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Efficient degradation of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol using photocatalytic ozonation with nano-zinc oxide impregnated granular activated carbon (ZNO–GAC)

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Abstract

In this paper, the catalytic capability of nano-zinc oxide impregnated granular activated carbon (ZnO–GAC) in photocatalysis and ozonation hybrid system was studied. ZnO–GAC hybrid was prepared by co-precipitation method. FeSEM, XRD, FTIR, EDAX were applied to characterize the structure and morphological feature. 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2N) was employed as model pollutant to evaluate the catalytic ability of ZnO-GAC. The effect of GAC content and stability of ZnO-GAC in photocatalytic ozonation was also evaluated. The findings indicated that photocatalytic ozonation of 4C2N with ZnO-GAC hybrid was a very efficient technique for 4C2N degradation. The TOC removal efficiency found 100% by ZnO-GAC/O3/UV in 55 min, which is 1.20 times as great as that of ZnO/ O3/UV process. Moreover, the catalytic capability of ZnO–GAC hybrid remained very stable after recycling for five sequential tests. This enhancement is due to the enhanced separation efficiency of photo-generated charges, which simplified the electrons trapping by ozone and improved the yield of hydroxyl radical.
*Corresponding author.
1944-3994 / 1944-3986 © 2017 Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.
Desalination and Water Treatment
www.deswater.com
doi: 10.5004/dwt.2017.21427
93 (2017) 145–151
October
Efficient degradation of 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol using photocatalytic ozonation
with nano-zinc oxide impregnated granular activated carbon (ZnO–GAC)
Hossein Arfaeiniaa, Hooshmand Sharafib, Masoud Moradia, Mojtaba Ehsanifara,
Seyed Enayat Hashemic,*
aDepartment of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Public Health, Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran
Tel. +989178844836, email: Arfaeiniah @yahoo.com (H. Arfaeinia), Tel. +989183855991, email: mahfooz60@ gmail.com (M. Moradi),
Tel. +989178844836, email: ehsanifar@gmail.com (M. Ehsanifar)
bResearch Center for Environmental Determinants of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Iran,
Tel. +989183786151, email: Hooshmand.sharafi@gmail.com (H. Sharafi)
cDepartment of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Public Health, Bushehr University of Medical Sciences, Bushehr, Iran,
Tel. +987733450134, email: e.hashemi@bpums.ac.ir (S.E. Hashemi)
Received 18 May 2017; Accepted 7 September 2017
a b s t r a c t
In this paper, the catalytic capability of nano-zinc oxide impregnated granular activated carbon
(ZnO–GAC) in photocatalysis and ozonation hybrid system was studied. ZnO–GAC hybrid was pre-
pared by co-precipitation method. FeSEM, XRD, FTIR, EDAX were applied to characterize the struc-
ture and morphological feature. 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol (4C2N) was employed as model pollutant to
evaluate the catalytic ability of ZnO-GAC. The effect of GAC content and stability of ZnO-GAC in
photocatalytic ozonation was also evaluated. The findings indicated that photocatalytic ozonation of
4C2N with ZnO-GAC hybrid was a very efficient technique for 4C2N degradation. The TOC removal
efficiency found 100% by ZnO-GAC/O3/UV in 55 min, which is 1.20 times as great as that of ZnO/
O3/UV process. Moreover, the catalytic capability of ZnO–GAC hybrid remained very stable after
recycling for five sequential tests. This enhancement is due to the enhanced separation efficiency of
photo-generated charges, which simplified the electrons trapping by ozone and improved the yield
of hydroxyl radical.
Keywords: 4-chloro-2-nitrophenol; Photocatalytic ozonation; ZnO– GAC
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