Article

Effect of Water at 50°C or 5% Ethanol at 50°C on the Development of Codling Moth Eggs in the Laboratory, 1993

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Abstract

Codling moth eggs (12 ± 12-h-old), oviposited on waxed paper, were submerged in water at 50°C or in a 5% solution of ethanol at 50°C for 0, 1, 3, or 5 minutes. The treated eggs were incubated at 27 ± 1°C for 7 days and then evaluated to determine the degree of development obtained. The number of eggs hatched, the number not hatched but showing development (red-ring and black-head stages), and the number not hatched and also undeveloped (white or yellow stages) were recorded.

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... Research has shown that ethanol can also kill quarantine pests such as Tetranychus urticae Koch (Dentener et al., 1998), Epiphyas postvittana (Dentener et al., 2000) and Cydia pomonella (Rohitha et al., 1993;Tebbets et al., 1993). These studies used ethanol immersion at high temperatures or ethanol vapour at ambient temperatures to kill insects and mites. ...
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During fruit ripening on the tree and after harvest some essential processes involve the production of the anaerobic metabolites, acetaldehyde (AA) and ethanol. These processes include the production of aroma volatiles and removal of fruit astringency. Acetaldehyde, a natural aroma component, is present in almost every fruit; it accumulates during ripening even under aerobic conditions, but to a much greater extent under partially or totally anaerobic conditions. Partially anaerobic conditions often occur during fruit ripening and under storage conditions, for example, through coating with waxes or other films, or in modified and controlled atmospheres.A requirement for anaerobic metabolites in normal ripening provided the initial indication that the application of such anaerobic metabolites might be beneficial for postharvest fruit quality. In some fruit it was found that application of ethanol or AA alone can affect fruit ripening on the tree, for example, in figs (to induce maturity), banana and persimmon (to remove astringency), and grape (to increase anthocyanins). In the postharvest period anaerobic metabolites may be applied to induce volatile production and to improve fruit aroma. In addition, it has been found that AA has fungicidal and insecticidal activity. Acetaldehyde and ethanol have been shown to be capable of retarding senescence and inhibiting ethylene production in plants, leading to less chilling injury symptoms in various fruit.However, anaerobic metabolites should be applied carefully, depending on the species and variety of the fruit. Subtropical fruit are among the most sensitive to anaerobiosis damage, but application of AA in high concentrations can be phytotoxic to all fruit.
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Apples infested with 5th instar lightbrown apple moth larvae, Epiphyas postvittana (Walker), were exposed to ethanol vapor treatments at ambient (20°C) and at low-temperatures (0.5°C). The most effective ambient treatment was a 7 day exposure to ethanol vapor from a 15% stock solution (generating ≈2.439×107 mg/m3 ethanol) resulting in 87% E. postvittana mortality. At low-temperature complete kill of E. postvittana was achieved after a 12-day exposure to ethanol vapor from a 40% stock solution (≈1.149×107 mg/m3 ethanol). A 12-day exposure to low-temperature only, resulted in 31% mortality. Estimated time for 99% mortality was 7.2 and 17.5 days when ethanol stock solutions of 40 and 20% were used in combination with low-temperature. No significant damage was observed in ‘Braeburn’ apples exposed to low-temperature ethanol vapor treatments over two growing seasons. However, the amount of ethanol, acetaldehyde and ethyl acetate in the apple tissue did increase with increasing ethanol vapor and with longer treatment duration. An ethanolic odor was associated with apples treated for 7 days or more. A 4-week cold storage period following low-temperature ethanol vapor treatment did not result in a reduction in ethanolic odor in fruit.
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