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A study of relationship between Transformational leadership and task performance: The Role of social media and affective organizational commitment

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Abstract

In today's society, social media have become an almost essential part of everyday life, particularly in the organizations where almost every employees and manager/leader use social media. Recently scholars have started to investigate leader's communication with their employees by using social media. However, leader's role in motivating their followers to use this innovation and increase performance is ignored by researchers. Using social capital theory as a base, the objectives of the present study is to examine the role of social media and affective organizational commitment between the relationship of transformational leadership (TFL) and employee's task performance (ETP). The proposed model was tested with the data collected from 254 employees from insurance companies situated in China. Model was tested by PLS-SEM with using SmartPLS 3. Findings of the study suggest that Transformational leadership has a direct positive relationship with task performance and affective organizational commitment as well as indirect positive relationship via social media on task performance. This study contributes to the existing literature in the field of Social media, leadership, commitment, and performance. Implications, limitation and future research have been discussed.e been discussed.

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This study examines the nature and role of Psychological Contract Violation (PCV) in online marketplaces, a critical factor that has been largely overlooked by previous research. Applied to buyer-seller relationships, PCV is defined as a buyer’s perception of having being treated wrongly regarding the terms of an exchange agreement with an individual seller. PCV with individual sellers is proposed as a formative first-order construct driven by the occurrence of fraud, product misrepresentation, contract default, delivery delay, and failure to follow product guarantees and payment policies. PCV with an individual seller is proposed to prompt a generalized perception of PCV with the entire community of sellers in a marketplace. PCV with the community of sellers is hypothesized to negatively affect buyer transaction behavior in a marketplace by directly impacting transaction intentions, price premiums, trust, perceived risk, and the perceived effectiveness of institutional structures. PCV is also hypothesized to act as a moderator, transforming the buyers’ initial trust-based mindset to one more centered on perceived risk. Finally, PCV is hypothesized to attenuate the positive impact of trust on transaction intentions, while reinforcing the negative impact of perceived risk on transaction intentions. It is also proposed to attenuate the impact of the perceived effectiveness of institutional structures on trust, while strengthening its negative effect on perceived risk. As a means of preventing PCV, the buyers’ positive experience and the sellers’ favorable past performance are hypothesized to make PCV with the community of sellers less likely. A combination of primary and secondary longitudinal data from 404 buyers in eBay’s and Amazon’s online auctions support the proposed hypotheses, validating PCV as a central element of buyer-seller relationships in online marketplaces. Interestingly, ex post facto results show that buyers with higher perceptions of PCV with the community of sellers are less likely to experience PCV with an individual seller in the future. Implications for buyer-seller relationships in online marketplaces and the PCV literature are discussed. Also discussed is how the increasing number of buyers who experience PCV in online marketplaces extends the literature that has been largely developed based on buyers who had not experienced PCV.
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Organizations are increasingly adopting new technologies, such as social media, that afford employees a repertoire of uses not simply focused on work, but also on socialization and entertainment. Knowledge regarding the impact of such diverse technologies on job performance, however, is currently limited. This study adopts a technology use lens to study the effect of three categories of social media use – social, hedonic, and cognitive – on job performance, as mediated by three dimensions of social capital. The research was conducted via a large-scale survey within a multinational Information Technology company. Social and cognitive uses of technology were empirically shown to have a positive, albeit indirect, effect on employees’ routine and innovative job performance. Hedonic use of the technology, while having a direct negative impact on routine performance was shown to positively contribute to the development of social ties, leading to a mitigating positive influence on innovative performance. This interesting positive side of hedonic use, along with all findings from our study, are discussed and used to offer insights to future research and practice.
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Previous research has proposed different types for and contingency factors affecting information technology governance. Yet, in spite of this valuable work, it is still unclear through what mechanisms IT governance affects organizational performance. We make a detailed argument for the mediation of strategic alignment in this process. Strategic alignment remains a top priority for business and IT executives, but theory-based empirical research on the relative importance of the factors affecting strategic alignment is still lagging. By consolidating strategic alignment and IT governance models, this research proposes a nomological model showing how organizational value is created through IT governance mechanisms. Our research model draws upon the resource-based view of the firm and provides guidance on how strategic alignment can mediate the effectiveness of IT governance on organizational performance. As such, it contributes to the knowledge bases of both alignment and IT governance literatures. Using dyadic data collected from 131 Taiwanese companies (cross-validated with archival data from 72 firms), we uncover a positive, significant, and impactful linkage between IT governance mechanisms and strategic alignment and, further, between strategic alignment and organizational performance. We also show that the effect of IT governance mechanisms on organizational performance is fully mediated by strategic alignment. Besides making contributions to construct and measure items in this domain, this research contributes to the theory base by integrating and extending the literature on IT governance and strategic alignment, both of which have long been recognized as critical for achieving organizational goals.
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People tend to hold overly favorable views of their abilities in many social and intellectual domains. The authors suggest that this overestimation occurs, in part, because people who are unskilled in these domains suffer a dual burden: Not only do these people reach erroneous conclusions and make unfortunate choices, but their incompetence robs them of the metacognitive ability to realize it. Across 4 studies, the authors found that participants scoring in the bottom quartile on tests of humor, grammar, and logic grossly overestimated their test performance and ability. Although their test scores put them in the 12th percentile, they estimated themselves to be in the 62nd. Several analyses linked this miscalibration to deficits in metacognitive skill, or the capacity to distinguish accuracy from error. Paradoxically, improving the skills of the participants, and thus increasing their metacognitive competence, helped them recognize the limitations of their abilities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Social media marketing is an influential marketing method. Liking or sharing social media messages can increase the effects of popular cohesion and message diffusion. This research investigates how persuasive messages (i.e., argument quality, post popularity, and post attractiveness) can lead internet users to click like and share messages in social media marketing activities. This research develops hypotheses on the basis of elaboration likelihood model and a 392 fans survey from a fan page on Facebook. Structural equation modeling analyzes questionnaire data. Results show that the three types of persuasive messages are important to click like and to share post messages. Post popularity is essential and works through both central route and peripheral according to research model. In addition, different message characteristics and user groups have different communicating behaviors. This research provides valuable recommendations for social media marketing activities.
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In a longitudinal, randomized field experiment, we tested the impact of transformational leadership, enhanced by training, on follower development and performance. Experimental group leaders received transformational leadership training, and control group leaders, eclectic leadership training. The sample included 54 military leaders, their 90 direct followers, and 724 indirect followers. Results indicated the leaders in the experimental group had a more positive impact on direct followers' development and on indirect followers' performance than did the leaders in the control group.
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Although transformational leadership has been investigated in connection with change at higher levels of organizations, less is known about its “in‐the‐trenches” impact. We examined relations among transformational leadership, explicit change reactions (i.e., relationship quality), change frequency, and change consequences (i.e., task performance and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)) during continuous incremental organizational change at lower hierarchical levels. In a sample of 251 employees and their 78 managers, analyses revealed that the quality of relationships between leaders and employees mediated the influence of transformational leadership on employee task performance and OCB. We also found that change frequency moderated the positive association of relationship quality with task performance and OCB, such that associations were stronger when change frequency was high. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Purpose This paper develops and tests a model depicting the drivers of organizational leaders' intentions to use social media for in‐bound customer communications in a political marketing context. This model improves practitioners and researchers understanding of what influence leaders' attitudes and intentions toward using social media to enhance marketing communications. Design/methodology/approach The paper uses mediated OLS regression analysis with survey data collected from a national sample of political candidates running for the US House of Representatives in 2010. Findings Overall satisfaction with social media for marketing communications and customers' normative expectations that organizations use social media for marketing communications drive leaders' future intentions to use social media for in‐bound customer communications. Perceived ease of use, and perceived social media usefulness for in‐bound and out‐bound customer communications drive overall satisfaction with social media for marketing communications. Research limitations/implications Leaders support social media as a tool to enhance marketing communications if they perceive relevant social influence and technical applicability. Whereas we find empirical support of our model in a US political context, future research should test our model in other cultural and organizational contexts. Originality/value This paper addresses a gap between what research addresses in regards to new media and what is happing in practice. This paper adds to the body of research in marketing and other disciplines that explains the integration and use of social media for marketing communications.
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Purpose – There is considerable debate among academics and business practitioners on the value of the use of social networking by organizational members. Some, fearing presenteeism (i.e. being at the workplace but working below peak capacity), claim that the use of social networking sites by organizational members is a waste of time, while others believe it leads to improvements in job performance, partly due to employees’ successful efforts to balance work‐life realms. This paper aims to inform this debate by examining the use of social networking sites by organizational members and its effect on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and job performance. Design/methodology/approach – The exploratory study is based on a survey of 193 employees, focusing on the following constructs: social networking site use intensity, perceived job satisfaction, perceived organizational commitment, and job performance. The authors’ proposed model was evaluated using variance‐based structural equation modeling (SEM), a latent variable‐based multivariate technique enabling concurrent estimation of structural and measurement models under nonparametric assumptions. This study used WarpPLS 2.0 to assess both the measurement and the structural model. Findings – The results show that social networking site use intensity has a significant positive effect on job performance through the mediation of job satisfaction, and that this mediating effect is itself mediated – in a nested way – via organizational commitment. The findings suggest that social networking site use, rather than causing presenteeism, may be a new way through which employees balance their work‐life realms, in turn benefitting their organizations.Originality/value – To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first study to analyze, in an integrated way, the relationship between those theoretical constructs.
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In this article, we provide guidance for substantive researchers on the use of structural equation modeling in practice for theory testing and development. We present a comprehensive, two-step modeling approach that employs a series of nested models and sequential chi-square difference tests. We discuss the comparative advantages of this approach over a one-step approach. Considerations in specification, assessment of fit, and respecification of measurement models using confirmatory factor analysis are reviewed. As background to the two-step approach, the distinction between exploratory and confirmatory analysis, the distinction between complementary approaches for theory testing versus predictive application, and some developments in estimation methods also are discussed.
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We use the self-concept based theory of leadership and social exchange theory to hypothesize processes linking transformational leadership to follower performance outcomes. Specifically, we hypothesize that (a) transformational leadership relates to followers' work engagement both directly and indirectly through their psychological states, (b) work engagement relates to innovative behavior, (c) innovative behavior relates to task performance, and (d) the work engagement–innovative behavior relationship is moderated by leader–member exchange. Results from a test of these relationships in a sample of employees of a large telecommunication company in China largely support our hypothesized model.
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As the use of workplace knowledge economies increases and emerging motivational-state variables such as employee engagement become more widely used, current frameworks of leadership are undergoing changes in perspective and practice. Moreover, while shifts in workplace dynamics have occurred in practice for some time, scholars are now calling for a new perspective of leadership. This article explores the connection between traditional and emerging leadership theories and the motivational-state variable of employee engagement, building toward a conceptual framework proposed for further refinement, discussion, and ultimately testing. A conceptual link between meeting and understanding employee needs, the use of emotional intelligence as a leadership competency, and transformational leadership is examined. Implications for leadership development in research and practice in an HRD context bring this article to a close.
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Understanding communication processes is the goal of most communication researchers. Rarely are we satisfied merely ascertaining whether messages have an effect on some outcome of focus in a specific context. Instead, we seek to understand how such effects come to be. What kinds of causal sequences does exposure to a message initiate? What are the causal pathways through which a message exerts its effect? And what role does communication play in the transmission of the effects of other variables over time and space? Numerous communication models attempt to describe the mechanism through which messages or other communication-related variables transmit their effects or intervene between two other variables in a causal model. The communication literature is replete with tests of such models. Over the years, methods used to test such process models have grown in sophistication. An example includes the rise of structural equation modeling (SEM), which allows investigators to examine how well a process model that links some focal variable X to some outcome Y through one or more intervening pathways fits the observed data. Yet frequently, the analytical choices communication researchers make when testing intervening variables models are out of step with advances made in the statistical methods literature. My goal here is to update the field on some of these new advances. While at it, I challenge some conventional wisdom and nudge the field toward a more modern way of thinking about the analysis of intervening variable effects.
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Many employers seem to be having a recurring nightmare: a valued employee suddenly decides to leave and go to work for a competitor In today's tight job market, it takes months to fill the position—then more time and money to bring the new hire up to speed. And with the employee in place, what can be done to ensure that this bad dream won't be repeated again—soon?
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Purpose – This paper aims to examine the impact of social networking in the workplace and to assess its use as an effective business tool. Design/methodology/approach – The paper examines positive and negative perceptions of social networking in the workplace and provides a critical review of literature in the area. The drivers of, and barriers to, change are explored, and whether the reasons for some organisations prohibiting or restricting social networking in the workplace are well‐founded or corporate suicide. The link between social networking and organisational culture is examined, looking at whether social networking tools are capable of revitalising and reshaping the culture and brand of an organisation, which in turn can lead to better ways of working and increased levels of employee productivity and satisfaction. Findings – The findings indicate that the business advantages and benefits of social networking in the workplace are still very much underappreciated and undervalued. Although some organisations across the world have started to implement some of the facets of social networking technology and reap the business benefits, fear, resistance and risk are the opinions that still dominate many organisations. Originality/value – The value of social networking technology in the workplace is yet to be determined. This paper addresses gaps in the current literature and demonstrates that the business benefits of social networking far outweigh the negative perceptions that are still predominant in the pre‐millennial generations. The paper highlights that social networking technology can facilitate improved workplace productivity by enhancing the communication and collaboration of employees which aids knowledge transfer and consequently makes organisations more agile. Moreover, social networking can provide enhanced levels of employee satisfaction by reducing the social isolation of teleworkers and making them feel part of organisational culture during long absences from the physical office.