ArticlePDF Available

Analysis Of Variance For Yield And Its Contributing Characters Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Under Sodic Soil

Authors:

Figures

Content may be subject to copyright.
BEPLS Vol 6 Spl issue [5] 2017
Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences
Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci., Vol
6 Special issue [
©2017 Academy for Environment and Life Sciences, India
Online ISSN 2277-1808
Journal’s URL:http://www.bepls.com
CODEN: BEPLAD
Global Impact Factor 0.876
Universal Impact Factor 0.9804
NAAS Rating 4.95
FULL LENGTH
ARTICLE
Analysis Of Variance For Yield And Its Contributing Characters
Rice (
Oryza Sativa
Snadeep Kumar Singh1
, Ajeet Kumar Diwvedi
1
IIAST, Integral University, Lucknow
2
Technical Assistant, Agriculture, Pratapgarh, U.P.
3School o
f Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara
*Corresponding Author Email:
Rice is an important staple food crop for one third of the world’s population and occupies almost one
land area covered under cereals. The present investigation was based on evaluation of a line × tester set of 39 hybrids
(F1s) and their
16 parents along with two checks for twelve characters under sodic soil and irrigated condition in
Randomized Block Design with three replications during Kharif, 2013. The 39 F1s were generated by crossing 3 testers
with 13 lines during Kharif, 2012. Twel
(cm), panicle bearing tillers per plant, panicle length(cm), spikelets per panicle, spikelet fertility (%), 1000
(g), biological yield per plant (g), harvest
experiment. Analysis of variance exhibited significant differences among the treatments, parents and crosses for all the
traits under study. The moderate estimates of genotypic and phenotypi
broad sense along with high genetic advance in per cent of mean was recorded for spikletets per panicle, L:B ratio and
biological yield per plant, which indicated that improving these trait through select
would be reasonable. Grain yield per plant showed positive and significant correlation with biological yield per plant,
spikelet fertility and 1000-
grain weight to emerge as most important associates of grain yield in ric
variance for combining ability revealed highly significant mean squares due to lines × tester interactions for all the
characters under study indicating thereby importance of specific combining ability and non
Key words: Oryza sativa
, abiotic stress, genetic resource, analysis of variance, mean performance.
INTRODUCTION
Plant genetic resources are of paramount importance for the future and to ensure the food and nutritional
security of an increasing population
three billion people depend on rice which provides 50 to 80 per cent of daily calories. Next to China, India
is the second largest producer and consumer of rice The rice genetic resource
rice breeding and makes a valuable contribution to global wealth and food security
production has doubled during the last three decades, largely due to the use of improved technology such
as adoption of high yiel
ding varieties and perfection of location specific agro
management practices. However, considering the population growth, scientists around the world are
exploring the possibilities of raising the present yield c
targeted production [1]
Among abiotic stresses, salinity is foremost and second most widespread
problem causing reduction in growth and productivity of crop plants
cond
ition which adversely affects the physiological processes of crop plants and severely affects crop
production. The adverse effects may be attributed to non
uptake causing deficiency and ion
selected rice genotypes for sodic stress on the basis of different morphological characters, yield and yield
components under field conditions.
MATERIAL & METHODS
330 | P a g e
Bulletin of Environment, Pharmacology and Life Sciences
6 Special issue [
5] 2017: 226-235
©2017 Academy for Environment and Life Sciences, India
Journal’s URL:http://www.bepls.com
ARTICLE
Analysis Of Variance For Yield And Its Contributing Characters
Oryza Sativa
L.) Under Sodic Soil
, Ajeet Kumar Diwvedi
2, Mohammad Said1
, Vinit Pratap Singh
Srivastava3*
IIAST, Integral University, Lucknow
-226 026, U.P.
Technical Assistant, Agriculture, Pratapgarh, U.P.
f Agriculture, Lovely Professional University, Phagwara
-
144 411, Punjab
*Corresponding Author Email:
seweta.21896@lpu.co.in
ABSTRACT
Rice is an important staple food crop for one third of the world’s population and occupies almost one
land area covered under cereals. The present investigation was based on evaluation of a line × tester set of 39 hybrids
16 parents along with two checks for twelve characters under sodic soil and irrigated condition in
Randomized Block Design with three replications during Kharif, 2013. The 39 F1s were generated by crossing 3 testers
with 13 lines during Kharif, 2012. Twelve plant characters viz., days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height
(cm), panicle bearing tillers per plant, panicle length(cm), spikelets per panicle, spikelet fertility (%), 1000
(g), biological yield per plant (g), harvest
-index
(%), grain yield per plant (g) and L/B ratio were studied in the
experiment. Analysis of variance exhibited significant differences among the treatments, parents and crosses for all the
traits under study. The moderate estimates of genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation and high heritability in
broad sense along with high genetic advance in per cent of mean was recorded for spikletets per panicle, L:B ratio and
biological yield per plant, which indicated that improving these trait through selection in context of present material
would be reasonable. Grain yield per plant showed positive and significant correlation with biological yield per plant,
grain weight to emerge as most important associates of grain yield in ric
variance for combining ability revealed highly significant mean squares due to lines × tester interactions for all the
characters under study indicating thereby importance of specific combining ability and non
-
additive gene effects.
, abiotic stress, genetic resource, analysis of variance, mean performance.
Plant genetic resources are of paramount importance for the future and to ensure the food and nutritional
security of an increasing population
is the most important cereal food crop in the world. Globally around
three billion people depend on rice which provides 50 to 80 per cent of daily calories. Next to China, India
is the second largest producer and consumer of rice The rice genetic resource
is an important source for
rice breeding and makes a valuable contribution to global wealth and food security
production has doubled during the last three decades, largely due to the use of improved technology such
ding varieties and perfection of location specific agro
-
techniques and crop
management practices. However, considering the population growth, scientists around the world are
exploring the possibilities of raising the present yield ceiling to new heights in order to achieve the
Among abiotic stresses, salinity is foremost and second most widespread
problem causing reduction in growth and productivity of crop plants
[2]
Salinity is an environmental
ition which adversely affects the physiological processes of crop plants and severely affects crop
production. The adverse effects may be attributed to non
-
availability of water and disturbance in nutrient
uptake causing deficiency and ion
-toxicity to plants.
The present study was undertaken to evaluate
selected rice genotypes for sodic stress on the basis of different morphological characters, yield and yield
components under field conditions.
©2017 AELS, INDIA
OPEN ACCESS
Analysis Of Variance For Yield And Its Contributing Characters
In
, Vinit Pratap Singh
3, Seweta
144 411, Punjab
Rice is an important staple food crop for one third of the world’s population and occupies almost one
-fifth of the total
land area covered under cereals. The present investigation was based on evaluation of a line × tester set of 39 hybrids
16 parents along with two checks for twelve characters under sodic soil and irrigated condition in
Randomized Block Design with three replications during Kharif, 2013. The 39 F1s were generated by crossing 3 testers
ve plant characters viz., days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height
(cm), panicle bearing tillers per plant, panicle length(cm), spikelets per panicle, spikelet fertility (%), 1000
-grain weight
(%), grain yield per plant (g) and L/B ratio were studied in the
experiment. Analysis of variance exhibited significant differences among the treatments, parents and crosses for all the
c coefficient of variation and high heritability in
broad sense along with high genetic advance in per cent of mean was recorded for spikletets per panicle, L:B ratio and
ion in context of present material
would be reasonable. Grain yield per plant showed positive and significant correlation with biological yield per plant,
grain weight to emerge as most important associates of grain yield in ric
e. The analysis of
variance for combining ability revealed highly significant mean squares due to lines × tester interactions for all the
additive gene effects.
, abiotic stress, genetic resource, analysis of variance, mean performance.
Plant genetic resources are of paramount importance for the future and to ensure the food and nutritional
is the most important cereal food crop in the world. Globally around
three billion people depend on rice which provides 50 to 80 per cent of daily calories. Next to China, India
is an important source for
rice breeding and makes a valuable contribution to global wealth and food security
. Global rice
production has doubled during the last three decades, largely due to the use of improved technology such
techniques and crop
management practices. However, considering the population growth, scientists around the world are
eiling to new heights in order to achieve the
Among abiotic stresses, salinity is foremost and second most widespread
Salinity is an environmental
ition which adversely affects the physiological processes of crop plants and severely affects crop
availability of water and disturbance in nutrient
The present study was undertaken to evaluate
selected rice genotypes for sodic stress on the basis of different morphological characters, yield and yield
BEPLS Vol 6 Spl issue [5] 2017 331 | P a g e ©2017 AELS, INDIA
The present experiment was conducted at Department of Genetics and Plant Breeding Research Farm of
N. D. University of Agriculture and Technology, Kumarganj, Faizabad, during Kharif, 2012 and 2013.
Twelve plant characters viz., days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height (cm), panicle bearing
tillers plant-1, panicle length (cm), spikelet panicle-1, spikelet fertility (%), test weight (g), biological yield
plant-1 (g), harvest index (%), grain yield plant-1 and length: breadth ratio were studied in the
experiment.
ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR DESIGN OF EXPERIMENT
Analysis of variance was carried out with respect to twelve characters to test the significance of
differences between various treatments (genotypes) viz., thirteen lines, three testers and thirty nine F1s
as depicted in Table 1. The mean squares due to treatments, parents and crosses were highly significant
for all the twelve characters indicating presence of sufficient variability in the experimental materials.
The mean squares due to parentsvs crosses were significant or highly significant for days to maturity,
plant height, spikelets per panicle, 1000- grain weight, biological yield per plant and grain yield per plant.
MEAN PERFORMANCE OF GENOTYPES
Mean performance of parents and crosses in respect of twelve characters has been presented in Appendix
I, while mean and range are presented in Table 2.
DAYS TO 50% FLOWERING
The days to 50% flowering ranged among parents from 94.96 days (Pusa Sugandha 4) to 103.56 days
(Gujrat 70). Among crosses, it varied from 90.30 days (NDRK 2011-16 x Gujrat 70) to 105.70 days (CSR
36 x Gujrat 70). The general mean value (97.41 ± 0.60 days) was in between the means of the parents
(97.20 days) and crosses (97.50 days).
DAYS TO MATURITY
Days to maturity of parents varied from 122.93 days (NDRK 2011-1) to 130.40 days (Narendra Usar-3).
Among the crosses, it ranged from 119.97 days (NDRK 2011-16 x Gujrat 70) to 135.03 days (NDRK 2011-
8 x Gujrat 70). The grand mean (126.65 ± 0.61) days was in between mean of the parents (126.28 days)
and crosses (126.65 days).
PLANT HEIGHT
Plant height of parents varied from 89.40 cm (CSR 43) to 104.60 cm (NDRK 2011-18). Among the crosses,
plant height ranged from 88.37 cm (NDRK 2011-9 x Pusa Sugandha 4) to 119.20 cm (NDRK 2011-9 x
Gujrat 70). The grand mean (97.16 ± 0.74 cm) was in between mean of the parents (97.50 cm) and
crosses (97.02 cm).
PANICLE BEARING TILLERS PER PLANT
Panicle bearing tillers per plant among parents ranged from 8.16 (Narendra Usar-3) to 12.00 (NDRK
2011-13). Among the crosses, it varied from 7.33 (NDRK 2011-1 x Pusa Sugandha 4) to 10.83 (NDRK
2011-8 x CSR 43). The general mean (9.2 ± 0.48) was found within the mean of parents (9.90) and
crosses (9.01).
PANICLE LENGTH
The panicle length varied from 20.73 cm (Gujrat 70) to 24.00 cm (NDRK 2011-4) in parents. Among
crosses, it ranged from 20.00 cm (NDRK 2011-16 x CSR 43) to 24.33 cm (NDRK 2011-17 x Gujrat 70). The
general mean for panicle length (22.49 ± 0.55 cm) was in between mean of parents (22.64 cm) and
crosses (22.43 cm).
SPIKELETS PER PANICLE
Among parents, minimum and maximum spikelets per panicle were 92.40 (CSR 43) and 230.40 (CSR 36),
respectively. It varied from 123.20 (NDRK 2011-17 x Gujrat 70) to 219.70 (CSR 36 x Pusa Sugandha 4)
among the crosses. The general mean (164.75 ± 1.41) was in between mean of parents (163.27) and
crosses (165.36).
SPIKELET FERTILITY
Spikelet fertility of parents varied from 80.93% (Gujrat 70) to 92.06 % (NDRK 2011-18), while in crosses
spikelet fertility ranged from 79.47% (NDRK 2011-9 x CSR 43) to 90.73 % (NDRK 2011-18 x Pusa
Sugandha 4). The grand mean (85.63 ± 1.03%) was in between the mean of parents (85.94 %) and
crosses (85.50 %).
1000-GRAIN WEIGHT
Among parents, minimum and maximum 1000-grain weight was observed for NDRK 2011-13 (21.93 g)
and Sarjoo 52 (24.16 g), respectively. In crosses, it varied from 22.20 g (NDRK 2011-8 x Pusa Sugandha 4)
to 24.43 g (Sarjoo 52 x Pusa Sugandha 4). The general mean (23.36 ±0.32 g) was in between the mean of
parents (22.97 g) and crosses (23.51 g).
BIOLOGICAL YIELD PER PLANT
Singh et al
BEPLS Vol 6 Spl issue [5] 2017 332 | P a g e ©2017 AELS, INDIA
Biological yield per plant ranged from 47.90 g (Pusa Sugandha 4) to 70.76 g (NDRK 2011-18) in parents
and from 53.40 g (CSR 36 x Gujrat 70) to 74.00 g (NDRK 2011-17 x CSR 43) in crosses. The grand mean
(61.90 ± 1.09 g) was in between the mean of parents (60.52 g) and crosses (62.46 g).
HARVEST-INDEX
Among parents, minimum and maximum harvest index was recorded 37.66% (NDRK 2011-18) and
44.40% (Pusa Sugandha 4), respectively. In crosses, it varied from 36.76% (NDRK 2011-17 x Pusa
Sugandha 4) to 44.12 % (NDRK 2011-16 x Gujrat 70). The general mean (40.38 ± 0.72%) was in between
the mean of parents (40.59 %) and crosses (40.29 %).
GRAIN YIELD PER PLANT
The general mean for grain yield per plant (24.89 ± 0.59g) was in between the mean of parents (24.46 g)
and crosses (25.07 g). The grain yield per plant varied from 21.26 g (Pusa Sugandha 4) to 26.83 g (CSR
43) in parents and from 21.93 g (NDRK 2011-18 x CSR 43) to 28.10 g (NDRK 2011-17 x CSR 43) in
crosses.
Table 1: Analysis of variance including parents and crosses for 12 traits in rice under sodic soil
Source of
variation df D50F DM PH
PBT
P PL SP SF TW BYP H I GYP LBR
Replications
2
0.035
0.97
0.28
6.32
.031
0.03
0.56
0.00
Treatments 54
36.60
**
**
**
3.07
**
2.93
**
2745.64
**
**
1.31
**
111.93
**
11.55
**
*
0.31
**
Parents (P) 15
17.09
**
*
**
2.37
**
2.89
**
4501.61
**
**
1.39
**
119.60
**
14.72
**
*
0.56
**
Crosses (C) 38
45.18
**
**
**
2.72
**
2.99
**
2120.84
**
**
1.05
**
108.48
**
10.52
**
*
0.22
**
P vs C 1 3.19
* 7.94*
26.9
8 1.55
148.54*
* 6.64
9.88
**
128.20
** 2.96
** 0.00
Error
10
8 1.09 1.13 1.69 0.70 0.92 6.04 3.20 0.64 3.56 1.59 1.06 0..2
Traits: D50F=Days to 50% flowering, DM=Days to maturity, PH=Plant height (cm), PBTP=Panicle bearing tillers plant
-1
, PL=Panicle
length (cm), SP=Spikelets panicle-1, SF=Spikelet fertility (%),TW=Test weight (g) , BYP= Biological yield plant-1 (g), HI=Harvest index
(%),GYP= Grain yield plant-1 and LBR=Length: breadth ratio.
*,**. Significant at 5% and 1% probability level, respectively.
Table 2: Mean and range of parents, crosses and parents including crosses for 12 traits in rice
under sodic soil
Trait/
Generation Parents Crosses Parents including crosses
D50F 97.20 ± 0.16 94.96 -103.56 97.50 ± 0.60
90.30 -
105.70 97.41 ± 0.60
90.30 -
105.70
DM 126.28 ± 0.17
122.93 -
130.03
126.65 ±
0.61
119.97 -
135.03
126.65 ±
0.61
119.97 -
135.03
PH 97.50 ± 0.20 89.40 -104.60 97.02 ± 0.74
88.37 -
119.20
97.16 ±
0.74
88.37 -
119.20
PBTP 9.90 ± 0.13 8.60 -12.00 9.01 ± 0.48 7.33 - 10.83 9.2 ± 0.48 8.60 -12.00
PL 22.64 ± 0.15 20.73 -24.00 22.43 ± 0.55 20.00 - 24.33
22.49 ±
0.55 20.00 - 24.33
SP
163.27 ±
0.39 92.40 -230.40
165.36 ±
1.41
123.20-
219.70
164.75 ±
1.41
92.40 -
230.40
SF 85.94 ± 0.28 80.93 -92.07 85.50 ± 1.03 79.47 - 90.73
85.63 ±
1.03 80.93 -92.07
TW 22.97 ± 0.08 21.93 -24.17 23.51 ± 0.32 22.20 - 24.43
23.36 ±
0.32 22.20 - 24.43
BYP 60.52 ± 30 47.90 -70.77 62.46 ± 1.09 53.40 - 74.00
61.90 ±
1.09 53.40 - 74.00
HI 40.59 ± 0.20 37.67 - 44.40 40.29 ± 0.72 36.76- 44.12
40.38 ±
0.72 37.67 - 44.40
GYP 24.46 ± 0.16 21.27 - 26.83 25.07 ± 0.59 21.93 - 28.10
24.89 ±
0.59 21.93 - 28.10
LBR 2.84 ± 0.02 2.23 - 3.73 2.85 ± 0.08 2.50 - 3.63 2.85 ± 0.08 2.23 - 3.73
Traits: D50F=Days to 50% flowering, DM=Days to maturity, PH=Plant height (cm), PBTP=Panicle bearing tillers
plant-1, PL=Panicle length (cm), SP=Spikelets panicle-1, SF=Spikelet fertility (%),TW=Test weight (g) , BYP=
Biological yield plant-1 (g), HI=Harvest index (%),GYP= Grain yield plant-1 LBR=Length: breadth ratio
Values before and after ±” sign are mean and SE (Standard Error), respectively; Values before and after “-sign are
minimum and maximum, respectively
Singh et al
BEPLS Vol 6 Spl issue [5] 2017 333 | P a g e ©2017 AELS, INDIA
L:B RATIO
The lowest L:B ratio was recorded for Gujrat 70 (2.33) while the highest value was found for NDRK
2011-17 (3.73). Among crosses, it ranged from 2.50 (NDRK 2011-17 x Gujrat 70) to 3.63 (NDRK 2011-17
x CSR 43). For this character, the general mean (2.85 ± 0.08) was in between the mean of parents (2.84)
and crosses (2.85).
COEFFICIENTS OF VARIATION
The phenotypic (PCV) and genotypic (GCV) coefficients of variation for the twelve characters under study
have been presented in Table 3. In general, the magnitude of phenotypic coefficient of variation was
higher than the corresponding genotypic coefficient of variation for all the traits. The moderate estimates
(10-20%) of PCV was recorded for panicle bearing tillers per plant, spikelets per panicle, biological yield
per plant and L:B ratio, while spikelets per panicle and L:B ratio showed moderate values of GCV. The
remaining characters exhibited low estimates (<10%) of PCV or GCV.
DISCUSSION
Yield is a complex end product of a number of components most of which are under polygenic control. All
changes in yield must be accompanied by changes in one or more of the components as have been pointed
out by [3] The ultimate goal of any plant breeding programme is to develop improved genotypes which
are better than the existing ones in producing the economic yield. It makes logical to look at the prospects
of technologies which can help in quantum increase in rice yields per unit area per unit time. Successful
demonstration of hybrid rice technology on commercial basis in China during mid eighties revealed that
utilization of the phenomenon of hybrid vigor is one of the feasible options to get quantum jump in rice
potential yield by 20-30 per cent over the best available inbred rice [4] China is currently having about 55
per cent of its total hectorage under hybrids producing 18 million tones of extra paddy per annum [5],
therefore, IRRI and several countries in Asia including India have been exploring the potential and
problems of commercial exploitation of heterosis. The mean performance of 13 rice genotypes (lines) for
12 characters is presented in Appendix I and the most desirable lines for different characters are listed in
Table 4 and 5. Very wide range of variation in mean performance of genotypes was observed for all the 12
characters under study. The comparison of mean performance of genotypes for 12 traits using critical
differences revealed existence of very high level of variability in the rice genotypes evaluated in the
present study.
Table-3: Estimates of coefficient of variation, heritability in broad sense and genetic advance at
percent of mean for 12 traits in rice under sodic soil
Characters Coefficient of variation (%) Heritability
Genetic advance in % of
mean
Phenotypic
Genotypic
Broad sense
D50F
3.67
3.52
91.67
8.89
DM
2.40
2.25
87.92
5.59
PH
5.16
4.99
93.61
12.75
PBTP
13.18
9.68
53.99
18.79
PL
5.55
3.60
42.12
6.17
SP
18.50
18.44
99.35
48.54
SF
3.64
3.00
67.98
6.53
TW
3.41
2.44
51.08
4.60
BYP
10.07
9.61
90.99
24.20
HI
5.46
4.44
66.24
9.55
GYP
7.69
6.48
71.05
14.43
LBR 12.28 11.21 83.37 27.02
Traits: D50F=Days to 50% flowering, DM=Days to maturity, PH=Plant height (cm), PBTP=Panicle
bearing tillers plant-1, PL=Panicle length (cm), SP=Spikelets panicle-1, SF=Spikelet fertility (%),TW=Test
weight (g) , BYP= Biological yield plant-1 (g), HI=Harvest index (%),GYP= Grain yield plant-1 and
LBR=Length: breadth ratio.
The genotype, CSR 43 produced highest grain yield per plant (26.83 g) yield per plant and also recorded
highest mean performance for days to 50% flowering and plant height (Table 5). The genotype producing
second highest mean performance for grain yield per plant was NDRK 2011-18 (26.66 g) which showed
high mean performance for days to 50% flowering, plant height, spikelet fertility and 1000- grain weight.
The other second highest yielding rice genotype, NDRK 2011-4 (26.66 g) showed superior mean
performance for days to 50% flowering, panicle bearing tillers per plant, panicle length, spikelet
fertility, biological yield per plant. Gujrat 70 (26.26 g) showed high mean performance for plant height,
spikelets per panicle and biological yield per plant. NDRK 2011-17 (25.80 g) exhibited high mean
Singh et al
BEPLS Vol 6 Spl issue [5] 2017 334 | P a g e ©2017 AELS, INDIA
performance for days to maturity, plant height, test weight, biological yield per plant and L:B ratio. Thus,
the high yielding lines discussed above having high mean performance for grain yield and for several
other characters may be recommended for use as parents for developing high yielding rice varieties for
sodic soil. In addition to genotypes mentioned above, some other genotypes showing very high mean
performance for other characters may be utilized as donors for improving those characters in a
component breeding approach even if they had medium or low grain yield. In view of the above
consideration, the most desirable genotypes were CSR 43, NDRK 2011-18, NDRK 2011-4 and NDRK
2011-16 for early flowering; NDRK 2011-17 and NDRK 2011-16 for early maturity; CSR 43, NDRK 2011-
18, Gujrat 70 and NDRK 2011-16 for short stature; NDRK 2011-4, NDRK 2011-9, NDRK 2011-19 and
NDRK 2011-13 for panicle bearing tillers par plant; NDRK 2011-4, NDRK 2011-9 and NDRK 2011-9 for
panicle length; Gujrat 70, NDRK 2011-19 and NDRK 2011-13 for spikelet per panicle; NDRK 2011-18,
NDRK 2011-4, NDRK 2011-19 and Sarjoo 52 for spikelet fertility; NDRK 2011-17, NDRK 2011-16 and
Sarjoo 52 for 1000 seed weight; NDRK 2011-4, Gujrat 70, NDRK 2011-17 for biological yield per plant;
NDRK 2011-13 and Sarjoo 52 for harvest index; NDRK 2011-17 and NDRK 2011-16 for L:B ratio.
Similarly, the genotypes showing very high mean performance in desirable direction for various
characters listed in Table 4, may also be used as donors for improving the characters for which they had
high mean performance.
COEFFICIENTS OF VARIATION, HERITABILITY AND GENETIC ADVANCE
The success of selection in improving plant characters depends mainly on presence of substantial genetic
variability and nature of heritability and gene action. The genetic variability is the raw material of plant
breeding programme on which selection acts to evolve superior genotypes. The phenotypic and genotypic
coefficients of variation can be used for assessing and comparing the nature and magnitude of variability
existing for different characters in the breeding materials. Heritability in broad sense quantifies the
proportion of heritable genetic variance to total phenotypic variance, while heritability in narrow sense
represents the ratio of fixable additive genetic variance to total phenotypic variance. Estimates of
heritability help in estimating expected progress through selection. The genetic advance in per cent of
mean provides indication of expected selection response by taking into account the existing genetic
variability and heritability of the character. The estimates of direct selection parameters, coefficients of
variation, heritability and genetic advance in per cent of mean were computed for twelve characters of 39
crosses and sixteen parents (Table 3)
The moderate estimates of genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation and high heritability in
broad sense along with high genetic advance in per cent of mean was recorded for spikelet’s per panicle,
L:B ratio and biological yield per plant, which indicated that improving these traits through selection in
context of present material would be reasonable. Remaining characters had either low GCV and PCV
values or low to moderate heritability to emerge as poor indices of selection. The estimates of direct
selection parameters observed for the above characters are broadly in agreement with earlier reports in
rice [6] [7]. The estimates of heritability in broad sense (h2b) and genetic advance in per cent of mean
estimated for twelve characters have been presented in Table 3. High estimates of broad sense
heritability (>75%) was recorded for majority of the characters except panicle bearing tillers per plant,
panicle length, spikelet fertility, harvest index, 1000- grain weight and grain yield per plant which
exhibited moderate estimates of heritability (50-75%). The genetic advance in per cent of mean was
found to be high estimates of this parameter (>20 - 50%) observed for spikelet fertility, biological yield
per plant and L:B ratio and moderate (>10-20%) genetic advance in per cent of mean was observed for
1000-grain weight.
Table 4: The most desirable genotypes identified for high mean performance for 12 characters in
rice
Characters
Genotypes
Days to 50% flowering
NDRK2011-16, NDRK 2011-4, NDRK 2011-18, NDRK 2011-9, NDRK 2011-13, CSR 43
Days to maturity
NDRK 2011-1, NDRK2011-16, NDRK 2011-18, NDRK 2011-17, NDRK 2011-9
Plant height
NDRK2011-16, NDRK 2011-10, NDRK 2011-17, NDRK 2011-13, NDRK 2011-19, CSR 43
Panicle bearing tillers per plant
NDRK2011-13, NDRK 2011-9, NDRK2011-2, NDRK2011-19, NDRK 2011-4
Panicle length (cm)
NDRK 2011-4, CSR 36, NDRK 2011-9, NDRK2011-2, NDRK2011-19
Spikelets per panicle
CSR 36, NDRK2011-19, NDRK2011-13, NDRK2011-2, Sarjoo 52, Gujrat 70
Spikelet fertility (%)
NDRK 2011-18, NDRK 2011-4, Sarjoo 52, NDRK2011-19; CSR 36
1000- grain weight (g)
Sarjoo 52, NDRK 2011-10, NDRK 2011-17, NDRK 2011-18, NDRK2011-16
Biological yield per plant (g)
NDRK 2011-18, NDRK 2011-4, NDRK 2011-17, NDRK2011-16, NDRK2011-19, Gujrat 70
Harvest-index (%)
NDRK2011-13, NDRK 2011-8, Sarjoo 52, NDRK 2011-10, NDRK 2011-9
Grain yield per plant(g)
NDRK 2011-4, NDRK 2011-18, NDRK 2011-17, NDRK2011-16, NDRK 2011-9, CSR 43, Gujrat 70,
NDRK 2011-19, NDRK 2011-13, NDRK 2011-5
L:B ratio
NDRK 2011-17, NDRK2011-16, NDRK2011-13, NDRK 2011-10, NDRK2011-19
Singh et al
BEPLS Vol 6 Spl issue [5] 2017 335 | P a g e ©2017 AELS, INDIA
Table 5: The mean performance of high yielding genotypes of rice for other characters
Genotypes
High mean performance for other characters
CSR 43 (26.83 g)
Days to 50% flowering, plant height
NDRK 2011-18 (26.66
g)
Days to 50% flowering, plant height, spikelet fertility, test weight
NDRK 2011-4 (26.66 g)
Days to 50% flowering, panicle bearing tillers per plant, panicle length, spikelet fertility, biological yield
per plant
Gujrat 70 (26.26 g)
Plant height , spikelets per panicle, biological yield per plant
NDRK 2011-17 (25.80
g)
Days to maturity, plant height , test weight, biological yield per plant, L:B ratio
NDRK2011-16 (25.40
g)
Days to 50% flowering, days to maturity, plant height, test weight, biological yield per plant, L:B ratio
NDRK 2011-9 (25.10 g)
Panicle bearing tillers per plant, panicle length,
NDRK2011-19 (25.03
g)
Panicle bearing tillers per plant, panicle length, spikelets per panicle, spikelet fertility
NDRK2011-13 (24.66
g)
Panicle bearing tillers per plant, spikelets per panicle, harvest-index
Sarjoo 52 (24.30 g)
Spikelet fertility, test weight, harvest-index
CONCLUSION
It was concluded from the salient results of present study that the analysis of variance exhibited
significant differences among the treatments, parents and crosses for all the traits under study. This
indicated substantial genetic variability in the material and validated further statistical analysis. The
moderate estimates of genotypic and phenotypic coefficient of variation and high heritability in broad
sense along with high genetic advance in per cent of mean was recorded for spikletets per panicle, L:B
ratio and biological yield per plant. which indicated that improving these traits through selection in
context of present material would be reasonable. Remaining characters had either low GCV and PCV or
low to moderate heritability to emerge as poor indices of selection under sodic soil. Grain yield per plant
showed positive and strong correlation with biological yield per plant, spikelet fertility and 1000-grain
weight to emerge as most important associates of grain yield in rice under sodic soil. In the present study,
majority of significant estimates of correlations between yield and yield components were positive in
nature which represents highly favorable situation because selection practiced for improving these traits
individually or simultaneously would bring improvement in others due to correlated response. This
suggested that selection would be quite efficient in improving yield and yield components in context of
sodic soil.
REFERENCES
1. Panwar, A.; Dhaka, R.P.S. and Kumar, V. (2007). Genetic variability and heritability studies in rice. Advances in
Plant Sciences, 20 (1): 47-49.
2. Munns, R., James, R.A. and Lauchli, A. (2006). Approaches to increasing the salt tolerance of wheat and other
cereals. J. Exp. Bot., 57(5): 1025-1043.
3. Grafius, J.E. (1959). Genetic and environmental relationship of components of yield, maturity and height in F2-F3
soybean populations. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci., 30: 373-374.
4. Yuan, L.P. and Virmani, S.S. (1988). Study on hybrid rice research and development. In: Hybrid Rice,
International Rice Research Institute, Manila, Philippines, pp 7-24.
5. Virmani, S.S. (1992). Scientists push hybrids rice technology for higher yields. IRRI Reporter (IRRI Suppl), 2:1.
6. Mohammad, S. and Deva, J.B. (2002). Genetic variability and other relevant parameters in rice. J. Maharashtra
Agric. Univ., 22 (3): 110-113.
7. Babar, M.; Khan, A.A.; Arif, A.; Zafar, Y. and Arif, M. (2009). Path analysis of some leaf and panicle traits affecting
grain yield in double haploid lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.). J. Agric. Res., 45 (4): 245-252.
1. agro morphological response to drought resistance in upland rice (Oryza sativa L.). Journal of Breeding and
Genetics. 47 (3): 268-277.
8. Sharma, R.N. and Roy, A. (1993). Studies on variability and interrelationship of yield attributes in Jhum rice.
Annals of Agril. Res. 14: 311-316.
9. Suman, A.; Sankar, V.G.; Rao, L.V.S. and Sreedhar, N. (2005). Variability, heritability and genetic advance in rice.
Crop Research. 30 (2): 211-214.
CITATION OF ARTICLE
S K SINGH, A KUMAR DIWVEDI, M SAID, V P SINGH, SEWETA SRIVASTAVA. ANALYSIS OF VARIANCE FOR YIELD AND
ITS CONTRIBUTING CHARACTERS IN RICE (ORYZA SATIVA L.) UNDER SODIC SOIL. Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Sci., Vol
6 Special Issue [5] 2017: 330-335
Singh et al
... It also indicated both additive and non-additive types of gene action Bagheri, [10]. Such a differential response of parents to combining ability was also reported by Kumar et al. [12], Shanthi et al. [13], Peyman et al. [14], Sharifi [15], Gopikannan and Ganesh [5], Singh et al. [6], Moumeni and Vahed [7], Singh et al. [8] and Vanave et al. [9]. ...
... Out of 15 restores order, 5 lines exhibited significant positive gca effect in which Kuber (1.12) and Magic (0.47) were the best general combiners. These findings are closely related to the observations of Singh et al.[8] and Vanave et al.[9]. ...
... The variances among crosses due to males and females (lines x testers) interaction component, indicating their sca effects were highly significant for all the traits except for 1000 grain weight. These results are supporting by the findings of Sanghera and Waseem, [4], Gopikannan and Ganesh[5], Singh et al.[6], Moumeni and Vahed[7] Singh et al.[8] and Vanave et al.[9].The merits of parent are judged on the basis of gca effects. General combiners with negative values are desirable. ...
Article
Full-text available
Information on combining ability is derived from data on twelve yield and yield contributing characters in fifteen male and three female parents utilised in line x tester fashion to estimate combining ability of rice genotypes under coastal saline condition. Forty Five hybrids generated from crossing three lines with fifteen testers were studied along with their parents for combining ability and gene action involved in the expression of characters in rice. The gca and sca effects were significant for all the characters. The magnitude of sca variance was higher than the gca variance for all the characters revealed the presence of predominance of non-additive gene action for all the characters under study. Halchal (-12.29) was found to be good general combiners for days to 50% flowering and early maturity, Halchal (-13.39). However, IR-24 (1.88) was good general combiners with significant positive effect for tallness. Magic (-12.05) good general combiners for dwarfness and Shriram 434 (1.57) was good general combiners for test weight however, Moti was best general combiner with gca estimates of 7.07 for harvest index and Kuber (3.48) was the good general combiners for yield/hill. Cross combinations RHR 27 x IR 24 (4.04) was significant and positive effect for yield/hill, performance for ear bearing tillers per plant were RHR 27 x IR 24 (1.88). In general, the crosses showing significant and desirable combining ability effects were associated with better per se performance for the respective traits. These hybrids could be utilized in heterosis breeding to exploit hybrid vigour.
... Rice is most important food crop of the world and it has been estimated that half the world's population subsists wholly or partially on rice [1] . Ninety percent of the world crop is grown and consumed in Asia [2] . ...
... The feasibility of breeding of salt-tolerance in rice, as there was no antagonism between high yield and salt tolerance [4] . Salinity is an environmental condition which adversely affects the physiological processes of crop plants and severely affects crop production [1] . Combining ability analysis is one of the powerful tools available to estimate the combining ability effects and aids in selecting the desirable parents and crosses for the exploitation of heterosis. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was conducted to analyze the combining ability for yield and its contributing traits in rice (Oryza sativa L.). Rice, being a staple food for more than 70 per cent of national population is the source of livelihood for 120-150 million rural households. The major objective of a plant breeder is to create genetic variability upto maximum extent possible in the existing germplasm because the genetic variability and combining ability estimates provide the basis for selection of suitable genotypes in any breeding programme. The combining ability effects, which are supposed to be manifestation of non-additive components of genetic variance, are valuable for discrimination of superior crosses for their genetic worth as breeding materials. The estimates of combining ability of 39 crosses for 12 characters were analyzed during the experiment. Six crosses, NDRK 2011-18 x Gujarat 70, CSR 36 x CSR 43, Sarjoo 52 x Pusa Sugandha 4, NDRK 2011-19 x Pusa Sugandha 4, NDRK 2011-17 x CSR 43 and Sarjoo 52 x CSR 43 showed significant and positive combining ability effects for grain yield per plant as well as some other yield components. In general, the crosses showing significant and desirable combining ability effects were associated with better per se performance for the respective traits.
... Among all the cereal crops, rice is the most important food crop and it has been estimated that more than half of the world's population subsists wholly or partially on rice [1]. The rising demand, saturation of cultivable fields and low gross domestic production of rice are likely to cause a supply shortage of the crop in near future. ...
Article
Full-text available
Rice is one of the most consumed food crops in the world and therefore possesses huge socioeconomic relevance. Combining ability estimates provide the basis for selection of suitable parents in breeding programmes for rice improvement. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the combining ability effects for various agro-morphological traits in some genotypes of rice. Thirty-four male parents were crossed with the four CMS lines in line × tester matting design and 136 cross combinations were obtained. For most of the traits, SKUA-7A showed desirable GCA effect among the female parental lines; while RL-1, RL-2, RL-11, SKUA-497, SKUA-494, SKUA-496 and SKUA-420 showed desirable GCA effect amongst the male parents. Cross combinations SKUA-7A × RL-3 and SKUA-11A × RL-5 revealed desirable heterosis for most of the traits viz., grain yield, number of effective tillers plant-1 , panicle length and number of spikelet panicle-1. These cross combinations also possessed desirable values of SCA effect. In general, the cross combinations showing desirable specific combining ability effects also reveal better per se performance for the respective traits.
... The comparison of mean performance of genotypes for 12 traits using critical differences revealed existence of very high level of variability in the rice genotypes evaluated [38]. Molecular diversity among 89 isolates of R. solani isolated from pulse crop has been studied by using 12 URPs [18] and they likewise saw that molecular groups of R. solani isolates from pulse crop didn't relate to agro-environmental areas of India. ...
Article
Sheath blight disease, caused by Rhizoctonia solani, is an important fungal disease of rice (Oryza sativa L.). Twenty four isolates of R. solani, collected from different locations of Prayagraj (U.P.), India, were genetically characterized with URPs using PCR. For polymorphic fingerprint patterns, all primers were found effective from DNA of R. solani. Out of all used URPs, one primer (13R) produced a uniform DNA band in all isolates of R. solani. Results of this study shows that URPs showed reproducible results to assay genetic variability and are very sensitive.
Article
Information about gene action, heritability, heredity, and potential gain estimated by selecting these characters is scarce. This study aims to estimate genetic parameters related to physical attributes of rice grain quality. The crosses “BR/IRGA 409” x “BRS Bojuru” and their reciprocal were performed, obtaining F1 and F2 generations and backcrosses (BC1 and BC2). After obtaining seeds, the experiment was conducted following a completely randomized design with replications determined by the total number of plants of each generation. Total chalky area (CA), white core (WC), vitreous whiteness (VW), caryopsis length (CL), caryopsis width (CW), caryopsis length x width (CL/CW), percentage of whole grains (WHO), and broken grains (BG) were evaluated. The experiment analyzed means and variances and genetic parameters of generations based on a complete model and additive‐dominant model. The physical attributes are inherited quantitatively, and the main genetic effect is the additive. However, there is a great environmental influence on the characters studied. The BR/IRGA 409 x BRS Bojuru cross makes it possible to obtain a greater genetic gain in the selection of chalky grain characters (CA, WC, and VW) as they express a narrower heritability, whereas BRS Bojuru x BR/IRGA 409 makes it possible to obtain a greater genetic gain in the selection of CL, CW, CL/CW, WHO, and BG. Parent plants affect the type of gene action. A gene action of partial dominance, overdominance, and complete dominance occurred among the physical attributes of grain quality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved Gene action study for characters related to rice grain quality Experiment analyzed means and variances and genetic parameters of generations based on a complete model and additive‐dominant model. The physical attributes of rice grain quality have a quantitative genetic inheritance, and the additive intragenic action stands out as the main genetic effect.
Article
Full-text available
This review describes physiological mechanisms and selectable indicators of gene action, with the aim of promoting new screening methods to identify genetic variation for increasing the salt tolerance of cereal crops. Physiological mechanisms that underlie traits for salt tolerance could be used to identify new genetic sources of salt tolerance. Important mechanisms of tolerance involve Na+ exclusion from the transpiration stream, sequestration of Na+ and Cl− in the vacuoles of root and leaf cells, and other processes that promote fast growth despite the osmotic stress of the salt outside the roots. Screening methods for these traits are discussed in relation to their use in breeding, particularly with respect to wheat. Precise phenotyping is the key to finding and introducing new genes for salt tolerance into crop plants.
Article
Path coefficient analysis for some leaf and panicle traits affecting grain yield was accomplished in 93 doubled haploid lines of rice (Oryza sativa L.) at National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Faisalabad, Pakistan during 2004. The measures of variability revealed substantial variation among doubled haploid lines for the traits studied. Broad sense heritability estimates for grain yield per plant, flag leaf width, plant height and panicle length ranged from 0.74 to 0.80. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients were positive for all the characters combinations. A strong genotypic association of plant height was observed for panicle length and flag leaf length. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation between days to heading and flag leaf length was positive and high. Path coefficient analysis indicated that plant height followed by number of panicles, flag leaf width, days to heading and flag leaf rolling had higher direct effect on grain yield.
Genetic variability and heritability studies in rice
  • A Panwar
  • R P S Dhaka
  • V Kumar
Panwar, A.; Dhaka, R.P.S. and Kumar, V. (2007). Genetic variability and heritability studies in rice. Advances in Plant Sciences, 20 (1): 47-49.
Genetic and environmental relationship of components of yield, maturity and height in F2-F3 soybean populations
  • J E Grafius
Grafius, J.E. (1959). Genetic and environmental relationship of components of yield, maturity and height in F2-F3 soybean populations. Iowa State Coll. J. Sci., 30: 373-374.
Scientists push hybrids rice technology for higher yields
  • S S Virmani
Virmani, S.S. (1992). Scientists push hybrids rice technology for higher yields. IRRI Reporter (IRRI Suppl), 2:1.
Genetic variability and other relevant parameters in rice
  • S Mohammad
  • J B Deva
Mohammad, S. and Deva, J.B. (2002). Genetic variability and other relevant parameters in rice. J. Maharashtra Agric. Univ., 22 (3): 110-113.
Studies on variability and interrelationship of yield attributes in Jhum rice
  • R N Sharma
  • A Roy
Sharma, R.N. and Roy, A. (1993). Studies on variability and interrelationship of yield attributes in Jhum rice. Annals of Agril. Res. 14: 311-316.