce leaching and migration of plasticizers are discussed, including surface modification of plasticized polymers and the application of alternative plasticizers and oligomers to meet technological requirements. New approaches to reduce evaporation and degradation of plasticizers are discussed, with the aim of formulating long-lasting flexible plastics and minimizing the ultimate environmental impact of these chemicals. The development of fire-retardant plasticizers and novel plasticizers for use in biodegradable plastics are also included.
By 2010, the worldwide annual production of plastics will surpass 300 million tons. Plastics are indispensable materials in modern society, and many products manufactured from plastics are a boon to public health (e.g., disposable syringes, intravenous bags). However, plastics also pose health risks. Of principal concern are endocrine-disrupting properties, as triggered for example by bisphenol A and di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP). Opinions on the safety of plastics vary widely, and despite more than five decades of research, scientific consensus on product safety is still elusive. This literature review summarizes information from more than 120 peer-reviewed publications on health effects of plastics and plasticizers in lab animals and humans. It examines problematic exposures of susceptible populations and also briefly summarizes adverse environmental impacts from plastic pollution. Ongoing efforts to steer human society toward resource conservation and sustainable consumption are discussed, including the concept of the 5 Rs--i.e., reduce, reuse, recycle, rethink, restrain--for minimizing pre- and postnatal exposures to potentially harmful components of plastics.