ArticlePDF Available

Abstract

Abu al-Thana Shihab al-Din al-Alusi (1802-1854) was one of the most promi- nent scholars of 19th century Ottoman Empire. Alusi was dismissed from the position of Mufti of Baghdad based on the accusation that he was a Wahhabi. However, he insisted that he was loyal to Ottoman authorities and had finally proved this. This article discuss- es al-Alusi’s theological identity and whether he was a Wahhabi or sufi. It is found that the Ottoman government had a sensitivity against the British-supported Wahhabism at the time and has misjudged his salafi character. The article secondly shows his struggle for clearing the label from his name. In order to regain his reputation, al-Alusi finished his Tafsir, Ruh al-Maani and sent it to Istanbul to prove that he has not any intellectual links with this destructive group, namely wahhabis, on the contrary he respects Islamic tradition and is loyal to Ottomans. The study is based on the original appeal letter he gave to the government and the offical response that was provided to him. Aside from the other offical reports, these two official documents provided in this article are pub- lished academically for first time.
Usûl İslam Araştırmaları, 27 (2017), s. 7 - 18
ISSN 1305 - 2632
Sufi or Salafi? Alusi’s Struggle For His Reputation
Against Ottoman Bureaucracy With His Tafsir, Ruh
al-Maani*
Bilal GÖKKIR** / Necmettin GÖKKIR***
Abstract: Abu al-Thana Shihab al-Din al-Alusi (1802-1854) was one of the most promi-
nent scholars of 19th century Ottoman Empire. Alusi was dismissed from the position of
Mufti of Baghdad based on the accusation that he was a Wahhabi. However, he insisted
that he was loyal to Ottoman authorities and had finally proved this. This article discuss-
es al-Alusi’s theological identity and whether he was a Wahhabi or sufi. It is found that
the Ottoman government had a sensitivity against the British-supported Wahhabism at
the time and has misjudged his salafi character. The article secondly shows his struggle
for clearing the label from his name. In order to regain his reputation, al-Alusi finished
his Tafsir, Ruh al-Maani and sent it to Istanbul to prove that he has not any intellectual
links with this destructive group, namely wahhabis, on the contrary he respects Islamic
tradition and is loyal to Ottomans. The study is based on the original appeal letter he
gave to the government and the offical response that was provided to him. Aside from
the other offical reports, these two official documents provided in this article are pub-
lished academically for first time.
Keywords: Alusi, Ruh al-Maani, Wahhabism, Salafi, Ottoman bureuacracy.
Sufi mi Selefi mi? Alusi'nin Ruhu'l-Meani Tefsiri ile Osmanlı Bürokrasisine Karşı
Mücadelesi
Öz: Ebu's-Sena Şihabuddin el-Alusi (1802-1854) 19. yüzyıl Osmanlı önemli alimlerin-
den birisidir. Alusi vahhabi olduğu gerekçesi ile Bağdat müftülüğü görevinden
alınmıştır. Ancak Osmanlıya olan bağlılığı konusunda ısrarcı oldu ve bunu da ispatladı.
Bu makale Alusi'nin teolojik kimliğinin vahhabi mi yoksa sufi mi olduğunu tartışmak-
tadır. Ingiliz destekli wahhabi hareketine karşı bir hassasiyete sahip olan dönemin Os-
manlı hükümetinin onun selefi karakterini yanlış yorumlamış olduğu ortaya çıkmıştır.
Bu makale ayrıca onun ismindeki bu lekeyi temizlemek için yaptığı çabaları
göstermektedir. İtibarını yeniden elde etmek için Alusi Ruhu'l-Meani adlı eserini
* This work was supported by the Scientific and Technological Research Council of Turkey
(TUBİTAK) under the project number 113K241.
** Prof. Dr., İstanbul University, bgokkir@gmail.com.
*** Prof. Dr., İstanbul University, ngokkir@hotmail.com.
8  Bilal Gökkır / Necmettin Gökkır
tamamlamış ve vahhabiler adlı yıkıcı ve bölücü bir örgütle herhangi bir entellektüel bağı
olmadığını, aksine İslam geleneğine saygılı ve Osmanlıya bağlı olduğunu göstermek için
bu eserini İstanbula göndermiştir. Bu çalışma Alusinin hükümete gönderdiği temyiz
dilekçesi ile hükümetin ona verdiği cevabi yazıya dayanmaktadır. Diğer belgeler bir
tarafa bu iki resmi yazı akademik bir çalışmada ilk defa yayınlanmaktadır.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Alusi, Ruhu'l-Meani, Vahhabilik, Selefi, Osmanlı Bürokrasisi.
Introduction
Descending from well-known Alusi family, Abu al-Thana Shihab al-Din al-
Alusi (1802-54) lived in the 19th century Iraq, one of the multicultural areas of
Ottoman Empire. He was a follower of Shafii school of Islam but he was also
appointed as Hanafi mufti of Baghdad. Moreover, being a pupil of renowned
Naqshibandi Khalid al-Baghdadi, Alusi practiced Sufi tradition. He echoed his
sufi interpretation to his work by giving place his sufi comments at the end of his
general comments. Therefore, Alusi’s Tafsir Ruh al-Maani is known as Sufi tafsir.
As a matter of fact his tafsir is quite eclectic. It is however noteworthy that he was
accused of wahhabism and as a result of this accusation, he was dismissed from
his mufti post by the Ottoman khalifah in 1847. To clear his name at Ottoman
authority, Alusi traveled to Istanbul in 1850 and stayed with Ottoman Shaikh –al
Islam Arif Hikmet Bey. Finally Alusi took his reputation back by introducing his
significant Tafsir work, Ruh al-Maani.
The purpose of this article is to discuss this diverse identity of Alusi and to
present some official documents indicating his struggle to prove his loyalty to the
Ottoman state and the outcome of this effort returned to Alusi's life. By doing so,
the political background of Alusi's time and its relations with Tafsir studies will be
arisen in the broader framework. Intellectual works at the times of being pro-
duced have some motivations and underpinnings behind, not only in education or
training but also in personal conflict of interest, political and ideological adher-
ence. Writing a history about a work just depending on author-text formulation
sometimes misguides and makes areader blind. However, the political and intel-
lectual information helps to fill some gaps.
The article focuses on the identity of Alusi on the one hand. Who was Alusi? A
sufi or a wahhabi? As he tried to clear his name from the wahhabi accusation, he
did not seem to accept the wahhabi identity. Why then he was accused of wahha-
Alusi: Sufi or Salafi?  9
bism which caused some political problems in his life? What kind of effort did he
perform to clear up this accusation from his resume? In order to answer these
questions the article will look at his life, his family, education he received and then
will continue on his discussion about the accusation. On the other hand, some
official efforts to clear up the accusation of being "wahhabi" from his name will be
given with official Ottoman documents. Alusi's appeal letter will be presented in
this article for the first time.
The Identity of Alusi: Sufi or Salafi?
Abu al-Thana Shihab al-Din al-Alusi was born in 1217 hijra (1802).1 Alusi
started his classical education in the Madrasa of Shahid Ali Pasha with his father
Abdullah b. Mahmud al-Alusi who served as the head of teachers/lecturers (rais
al-muderrisin) in Abu Hanifah Mosque in Baghdad. He was Alusi’s first teacher of
the Qur’an, Arabic grammer, hadith, fıqh and logic. Alusi later attended the circle
of Musullu Alaaddin Efendi, Molla Husain al-Juburi, his cousin Sayyid Ali b.
Sayyid Ahmad, Sayyid Muhammad Amin b. Sayyid Ali, Abdulaziz Sawwaf,
Ziyauddin Khalid Naqshibandi, Shaikh Ali Suwaydi, and Yahya al-İmadi.
Among his teachers Ziyauddin Khalid Naqshibandi was a naqshi Sufi of his
time and his mystic influence continued in Ottoman territory for long periods of
time. Some argued that Ottomans willingly supported sufi orders particularly
Naqshbandi school in Iraq aginst Wahhabi-salafi movement.2 Alusi attended
Khalidi Baghdadi’s sufi circle and became one of his followers.3
In his early life, Alusi had an Ijaza (literaraly means permission) and started to
teach and to deliver lectures in the madrasa and mosques. Alusi was posted as a
lecturer at Saltanat-ı Dar-ı Aliyye (i.e. Royal Higher Education) that was the
highest title in the Ottoman education system. Despite being Shafii in denomina-
tion, he became Qadi of Hanafi in Baghdad. However, he was dismissed from the
duty in 1263/1847 due to some rumors about him being Wahhabi. For this accu-
1 Muhammed Eroğlu, “Âlûsî, Şehâbuddin Mahmud”, DİA, v. II, p. 550.
2 See for further discussion: Abdulcebbar Kavak "Bağdat'ta Selefi bir Çevrede Yetişen Sufi bir
Alim: Ebüs'sena Mahmud Şihabüddin el-Alusi" Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi İlahiyat
Fakültesi Dergisi, 39 (2015) s. 107-108.
3 Some argues that Alusi became khalifa after Khalid al-Baghdadi. See for further information:
Kavak, Ibid, p. 114.
10  Bilal Gökkır / Necmettin Gökkır
sation he was fired from all of his posts in Baghdad. Then Alusi decided to visit
Istanbul to find a change to clear his name. He spent almost two years in Istanbul
for this purpose. Ottoman Shaikh al-Islam Arif Hikmet Bey assisted him to meet
Sadrazam Reşit Paşa. Having convinced Rashid Pasha and other ottoman authori-
ties, Alusi was accepted by Ottoman government and returned to, not all, but
some of his posts. During his journey back to Baghdad he became ill and later
died from this illness.
Despite his sufi identiy, Alusi was accused of wahhabism. Were there any bases
for this accusation? Looking at his sufi identity, it does not seem to be likely that
he adapted wahhabi idea ideologically against Ottoman sovereignty.4 He was,
however, definitely a salafi in broader sense of the word.5 Salafism that derives
from the term al-salaf al-salih” (i.e. the pious forefathers) claims to return to the
purity of Islam, the Qur’an and the hadith, and rejects taqlid, or the “blind” fol-
lowing of the canonical law and therefore accepts ijtihad, or individual interpreta-
tion as exactly like the pious forefathers, al-salaf al-salih the first generation of
Muslims in the seventh century. Ibn ‘Abd al-Wahhab, one of the thinkers of salafi
movement believed that Muslims had become ignorant of their religion and the
only way to achieve salvation and retrieve past glory was the re-assertion of abso-
lute monotheism and the belief in the Oneness of God (tawhid) as the basis of the
Islamic creed (‘aqida) and a return to the Qur’an and the Sunna. Following classic
Salafism, Ibn Abd al-Wahhab regarded some practices, such as veneration of the
tombs of saints, holy trees etc., as giving associates to God (shirk), or idolatry and
polytheism, the form of religion that prevailed in Mecca before Islam. In this
regard, main question is to what extent Alusi follow the salafi pattern as in Wah-
habi salafism. In his Anba’ al-Abna bi Atyab al-Anba, Alusi did advise to his
children to keep the salafi aqidah and to be away from bid’a (i.e. religious innova-
tions). He, time to time, mentions and refers in his works, to salafi scholars such
as Ibn Taymiyye, Ibn Qudame and Ibn Qayyim al Javziyyah with respect. All these
4 See for further discussion on his so-called Wahhabi identity:David DeanCommins. Islamic
Reform: Politics And Social Change In Late Ottoman Syria. New York: Oxford University
Press, 1990, p.24
5 See for further information about his salafi character: Basheer M. Nafi, "Abu Al-Thana' al-
Alusi: An Alim, Ottoman Mufti, and Exegete of the Qur'an" International Journal of Middle
East Studies, 34 (2002) p. 465-467.
Alusi: Sufi or Salafi?  11
clues might give an opportunity to his rivals to accuse him as wahhabi. The sec-
ond question has been arisen here: What is the meaning of "wahhabism" for
Ottomans? Salafism, indeed, turned face towards to rebellion against Ottoman
sovereignty. Moreover the fight (jihad) against the non-believers (kafir) was
understood as and refered to the ottoman regime. Moreover, the title of Wahha-
bism was a label to use for anyone readily at hand to diminish one in the eyes of
Ottoman authority, since "Wahhabi" was used against the Ottoman authorities by
the British government in Arabian Peninsula. That is to say that Alusi might have
had a rebel idea and also action agains Ottoman regime meanwhile he was con-
tinuing his duty as the Mufti of Baghdad.
As a matter of fact, Alusi has a sufi background at the same time. To be a salafi
and a sufi seems not to be possible to combine for a person at first glance. Since
the most Salafis consider the sufi orders and their rituals contrary to Islamic
theology and Islamic law so they declare them non-believers. How is possible
now for Alusi to bring two different and opposite characters together in his per-
sonality? Considering his educational background, the loyalty of his family and
the Naqshi sufi order he is in, to the Ottoman State and authorities against British
and British-motivated Wahhabis were quite clear. He is in Naqshi order as sufi
and he is salafi in idea as well. For Alusi it can be possible because of Naqshi-
bandiyya. The order of naqhibandiyya has showed a kind of salafi character
especially since Imam Rabbani of India. In Rabbani’s teaching, shariat (Islamic
Law) comes first and one’s karamats (miracles of a sufi) are nothing unless he
follows the strict commands of the Qur’an and the prophet. So there are some
bases to attribute salafi identity to Alusi in its broader sense. But there is not any
ground to accuse him of wahhabism at all, at least with these weak evidence. He
even wrote an explanatory notes to Abdulwahhab Yasincizade’s El-Burhan fi
Itaati’s-Sultan (Evidence in obedience to Sultan) and introduce to Ottoman Wazir
Ali Rıza Pasha. In this book, Alusi brings the evidences in favor of the legitimacy
of Ottoman khilafah and that all the Muslims should obey Sultan Mahmud the
Second. Furthermore, in order to support the Ottoman authorities and army, he
declares (in his Sefredu al-Zad li Sefred al-Jihad) that jihad is rather fardh ayn
(cumpolsary) for each individual Muslim in his time against the enemies.
He also wrote his polemical work al-Nafakhat al-Qudsiyye fi Raddi ala al-
Imamiyye, against Shia, another political rival of the Ottoman Government like
12  Bilal Gökkır / Necmettin Gökkır
Wahhabis. We must add here that Alusi does not seem to be that much enthusias-
tic to criticize Wahhabis in a similar manner neither in his tafsir or any other
separate work. There seem to be two main reasons for this one political and the
other theological. Politically Wahhabis were strong in Arabian Peninsula and he
did not want to disturb them and involve in a political matter. Theologically he
might agree with most of their theological criticism that bid’ats (innovation in
religion) influenced all over the Muslim world. Further, Alusi seems to disagree
with the ‘visiting graves’ practices which was a strong Wahhabi argument in
Arabian Peninsula too against Ottomans and Turks who allegedly accused of
shirk by visiting the graves of religious leaders and wali’s. Here however we
should notice that his theological agreement does not mean that he politically
agreed with them as they were utilized by the British colonial powers against the
Muslim Khilafah. His Shehiyyun Neğam fi tercemeti Sheykh al-Islam Arif al-
Hikem, biography of Ottoman Sheikh al-Islam Arif Hikmet Bey, also prove that he
was quite friendly with Ottoman authorities. We observe also that he attributed
his master piece Tafsir Ruh al-Maani to the Ottoman Khalifa Sultan Abdulmajid.
Struggle for the Reputation: Journey to Istanbul
Alusi’s Salafi-Sufi character echoes in his Tafsir work Ruh al-Maani. As his ex-
egetical methodologies applied in his tafsir, he interprets the Qur’an with Qur’an
itself which is quite salafi approach influenced by Ibn Taymiyya.6 He applies to
prophetic tradition, uses Arabic language and poems, and employs Arabic gram-
mer and rhetoric, looks in to sabab al-nuzul (occasion of revelation) cited classical
sources like, Fakhr al-Razi, al-Qadi al-Baydawi, Abu Hayyan al-Andalusi,
Ebussuud Efendi etc.7Ruh al-Maani however is rather known as Sufi or mystic
tafsir. The reasons his tafsir is classified as mystic are twofold: one is his sufi
identity as follower of naqshibandiyya, the second is that he places mystical inter-
pretation of the relevant ayah (verse) at the end of the interpretation. Alusi was an
exegete who had a practicing sufi background and salafi tendency. He seems to
want to follow a very moderate line in 19th century Ottoman Iraq where the
6 See: David D. Commins, Islamic Reform : Politics and Social Change in Late Ottoman Syria,
p. 24-25.
7 See for further information about Alusi's Tafsir methodologies: Yousif Khudhair, "Alusi'nin
Ruhu'l-Meani Tefsirinde Kur'an Kıssalarının Yorumlama Metodu" (Unpublished MA Thesis,
Istanbul University 2015) pp. 33-45.
Alusi: Sufi or Salafi?  13
religious extremism both in salafism and Sufism were very strong and had politi-
cal support.
Although Alusi is an exegete of the Qur’an and has been mostly known among
the classical and traditional exegetes he was dissmissed from the posisiton of
Mufti of Baghdat as the conclusion of accusation in 1847.8 Some argues that the
new governor of Baghdad Najib Pasha misused his salafi perspective against his
status. Basheer Nafi discusses as like:
This symbolic relationship between the mufti and the wali came to end in 1842, when Ali
Pasha was dismissed from the governorship of Baghdad and replaced with Muhammed
Najib Pasha. The new wali was not an admirer of the mufti; nor did he welcome his self-
confidence or the aura of social influence and power that surrounded his position. A son of
prominent family from Istanbul and a bureaucrat from the old guard who saw in the Tan-
zimat (Ottoman state-sponsored modernization) a mere project of authoritarianism and
the imposition of conformity. Najib Pasha sought to undermine al-Alusi's position and di-
minish his status. The proud mufti, now with an establised scholarly reputation and a long
record of loyalty to the state, was not easy prey. As relation between the two deteriorated,
Najib Pasha made sure that al-Alusi's credentials in Istanbul were wiped out and that he
was dismissed at the most convenient and opportune time.9
Alusi consequently lost his financial stuation and income sources. Eventually,
he needed to visit to Istanbul in order to express and defend himself and to ex-
plain the truth of the rumors raised about him by completing his commentary
after being dismissed from the duty.10 Alusi decided to complete his Tafsir and
send it to Istanbul. According to a document, Alusi accomplished it in 1267/1851,
twelwe years after the time when he was discharged.
8 Ömer Nasuhi Bilmen, Büyük Tefsir Tarihi, v. 2, p. 744
9 Basheer M. Nafi, Ibid, p. 478.
10 Bilmen, Ibid p. 743
14  Bilal Gökkır / Necmettin Gökkır
Illustration-1: Letter of Governor in Baghdat to Istanbul in 1267/1851 in Ottoman Archives:
A.MKT.UM.66/57
In a letter (see: illustration-1), Mehmet Vehbi, the governor of Baghdad re-
ports that the Tafsir, Ruh al-Maani has completed in nine volumes and the writer,
Alusi wants to visit to Istanbul to present it in order to be promoted. The docu-
ment naturally does not mention anything about the rumors and the accusation;
on the contrary it uses very respectful language about him and calls Alusi as "The
former Hanafi Mufti of Baghdad, The great Sufi, very Important Scholar" (Mevâlî-
i kirâm ve ulemâ-yı a‘lâmdan sâbık-ı Bağdad Hanefî Müftüsü). During his Journey
both Military General of Hijaz-Iraq and the governor of Sivas sent the same report
to Istanbul with these respectful language.
11
Loyalty to Ottoman Sovereignty: Writing an Appeal Letter
When he arrived in Istanbul
12
, Alusi immediately went to Sheikh al-Islam Ah-
med Arif Hikmet and presented his Tafsir, Ruh al-Maani to him.
13
These nine
11
For further documents about the journey see: Ottoman Archives no: A.MKT.UM.66/57
12
See for further informationabout Alusi's Journey: İbrahim Shaban, "Ebu's-Sena el-Alusi'nin
İstanbul Seyehati ve İzlenimleri" İstanbul Üniversitesi Şarkıyat Mecmuası, 19 (2011) pp. 75-90
13
For further information about the journey see: İbrahim Şaban, "Ebu's-Sena' el-Alusi'nin
İstanbul Seyahati ve İzlenimleri" İstanbul Üniversitesi Şarkiyat Mecmuası, 19 (2011-2) pp. 75-
90.
Alusi: Sufi or Salafi?  15
volumes of the Tafsir which were given to Sheikh al-Islam are now in Raghip
Pasha Library within the numbers of 185-193.
14
Sheikh al-Islam Arif Hikmet
admired his depth of knowledge in Tafsir and advised him to meet wazir Sultan
Rashid Pasha in order to appeal his situation. Alusi wrote this letter in 13 Novem-
ber 1851:
Il-
lustration-2: Appeal Letter of Alusi: Ottoman Archives İ. DH, 243-14791-1
14
The first volume with the number of 185 was writen up in 1254/1839 by Alusi himself and
caligrapher Musullu Muhammed Emin. The second volume with the number of 186 in
1255/1840; the third volume with the number of 187 in 1257/1842; the fourth volume with the
number of 188 in 1259/1844; the fifth volume with the number of 189 in 1260/1845 and the
sixth volume with the number of 190 in 1262/1846 were all inscripted by a caligrapher, Musul-
lu Muhammed Emin. The seventh volume with the number of 191 was inscripted by the
caligrapher Abdurranman Efendi in 1264/1848 when he was already dismessed from the duty
of Mufti. The eight volume with the number of 192 was inscripted by the caligrapher Ali b.
Muhammed Sharef in 1266/1850. Finally the last volume with the number of 193 has no any
information about the caligrapher but in 1267/1851 at the year of travel to Istanbul.
16  Bilal Gökkır / Necmettin Gökkır
Having been influenced by his knowledge and scolarly humble behaviour Sul-
tan Rashid Pasha acquitted him from all complaints. Moreover, he was assigned as
a member again to the trust of Mercaniyye Medresesi, was decided to be rewarded
with fifty thousand qurush, and also was awarded ith the position of Mufti of
Erzurum. (See: Illustration-3)
Illustration-3: Reponse to Alusi from the Palace: Ottoman Archives İ. DH, 243-14791-3
Alusi's Tafsir Ruh al-Maani was firstly published in 1301/1883 as nine volumes
in Bulaq, Egypt. During this journey Alusi wrote also four important works name-
ly Garaib al-Ightirab wa Nuzha al-Albab fi al-Zahabi wa al-Ikami wa al-Iyabi;
Nashwa al-Shumul fi Safari ila Islambou; Nashwa al-Mudam fi awdi ila madina
al-Salam; Shahiy a-Nagam fi Tarjama Sheikh al-Islam Arif al-Hikam.
15
He has
spent the last days of his life fighting against malaria, which he had caught on his
15
Alican Dağdeviren, “ŞihabuddinMahmud el-Âlûsî, Hayatı, Eserleri ve Tefsiri Rûhu’l-Meânî”,
Sakarya Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 3 (2001) p. 365.
Alusi: Sufi or Salafi?  17
way back from Istanbul. Finaly, Alusi past away in 1270/1854 and was buried in
Baghdad.16
Conclusion
Abu al-Thana Shihab al-Din al-Alusi (1802-54) was one of the most prominent
scholars of 19th century Ottoman. Alusi was dismissed from the position of Mufti
of Baghdad for being Wahhabi supporter. However he insisted on that he was
loyal to Ottoman authority and finally proved this with his masterwork, Ruh al-
Maani. For this, he traveled to Ottoman capital city, Istanbul and met first with
Skheih al-Islam Arif Hikmet Efendi and then with sultan Rashid Pasha. Alusi, by
doing so, wanted to maintain his personal image infront of the Ottoman bu-
reucracy.
This article has discussed this story focusing on two main points. The first
point is to clarify his theological identity, whether he was a supporter of Wahha-
bism who was politically against to Ottoman sovereignty or was just a sufi-salafi
which was the common character of a Naqshibandi order. This article found that
the government based on the bias about the British-organised wahhabism at that
time has been misjudged Alusi's sufi- salafi character by new governor of Bagh-
dad, Najib Pasha. Alusi was falsely accused with being a Wahhabi who was under-
stood as very threatening for regime. Secondly, the article shows his struggle to
remove this label from his name. In favour of his reputation, Alusi finished his
Tafsir, Ruh al-Maani and sent it to Istanbul to prove that he has no any intellectu-
al link with this destructive group, on the contrary he has a traditional point of
view and is loyal to Ottomans. The study found his appeal letter to the govern-
ment and the offical response to him. Besides the other offical reports, these two
documents are published first time in an academic article. The documents show
that Alusi has finally taken back his duty, not of Baghdad, but of Erzurum, in
addition to some other promotions, like fifty thousand qurush grand. To sum up,
it is obviously observed that since the time of Tanzimat, the bureucracy has
gained a power over ulema.
16 Bilmen, Ibid, 743; Eroğlu, “Âlûsî, Şehâbuddin Mahmud”, DİA, v. 2, p. 550; Dağdeviren, Ibid, s.
366.
18  Bilal Gökkır / Necmettin Gökkır
References
Alusi, Shihab al-Din Mahmud, Ruh al-Maani, Bayrut, No Date.
Bilge, Mustafa, “Arif Hikmet Bey, Şeyhülislam”, Diyanet İslam Ansiklopedi (DİA), v. 3, pp.
365-366
Bilmen, Ömer Nasuhi, Büyük Tefsir Tarihi, İstanbul, 1974
Commins, David Dean. Islamic Reform: Politics and Social Change in Late Ottoman Syria.
New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Dağdeviren, Alican, "Şihâbüddîn Mahmud el-Âlûsî, Hayatı, Eserleri ve Tefsiri Rûhu’l-
Meânî", Sakarya Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 3 (2001), pp. 359-390.
Eroğlu, Muhammed, “Âlûsî, Şehâbuddin Mahmud”, Diyanet İslam Ansiklopedi (DİA), v. 2,
pp. 550-551
Kavak, Abdulcebbar, "Bağdat'ta Selefi bir Çevrede Yetişen Sufi bir Alim: Ebüs'sena Mahmud
Şihabüddin el-Alusi", Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 39
(2015), pp. 105-120.
Khudhair, Yousif, "Alusi'nin Ruhu'l-Meani Tefsirinde Kur'an Kıssalarının Yorumlama
Metodu", (Unpublished MA Thesis, Istanbul University, 2015)
Nafi, Basheer M., "Abu Al-Thana' al-Alusi: An Alim, Ottoman Mufti, and Exegete of the
Qur'an", International Journal of Middle East Studies, 34 (2002), pp. 465-494.
Arif Hikmet Bey, Şeyhülislam
  • Mustafa Bilge
Bilge, Mustafa, "Arif Hikmet Bey, Şeyhülislam", Diyanet İslam Ansiklopedi (DİA), v. 3, pp. 365-366
  • Ömer Bilmen
  • Nasuhi
Bilmen, Ömer Nasuhi, Büyük Tefsir Tarihi, İstanbul, 1974
Islamic Reform: Politics and Social Change in Late Ottoman Syria
  • David Commins
  • Dean
Commins, David Dean. Islamic Reform: Politics and Social Change in Late Ottoman Syria. New York: Oxford University Press, 1990.
Şihâbüddîn Mahmud el-Âlûsî, Hayatı, Eserleri ve Tefsiri Rûhu'l-Meânî
  • Alican Dağdeviren
Dağdeviren, Alican, "Şihâbüddîn Mahmud el-Âlûsî, Hayatı, Eserleri ve Tefsiri Rûhu'l-Meânî", Sakarya Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 3 (2001), pp. 359-390.
Bağdat'ta Selefi bir Çevrede Yetişen Sufi bir Alim: Ebüs'sena Mahmud Şihabüddin el-Alusi
  • Abdulcebbar Kavak
Kavak, Abdulcebbar, "Bağdat'ta Selefi bir Çevrede Yetişen Sufi bir Alim: Ebüs'sena Mahmud Şihabüddin el-Alusi", Necmettin Erbakan Üniversitesi İlahiyat Fakültesi Dergisi, 39 (2015), pp. 105-120.
Alusi'nin Ruhu'l-Meani Tefsirinde Kur'an Kıssalarının Yorumlama Metodu
  • Yousif Khudhair
Khudhair, Yousif, "Alusi'nin Ruhu'l-Meani Tefsirinde Kur'an Kıssalarının Yorumlama Metodu", (Unpublished MA Thesis, Istanbul University, 2015)