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New technique in facial reconstruction: the case of Giovanni Battista Morgagni

Abstract and Figures

Morgagni is considered the father of pathological anatomy. He died in 1771, 89 years old, and was buried in Saint Maxim church in Padua, where his wife and five of his 15 children were already buried. In 2011, an anthropological analysis confirmed that one of the skulls belonged to the oldest individuals among those found in Morgagni's tomb. A genetic analysis proved a kinship between this skull and the fragments of young individuals (one male and two females), supporting the hypothesis that they were Morgagni and his children. Thanks to the interaction between historical studies, anthropological research, and molecular analysis we can assume that the skull belongs to Giovanni Battista Morgagni and the skull fragments came from his children. Having obtained the identification of Morgagni, we performed a forensic facial reconstruction with new 3D technology. We compared the facial reconstruction with Morgagni's portraits done when he was living and near to his death, as to be closest to his real resemblances. Finally, we performed a superimposition test with busts and portraits, as to achieve a further confirmation of the molecular identification.
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DOI: 10.1127/anthranz/2018/0818 0003-5548/2018/0818 $ 0.00
Anthropol. Anz. PrePub-Article
J. Biol. Clin. Anthropol.
Published online March 2018
New technique in facial reconstruction: the case of Giovanni
Battista Morgagni
Alberto Zanatta1,*, Luca Bezzi2, Nicola Carrara3, Cicero Moraes2, Gaetano Thiene4
and Fabio Zampieri4
1 Museum of Pathological Anatomy, University Museums Centre (CAM), University of Padua, Padua, Italy
2 Arc-Team, Cles, Trento, Italy
3 Museum of Anthropology, University Museums Centre (CAM), University of Padua, Padua, Italy
4 Department of Cardiac, Thoracic and Vascular Sciences, University of Padua, Padua, Italy
* Corresponding author: alberto.zanatta.1@unipd.it
With 7 gures
Abstract: Morgagni is considered the father of pathological anatomy. He died in 1771, 89 years old, and was buried in
Saint Maxim church in Padua, where his wife and ve of his 15 children were already buried. In 2011, an anthropological
analysis conrmed that one of the skulls belonged to the oldest individuals among those found in Morgagni’s tomb. A
genetic analysis proved a kinship between this skull and the fragments of young individuals (one male and two females),
supporting the hypothesis that they were Morgagni and his children. Thanks to the interaction between historical studies,
anthropological research, and molecular analysis, we can assume that the skull belongs to Giovanni Battista Morgagni and
the skull fragments came from his children. Having obtained the identication of Morgagni, we performed a forensic facial
reconstruction with new 3D technology. We compared the facial reconstruction with Morgagni’s portraits done when he
was living and near to his death, as to be closest to his real resemblances. Finally, we performed a superimposition test with
busts and portraits, as to achieve a further conrmation of the molecular identication.
Keywords: facial reconstruction; 3D technology; superimposition test; Giovanni Battista Morgagni
Introduction
Giovanni Battista Morgagni, founder of pathological anat-
omy (Zampieri et al. 2014), was born on February 25, 1682
in Forlì and died on December 5, 1771 in Padua (Italy), where
he was buried with other individuals into a mass grave in
the church of St. Maxim. Despite two different identication
attempts of Morgagni’s remains were carried on (in 1868 and
1900) without a denitive result (Zampieri 2012), in 2011
a team of the University of Padua Medical School, thanks
to a multidisciplinary approach, was able to achieve a posi-
tive identication comparing anthropological and molecular
analyses, with archaeological observations on the eld and
historical investigations (Zanatta et al. 2014).
Briey, this study led to a rst classication of 22 skulls,
8 dating back to the time of Morgagni and 14 which, accord-
ing to the historical sources, were not related with Morgagni’s
original grave, but were rather moved from an older burial
during the recognition in 1900 (Zampieri 2012). The skeletal
remains were all in secondary deposition conditions (Zanatta
2012). Based up on the historical conrmations, the 8 skulls
of the rst group can be identied with Morgagni, his rela-
tives and other Professors of Padua University who needed
a burial place. Among them, those classied as C23 and C24
were found in an earthenware jar (Fig. 1) being the two skulls
attributed to Morgagni, by an anthropological analysis, dur-
ing the recognition of 1868 and 1900. The specimens named
C25 were recognized as skull fragments of very young indi-
viduals, which, according to historical sources, could be
Morgagni’s children who died prematurely (Zampieri 2012;
Zanatta 2012). Taking these data into consideration and com-
bining them with the fact that among all the skulls related
with original depositions in the sepulchre, only the specimen
C24 belonged to a “senilis” elderly man, compatible with
Morgagni’s age at death (89 years old), a further analysis
has been performed to verify kinship between C24 and C25,
through DNA comparison. This last investigation ended
positively, conrming the parental relationship of the sub-
ject alleged to be Morgagni and the very young individuals,
which the dispositions engraved on the headstone and other
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2 A. Zanatta et al.
historical sources identies as the remains of four daughters
(who died in infancy) and their brother Lucio Filippo (who
died at the age of two years in 1718) (Zanatta et al. 2014).
With the improvement in 3D technology, rapid, ef-
cient and cost-effective computerized facial reconstruction
software was developed (Gupta et al. 2015), making avail-
able a new technique to improve of Morgagni’s recogni-
tion. The intent was to compare a 3D facial reconstruction
of Morgagni’s skull with Morgagni’s portraits done when he
was living and near to his death, as to be closest to his real
resemblances. Therefore, we performed a superimposition
test with a bust and a portrait, as to achieve a further conr-
mation of the molecular identication.
Facial reconstruction is a method that seeks to recre-
ate a person’s facial appearance from his/her skull. The
reconstruction can be done with two-dimensional or three-
dimensional techniques and it is based on data of facial soft
tissue thickness, which might vary between different eth-
nic groups (Starbuck & Ward 2007; Fernandes et al. 2012).
These methods are used for forensic or bio-archaeological
purposes (Prag & Neave 1997; Wilkinson 2004). In the rst
case, forensic facial reconstruction is used to support recog-
nition of unidentied skeletal remains, in order to provide a
potential identity, to compare using conventional primary or
secondary methods of identication according with Interpol
guidelines (i.e. radiography, dental records, ngerprints or
DNA analysis) (De Greef & Willems 2005; Wilkinson 2008).
The reconstructed face could stimulate family members or
friends to recognize the person, thereby generating a shortlist
of suspects, from which the individual may be nally identi-
ed (Fernandes et al. 2017). It represents an important foren-
sic tool, which increases the chances of identifying the dead.
Bio-archeological facial reconstruction are used to recreate
the facial appearance of a skull from the past, belonging to
a famous person, of whom some portraits more or less reli-
able might be available, or to anonymous individuals (Milani
et al. 2015). The methods used are the same of forensic facial
reconstruction, even if in that case there could be more free-
dom in recreating the face because there are not legal aspects
involved and because the goal of forensic analysis is speci-
cally the identication, while bio-archaelogical reconstruc-
tion are usually only descriptive.
With regard to famous persons, the face of Johann
Sebastian Bach (1685–1750) was the very rst facial recon-
struction having been attempted, by the German anatomist
Wilhelm His (1831–1904) in 1895 (Peipert & Roberts
1986). This kind of reconstruction was used also to authen-
ticate the remains of famous people. For instance, the anato-
mist Hermann Welcker (1822–1897) compared the skull
of Raphael with a self-portrait and the skull of Kant with
his death mask, to demonstrate that the skulls were indeed
Raphael’s and Kant’s (Welcker 1897;Wilkinson 2008). With
regard to anonymous individuals, bio-archaeological facial
reconstruction can be used with skull belonging to our evolu-
tionary ancestors, as to try to recreate the typical facial appear-
ance of the different species of Hominidae that preceded the
appearance of Homo sapiens, such as Australopithecus afa-
rensis, Homo erectus, and Homo oresiensis (Groen et al.
2015). Bio-archaeological facial reconstruction, nally, can
be used also to reconstruct visual manifestations of diseases
(Needham et al. 2003). For instance, the facial reconstruc-
tion of Maximilien de Robespierre (1758–1794) brought
the authors to make a retrospective diagnosis of sarcoidosis
(Charlier & Froesch 2013).
Given that it was not possible to nd Morgagni’s living
relatives, the only possibility to conrm a positive identica-
Fig. 1. On the left, the headstone of Morgagni’s and his relatives’ tomb in St. Maxim’s church in Padua.
On the right, the skull C23 and C24 with the earthenware jar.
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New technique in facial reconstruction: Giovanni Battista Morgagni 3
tion of the skull with Morgagni was to compare the facial
reconstruction (FR) from this skull with Morgagni’s portraits
closest to his real resemblances. Indeed, the research con-
ducted by the team of the University of Padua was based on a
new technique of virtual FR of Morgagni’s skull, intended to
be compared with some Morgagni’s portraits and busts as to
achieve a further conrmation of the molecular identication.
The reconstruction relied on solid foundations, hav-
ing some xed points from which to start: the age at death
(89 years), the sex (male) and the ancestry (Caucasian).
Further information was estimated by the analysis of the
dental situation: many alveolar processes of the maxilla were
completely reabsorbed in correspondence of dental elements
lost in life: PM2, M1, and M2 of the right arch; PM1, PM2,
M1, M2, and M3 of the left one. The other teeth were lost
post-mortem (Zanatta 2012). Moreover, a historical cali-
bration was possible thanks to some physical descriptions
reported by Morgagni’s contemporary sources, like the “The
lives of Italians more outstanding in learning, who were
active in the eighteenth centuries” of the Italian biographer
and historian Angelo Fabroni (1804–1805), which, in the
case of Morgagni, was based on direct information given by
Morganini himself (Fabroni 1804–1805).
All these data were given to the team in charge for the
forensic facial reconstruction in 2014, which, following
the protocol developed in 2012 on the blog ATOR (Moraes
2012), restricted their accessibility, according to the indi-
vidual task of each team member. Indeed, in order to reduce
(and possibly avoid) self-inuence processes, the identity of
the subject was kept secret to the artist who was appointed
for the nal reconstruction, while the responsible of the 3D
documentation of the skull was completely aware of the
details related with the entire operation.
Material and methods
Morgagni’s reconstruction was performed using a forensic
protocol developed with the criteria of Open Research (Bezzi
et al. 2012; Bezzi et al. 2016) on the blog ATOR. It is based
Fig. 2. An infographic showing the data acquisition methodology for the processing of anthropological data
with Structure from Motion and Multi View Stereo Reconstruction techniques.
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4 A. Zanatta et al.
on virtual computed model on anatomical structures, which
have been proved to be as much as accurate as traditional
clay models (Decker et al. 2013). Virtual facial reconstruc-
tions are often based on converting computed tomography
of the skull in 3D meshes. However, to make a tomography
could be very expensive and in some cases the specimen
cannot be moved from a given place, which makes this pro-
cedure impossible to realize. Instead, the protocol developed
by ATOR consists in converting photosets in 3D meshes.
The procedure starts with the data acquisition process,
which consists in collecting some photosets, with different
viewpoints of the object, taking care to keep visible in the
overall scene some ground references in order to restore the
metric values at the end of the work-ow (Fig. 2). Later,
thanks to the software Python Photogrammetry Tool Box
(PPT) (Bezzi & Moulon 2012), different elds of Computer
Vision domains are used to obtain a 3D model. Once two
(or more) point-clouds are generated, the software MeshLab
(Cignoni et al. 2008) is used to clean, align and scale them to
the right size, to compose a single model in which both the
splanchnocranium and the neurocranium are documented.
This documentation protocol, which grants an adequate
level of precision for archaeological aims (Bezzi & Dell’Unto
2012), has been validated also for anthropological studies and
specically for the needs of digital FR (Moraes et al. 2014).
Once a plaster cast of the skull and of the jaw of
G. B. Morgagni have been scanned with this methodology,
an additional step has been performed to integrate the nor-
mal workow of an ideal digital FR: the virtual restoration.
Indeed, the fragmentary condition of the mandible has led
to two problems. First, it has been necessary to repair virtu-
ally the bone. Thereafter, because almost half of the jaw was
missing and no teeth were found in the original connection,
also the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and the habitual
intercuspation have been recovered, basing on the direct
observation of the original skull.
The digital restoration has been performed with standard
techniques, which have been successfully used in previous
cases of human and veterinary medicine (Moraes et al. in
press): within the software Blender, the mandible has been
reconstructed by mirroring the preserved left side on its axial
symmetry, while the habitual intercuspation has been com-
puted redrawing a virtual teeth line (Fig. 3).
After the conclusion of these preliminary operations,
the models of the skull and the jaw have been placed on
the Frankfurt plane. Thereafter, soft tissue depth markers
have been imported, according with the chosen reference
data table (De Greef et al. 2006) and with the respective
values of sex (male), ancestry (Caucasian), age (89 years
old) and Body Mass Index (normal). Hence, some guide-
lines were marked to dene the position of eyeballs, eye-
brows and lips, starting from an outward projection of the
vertexes of the sagittal craniometric landmarks. The nose
has been drawn in a similar way, using the Manchester
method (Prag & Neave 1997) for the maximum length
estimation, while the prole has been dened with the G.
Lebedinskaya’s technique (Prokopec & Ubelaker 2002),
in association with Krogman’s observations (Taylor
2000). Being the forensic reconstruction aimed to a nal
portrait, no facial muscles or skin have been sculpted,
but rather real x-ray CT DICOM data of a human head
have been imported, once properly processed within the
software InVesalius. Thus, using a technique positively
experimented for paleo-artistic reconstructions of homi-
nids (Moraes 2014b) and validated for primates (Moraes
2014a) and modern humans (Moraes 2014d), the “Lattice
Modier” of Blender has been activated in order to deform
proportionally the x-ray CT model until it tted with the
Fig. 3. The original model of the skull (in grey), with the virtually restored mandible (in blue).
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New technique in facial reconstruction: Giovanni Battista Morgagni 5
reconstructed prole and the virtual soft tissue pegs. After
this operation, in “Sculpt Mode”, the overall volume of
the face has been increased and some details have been
retouched. At this point, a retopology process has become
essential to achieve a result of a certain quality, under a
reconstructive aspect. Moreover, again, some details (of
nose, eyes and mouth) have been increased and nally an
adequate texture for the skin has been used, in order to
give the right age effect. (Fig. 4)
Within an open source 3D environment like Blender, it is
possible to perform FR following different methodologies.
For the case of G.B. Morgagni, the team used a combination
of different techniques, basing on previous experiences and,
especially, on a series of blind test performed on living per-
sons (Moraes 2014c).
Results
The identity of the skeletal remains has been revealed to
the artist only when the next phases were no more suscep-
tible to individual inuences. Once reached this stage, it has
been possible to calibrate the current reconstructive model
with the known data regarding Giovanni Battista Morgagni,
which could not be estimated by the anthropological analy-
sis. In particular, from the already mentioned “The Lives of
Italians more outstanding in learning, who were active in
Fig. 4. An infographic showing the main stages of the 3D modelling process in Blender: (A) the reconstruction of the facial
prole and the displacement of the soft tissue markers; (B) and (C) the deformation of the original x-ray CT data, basing on
the virtual guides of the markers and of the prole (1 original data; 2 deformed data); (D) a “x-ray” visualization of the
deformed model; (E) the deformed model; (F) a retouched model with “Sculpt Mode”; (G) the textured model.
the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries”, has been derived
the information about the iris colour of Morgagni’s eyes, as
Angelo Fabroni reported a short description: “[. . .] Morgagni
was tall and handsome, with a cheerful and jovial face, red
hair and blue eyes [. . .]”. Therefore, the two provisional eye-
balls with brown iris of the virtual face have been replaced
with new corrected models.
The very last step of the FR regarding G.B. Morgagni
has been the nal dressing with clothes and a hairpiece in
accordance with the ofcial habits related to the social and
academic status of the father of pathology and to the period
in which he lived (Fig. 5).
Once completed, the facial reconstruction has been com-
pared with two of the numerous portraits, which have been
preserved in Padua and in other places. The rst artwork,
a marble bust currently displayed at the original anatomi-
cal theatre of the University of Padua, was erected by the
German corporation of medicine students, Natio Germanica
artistarum, in 1769, when Morgagni was still alive, to hon-
our him as the protector of their corporation and as the
“Prince of European Anatomists” (Zampieri et al. 2012).
This comparison needed a preliminary documentation of
the bust and only when a raw 3D digital copy was acquired,
a superimposition with the facial reconstruction was per-
formed, especially to analyse the disparities regarding the
two proles. Differently, for the second portrait, the famous
image engraved by the Swiss painter Angelica Kauffmann
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6 A. Zanatta et al.
(1741–1807), a bi-dimensional digital copy was directly
used for a superimposition test, placing the 3D facial recon-
struction on the same pose of the illustration.
Despite the necessary use of two different comparative
methods (3D versus 3D in the rst case and 2D versus 3D
in the second one), it has been possible to notice a strong
similarity between the virtual model with the engraved por-
trait, while the superimposition with the bust sculpted by
Danieletti has given a lower degree of compatibility respect
the level reached with the previous blind test performed on
living subjects.
Discussion
In Morgagni’s case, identication was forcedly tried between
the skull and artistic reproductions that, by denition, were not
perfectly comparable to Morgagni’s physiognomy. Although
far from a rigorous scientic technique, evidence-based visu-
alization of ante mortem appearance may supplement radio-
logical, chemical, histological, and epidemiological studies of
ancient remains (Lindsay et al. 2015). Moreover, from histori-
cal sources we can nd, among the several Morgagni’s repre-
sentations created during his life, those that were closer to his
Fig. 5. The calibration of the nal model with the historical sources.
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New technique in facial reconstruction: Giovanni Battista Morgagni 7
real appearance. There is a huge amount of sources of gu-
rative artwork, from paints to statues and medals (Zampieri
et al. 2012). Obviously, we had considered the many represen-
tations made after Morgagni’s death as less reliable and leaved
them out from the comparison. In the same way, we excluded
also the youthful portraits, as well as those in adulthood, since
the forensic reconstruction methodology can only reconstruct
the facial features at the age of death. Basing on these con-
siderations, there are only two different portraits, which can
be analysed for a comparison with the model obtained from
the digital reconstruction the bust sculpted by Pietro Danieletti
(1712–1779) in 1769, because it was realized “under the care-
ful guide of Morgagni himself” (Zampieri et al. 2012), and the
well-known illustration drawn by Nathaniel Dance-Holland
(1735–1811) and engraved by Angelica Kauffmann. Nathaniel
Dance-Holland was an English portrait painter and politician,
he made famous portrait of King George III (1738–1820) and
Captain James Cook (1728–1779). Angelica Kauffmann was
a Swiss Neoclassical painter who gained popularity in London
and Rome depicting celebrities, among them John Morgan
(1735–1789) and Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749–1832).
Between 1763 and 1766 she lived in Rome where she met
Dance-Holland, who lived in Italy between 1760 and 1769.
Morgagni’s portrait was probably realized during the period
of Dance-Holland’s stay in Italy and it is signicant because
Morgagni appears not with the academic and formal dress-
ing and hairpiece, but with his usual domestic ones. It is an
image which shows an authentic old man without any celebra-
tive purpose, representing probably the most similar image of
Morgagni arrived to us (Capparoni 1922).
To nd specic similarities between FR and those images,
should represent a further conrmation that identication by
anthropology and genetics was correct. Even if a compari-
son with artistic work is not among the criteria of evalua-
tion, a certain level of similarity can be noticed between the
analysed portraits and the reconstructed face. Moreover, the
superimposition between Morgagni’s reconstruction and his
representations gives further elements of conrmation.
In both Morgagni’s reconstruction and representations,
the general shape of the face is quite narrow, a characteristic
conrmed, from the anthropological analysis, by the narrow
palate of Morgagni’s skull (Zanatta 2012). This characteris-
tic probably inuenced also the structure of the lips. In fact,
also this feature is similar in both virtual reconstruction and
Morgagni’s bust and portrait. Morgagni’s representations
show a long and protruding nose and the same characteristic
is observable in forensic reconstruction. Finally, both
Fig. 6. On the left, the original image engraved by Angelica Kaumann. On the right the superimposition with the forensic
facial reconstruction.
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8 A. Zanatta et al.
Morgagni’s reconstruction and representations shows pro-
truding zygomatic bones.
The superimposition between the digital bust and
Morgagni’s portrait drew by Nathaniel Dance-Holland gives
a good degree of compatibility, which is quite signicant
because this portrait, as already stated, is probably the most
similar to the real Morgagni (Fig. 6). This picture, in fact,
had no celebrative purpose as Danieletti’s bust.
The superimposition between the digital bust sculpted by
Danieletti and the 3D model has given a lower degree of
compatibility (Fig. 7). Among other causes, this can be, at
least partially, the result of the artistic performance, which
can be inuenced by conventional and laudatory intents. In
fact, the bust was placed inside the Padua anatomical theatre
and was explicitly intended to celebrate Morgagni’s achieve-
ments in anatomy and medicine.
Currently no other comparison with different artistic
portraits are taken into considerations, as the remaining rep-
resentations of Morgagni are very different to each other
and, according to the testimony of the physician Domenico
Cotugno (1736–1822), who met the anatomist in 1765, were
quite different compared to the subject (Gastaldi 2012).
Morgagni’s FR here presented was born with a different
purpose compared to the one performed by the team of the
University of Ferrara (Gualdi-Russo et al. 2015), which was
published, by the way, without consent of the team of the
University of Padua given that it was not satised with the
result. Indeed, the model here presented was not aimed to
help during the research about the recognition of the skeletal
remains of Giovanni Battista Morgagni; in fact, the genetic
identication was already acquired, unlike the period when
the reconstruction was made by Ferrara team. The model of
this paper represents rather a further attempt to conrm the
result already acquired by the forensic identication based
on genetic analysis, as well as a way to commemorate the
father of modern pathology.
The FR studies are an important work also in the bio-
archaeological eld. Human beings have the need to know
the face of their heroes, their leaders and their historical and
religious characters. Our intellect says that this is irrelevant,
but our emotions have this need. This consideration seems to
be in accord with the thought of Morgagni himself, because
he was a lover of portraits of himself and of his colleagues.
We know, in fact, that Morgagni displayed in his house of
Padua a series of portraits of his masters and friends, like
Marcello Malpighi (1628–1694), and his famous prede-
cessors at the chair of Anatomy in Padua, such as Andrea
Vesalius (1514–1564), Matteo Realdo Colombo (ca 1510–
1559), Gabriele Falloppia (1523–1562) and Hieronymus
Fabricius ab Aquapendente (1533–1619) (Zampieri et al.
2012;Giordano 1941a;Giordano 1941b).
In conclusion, we can say that the attempt for a digital
FR of Giovanni Battista Morgagni can be considered as a
tribute to one of the most illustrious minds of the University
of Padua and the history of medicine, particularly signicant
because he was a man symbol of an iconographic discipline,
like anatomy is, and so careful to the iconographic reproduc-
tion of his image and of the images of his friends. (Zampieri
et al. 2012)
Acknowledgements: To commemorate the facial reconstruction of
Giovanni Battista Morgagni, the nal model was materialized,
thanks to the kind effort of a Brazilian team composed by Jorge
Vicente Lopes da Silva, Paulo Amorin, Thiago Franco Moraes and
Marcelo Oliveira (Centro de Tecnologia da Informação “Renato
Archer”, Brazilian Minister of Science, Technology and Innovation),
who prepared a white copy of the reconstructive model with 3D
printing techniques, and the artist Mari Bueno, who retouched and
painted the bust. The nal work was brought to the Museum of
Fig. 7. On the left, the 3D digital model of the bust of Morgagni sculpted by Danieletti. On the right the superimposition
with the facial reconstruction (in yellow the reconstructive prole, in white the prole of the sculpted bust).
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New technique in facial reconstruction: Giovanni Battista Morgagni 9
Pathological Anatomy of Padua University, where is currently pre-
served. Morgagni’s facial reconstruction, nally, has been pre-
sented at the open source exposition “Faces. The many visages
RIhuman history”, which was made by the University Museums
Centre (CAM) in 2015.
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Manuscript received: 04 October 2017
Revisions required: 08 November 2017
Revised version received: 28 November 2017
Accepted: 08 January 2018
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... Nonostante una certa standardizzazione del protocollo Arc-Team, codificata durante quasi un decennio di ricostruzioni facciali, in certi casi possono rendersi necessarie alcune procedure straordinarie, quali: l'utilizzo di TAC per la scansione dello scheletro nei casi di mummificazione (ad esempio per la mummia del primo sacerdote di Toth, conservata presso il Museo di Antropologia dell'Università degli Studi di Padova; Carrara, Scatolin 2018); l'eventuale restauro virtuale del cranio, in caso di parti mancanti (come nel caso di Giovanni Battista Morgagni; Zanatta et al. 2018) o di deformazioni post-mortem (tipiche per i resti scheletrici molto antichi, quali quelli dell'uomo mesolitico di Mondeval); una seconda calibrazione del modello ricostruttivo, mediante eventuali informazioni aggiuntive desunte da studi specialistici come analisi paleopatologiche (ad esempio la correzione del BMI, Body Mass Index, nel caso di S. Antonio di Padova; Carrara et al. 2014) o di aDNA (DNA antico); il confronto tra il modello ricostruttivo e le fonti iconografiche disponibili; la ricostruzione di una specifica espressione o microespressione del volto (come per S. Paolina Visintainer; Bezzi, Moraes 2018a). ...
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The Foundation Introduction to Forensic Art and Illustration A History of Forensic Art The Human Face Drawing the Human Face Finding and Identifying the Living The Interview Composite Imagery Age Progression: Growth Age Progression: Aging Image Assessment and Modification Identifying the Dead Postmortem Drawing Skull Protection and Preparation for Reconstruction Two-Dimensional Facial Reconstruction from the Skull Three-Dimensional Facial Reconstruction on the Skull Methods of Superimposition Additional Responsibilities Professional Ethics and Conduct Printing and Graphics Reproduction Dealing with the News Media The Forensic Artist in Court Summary Index