Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Gratitude has been described as an adaptive evolutionary mechanism that is relevant to healthy psychological and interpersonal outcomes. Questions remain as to whether the presence and benefits of gratitude are consistent from young adulthood to old age; prior research has yielded mixed evidence. We examined the magnitude and direction of age differences in gratitude in three samples (combined N = 31,206). We also examined whether gratitude was associated with greater/lesser well-being at different periods in the life course. We found that the experience of gratitude was greatest in older adults and least in middle aged and younger adults. Further, we found that the associations between gratitude and subjective well-being remained relatively constant across the lifespan. Findings are discussed from a developmental perspective.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... positive emotions, including, in some studies, gratitude (Kern et al., 2014;Reed & Carstensen, 2012). However, recent research suggests that the association between age and gratitude might be curvilinear-despite gratitude ostensibly being higher among middle-aged adults, it might be lower among older adults, which is occasionally seen in other psychological characteristics (Chopik et al., 2019;Gerstorf et al., 2008). It is unclear if this curvilinear pattern of age differences in gratitude is found in other samples and whether its manifestation depends on contextual (i.e., national/cultural) characteristics. ...
... However, gratitude might not have a simple linear association with age. In three studies of over 30,000 participants, Chopik et al. (2019) found surprising evidence of a curvilinear relationship between gratitude and age, such that gratitude might be lower or flat among older adults (but also see Allemand & Hill, 2016). This effect joins a growing list of nonlinear associations in the field of relationships research (Girme, 2020). ...
... Lower levels of gratitude in late life are also consistent with lifespan theories noting that maintaining positive emotions in the face of dramatic declines in physical or mental health can be difficult (coined "terminal decline"; Gerstorf et al., 2008). In addition, age differences, particularly later in life, might be dependent on contextual or cultural factors, as some of the most dramatic declines were seen in a multi-national sample (Chopik et al., 2019). ...
Article
Recent research suggests that the association between age and gratitude might be curvilinear—despite gratitude ostensibly being higher in middle-age, it might be lower in older adulthood. It is unclear if this curvilinear pattern of age differences in gratitude is found in other samples and whether its manifestation depends on contextual (i.e., national/cultural) characteristics. The current study examined cultural variation in the curvilinear effect of age on gratitude in a sample of over 4.5 million participants from 88 countries. Participants from countries with lower levels of human development, a shorter-term orientation, and higher levels of indulgence reported higher levels of gratitude. Cultural moderation effects were very small, suggesting that curvilinear effects of age on gratitude may be relatively comparable across cultures.
... They explained these findings by arguing that trait gratitude and well-being may be closely related to each other throughout people's lives. Therefore, a higher level of gratitude enhances well-being throughout adulthood (Chopik et al., 2019). In contrast, in a metaanalysis of 158 independent samples, Portocarrero and colleagues found that the relationship between trait gratitude and well-being was stronger and the relationship between dispositional gratitude and negative affect was weaker in samples of older adults (Portocarrero et al., 2020). ...
... I also hypothesized that that higher daily gratitude over the 14-day study would be associated with better well-being. Based on previous studies of age differences in the gratitude-well-being association (Chopik et al., 2019;Hill & Allemand, 2011), I hypothesized that age would not moderate the relationship between daily gratitude and its outcomes. ...
... Neither did age moderate the relationship between gratitude and positive or negative affect in the follow-up assessment. These findings were consistent with previous studies that found that age did not affect these relationships (e.g., Allemand & Hill, 2016;Chopik et al., 2019). However, it is also possible that the null effects were driven by the facts that the power and measurement reliability were relatively low in this study. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Numerous studies have shown that gratitude can improve mental health of people facing stressful events. However, most studies in this area have been based on laboratory experiments and retrospective surveys, rather than actual situations in which people are experiencing stress. Moreover, few studies have examined whether age moderates the benefits of gratitude. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused enormous psychological distress worldwide. Evidence-based strategies are needed to enhance well-being during this stressful time. This study attempted to fill these gaps by examining the benefits of feeling gratitude every day during the COVID-19 outbreak. Method A sample of 231 participants from mainland China aged 18 to 85 years participated in a 14-day daily diary study. After a pretest to collect demographic data, information on gratitude, daily positive and negative affect, perceived stress related to COVID-19, and subjective health were measured using daily questionnaires on 14 consecutive days. One month after the daily diary period, information on affective experiences, life satisfaction, and subjective health was collected as a follow-up survey. Results On days when individuals feel more gratitude than usual, they report more positive affect, a lower level of perceived stress related to COVID-19, and better subjective health on the concurrent day (Day N). Individuals also report a lower level of stress related to COVID-19 on the following day (Day N+1), when they feel more gratitude than usual on Day N. Higher levels of gratitude across the 14-day study period was associated with a higher level of positive affect and a lower level of negative affect, but was not associated with life satisfaction or subjective health at the one-month follow-up assessment. Discussion These findings demonstrate the benefits of gratitude in a naturalistic situation that induced stress and anxiety.
... For instance, gratitude promotes prosocial behaviors and, thus, functions to build and maintain social relationships, and increase the satisfaction of social relationships (Algoe et al., 2008). Empirical evidence has shown that older adults reported more gratitude than middle-aged and young adults, suggesting that gratitude may play a role in the underlying mechanisms driving the age differences in subjective well-being across the lifespan (Chopik et al., 2019). ...
... Second, the potential benefits of gratitude may differ due to gender differences (Kashdan et al., 2009) and age-related changes in social relationships (Chopik et al., 2019). Although emerging evidence supports the beneficial associations of gratitude with social relationships and emotional well-being (Cregg & Cheavens, 2021;Ma et al., 2017), potential gender and age differences in these benefits have been less examined (Chopik et al., 2019). ...
... Second, the potential benefits of gratitude may differ due to gender differences (Kashdan et al., 2009) and age-related changes in social relationships (Chopik et al., 2019). Although emerging evidence supports the beneficial associations of gratitude with social relationships and emotional well-being (Cregg & Cheavens, 2021;Ma et al., 2017), potential gender and age differences in these benefits have been less examined (Chopik et al., 2019). A previous study examined the moderating effects of gender and age in the link between trait gratitude and subjective well-being (Chopik et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the association between gratitude and loneliness across the adult lifespan using a seven-day daily diary study design. The sample consisted of young, middle-aged, and older adults (N = 128; age M = 56.7 years; SD = 18.7 years; range = 24.2–90.2 years; 46% women). A significant Age × Gender × Gratitude interaction effect on loneliness indicated that gratitude and loneliness were negatively associated in general. Results of simple slopes analyses showed that gender differences in loneliness were significant in young adults who were more grateful and in older adults who were less grateful. Women were less lonely than men, on average, and the gender difference was significant for those younger and more grateful, or older and less grateful. Thus, the beneficial effect of gratitude on loneliness differed across age and gender. These findings suggest that the potential benefits of gratitude on social relationships and emotional well-being, such as loneliness, should be examined differentially for men and women and in the context of changing social relationships in the aging process.
... With respect to age, older people are commonly more religious in comparison to younger adults [116][117][118]. With respect to gratitude, research yields mixed evidence [119]. In some studies, gratitude remains relatively stable across a life span [119,120]. ...
... With respect to gratitude, research yields mixed evidence [119]. In some studies, gratitude remains relatively stable across a life span [119,120]. However, other studies emphasize that there are some changes in gratitude in a life span [121]. ...
... However, other studies emphasize that there are some changes in gratitude in a life span [121]. For example, other authors [119,122] showed that younger people express gratitude differently to older people, showing lower levels of expressing gratitude than seniors. ...
Article
Full-text available
Although empirical reports draw attention to the pathological aspects of the functioning of the homeless, recent studies show the benefits related to the elevating roles of different positive phenomena in coping with difficulties for this group of people. The main goal was to verify whether there is a direct relationship between religiosity and gratitude among the homeless, and whether this association is moderated by the reported help-seeking since both religiosity and gratitude seem to play an important role in homeless people's lives. In total, 189 homeless persons participated in the study. Their mean age was M = 56.55 (SD = 12.39; range = 27-86). Most respondents were men (n = 119; 63%). The Scale of Religious Attitude Intensity and the Gratitude Questionnaire were used. The outcomes presented a statistically significant positive correlation between religious attitude and gratitude (r = 0.326***, p = 0.001). Help-seeking played a moderatory role in this relationship. Therefore , it can be assumed that the relationship between religiosity attitude intensity and dispositional gratitude is stronger when homeless persons seek specific help from other people or institutions compared to when they do not look for assistance. Homeless people, overcoming their limitations by actively asking for help, can strengthen their bonds with God (faith, religiosity) and with others (dispositional gratitude).
... Gratitude plays a more critical role in older age given that the level of gratitude becomes higher as one grows older [7]. Moreover, gratitude can be expected to work as a potential factor that alleviates health problems among older adults: the number of people who suffer from chronic diseases that lead to increased mental health disorders and impaired well-being increases with age [8,9], partially due to retirement and loss of loved ones [10][11][12]. ...
... Moreover, gratitude can be expected to work as a potential factor that alleviates health problems among older adults: the number of people who suffer from chronic diseases that lead to increased mental health disorders and impaired well-being increases with age [8,9], partially due to retirement and loss of loved ones [10][11][12]. Previous studies have found that older adults with higher levels of gratitude are more likely to show the advantages of physical and mental health [7,13,14]. ...
... Nonetheless, the participants who reported the experience of physical abuse and psychological abuse in childhood and were only five and 21, respectively, which might cause insufficient statistical power. As for levels of gratitude, the distribution of our sample was skewed to the left (leaning towards higher scores), which is consistent with the previous study showing that in general, gratitude increases as one grows older [7]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Childhood maltreatment can impede gratitude, yet little is known about the older population and its moderators. The aim of this study is to clarify the association between childhood maltreatment and levels of gratitude of the older population, and the moderating effect of social ties on the association. Methods: We analyzed the data of 524 community-dwelling older adults aged 65-84 years without functional disabilities in Tokamachi City, Niigata, Japan, collected for the Neuron to Environmental Impact across Generations (NEIGE) study in 2017. Using a questionnaire, the participants rated three types of childhood maltreatment before the age of 18 (physical abuse, emotional neglect, and psychological abuse), level of gratitude, and social ties. Results: We found an inverse association between emotional neglect and gratitude. Furthermore, emotional neglect was inversely associated with gratitude only for those with lower levels of social ties. Conclusions: Promoting social ties may mitigate the adverse impact of emotional neglect on the level of gratitude.
... Previous studies have shown a link between demographic data and gratitude. Chopik et al. (2019) said that gratitude experiences were most strongly lived in old age, and at least in middle adulthood and early adulthood. The respondents of this study were early adulthood, aged 18-25 years and had a high tendency to be grateful (table 5). ...
... In this study, male and female students did not differ in the percentage of gratitude (table 5). Analysis of demographic data on age and sex, as well as its relationship to gratitude showed that the result is not in line with Chopik et al. (2019); Skalski dan Pochwatko (2020). Possible results of this study are also related to the limited number of respondents in this study. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study was conducted to measure correlation between attachment to God and students’ gratitude in “X” University. Gratitude is an appreciation of individual being grateful because he has received kindness form others. Grateful people will be healthier, more enthusiastic, and optimistic. One of the factors that influences the development of gratitude is spiritual life or religiosity, which reflects human view of God, known as attachment to God. The hypothesis was there was a correlation between attachment to God and gratitude. This was a correlational research design, with 100 students of University “X” as participants. The instruments were questionnaire of gratitude and attachment to God. Data were analyzed using Chi Square. The result revealed that there was no correlation between attachment to God and gratitude. Attachment to God’s dimensions did not have any correlation with gratitude too. This study also revealed that age and gender show no relationship tendencies with gratitude. For further research, next researchers are suggested to measure correlation between gratitude and other factors.Keywords: attachment to God; dimension of attachment to God; gratitude
... If dispositional gratitude may have salutogenic effects as suggested by previous research (e.g., Watkins, 2014), it is also imperative to understand who is considered high in dispositional gratitude. With some exceptions (e.g., Chopik et al., 2019;Jans-Beken et al., 2018), few studies have examined how trait gratitude is reported and distributed across the overall population. More importantly, it is unclear which demographic and psychosocial characteristics distinguish people with varying levels of dispositional gratitude. ...
... veterans was classified as having high dispositional gratitude. Given that this sample was older on average (M age = 60.1), the large proportion of veterans with high dispositional gratitude is consistent with previous findings that indicate successful aging in older populations (Chopik et al., 2019). ...
Article
Dispositional gratitude may be linked to positive mental health outcomes, yet population-based data on this association are lacking. Military veterans are an ideal population in which to examine this question given high rates of psychiatric morbidities and efforts to promote psychological resilience in this population. Data were analyzed from a nationally representative sample of 3,151 U.S. veterans. Veterans were separated into three groups based on an assessment of level of dispositional gratitude: high gratitude (weighted 79.8%), moderate gratitude (9.6%), and low gratitude (10.5%). Multivariable analyses examined the associations between level of dispositional gratitude, and measures of mental health and psychosocial variables. A “dose-response” association was observed between levels of dispositional gratitude and odds of psychiatric morbidities. Higher dispositional gratitude was associated with decreased risk for lifetime history of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), major depressive disorder (MDD), social phobia, nicotine dependence, and suicide attempts, and decreased risk for current PTSD, MDD, generalized anxiety disorder, and suicidal ideation (odds ratio range = 0.16-0.65). Higher dispositional gratitude was additionally associated with resilience-promoting characteristics such as optimism, curiosity, purpose in life, perceived social support, and religiosity/spirituality (Cohen’s d range = 0.11-0.73). Dispositional gratitude is prevalent in U.S. veterans, is negatively associated with psychiatric morbidities, and may help promote psychosocial factors linked to resilience in this population. Stratification of veterans with low, moderate, and high dispositional gratitude may help identify those who are at increased risk for psychiatric illness and in need of additional support.
... For example, the broaden-and-build theory states that positive emotions such as gratitude can help people build lasting resources that contribute to well-being (Fredrickson, 2001(Fredrickson, , 2004(Fredrickson, , 2013. Consistent with the theory, tons of empirical studies have demonstrated that trait gratitude is positively related to SWB (Alkozei et al., 2018;Chopik et al., 2019;Froh et al., 2008;Watkins et al., 2003;Wood et al., 2010). Specifically, many studies have found that trait gratitude has a positive relationship with PA (Froh et al., 2008;Lambert et al., 2012;Lin, 2019), and LS (Kong, Ding, et al., 2015;Kong et al, 2017;Kong et al., 2020;Lambert et al., 2009;Tsang et al., 2014;You et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
Previous studies have rarely explored the predictive causality relationship between trait gratitude and subjective well-being (SWB) that has been demonstrated to have a bi-factor structure (i.e., three specific factors and a general factor of SWB). A sample of 494 adolescents participated in a two-wave study including the measurements of trait gratitude and SWB. We employed structural equation modeling techniques to assess cross-lagged effects between trait gratitude and the bi-factor structure of SWB (i.e., life satisfaction, negative affect, positive affect and the general SWB factor) in four models. The results showed that trait gratitude could predict life satisfaction and positive affect, but could not predict negative affect and the general SWB factor over two months. Besides, there was no evidence for the reverse or reciprocal relationships between trait gratitude and the bi-factor structure of SWB. Implications and future directions of the findings were discussed.
... Applied alone, or in combination with other approaches, implied benefits of positive psychology approaches, include greater joy, contentment, and life quality, regardless of aging.To be effective, an empathetic and skilled provider, and one who believes in the potential of positive psychology can potentially enable their older clients to achieve more effective states of pain control, heightened longevity, less depression, and dependence. Other Box 1. Positive psychology approaches that might be examined more specifically in diverse populations of adults of a broad spectrum of ages Sources:[5, 14, 17, 27,[74][75][76][77][78] ...
Article
Full-text available
Background Aging, a state often associated with poor emotional health status greatly impedes life quality and independence for many. Aim This mini review examines the potential of the concept of positive psychology as an active approach to fostering successful or more successful, rather than suboptimal aging. Methods and Procedures Articles that addressed the current topic of interest and were located in the PUBMED, Medline, Web of Science, PsycINFO and Google Scholar electronic data bases were carefully sought and analyzed and presented in narrative form. Results Various forms of positive psychology appear to provide a safe efficacious evidence based approach for purposes of ameliorating various degrees of anxiety and depression and for improving cognition, life quality, and health well-being in diverse subgroups of older adults Conclusion More research to examine who might benefit most from this highly promising form of intervention, and in what respect appears to have considerable merit in light of the growing populations of older adults and few intervention options to help them to age optimally and as successfully as possible.
... Their results showed that gratitude is significantly related to four of the five dimensions of psychological well-being: self-acceptance, autonomy, purpose in life, and personal growth. Chopik et al. (2019) examined the relationship between gratitude and wellbeing in different age groups. The results showed that the relationship between gratitude and subjective well-being remained relatively constant throughout life. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research has shown that happiness and well-being play a fundamental role in the health of older adults. For this reason, programs based on Positive Psychology seek to improve quality of life, preventing and reducing the appearance of emotional disorders. The objective of this study was to verify whether an intervention based on Autobiographical Memory, Forgiveness, Gratitude, and Sense of humor would increase quality of life in institutionalized older adults. We used a quasi-experimental design with pre- and post-intervention measures and follow-on measures at 3, 6, and 12 months. A total of 111 institutionalized older adults participated in the study and were randomly assigned to one of three groups: experimental ( n = 36), placebo ( n = 39), and control ( n = 36). Measurements were taken of depression, subjective happiness, satisfaction with life, psychological well-being, and specific memories. Program duration was 11 weeks, followed by refresher sessions of the activities that had been conducted. The results showed that the intervention was effective, producing lasting increase in the participating adults’ well-being, maintained for the following 12 months, in contrast to the other two groups. In conclusion, the proposed intervention proved to be a novel tool that was effective, easily applied, and able to improve quality of life and emotional disorders in older adults.
... In this special issue, Chopik et al. (2022) provide one such example. The literature on the association between age and gratitude is mixed: Different studies have produced contrary evidence that gratitude peaks either in younger age, middle age, or older age, with some studies revealing null associations (see Chopik et al., 2019). Chopik et al. (2022) report a cubic effect of age (age 3 ) that is consistent across cultures, with gratitude levels being low and stable among adolescence, then gradually increasing across middle age, and finally stabilizing in older age. ...
Article
Relationship processes often involve fluctuating, variable, or tumultuous dynamics. Yet, close relationship models have traditionally focused on linear processes. The purpose of this Journal of Social and Personal Relationships special issue is to provide examples of how modeling nonlinear effects and dynamics can: (I) test nonlinear theoretical assumptions, (II) reconcile inconsistencies and reveal novel effects, (III) detect dynamic shifts in core relationship constructs, and (IV) capture temporal and spatial synchrony between partners within dyads. By showcasing a variety of nonlinear applications, we hope to encourage close relationship scholars to utilize similar nonlinear methods in order to advance relationship science by discovering common and important, but currently under-examined, relationship processes.
... These traditions emphasise the learning and practice of gratitude as a key to attain a good life (Emmons and Stern 2013). Being thankful or grateful is a value or character that is less observed today especially among the younger generations (Chopik et al. 2019). ...
Article
This cross-sectional study aimed to determine the relationships between gratitude and life satisfaction; gratitude and spirituality; spirituality and life satisfaction, and the mediating role of spirituality between gratitude and life satisfaction. We utilised the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and Daily Spiritual Experience Scale as measures. The study enjoined 415 participants whose age was 13 to 28 years old from the Philippines; more than the majority were Roman Catholics and from Christian denominations. Positive relationships were revealed between gratitude and life satisfaction, between gratitude and spirituality, and between spirituality and life satisfaction. Spirituality was also evidenced to mediate the relationship between gratitude and life satisfaction. Gratitude positively affects spirituality which in turn positively affects life satisfaction. The results provided clarity to the mechanism of the relationship between gratitude and life satisfaction. The present study also supported the transcendental view of gratitude. It also provided empirical evidence to the relationship of the variables in the Philippine context. Counselling implications for the improvement of life satisfaction were also offered.
... Previous studies on gratitude in the elderly have indicated the following characteristics. Chopik, Newton, Ryan, Kashdan, and Jarden (2019) suggested that dispositional gratitude would increase with age. They conducted three surveys with 31,206 participants aged 15-90 and demonstrated that older adults consistently showed more dispositional gratitude than middle-aged and younger adults. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current article focused on gratitude as a factor improving the wellbeing of the elders. The socioemotional selectivity theory suggests the elders’ tendency of limiting the target of gratitude to close and pleasure interpersonal relationships. However, it is not clearly explained how the elders could achieve their developmental task of accepting their lives in a broad historical context. Introducing specific utterances of older Japanese adults, especially their remarks based on the Japanese cultural background of ancestor worship, the authors argued a way to achieve the developmental task with the cultural belief in Japanese elders. Free PDF file, https://www.academia.edu/51035200/Gratitude_to_family_and_ancestors_as_the_source_for_wellbeing_in_Japanese_elderly_people
... In the 1990s, a new paradigm emerged: the well-being paradox (Lawton, 1991). Some research has shown that, despite the challenges and losses associated with age, subjective well-being (SWB) and the sense of maturity or psychological well-being (PWB) do not seem to decline, and gains in these indicators may occur (Chopik et al., 2019;Karppinen et al., 2017). Thus, the study of the life course makes it possible to understand the dynamics of SWB and PWB and the dimension of the functioning of the personality of the mature adult and the elderly. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to identify predictive factors for subjective and psychological well-being in a sample of 265 older adults enrolled in the University of the Third Age (U3A). The scales used were: General Satisfaction with Life Scale and referenced to the domains, Positive and Negative Affect Scale and Personal Development Scale. Multivariate logistic analysis indicated that being 70 or older and male was associated with the subjective well-being and having higher education level was associated with psychological well-being. It was concluded that sociodemographic characteristics of the interviewed elders enrolled in U3A can be important attributes that influence well-being.
... Life satisfaction has commonly been used to measure subjective well-being (Chopik et al. 2017;Karabati and Cemalcilar 2010;Sortheix et al. 2013;Sortheix and Schwartz 2017). Previous studies have also examined the relationship between Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this pioneering study, we examined the influence of moral character attributes and responsible behavior on adolescent life satisfaction, as well as the mediating role of adolescents’ responsible behavior in the influence of moral character attributes on life satisfaction in 2,474 adolescents in Hong Kong. We used a 25-item measure to assess moral character attributes, a 15-item measure to assess responsible behavior, and the 5-item Satisfaction with Life Scale to assess life satisfaction. Factor analyses using confirmatory factor analyses provided support for the factorial validity of the measures of adolescent moral character attributes, responsible behavior, and life satisfaction. Consistent with our hypotheses, moral character attributes positively predicted adolescents’ responsible behavior as well as life satisfaction, and adolescents’ responsible behavior positively predicted life satisfaction. Separate analyses using PROCESS and combined analysis using SEM via Mplus showed that adolescents’ responsible behavior mediated the influence of moral character attributes on adolescent life satisfaction. The present findings highlight the importance of moral character on adolescent well-being and support the positive youth development approach in the field.
... However, the sample had racial (33% of the sample was non-Caucasian) and ethnic (17.9% of the sample was Hispanic) diversity. Future research should aim to examine these associations in samples with a more diverse age range, given recent evidence suggesting gratitude is highest in older adults and that the associations between gratitude and health differ across adulthood (Chopik et al., 2019;Hill et al., 2013). ...
Article
Positive affect is associated with more adaptive responses to psychological stress. However, few studies have examined the association between gratitude, a specific type of positive affect, with physiological responses to acute psychological stress. The current study aimed to replicate and extend on previous work examining the associations between state and trait gratitude and cardiovascular stress reactivity in 324 (59.9% female, 67.0% Caucasian, 17.9% Hispanic) healthy participants. State gratitude was measured at the beginning of the laboratory session using the Gratitude Adjective Checklist-Three Items. Trait gratitude was measured using the Gratitude Questionnaire-Six Items. Blood pressure and heart rate reactions to an acute mental arithmetic task were measured. In regression models that adjusted for baseline cardiovascular activity, body mass index, sex, depressive symptomology, performance on the acute mental arithmetic task, and state positive affect, state gratitude was associated with lower systolic blood pressure reactivity. There were no associations between trait gratitude and any of the cardiovascular variables. Results support previous work demonstrating that state, but not trait, gratitude is related to cardiovascular stress reactivity. Higher levels of state gratitude immediately preceding a stressful encounter may be protective.
... .74) 。這三項中介效果都顯示感恩性情透過正向生命回憶,對幸福感各成分有正 面的間接作用,支持「假設 4」 。 總結與討論 一、生病與運動之外:感恩性情對幸福感之提升 過去常以多面向的成功老化指標作為正向老化的指標,然本研究以心理學關注的、具精簡性 的幸福感代替。認為諸如「合理的身體健康」 、 「疾病或失能的低風險」等為基本條件,應作為控 制變項使用。本研究主張高齡者所具的正向心理資源-情感性特質(感恩性情)會對高齡者的幸 福感產生明顯的影響,即使在控制人口(年齡、性別)與生活狀況(生病次數、運動情形)的背 景變項後,感恩性情仍在幸福感三成分的模式中扮演重要的角色,且其會透過情緒(感恩情緒) 或認知(正向生命回憶)中介影響幸福感(參考圖 2) 。也就是心理資源對高齡者幸福感扮演一定 的角色,本研究選定的感恩這個心理資源具可塑性(Luthans, Arolio et al., 2007;Luthans, Youssef et al., 2007) ,同時也符合高齡發展的可觸及性,為高齡者經常感受的情緒狀態(Chipperfield et al., 2003;Chopik et al., 2019;Kern et al., 2014) ,這兩項特性使得心理學家可著力改變高齡者的處境,使他們 可以老化得更正向;也就是高齡者可藉由外在或自我引導(有意圖的活動) ,展現個體的能動性, 投注心力,增加心理資源來改善自己的幸福狀態,使晚年生活變得更好。本研究進一步檢視感恩 性情對幸福感影響的中介機制: 「感恩情緒」與「正向生命回憶」 。 二、雙元中介機制之探討 本研究提出感恩性情可透過情緒與認知兩個截然不同的中介機制來影響幸福感三成分(生活 滿意、正向情緒、負向情緒) 。初階相關顯示:感恩性情、兩中介變項及幸福感間的關係大致符合 預期,之後以結構方程模式進行模式的檢定,結果大致符合假設。 (一)情緒中介機制:感恩情緒 感恩情緒可中介正向情緒,無法中介生活滿意,其雖然可中介感恩性情對負向情緒之效果, 其效果卻是負面的(註:負向情緒分數已反向計分,見圖 2) 。部分支持研究假設 3,此結果應與 過去感恩與負向情緒間較不穩定的結果有關(如,陳貽照,2017;Froh, Kashdan et al., 2009; Lau & Cheng, 2012-2013; Woodward, 2000,引自 Watkins, 2004) 。雖然本研究者試圖使用環複模型解釋感 恩情緒與正、負向情緒的關係,然而,本質上感恩情緒的內涵可能更為複雜(即不能簡單地將其 視為單純的正向情緒) ,使得其與負向情緒的部分較難解釋。過去的環複模型並沒有將具有正向中 度激發的感恩情緒納入其中,可能是感恩情緒具有相當特殊的屬性,如,產生在人際脈絡中,為 特定原因歸因結果的情緒(Weiner, 1985;參考 Emmons & McCullough, 2003) ,此外,感恩情緒也 被視為是一種道德情緒(McCullough et al., 2001) ,或許這些特性使得感恩情緒生成的當下,會產 生更複雜的共伴情緒,也就是不僅只有正向情緒,也有負向情緒。如,感恩情緒與負債感 (indebtedness)的構念雖可被明確區分出來,但它可同時存在同一個施益對象上(Watkins et al.,2006) 。Layous 等人(2017)透過實驗操弄產生感恩情緒的同時,發現:它除了伴隨正向情緒 的提升、與他人的連結感外,也會有負向的情緒產生,如負債感與罪惡感。上述這些現象在日常 生活的複雜情境中,應會更加的凸顯,使得經驗感恩情緒的同時,也會伴隨經驗更多樣化的負向 情緒,這使得當感恩性情透過感恩情緒影響幸福感時,可能也引發更多的負向情緒,使得整體的 負向情緒更高。 此外,Peterson 與 Seligman(2004)認為感恩性情能增加愉悅的狀態更勝過消減負向情緒,過 去研究主張感恩能對治怨恨與悔恨(Roberts, 2004) ,本研究者認為感恩能對治這些負向情緒與經 驗,顯然不是透過情緒(感恩情緒)中介,可能是高感恩者對於負向經驗有一些特殊的認知處理 機制所致,如,對負向事件的再處理、感恩負向事件帶給自己的好處等(Watkins et al., 2008) ;也 就是說感恩性情可以對記憶內容、回憶形式產生調整的作用,其作用機制類似本研究所提之正向 生命回憶中介機制。 (二)認知中介機制:正向生命回憶 正向生命回憶能中介感恩性情對正、負向情緒的影響,也可中介感恩性情對生活滿意的影響, 支持假設 4。此結果證實:感恩性情會透過影響個體對 AM 記憶內容的回憶處理形式,產生正向效 應來提升幸福感。高感恩的高齡者在回憶提取與處理上容易產生正向偏誤,較易回想過去好的生 活事件(正負向比例) ,對於過去負向的事件也會不斷地再處理,並賦予它正面意義(負向再處理)(Watkins et al., 2008; Watkins et al., 2004;引自 Watkins & McCurrach, 2016Watkins et al., 2015) , 除此之外,本研究也進一步發現:高感恩的高齡者也會在回憶之中再次去品嚐過去好的生活事件 (正向沉浸) ,避開沈浸在過去不好的生活事件中(負向沉浸) ,也會回想過去不好的事件對照現 在的美好(正向對比) ,但不會以過去好的事件對比現在不好的處境(負向對比) (Liberman et al., 2009) 。 Watkins 與 McCurrach(2016)進一步主張感恩性情之所以能對幸福感產生正向效益,主要是 因為感恩能夠產生正向的認知歷程(positive cognitive processes) 研究結果也顯示:感恩性情同時透過情緒(感恩性情)與認知(正向生命回憶)中介後,感 恩性情對生活滿意的直接效果趨近為零,對正向情緒有顯著負向效果,對負向情緒有顯著的負向 效果(見圖 2) ;也就在考量中介變項後,感恩性情越高低無關個體的生活滿意,但感恩性情越高, 正向情緒越低、負向情緒越高。感恩性情與正、負向情緒的零階相關都為正相關,但經中介後, 兩者皆變成負相關。其中,在正向情緒的部分與過去諸多實證資料相反。研究者認為或許可從兩 個方面共同解釋這樣的研究結果: (1)過去認為感恩(性情)對個體具有正向的適應性,然而近 期的研究則認為感恩也可能具有負向效果,當感恩用在錯誤的地方,如,受家暴的婦女常有感恩 加害者、奴隸感恩奴役者的現象。或許高齡者在面對晚年生活時,有許多狀況大大超出自我所能 控制範圍,此可能會引發感恩誤用的情形(Wood et al., 2016) ; (2)另從前述感恩情緒生成的同時 有可能伴隨負向情緒的產生,也可回推感恩性情或許也包含一些負向的成分在內。然而這樣的結 果在一般狀態下應該不會出現,可能在老年時期,同時透過較全面性(如,同時考慮情緒與認知) 的中介後,感恩性情中的負向成分才會產生作用;也就是高齡者因生命有限性,所產生的正向效 應(positivity effect) ...
Article
Full-text available
From the perspective of positive psychological resources, “gratitude” not only possesses plasticity, but is also an important psychological characteristic in elderly development. This study explored the connection between the “gratitude” of elders and their subjective wellbeing and probed into the mediating mechanism between them. Although aging is an inevitable part of life, elders are faced with many losses and restrictions that make elderly life difficult. Therefore, how to enable elders to “age positively” has become an issue of common concern for many scholars. In the past, multi-faceted successful aging indicators have often been adopted to reflect positive aging. However, this study used streamlined wellbeing of concern in psychology instead and employed basic conditions such as “reasonable physical health”, “low-risk disease or disability” as the control variables. This study that the emotional characteristic (gratitude disposition), a positive psychological resource elders possess, produces significant effects on the wellbeing of elders. Even behind the background variables of controlled population (age, gender) and living status (frequency of falling into illness, exercise status), gratitude disposition still plays an influential role on the three constituents of wellbeing. Additionally, gratitude disposition mediates the effects of gratitude disposition on the constituents of wellbeing through emotion (gratitude emotion) or cognition (positive life memory). In other words, psychological resources play a certain role on the wellbeing of elders. This study especially selected gratitude because it is a psychological resource with plasticity. At the same time, it is also in line with reachability in elderly development and is an emotional state often experienced by elders. These two characteristics enable psychologists to focus on changing the situation of elders in order for them to age more positively. Based on the research question and literature review, this study hypothesized that after controlling some life status variables that change with aging (frequency of falling into illness, exercise status), the gratitude disposition of elders still has significant positive effects on the three subjective well-being (SWB) components (including life satisfaction, positive affect, and negative affect). Besides, it was hypothesized that the effects of gratitude disposition on the three SWB components are mediated by the grateful emotion under the emotional aspect and the life reminiscence under the cognitive aspect. This study collected the information of 335 elders aged above 55 in Taiwan through the questionnaire survey method. The questionnaire contents include grateful disposition scale, positive/negative life reminiscence scale, life satisfaction scale, positive/negative emotion scale, grateful emotion scale, and control variables such as age, gender, frequency of falling into illness, exercise status et al. The above scales were mainly designed with the self-report measurement method. They were evaluated by the Likert 4 or 6-point scale and adjusted to suit the elderly. Please ask the elderly to circle the appropriate answer in accordance with their own condition. Initially, the descriptive statistics and correlations among the main variables were analyzed. Subsequently, the structural equation modeling (SEM) was adopted to examine the “dual mediating model of the elderly’s gratitude deposition on subjective well-being” to test the overall model fit and the path coefficients. The Sobel test was used to test the significance of the mediating effects, and the bootstrapping method was also used to compute the 95% confidence intervals for the mediating effects. In the model, with grateful deposition as the independent variable, grateful emotion and life reminiscence as the mediating variables, and life satisfaction, positive emotions, and negative emotions as the criterion variables, this study hypothesized that gratitude disposition can affect the three constituents of wellbeing (life satisfaction, positive emotion, negative emotion) through two completely different mediating variables, namely, emotion and cognition. The initial correlation analysis shows that the correlations among gratitude disposition, two mediating variables, and wellbeing generally support our predictions. Through the SEM analysis, the result shows that the proposed model has an adequate model fit, CFI = .94, RNI = .94, RMSEA = .06, SRMR = .04, χ2(113) = 256.281 (p < .001), and has no offending estimates. Under the condition of controlling the effects of age, gender, frequency of falling into illness, and exercise status, the results show: (1) gratitude disposition has a positive effect on gratitude emotion and positive life reminiscence; (2) gratitude emotion has a positive effect on positive emotion, but it also produces negative emotion; (3) positive life reminiscence has a positive effect on life satisfaction and positive emotion and it also reduces negative emotion; (4) gratitude emotion can mediate the effects of gratitude disposition on positive emotion and negative emotion; (5) positive life reminiscence can mediate the effects of gratitude disposition on life satisfaction, positive emotion, and negative emotion. In summary, gratitude disposition can affect the three constituents of subjective wellbeing through two different mediating mechanisms, namely, the life reminiscence under the cognitive aspect and gratitude emotion under the emotional aspect. In particular, life reminiscence produces greater positive effects. Compared to life memory, gratitude emotion not only produces weaker effects, but it also possibly brings about negative emotions. Therefore, compared to gratitude emotion, life reminiscence seems to be a more important mechanism contributing to the wellbeing of elders. In the face of the rapidly increasing elderly population, the government has vigorously set up local aging community-based care systems, such as elderly care stations. In addition, targeting elders requiring long-term care, long-term care institutions, lane/alley long-term care stations, and so on have been set up. At present, the service momentum of these systems is a totally inadequate measure, and the quality demands strengthening. While the long-term care systems are being set up by the government, it is also reflected that delaying elderly aging is perhaps the fundamental solution. Hence, a greater emphasis is given to front-end aging prevention. From a more positive perspective, aging prevention is about promoting positive aging. This study reveals that: Psychological resources “gratitude disposition” and “positive life reminiscence operations” concerning life integration that meet the reachability and plasticity of the aging development stage can promote positive aging and make elders happier, which are said to be in line with the government’s policy direction. In any of the above-mentioned elderly institutions, gratitude and positive life reminiscence intervention programs can be easily and conveniently implemented. Through frequent practice, the psychological resources in these two aspects can naturally be enhanced, making elders happier and age more positively. Although there are already some intervention programs that enable elders to age more positively, these intervention programs have not explored the internal mechanism. The results revealed in this study can be further applied in programs intended to enhance the wellbeing of elders. With a more refined and more appropriate intervention program design, it can be applied in various elderly institution activities and courses, enabling elders to more positively take purposeful actions on their own to make themselves happier and lessen the financial burden on the nation and society and the load on the children. Finally, this study incidentally found the part where gratitude disposition is inconsistent with previous research (such as gratitude disposition in the model directly and negative affect positive emotions). This study especially provided an explanation on this part. Furthermore, the research limitations, future research direction, and feasible programs were put forward, hoping that the solution formulated can serve as a stimulus for more psychologists to make substantive contributions to Taiwan’s aging society.
... Despite these varying conceptualizations regarding the precise definition of gratitude, there is consensus in the literature that gratitude is associated with well-being (Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Harbaugh & Vasey, 2014;Lambert et al., 2009;Watkins, 2013). Gratitude is positively related to various aspects of well-being, including social, psychological and physical well-being, and appears to contribute to well-being across the lifespan (Chopik et al., 2019;Emmons & Mishra, 2011). This may be due to gratitude's ability to aid in coping with stress, reducing toxic emotions, reducing materialistic strivings, improving self-esteem, enhancing positive memories, building social resources, motivating moral behavior, as well as promoting spirituality, goal attainment, and good health (Armenta et al., 2017;Emmons & Mishra, 2011;Wood et al., 2010;see Emmons & Mishra 2011, for a detailed discussion of each of these hypotheses). ...
Article
During the transition from school to university students are faced with many challenges to their well-being. This is especially true in resource constrained societies like South Africa. While there is extensive research linking well-being with gratitude, less is known qualitatively about what individuals are grateful for. A sample of 933 undergraduate students submitted gratitude lists, resulting in over 9000 unique ‘gratitude items’. Thematic analysis revealed several prominent themes, such as gratitude for relationships, material resources, being at university, life and health, and, finally, religious gratitude. These themes are discussed in the context of the importance of family relationships in the lives of emerging adults, the core role played by the educational context, the importance of socioeconomic resources and the association between religion, gratitude, and well-being. Strengthening these resources and cultivating gratitude for these prominent targets of appreciation may support students in their developmental trajectory.
... Interestingly, all of the above-mentioned variables also vary with respect to age. The literature has shown that young people tend to declare lower levels of religiosity (Argue et al. 1999), gratitude (Chopik et al. 2019), and self-esteem (Erol and Orth 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
In comforting or distressing circumstances, individuals tend to have various perceptions of themselves. It seems that religious comfort and religious distress correlate differently with people’s self-esteem. Since the relationship between religiosity and self-esteem is not only direct but can be mediated by other factors that are recognized as buffers against adverse situations, our main goal was to verify whether dispositional gratitude may have an indirect effect on the association between both variables. The research involved data from 254 participants aged 18 to 25 (M = 21.24; SD = 2.09) and included 192 women (76%) and 62 men (24%). To measure the title variables, we used: the Religious Comfort and Strain Scale (RCSS), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), and the Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6). The results showed that people who consider religion as a source of comfort express positive attitudes toward the self and recognize others’ kindness, as well. In contrast, people who consider religiosity as a cause of fear, stress, and internal strain tend to display a lower subjective sense of personal worth and lower appreciation of the positivity around them. Moreover, gratitude had a mediatory effect on the relationships between religious comfort/negative emotions toward God and self-esteem.
... Research shows that gratitude varies with situations and events (Wood et al., 2008a). Gratitude can also change over time (Froh et al., 2010;Chopik et al., 2019). Importantly, gratitude is open to development through a variety of relatively simple and practical interventions (c.f., Dickens, 2017;Richter et al., 2021). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explores gratitude as a multidimensional and work-specific construct. Utilizing a sample of 625 employees from a variety of positions in a medium-sized school district in the United States, we developed and evaluated a new measure, namely the Work Gratitude Scale (WGS), which encompasses recognized conative (intentional), cognitive, affective, and social aspects of gratitude. A systematic, six-phased approach through structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to explore and confirm the factorial structure, internal consistency, measurement invariance, concurrent, convergent, and discriminant validity of the WGS. The results supported a 10-item measure with three dimensions: "grateful appraisals" (three items), "gratitude toward others" (four items), and "intentional attitude of gratitude" (three items). Thereafter, first-order, second-order, and bifactor confirmatory models were estimated and compared. Work gratitude was found to be best described by a second-order construct with three underlying first-order dimensions. Measurement invariance was supported in relation to gender. Concurrent validity was supported in relation to two existing dispositional gratitude scales, namely the Gratitude Questionnaire and the Gratitude, Resentment, and Appreciation Scale (GRAT). Convergent validity was supported in relation to the Core Self-Evaluations Scale (CSES) and the Psychological Capital Questionnaire. Discriminant validity was supported in relation to various demographic factors such as age, gender, occupation, and tenure. The findings support the WGS as a multidimensional measure that can be used in practice to measure overall work-related gratitude and to track the effectiveness of gratitude-related workplace interventions.
... In contrast, gratitude as a trait refers to how often and intensely one experiences the state of gratitude (24). Levels of state and trait gratitude vary from person to person and often fluctuate within an individual over time (24,25). ...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has led to diminished sleep and increased stress, anxiety, and burnout for many health professionals and health professions students. One simple approach that may be effective for bolstering personal well-being is consciously cultivating gratitude. Gratitude is positively associated with physical health, psychological health, hope, sleep, and health behavior engagement; and randomized studies indicate that gratitude interventions can improve psychological well-being and sleep. The primary aim of this study was to assess the impact of practicing Tiny Habits® on self-reported gratitude, as measured by the 6-Item Gratitude Questionnaire (GQ-6). In January 2021, 154 adult participants with GQ-6 <35/42 were randomized to one of 3 groups: Tiny Habits for Gratitude (n = 50), Tiny Habits Control (n = 52), and Inactive Control (n = 52). Both Tiny Habits groups chose 3 Tiny Habits Recipes to practice daily and participated in the free, email-based 5-Day Program with automated daily check-in emails and personalized feedback from a Certified Tiny Habits Coach. The Recipes for the Tiny Habits for Gratitude group focused on cultivating gratitude, while those for the Tiny Habits Control group did not. Post-intervention, the mean change in GQ-6 scores in the Tiny Habits for Gratitude (Δ = ↑6.9 ± 5.6; n = 37/50, 74%; p< 0.001, Cohen's d = 0.85) and Tiny Habits Control (Δ = ↑5.6 ± 4.1; n = 31/52, 60%; p = 0.009, Cohen's d = 0.71) groups were greater than that of the Inactive Control group (Δ = ↑2.5 ± 4.4; N = 42/52, 81%). At 1 month, the mean change in GQ-6 scores in the Tiny Habits for Gratitude group (Δ = ↑7.0 ± 5.3; N = 28/50, 56%) was greater than that of the Inactive Control group (Δ = ↑2.9 ± 5.4; N = 39/52, 72%; p = 0.002, Cohen's d = 0.78). These findings suggest that practicing Tiny Habits Recipes and participating in the 5-Day Program can significantly increase gratitude in the short term and focusing specifically on gratitude during this process can sustain the increase in gratitude for up to 1 month. Implementation is quick, simple, and free. This has significant implications for healthcare education stakeholders.
... Gratitude has been found to have a consistent and robust association with life satisfaction, corroborating its recognition as a core strength of character and well-being (Park et al., 2004;Peterson et al., 2007). Studies on gratitude in adults have shown that the disposition to be grateful is relevant to the well-being of adults across the lifespan, especially among older adults (Chopik et al., 2019;see Wood et al., 2010, for a review). Moreover, findings from studies on adults have shown that having a grateful disposition is associated with greater levels of life satisfaction (e.g., Bhullar et al., 2015;Przepiorka & Sobol-Kwapinska, 2021;Robustelli & Whisman, 2018;Salvador-Ferrer, 2017;Wood et al., 2008). ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study was concerned with how gratitude and facets of emotional intelligence (i.e., self-emotions appraisal, others-emotions appraisal, use of emotion, & regulation of emotion) are related to life satisfaction in older adults. Two models were examined in a sample of 191 Spanish older adults: (1) a broaden-and-build model, in which gratitude might be associated with greater life satisfaction by broadening and building facets of emotional intelligence; and (2) an amplification model, in which gratitude might interact with facets of emotional intelligence to amplify life satisfaction. In examining a broaden-and-build model, mediation analysis indicated that gratitude was associated with greater life satisfaction in older adults via broadening one’s use of emotions. In addition, in examining an amplification model, we found evidence of an Others-Emotions Appraisal × Gratitude interaction effect, such that the life satisfaction of older adults with an adept understanding of others’ emotions was enhanced by dispositional gratitude. The present study contributes to the extant literature by delineating specific pathways by which gratitude and emotional intelligence influence life satisfaction among older adults. Our findings provide evidence of potential strengths-based mechanisms to support older adult life satisfaction. In addition to existing therapies and psychoeducational interventions, it would seem valuable for practitioners to not only consider ways to promote older adults’ gratitude, but also the use of emotions, and adept appraisal of others’ emotions to facilitate their life satisfaction.
... A third explanation addresses adaptational processes and the fact that changing life circumstances often have only small and short-term effects on SWB; over time, SWB tends to fall back to its stable (baseline) level, determined by genes and personality traits (Lucas 2007). A potential fourth explanation could be that older adults tend to exhibit higher levels of psychological characteristics or interpersonal character strengths such as gratitude, compassion, forgiveness, and tolerance, which are linked to a wide range of healthy relational and emotional outcomes (e.g., Beadle & De la Vega 2019;Chopik et al. 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores qualifications to the much-discussed paradox that although aging is associated with multiple physical and social losses, subjective well-being (SWB) is stable or increasing in later life. We explore age-related changes in cognitive, affective, and eudaimonic dimensions in three waves of data spanning up to 15 years from the Norwegian NorLAG study (N = 4,944, age 40 − 95). We employ fixed-effect models to examine the nature and predictors of aging effects on SWB. Results indicate a general pattern of stability well into older age, but negative changes in advanced age across well-being measures. Declines in SWB are less pronounced and with a later onset for the cognitive compared with the other measures. Loss of health, a partner, and friends are robust predictors of declining SWB. Women report both more negative affect and engagement than men, and these differences increase with age. In conclusion, while increasing SWB from midlife to the mid-70 s attests to the adaptive behaviors and coping resources of young-old adults, the significant downturns in SWB in advanced age point to limits to psychological adjustment when health-related and social threats and constraints intensify.
... Few studies have explored the intergenerational differences for the construct of appreciation. Hitherto only one article has studied the age differences and experience of gratitude from a developmental perspective (Chopik et al., 2019). Probably, no other study has examined the intergenerational differences in appreciation and its construct among professional employees. ...
Article
Purpose The present study aims to explore the intergenerational differences in the virtue of appreciation. The construct of appreciation takes a broadened perspective with six dimensions of “have” focus, awe, ritual, present moment, loss/adversity and interpersonal appreciation. Four different generations are studied – baby boomers (above 55 years), pre-millennial or Generation X (41–55 years), millennial or Generation Y (23–39 years) and post-millennial or Generation Z (below 23 years). Design/methodology/approach The collected data is analyzed in two stages. First, the adaptability of the scale is examined using exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, reliability and validity estimates. And in the second stage, the variations in appreciation scores are explored using ANOVA and post hoc analysis. Findings The results reveal statistically significant intergenerational differences among four subscales of appreciation, i.e. “have” focus, awe, present moment and loss/adversity. Only one subscale of appreciation, i.e. ritual, does not vary significantly across respondents of different generations. Also, younger generations have lesser scores on subscales of appreciation than older generations. Thus, it seems that older generations are generally more appreciative than younger generations. Originality/value The present study, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, could be the first research that examines the variation among generations for the experience of broader construct of appreciation within the Indian context.
... Grateful responses are understood to emerge in children as young as five years old (Hussong et al., 2019;Nelson et al., 2013) and to increase in sophistication over time (de Lucca Freitas et al., 2011). Individuals higher in trait gratitude are often found to experience greater well-being, and this seems to be the case for people of all ages (Chopik et al., 2019). Consequently, researchers have begun to explore whether gratitude can be increased via intervention, and whether this approach has efficacy for promoting positive social and emotional outcomes. ...
Thesis
School-based gratitude interventions show evidence of enhancing student well-being but there is limited research suggesting how gratitude increases well-being. There is also the need for a suitable tool to measure children’s gratitude and evaluate the impact of gratitude interventions. The researcher sought to address these literature gaps. A systematic literature review was used to address the question ‘which variables mediate the association between young people’s gratitude and well-being?’. Stronger evidence was found for cognitive and social resources as mediators, compared to mediators related to affect. A lack of experimental and longitudinal studies in the current evidence base was identified, highlighting avenues for future research. In an empirical study, the researcher designed and screened a new questionnaire of children’s gratitude, the Questionnaire of Appreciation in Youth (QUAY). Items were developed using the literature to identify a comprehensive definition of gratitude and its key features, and through discussion with the research supervisors who have extensive experience of studying gratitude. The initial items were screened in a focus group with three children aged eight to nine. Exploratory factor analysis was then conducted with responses from 107 children aged eight to 10. This led to the development of an 11-item scale with good reliability and convergent validity with an existing measure of gratitude, the GQ-6. A three-factor structure was retained, with subscales addressing gratitude, appreciation, and sense of privilege. Limitations include the lack of a more diverse sample, the absence of reverse-scored items, positive skew in responses, and the need to establish discriminant validity. Implications include new insights into the structure of children’s gratitude, providing a working tool which could be further developed in order to measure children’s gratitude more effectively.
... The questionnaire consisted of 29 items in total comprising five subscales. The first scale measured the mental wellbeing consisting of five items adapted from Chopik et al. (2019). The second scale measured the psychological resilience consisting of four items adapted from Zhao et al. (2020a). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective of this study is to investigate the impact of perceived social support on the self-esteem, mental wellbeing, and school readiness of left-behind (LB) children. It further aims at understanding the mediating role of psychological resilience between the relationships of perceived social support and self-esteem, mental wellbeing, and school readiness. For this purpose, population frame of the LB children between the ages of 8–12 years in Mainland China was taken. The sample size of 335 was taken to reach the findings through partial least square (PLS) structural equation modeling. The SmartPLS has been used to analyze the data. The results obtained in this study have shown that the perceived social support plays a very significant role in enhancing the mental wellbeing, self-esteem, and school readiness of the LB children. It has also been found that the perceived social support plays a positive role in the psychological resilience. Furthermore, it has also been found that the psychological resilience is an important predictor of self-esteem and school readiness. Further, the psychological resilience has proved to be significant mediator between the relationship of the perceived social support and self-esteem; and also between the relationship of the perceived social support and school readiness.
... Gratitude in the current study correlated with subjective well-being among asthma patients. This finding supported previous studies on correlation between gratitude and subjective well-being [70][71][72]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This research aimed to analyze the correlation between three variables (gratitude, optimism, and religiosity) and subjective well-being among asthma patients. The subjects of this research were 160 Muslim asthma patients aged 18-39 years-old in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. Data were collected using researcher-administered questionnaires consisting of five scales. Subjective well-being was measured using two scales: Positive Affect and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) scale and Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS). Gratitude was measured using the Psychological Measure of Islamic Gratitude (PMIG) scale. Optimism was measured using the Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) concept. Religiosity was measured using five dimensions: belief, religious practices, religious experiences, religious knowledge, and practicing and consequence. The result showed a positive correlation between three variables (gratitude, optimism, and religiosity) and subjective well-being among asthma patients. Furthermore, the results also showed that there was no significant difference of subjective well-being between male and female subjects, between adolescent and adult subjects, and between groups of subjects based on duration of being diagnosed with asthma.
... The mean score across both items was computed with higher scores indicating higher dispositional gratitude. The shortened version of the gratitude scale had good reliability in the current study (α = 0.71) and has been widely shown in previous studies in predicting theoretically relevant constructs 36,37 . ...
Article
Full-text available
Dispositional gratitude has emerged in the literature to be associated with many health benefits in measures ranging from self-reported health to biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. However, little is known about the link between dispositional gratitude and lipid profiles. Drawing from the Gratitude and Self-improvement Model that grateful individuals are more likely to strive for actual self-improvement such as engaging in healthy lifestyles, we investigated the relation between dispositional gratitude and serum lipid levels. Participants consisted of 1800 adults from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) 2: Biomarker Project ( N = 1054) and MIDUS Refresher: Biomarker Project ( N = 746). Serum lipid profiles were measured through fasting blood samples. After controlling for demographics, use of antihyperlipidemic mediation, and personality traits, we found that higher dispositional gratitude was associated with lower triglyceride levels. Results also revealed that healthy diets and lower BMI partially mediated the gratitude-triglyceride association. However, some variations in the analytic method may influence the associations between gratitude and triglycerides levels. Our findings provide preliminary evidence suggesting dispositional gratitude as a promising psychological factor that is associated with a healthier lipid profile.
... Kashdan et al., 2009) have demonstrated that women are more inclined to feel gratitude than men. We also controlled for age difference between the employee and the leader to exclude its potential impact on employee gratitude and LMX Chopik et al., 2019). Since education and education difference between employee and leader were not significantly related to the mediating and dependent variables, we followed methodological advice to exclude them in data analyses for parsimony and to enhance the validity of our results (Becker et al., 2016). ...
Article
Purpose This study investigates why and when leader favorable feedback inhibits employees’ withdrawal behaviors. The authors propose that leader favorable feedback reduces employees’ withdrawal behaviors via employees’ gratitude toward the leader. The authors further posit that this mediation is contingent on leader-member exchange, arguing that as the quality of leader-member exchange increases, employees are more likely to feel grateful and are less likely to withdraw from work. Design/methodology/approach Two-wave, multisource field data collected from 662 employees were used to test our hypotheses. Findings Employees’ feelings of gratitude mediated the negative relationship between leader favorable feedback and employees’ withdrawal behavior. The negative effect of gratitude on withdrawal behavior was stronger under higher levels of leader-member exchange, as was the indirect effect of leader favorable feedback on withdrawal behavior via employees’ gratitude. Originality/value These results contribute to a social exchange-based understanding of gratitude as an emotional mechanism underlying the feedback and withdrawal relationship and provide important practical implications for managers.
... (for a review see Ma et al., 2017;Wood et al., 2010). Given that it is associated with positive emotions (Jans-Beken et al., 2020) and it reinforces prosocial behavior (Ma et al., 2017), across distinct conceptualizations, it has been singled out as an important factor with numerous implications in areas ranging from health (Boggiss et al., 2020;Dickens, 2017;Lavelock et al., 2016) and well-being (Chopik et al., 2019) to interpersonal functioning (Ma et al., 2017). Moreover, it is negatively associated with negative affect and positively associated with well-being and positive affect (Dickens, 2019;Wood et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Outcomes of gratitude interventions are encouraging, but inconsistent across studies. In addition, both mechanisms of change and effect modifiers for these interventions are largely unknown. Recent data point toward potential candidates and suggest reward processing may be a promising mechanism underlying these interventions, while childhood adversity (CA) and trait gratitude may impact on them. However, existing research aimed at investigating these hypotheses is scarce. Building on these, we examined the effectiveness of a gratitude intervention for decreasing depressive symptoms and negative affect and increasing positive affect. We also investigated changes in reward processing following intervention and explored differences in adherence and drop-out between groups. Finally, we investigated the moderating role of CA and trait gratitude. Participants (N=237, ages between 18–56) were randomly allocated to a gratitude or active control condition (14 days). Following intervention, findings indicated a significant decrease in depressive symptoms and negative affect in both conditions. While positive affect remained stable, a significant time effect emerged for reward processing. CA severity, but not multiplicity, moderated the effectiveness of the intervention, adherence and drop-out. Trait gratitude moderated the effectiveness of the gratitude intervention only on depressive symptoms. Gratitude interventions may not be the best fit for everyone. Thus, we recommend tailoring interventions, especially in individuals reporting a history of severe CA.
... Trait gratitude has been shown, with overwhelming support, to lead to diffuse affective states such as increased positive affect (McCullough et al., 2002;Măirean, et al., 2019;Simons et al., 2019;Sun & Kong, 2013;Swickert et al., 2019;Watkins et al., 2003), decreased negative affect (Simons et al., 2019;Sun & Kong, 2013;Swickert et al., 2019;Watkins et al., 2003), affective well-being (Aghababaei et al., 2018;Bhullar et al., 2015;Chan, 2013;Chopik et al., 2019;Corona et al., 2020;Hill & Allemand, 2011;Jiang et al., 2016;Kashdan & Breen, 2007;Kim et al., 2019;Lin, 2014Lin, , 2015aLin, , 2015bLin, , 2016Lin, , 2017Lin & Yeh, 2014;McCullough et al., 2002;Măirean et al., 2019;Yue et al., 2017;Zhang, 2020), and eudaimonic well-being (Barrett-Cheetham et al., 2016). These studies have largely been cross-sectional in nature, but Simons and colleagues (2019) examined this relationship using a seven-day experience sampling study and found that trait gratitude predicted daily positive affect. ...
Article
Full-text available
Though gratitude research in organizational behavior (OB) is nascent, this emotion has a rich history in the social sciences. Research has shown gratitude to promote prosocial behaviors, encourage personal well-being, and foster interpersonal relationships. However, gratitude research has been siloed among these three outcomes of gratitude (moral, wellness, and relational). Similarly, past reviews of gratitude have focused on only one group of outcomes, one of its forms (trait, state, or expressed), or empirical findings without emphasis on the theoretical underpinnings. In contrast, this review recognizes that each type of gratitude, its functions, and outcomes are part of a single process model of gratitude. As such, in the current review we provide a comprehensive assessment of gratitude in the social sciences by distilling and organizing the literature per our process model of episodic gratitude. Then, we translate the insights for management scholars, highlighting possible differences and synergies between extant research and workplace gratitude thereby helping advance “gratitude science” in the workplace. In all, this review (a) examines definitions and operationalizations of gratitude and provides recommendations for organizational research; (b) proposes a process model of episodic workplace gratitude as a conceptual map to guide future OB research on gratitude; (c) reviews empirical gratitude research through the lens of our process model; and (d) discusses the current state of the literature, important differences for workplace gratitude, and future directions for organizational scholars.
... (Emmons et al., 2019). Gratitude has been found to have age and gender differences (Chopik et al., 2019;Skalski & Pochwatko, 2020). The GQ-6 was chosen as a measure of well-being. ...
Research
Full-text available
This research aimed to investigate different relationships affecting employee health and innovative work behavior. The relationships between motivation, gratitude, work engagement, and emotional exhaustion were investigated and four scales were filled in by 635 participants recruited online. A structural equation model (SEM) was developed referred to as the Work Engagement and Emotional Exhaustion (WEEE) model. Using self-determination theory (SDT), the WEEE model may explain how the fulfillment of basic psychological needs or lack thereof affects employee health, innovative work behaviors, and work climate through the connection to workplace bullying and workaholism. We argue that this new theoretical model may contribute to building a tool for monitoring how corporate initiatives affect employee health and innovative work behaviors, and welcome future attempts at replication.
... Further, chi-square analyses did not reveal differences by condition in gender χ 2 (4, N = 79) = 2.40, p = 0.662, race χ 2 (8, N = 79) = 6.80, p = 0.559, education χ 2 (6, N = 79) = 5.45, p = 0.487, COVID-19 high risk status χ 2 (2, N = 79) = 1.31, p = 0.520, change in work hours or salary as a result of COVID-19 χ 2 (2, N = 79) = 0.33, p = 0.850, or classification as an essential worker χ 2 (2, N = 79) = 5.27, p = 0.072. However, gratitude increases with age (Chopik et al., 2019) and people with higher trait gratitude tend to experience more daily gratitude (McCullough et al., 2004). Moreover, financial distress or the fear of financial distress related to COVID-19 is associated with increased psychological distress . ...
Article
Full-text available
Exploring ways to mitigate the stress of the COVID-19 pandemic is important for long-term health. Expressive and gratitude-focused writing are effective methods to help individuals process traumatic or stressful events. Gratitude-focused writing may yield additional benefits because it helps individuals appraise events positively. We hypothesized that an online gratitude writing intervention would yield greater benefits than an expressive writing intervention or control group. Participants were randomized to one of three groups and completed assessments one-week and one-month post-intervention. The gratitude writing group maintained gratitude levels and decreased stress and negative affect at one-month post-intervention. The expressive writing group decreased in gratitude and showed no changes in stress or negative affect at one-month post-intervention. The control group decreased in gratitude and negative affect and showed no changes in stress at one-month post-intervention. Gratitude writing may be a better resource for dealing with stress and negative affect than traditional expressive writing methods under extremely stressful situations with uncertain trajectories.
... These interventions may provide the youth with opportunities and supportive environments that facilitate their strength. Considering also that gratitude is a virtue, it does not come naturally or easily, hence there is a need to cultivate this virtue of gratitude (Bono et al., 2015) especially that the younger adults are less grateful (Chopik et al., 2019), and recent study reveals that young Americans reported themselves to be less religious and less spiritual (Jacobs, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
To expand studies linking gratitude, spirituality, and subjective well-being, this study aimed at examining the role of spirituality and gratitude on the affective aspects of subjective well-being (SWB), which are positive and negative. Gratitude is a grateful disposition measured by Gratitude Questionnaire. Spirituality refers to the feelings and sensations of daily spiritual life measured by Daily Spiritual Experience Scale. Positive affect refers to the extent to which a person feels enthusiastic, active, and alert. Negative affect refers to the extent to which people feel stressed, upset, guilty, scared, hostile, irritable, ashamed, nervous, jittery, and afraid. PA and NA were measured by the Positive Affect and Negative Affect Scale. The study's respondents were 415 Filipino adolescents and young adults who completed the questionnaires. Most of the respondents were females and Roman Catholics. Gratitude and spirituality were positively associated with positive affect. More grateful and more spiritual respondents reported increased frequency of positive affect. Negative association was found between gratitude and negative affect. Grateful respondents reported lower scores in negative affect. Interestingly, non-statistically significant positive association was found between spirituality and negative affect, which supports some previous studies with similar findings. Spirituality mediated the association between gratitude and positive affect. These findings revealed a differential impact of gratitude and spirituality on the affective aspects of SWB. Implications of the results are discussed in counselling contexts. Implications for future research are also discussed.
... Gratitude might be a crucial asset for emerging adults (Duprey et al., 2018;Zhang et al., 2018). Gratitude tends to promote well-being over the course of one's life and is favorably correlated with different facets of well-being, covering physical, social, and psychological well-being (Chopik et al., 2019;Emmons & Mishra, 2011). The literature suggests that more research is needed to gain a more comprehensive understanding of gratitude in the lives of emerging adults (Duprey et al., 2018). ...
Article
Gratitude can play a significant role in enhancing the well-being of emerging adults since it armors them from the cold waves of psychological distress associated with emerging adulthood. Therefore, this study explored the association between gratitude and the psychological well-being of emerging adults. Further, the study examined the process underlying the association between these concepts through the lens of spirituality. The study investigated proposed relationships on a sample of 413 emerging adults ranging from 18 to 25 years with a mean age of 21.27 (SD = 1.60). First, the study applied structural equation modeling to establish the validity of the model (measurement model validity), and then the model's hypothesized relationships were tested (structural model). The findings illustrated both gratitude and dimensions of spirituality share a positive and significant association with psychological well-being. Spirituality’s dimensions emerged as possible mediators in the association between gratitude and psychological well-being. These results lead to a deeper understanding of the relationship between gratitude and the psychological well-being of emerging adults, concluding that gratitude influences psychological well-being both directly (b = 0.34, p < .001) and indirectly (b = 0.20, p < .001) through spirituality. The study also addresses the theoretical and practical implications of the findings.
Article
Gratitude promotes prosocial behavior, but the developmental differences in the underlying motivation remain unclear. We investigated whether the effect of gratitude on prosocial behavior is driven by fairness or generosity motivations, and whether the underlying motivation differs by developmental stage. University students (Experiment 1) and elementary school children (Experiment 2) were assigned to either a gratitude or a neutral group. The former group recalled an event that elicited feelings of gratitude, while the latter group recalled a neutral event from their morning routine. Prosocial behavior was assessed using the three resource‐allocation tasks that can distinguish between fairness and generosity motivations. In these tasks, the participants allocated rewards to themselves and another individual. The results indicate that the effect of gratitude on prosocial behavior is driven by generosity motivation in university students (Experiment 1), while it is driven by fairness motivation in elementary school children (Experiment 2). These results reveal developmental differences in the underlying motivation for gratitude on prosocial behavior.
Article
The aim of this research is to examine the relationship between gratitude, mental well-being and self-compassion levels of the elderly residents in nursing home. In accordance with this aim what extent gratitude and self-compassion levels of the elderly that predicted the mental well-being was answer the question. Also, this study analyzed the relationship between the gratitude, mental well-being and self-compassion levels and gender, age and length residence in nursing home. This study used to quantitative method based relational scanning model. The research was contucted with 120 elderly residing at Bursa Metropolitan Municipality Nursing Home. The sample consisted of 22 women elderly and 98 men elderly. As a data collection tools, Gratitude Scale, WEMWB Scale, Self-Compassion Scale and Basic Personal Information Form were used in the study. As result, it was found that there are relationships between gratitude, mental well-being and self-compassion levels. In addition, it was found that gratitude and self-compassion levels predicted mental well-being and explained %33.5 of it. It was found that gratitude, mental well-being and self-compassion levels did not differ in terms of gender, age and duration of stay in nursing home.
Article
Predictive modeling was used to evaluate the associations between hope, resilience, happiness, and mental health in 449 middle and high school students. Model results indicated large effect sizes for middle school (R² = .28) and high school (R² = .36) participants, with hope and resilience tending to predict self‐reported mental health symptoms. These findings and their application to counseling practice are explained.
Article
Objectives : Having gratitude is associated with reduced social isolation and depression, which are risk factors for dementia. However, it is unknown whether gratitude is directly associated with cognitive function. This study aimed to determine associations between gratitude and cognitive function and to elucidate the underlying biological mechanism by testing the mediating role of brain regions among healthy older people. Methods : We used cross-sectional data from the 2017 Neuron to Environmental Impact across Generations (NEIGE) study of community-dwelling older adults aged ≥ 65 years (n = 478). Cognitive function was assessed using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Levels of gratitude were assessed using the two-items of Gratitude Questionnaire. Volumes of brain regions associated with emotional processing and social interaction were measured by magnetic resonance imaging. Linear regression models and structural equation models were used to examine associations between level of gratitude, brain volume, and cognitive function. Results : The mean gratitude score was 6.3 (SD=0.9) and the mean MMSE score was 27.1 (SD=2.5). Regression analysis showed that higher levels of gratitude were associated with better cognitive function (coefficient=0.25, 95% CI: 0.01, 0.49), adjusting for age, sex, education, marital status, and depressive symptoms. Higher levels of gratitude were associated with larger volumes of right amygdala and left fusiform gyrus. Structural equation model analysis showed that amygdala volumes mediated the association between gratitude and cognitive function. Conclusion : Higher levels of gratitude were positively associated with cognitive function, partially mediated through the amygdala, which is involved in processing emotion and memory.
Article
We used multiple regression analyses to explore ways that hope, resilience, and happiness influenced school climate among 380 Hispanic/Latinx students. The results suggested that hypothesized protective factors explained school climate to a greater degree among middle school participants ( R ² = .23) when compared to those in high school ( R ² = .13). Although hope positively influenced school climate for both groups, happiness and resilience were uniquely influential. We discuss considerations for classroom lessons and school-wide initiatives.
Article
This study examined the mediating effect of regulatory emotional self-efficacy and the moderating effect of meaning in life on the relationship between social anxiety and subjective well-being among Chinese college students. Nine hundred and eight Chinese students (Mage = 20.14, SD = 1.71; 49% males) completed self-reported questionnaires regarding social anxiety, regulatory emotional self-efficacy, meaning in life, and subjective well-being. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to determine the relation between social anxiety and subjective well-being and the moderated mediation model. The results revealed that regulatory emotional self-efficacy fully mediated the link between social anxiety and college students' subjective well-being. College students' meaning in life moderated the associations between social anxiety and college students' regulatory emotional self-efficacy and between regulatory emotional self-efficacy and subjective well-being. Particularly, the link between social anxiety and regulatory emotional self-efficacy was only significant for those with lower meaning in life. The association between regulatory emotional self-efficacy and subjective well-being was more robust for those with higher meaning in life. This study identified the critical factors associated with subjective well-being; it supplies empirical support for existing theories and provides practical implications for interventions aiming to improve Chinese college students' subjective well-being.
Article
How soldiers adapt to and change in response to the deployment experience has received a great deal of attention. What predicts which soldiers are resilient and which soldiers decline in character strengths across the deployment transition? We examined this question in two analyses drawing from the same data source of soldiers deploying for the first time (Analysis 1: N = 179,026; Analysis 2: N = 85,285; M age = 24.6–24.7 years old, SD = 4.87; 66.5–66.9% White). Specifically, we examined how individual (e.g. sociodemographic, military) and deployment (e.g. stressful experiences) characteristics predict character development across the deployment cycle. Character strengths were assessed once before and up to three times after soldiers’ return from deployment. Reproducing previous work, we found evidence for two classes of change—a resilient class (“stable high”) and a recovery class (“persistent low”). The strongest predictor of high, resilient character strength levels was better self-rated health at baseline. The findings are discussed in the context of the mechanisms that drive character development, evidence for post-traumatic growth, and practical implications for the U.S. Army.
Article
Es gibt Hinweise darauf, dass sich ältere Klienten in der psychotherapeutischen Beziehung als besonders dankbar erweisen. Dies hat Implikationen für den therapeutischen Prozess und das Therapieergebnis. Aus psychologischer Perspektive wird Dankbarkeit als konkrete Emotion (state) und überdauernde Lebenshaltung (trait) analysiert. Dann werden Theorien und empirische Befunde zur Bedeutung von Dankbarkeit im Leben älterer Menschen vorgestellt. Als nächstes wird gefragt, welche Bedeutung Dankbarkeit angesichts von chronischen körperlichen und depressiven Erkrankungen im Alter überhaupt haben kann. Für die konkrete psychotherapeutische Arbeit werden Übungen zur Förderung von Dankbarkeit vorgestellt. In der therapeutischen Beziehung stellt die Äußerung von Dankbarkeit eine Herausforderung für die Nähe-Distanz-Regulation des Therapeuten dar. Unter Berücksichtigung dieser potenziellen »Nebenwirkungen« wird die besondere Bedeutung von Dankbarkeit für die sozioemotionale Situation und die Psychotherapie von älteren Menschen diskutiert.
Article
Full-text available
The current study examined age-related psychometrics and differences in the measurement, mean-levels, variances, and correlations of gratitude and future time perspective across adulthood using data from a cross-sectional survey in a representative Swiss sample (N = 1684, age range: 19–98 years). Local structural equation modeling was used to investigate these measurement parameters based on age as a continuous variable instead of using artificial age groupings. After having established a measurement model with three interrelated factors of gratitude, opportunities and time, results indicate that the measurement model demonstrates at least metric measurement invariance for all factors. Gratitude mean-levels and correlations with future time perspective remained stable across the examined age range. We did find a strong decline in perceived remaining opportunities and time across age, and an increase in the variance of these constructs. This suggests that people generally perceive time and opportunities as more limited with increasing age, but that the interindividual differences in this perception are particularly large in old age.
Chapter
The prospect that people can be resilient to—or even grow from—a stressful experience is an alluring possibility—especially so for soldiers and veterans. Some have proposed that deploying and military experiences provide soldiers with enduring mental resources and toughness that are protective for the rest of their lives. However, definitive evidence for growth and resilience among military personnel has proved elusive. Part of the unknowns about growth and resilience can be attributable to how people think about and model questions related to growth and resilience. In this chapter, the author provides two empirical examples—changes in depressive symptoms among veterans and changes in character strengths among deploying soldiers—to illustrate how different conceptualizations, methods, and analyses can dramatically change the inferences we make about growth and resilience. The demonstrations provide an increased understanding about methodological flexibility in the study of growth and resilience and some expectations about how and why individuals might change in response to adversity.
Article
Full-text available
Objective To understand participation and attrition phenomena variability in European cohorts of individuals born preterm through in-depth exploration of the interplay of situational elements involved. Study Design and Setting Multi-situated qualitative design, using focus groups, semi-structured interviews and collaborative visual methodology with a purposive sample of adults born preterm, parents and professionals (N=124) from eight cohorts in seven European countries. Results Most cohort participants were motivated by altruism/solidarity and gratitude/sense of duty to reciprocate (only absent in adults aged 19-21), followed by expectation of direct benefit to one's health and knowledge amongst participating adults. Common deterrents were perceived failure in reciprocity as in insufficient/inadequate interaction and information sharing, and postal questionnaires. Combining multipurpose, flexible strategies for contact and assessment, reminders, face-to-face and shorter periodicity and not simply adding retention strategies or financial incentives favoured participation. Professionals’ main challenges entailed resources, funding and, European societal changes related to communication and geopolitical environment. Conclusion Retention would benefit from tailoring inclusive strategies throughout the cohorts’ life cycle and consistent promotion of reciprocal altruistic research goals. Investing in regular interaction, flexibility in procedures, participant involvement and return of results can help mitigate attrition as well as considering mothers as main facilitators to participating children and impaired adults.
Article
Socioemotional selectivity theory (SST) is a theory of life-span development grounded in the uniquely human ability to monitor time. SST maintains that the approach of endings—whether due to aging or other endings such as geographic relocations and severe illness—elicits motivational changes in which emotionally meaningful goals are prioritized over exploration. Research guided by SST has informed preferences, social networks, and emotional experience and led to the discovery of the positivity effect in cognitive processing. This article, based on my 2015 Robert W. Kleemeier Award Lecture, describes the development of SST and its related program of empirical research.
Article
Full-text available
In older adults, subjective cognitive decline (SCD) may progress to an early stage of dementia. Yet, its association with subjective daily functional difficulties in aging is less well studied by experiences of mentally unhealthy days (MUDs). Employing a cross-sectional design approach, we analyzed the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System dataset on 7429 older adults with SCD (aged 65 to >80, 45% males, 55% females) to explore SCD in instrumental daily activities of living (SCD-IADLs) and healthcare access mediation by MUDs and moderated mediation by age cohort, controlling gender and education. The bias-corrected percentile bootstrap with 5000 samplings revealed that MUDs partially mediate the relationship between SCD-IADLs and healthcare access, with a 28.2% mediating effect. Age cohort moderated the relationship between healthcare access and MUDs, MUDs and SCD-IADLs. Specifically, the predictive effects from healthcare access to MUDs and MUDs to SCD-IADLs were more profound in the 70–74 age cohort.
Article
Full-text available
This article makes a plea for experimental designs in the field of adult development and aging using an approach to research inspired by the work of Egon Brunswik. Our recommendations are intended to complement correlational approaches and to enhance the testing of explanatory mechanisms. Our arguments are predicated on the fact that the field of adult development and aging faces particular methodological challenges stemming from the investigation of individual differences approached with age group comparison designs. Many studies on adult development and aging use extreme-group comparisons, contrasting young and older adults, although such comparisons can lead to the overestimation of age-related effects. Moreover, age group membership is used as a proxy variable for psychological processes leading to the observed age-related differences. The inherent correlational design of such age group comparisons can only approximate a test of the underlying psychological processes causing the differences between the groups. We consider these problems and potential solutions to them involving a Brunswikian approach to experimental design in research on adult development and aging, and we discuss implications for theory-predicated research in other subfields of developmental science with similar methodological issues.
Article
Full-text available
Character strengths are positive, morally valued traits of personality. This study aims at assessing the relationship between character strengths and subjective well-being (i.e., life satisfaction, positive and negative affect) in a representative sample of German-speaking adults living in Switzerland (N = 945). We further test whether this relationship is consistent at different stages in life. Results showed that hope, zest, love, social intelligence and perseverance yielded the highest positive correlations with life satisfaction. Hope, zest, humor, gratitude and love presented the highest positive correlations with positive affect. Hope, humor, zest, honesty, and open-mindedness had the highest negative correlations with negative affect. When examining the relationship between strengths and well-being across age groups, in general, hope, zest and humor consistently yielded the highest correlations with well-being. Additionally, in the 27-36 years group, strengths that promote commitment and affiliation (i.e., kindness and honesty) were among the first five positions in the ranking of the relationship between strengths and well-being. In the 37-46 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that promote the maintenance of areas such as family and work (i.e., love, leadership) were among the first five positions in the ranking. Finally, in the 47-57 years group, in addition to hope, zest and humor, strengths that facilitate integration and a vital involvement with the environment (i.e., gratitude, love of learning) were among the first five positions in the ranking. This study partially supports previous findings with less representative samples on the association between character strengths and well-being, and sheds light on the relative importance of some strengths over others for well-being across the life span.
Article
Full-text available
Feelings of gratitude and awe facilitate perceptions and cognitions that go beyond the focus of illness and include positive aspects of one's personal and interpersonal reality, even in the face of disease. We intended to measure feelings of gratitude, awe, and experiences of beauty in life among patients with multiple sclerosis and psychiatric disorders, particularly with respect to their engagement in specific spiritual/religious practices and their life satisfaction. We conducted a cross-sectional survey with standardized questionnaires to measure engagement in various spiritual practices (SpREUK-P) and their relation to experiences of Gratitude, Awe and Beauty in Life and life satisfaction (BMLSS-10). In total, 461 individuals (41 +/- 13 years; 68% women) with multiple sclerosis (46%) and depressive (22%) or other psychiatric disorders (32%) participated. Among participants, 23% never, 43% rarely, 24% often, and 10% frequently experienced Gratitude. In contrast, 41% never, 37% rarely, 17% often, and 6% frequently experienced Awe. Beauty in Life was never experienced by 8% of the sample, and 28% rarely, 46% often, and 18% frequently experienced it. Gratitude (F = 9.2; p = .003) and Beauty in Life (F = 6.0; p = .015) were experienced significantly more often by women than men. However, the experience of Awe did not differ between women and men (F = 2.2; n.s.). In contrast to our hypothesis, Gratitude/Awe cannot explain any relevant variance in patients' life satisfaction (R2 = .04). Regression analyses (R2 = .42) revealed that Gratitude/Awe can be predicted best by a person's engagement in religious practices, followed by other forms of spiritual practices and life satisfaction. Female gender was a weak predictor and underlying disease showed no effect. Gratitude/Awe could be regarded as a life orientation towards noticing and appreciating the positive in life - despite the symptoms of disease. Positive spirituality/religiosity seems to be a source of gratitude and appreciation in life, whereas patients with neither spiritual nor religious sentiments (R-S-) seem to have a lower awareness for these feelings.
Article
Full-text available
We introduce a new method, differential language analysis (DLA), for studying human development in which computational linguistics are used to analyze the big data available through online social media in light of psychological theory. Our open vocabulary DLA approach finds words, phrases, and topics that distinguish groups of people based on 1 or more characteristics. Using a data set of over 70,000 Facebook users, we identify how word and topic use vary as a function of age and compile cohort specific words and phrases into visual summaries that are face valid and intuitively meaningful. We demonstrate how this methodology can be used to test developmental hypotheses, using the aging positivity effect (Carstensen & Mikels, 2005) as an example. While in this study we focused primarily on common trends across age-related cohorts, the same methodology can be used to explore heterogeneity within developmental stages or to explore other characteristics that differentiate groups of people. Our comprehensive list of words and topics is available on our web site for deeper exploration by the research community. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of these studies was to develop a valid measure of trait gratitude, and to evaluate the relationship of gratitude to subjective well-being (SWB). Four studies were conducted evaluating the reliability and validity of the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (GRAT), a measure of dispositional gratitude. This measure was shown to have good internal consistency and temporal stability. The GRAT was shown to relate positively to various measures of SWB. In two experiments, it was shown that grateful thinking improved mood, and results also supported the predictive validity of the GRAT. These studies support the theory that gratitude is an affective trait important to SWB.
Article
Full-text available
McCullough, Kilpatrick, Emmons, and Larson (2001) posited that gratitude prompts individuals to behave prosocially. However, research supporting the prosocial effect of gratitude has relied on scenario and self-report methodology. To address limitations of previous research, this experiment utilised a laboratory induction of gratitude, a method that is potentially more covert than scenarios and that elicits actual grateful emotion. Prosocial responses to gratitude—operationalised as the distribution of resources to another—were paired with a self-report measure of gratitude to test the prosocial effect of gratitude. To investigate positive mood as an alternative explanation, this experiment compared responses of individuals receiving a favour to responses of individuals receiving a positive outcome by chance. A total of 40 participants were randomly assigned to either a Favour or Chance condition. Participants receiving a favour helped more and reported more gratitude compared to participants in the Chance condition.
Article
Full-text available
The "positivity effect" refers to an age-related trend that favors positive over negative stimuli in cognitive processing. Relative to their younger counterparts, older people attend to and remember more positive than negative information. Since the effect was initially identified and the conceptual basis articulated (Mather and Carstensen, 2005) scores of independent replications and related findings have appeared in the literature. Over the same period, a number of investigations have failed to observe age differences in the cognitive processing of emotional material. When findings are considered in theoretical context, a reliable pattern of evidence emerges that helps to refine conceptual tenets. In this article we articulate the operational definition and theoretical foundations of the positivity effect and review the empirical evidence based on studies of visual attention, memory, decision making, and neural activation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions with emphasis on the conditions where a focus on positive information may benefit and/or impair cognitive performance in older people.
Article
Full-text available
Gratitude is conceptualized as a moral affect that is analogous to other moral emotions such as empathy and guilt. Gratitude has 3 functions that can be conceptualized as morally relevant: (a) a moral barometer function (i.e., it is a response to the perception that one has been the beneficiary of another person's moral actions); (b) a moral motive function (i.e., it motivates the grateful person to behave prosocially toward the benefactor and other people); and (c) a moral reinforcer function (i.e., when expressed, it encourages benefactors to behave morally in the future). The personality and social factors that are associated with gratitude are also consistent with a conceptualization of gratitude as an affect that is relevant to people's cognitions and behaviors in the moral domain.
Article
Full-text available
Far more attention has been paid to emotion regulation in childhood than in adulthood and old age. However, a growing body of empirical research suggests that the emotion domain is largely spared from deleterious processes associated with aging and points instead to developmental gains in later life. By applying tenets from socioemotional selectivity theory, we attempt to explain the observed gains in terms of motivation. We argue that age is associated with increasing motivation to derive emotional meaning from life and decreasing motivation to expand one's horizons. These changes lead to age differences in social and environmental choices (consistent with antecedent emotion regulation), coping (consistent with response-focused regulation), and cognitive processing of positive and negative information (consistent with goal-directed attention and memory). Broader implications for life-span development are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
This multimethod series of studies merges the literatures on gratitude and risk regulation to test a new process model of gratitude and relationship maintenance. We develop a measure of appreciation in relationships and use cross-sectional, daily experience, observational, and longitudinal methods to test our model. Across studies, we show that people who feel more appreciated by their romantic partners report being more appreciative of their partners. In turn, people who are more appreciative of their partners report being more responsive to their partners' needs (Study 1), and are more committed and more likely to remain in their relationships over time (Study 2). Appreciative partners are also rated by outside observers as relatively more responsive and committed during dyadic interactions in the laboratory, and these behavioral displays are one way in which appreciation is transmitted from one partner to the other (Study 3). These findings provide evidence that gratitude is important for the successful maintenance of intimate bonds.
Article
Full-text available
Since the concept of crowd sourcing is relatively new, many potential participants have questions about the AMT marketplace. For example, a common set of questions that pop up in an 'introduction to crowd sourcing and AMT' session are the following: What type of tasks can be completed in the marketplace? How much does it cost? How fast can I get results back? How big is the AMT marketplace? The answers for these questions remain largely anecdotal and based on personal observations and experiences. To understand better what types of tasks are being completed today using crowd sourcing techniques, we started collecting data about the AMT marketplace. We present a preliminary analysis of the dataset and provide directions for interesting future research.
Article
Full-text available
The effect of large and small favors on gratitude was tested using a behavioral measure. Participants were 149 undergraduates (120 female, 29 male). Half received raffle tickets for a US$100 prize, and half received tickets for a US$10 prize. Some received tickets from another (fictitious) student, and others received tickets by chance. Participants receiving a favor subsequently distributed more tickets to the other student; participants receiving a more valuable favor also distributed more (ps < 0.05). Self-reported grateful motivation predicted distribution better than did indebtedness. Grateful motivation mediated the relationship between favor and distribution (p < 0.05). Results provide validity for a behavioral measure of gratitude, tentatively support favor value as a determinant of gratitude, and further differentiate between gratitude and indebtedness.
Article
Full-text available
Does personality change across the entire life course, and are those changes due to intrinsic maturation or major life experiences? This longitudinal study investigated changes in the mean levels and rank order of the Big Five personality traits in a heterogeneous sample of 14,718 Germans across all of adulthood. Latent change and latent moderated regression models provided 4 main findings: First, age had a complex curvilinear influence on mean levels of personality. Second, the rank-order stability of Emotional Stability, Extraversion, Openness, and Agreeableness all followed an inverted U-shaped function, reaching a peak between the ages of 40 and 60 and decreasing afterward, whereas Conscientiousness showed a continuously increasing rank-order stability across adulthood. Third, personality predicted the occurrence of several objective major life events (selection effects) and changed in reaction to experiencing these events (socialization effects), suggesting that personality can change due to factors other than intrinsic maturation. Fourth, when events were clustered according to their valence, as is commonly done, effects of the environment on changes in personality were either overlooked or overgeneralized. In sum, our analyses show that personality changes throughout the life span, but with more pronounced changes in young and old ages, and that this change is partly attributable to social demands and experiences.
Article
Full-text available
Before the developmental trajectory, outcomes, and related interventions of gratitude can be accurately and confidently studied among the youth, researchers must ensure that they have psychometrically sound measures of gratitude that are suitable for this population. Thus, considering that no known scales were specifically designed to measure gratitude in youth, this study aimed to answer an important question: Are the existing gratitude scales used with adults valid for use with youth? The present study is an empirical investigation, based on a large youth sample (N = 1,405) with ages ranging from 10 to 19 years old, of the psychometric properties of scores of the Gratitude Questionnaire-6 (GQ-6; M. E. McCullough, R. A. Emmons, & J.-A. Tsang, 2002), the Gratitude Adjective Checklist (GAC; M. E. McCullough, R. A. Emmons, & J.-A. Tsang, 2002), and the Gratitude Resentment and Appreciation Test (GRAT)-short form (M. Thomas & P. Watkins, 2003). Single-group and multiple-group confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the factor structures of these gratitude scales resemble those found with adults and were invariant across age groups. Scores of all three gratitude scales revealed acceptable internal consistency estimates (i.e., >.70) across age groups. Results showed that whereas scores of all three gratitude scales were positively correlated with each other for 14- to 19-year-olds, GRAT-short form scores tended to display relatively low correlations with scores of the other two measures for younger children (10-13 years old). Furthermore, the nomological network analysis showed that scores of all three gratitude scales were positively correlated with positive affect and life satisfaction scores across the age groups. The relationships with negative affect and depression scores, however, seemed dependent on the child's age. Pending results from subsequent research recommendations for researchers interested in studying gratitude in youth are offered.
Article
The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
Article
In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies 1 and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
Article
Retirement can be difficult, and experiences vary greatly. Although health, financial status, and family responsibilities have been associated with retirement adjustment, individual psychosocial characteristics may also play a role. Moreover, relatively little is known about the impact of perceived “job lock”—the belief that retirement is impossible due to financial or health constraints—and its relationship with later retirement adjustment. The current study addresses these limitations in the literature by examining the retirement transition over 4 years in a large sample of United States adults, with a particular focus on the ways in which personality may affect this transition. Data collected at baseline (2008/2010) and again 4 years later (2012/2014) included the Big Five personality traits, preretirement job lock, self-rated health, and multiple indicators of postretirement well-being, such as global and experienced well-being (anchored within activities in a single day). Participants were drawn from the Health and Retirement Study (HRS; N = 716; Mage = 61.9 at baseline). Results indicated that experienced positive affect was the only postretirement well-being outcome with a significant association with job lock, although only for those with low Conscientiousness. Findings also suggest that preretirement personality and subjective health play an important role for postretirement well-being. Thus, the current study highlights the importance for researchers and practitioners to consider both preretirement personality and health when evaluating individuals’ management of the retirement transition.
Article
Purpose of the Study: Biased judgments about others can operate both within and outside of our conscious awareness. However, little attention has been paid to how implicit and explicit attitudes differ across the life span, particularly with respect to age bias. In the current study, we examined age differences in implicit and explicit attitudes towards older individuals. Design and Method: Participants (N = 704,151) ranging from age 15 to 94 completed the Implicit Association Test and explicit self-report measures of bias against older adults. The associations between age bias and several demographic characteristics (e.g., gender, education) were also examined. Results: A preference for younger people was found among participants of all ages; however, implicit and explicit attitudes showed divergent associations with age. Implicit preference for younger people was highest among older adults; explicit preference for younger people was lowest among older adults. Implications: Examining age differences in implicit and explicit attitudes sheds light into the development and complexities of aging perceptions in different age groups. The current study’s findings are discussed in the context of applications to and implications of reducing prejudice toward older adults.
Article
Research on individual differences in attachment-and their links to emotion, cognition, and behavior in close relationships-has proliferated over the last several decades. However, the majority of this research has focused on children and young adults. Little is known about mean-level changes in attachment orientation beyond early life, in part due to a dearth of longitudinal data on attachment across the life span. The current study used a Q-Sort-based measure of attachment to examine mean-level changes in attachment orientation from age 13 to 72 using data from the Block and Block Longitudinal Study, the Intergenerational Studies, and the Radcliffe College Class of 1964 Sample (total N = 628). Multilevel modeling was employed to estimate growth curve trajectories across the combined samples. We found that attachment anxiety declined on average with age, particularly during middle age and older adulthood. Attachment avoidance decreased in a linear fashion across the life span. Being in a relationship predicted lower levels of anxiety and avoidance across adulthood. Men were higher in attachment avoidance at each point in the life span. Taken together, these findings provide much-needed insight into how attachment orientations change over long stretches of time. We conclude with a discussion about the challenges of studying attachment dynamics across the life course and across specific transitions. (PsycINFO Database Record
Article
Three studies using samples of people in romantic relationships were conducted to create a new individual difference measure of partner strengths in couples. The 2 perceptions of partner strengths included (1) appreciation of their use and effectiveness and (2) recognition of costs associated with their use. Factor analyses supported 2-factors and we found that greater appreciation of partner strengths predicted greater relationship satisfaction, commitment, investment, intimacy, self-expansion, and support for goal pursuit; recognizing significant costs with partner strengths was inversely related to several outcomes. Using a 1-week daily diary, we found that appreciation of partner strength use and recognition of costs associated with these strengths predicted daily relationship satisfaction and whether basic psychological needs were met within the relationship. The explanatory power of partner strength perceptions could not be explained by the actual character strengths or Big Five personality traits of partners, support for positive self-disclosures (capitalization), or gratitude for relationship partners. Finally, we found that the relational consequences of partner strength perceptions were not just "in the head" of the perceiver-influencing partner relational outcomes. This research program provides evidence for the use of a new measure of how strengths are perceived to better understand romantic couples and aspirational targets in clinical interventions. (PsycINFO Database Record
Article
Correlated change in personality is essential to understanding change and development. It refers to the question of whether and to what degree changes in personality are interrelated over time within and between individuals. Compared to the longstanding literature on personality development, relatively less research has focused on correlated change in personality. The main goal of this paper is thus to discuss the potential of this concept for the field of personality development. First, we define correlated change and propose a categorization framework with multiple dimensions. Second, we discuss several theoretical concepts of correlated change that help understand the patterns, causes, and mechanisms underlying correlated change in personality. Third, we briefly describe several statistical approaches to modeling correlated change. Fourth, we summarize previous research on correlated change in personality. We focus our research on (a) correlated change within the Big Five personality traits, and (b) between the Big Five personality traits and three domains of life. Finally, we conclude by discussing challenges and future directions of the concept for the field of personality development.
Article
We outline the need to, and provide a guide on how to, conduct a meta-analysis on one's own studies within a manuscript. Although conducting a “mini meta” within one's manuscript has been argued for in the past, this practice is still relatively rare and adoption is slow. We believe two deterrents are responsible. First, researchers may not think that it is legitimate to do a meta-analysis on a small number of studies. Second, researchers may think a meta-analysis is too complicated to do without expert knowledge or guidance. We dispel these two misconceptions by (1) offering arguments on why researchers should be encouraged to do mini metas, (2) citing previous articles that have conducted such analyses to good effect, and (3) providing a user-friendly guide on calculating some meta-analytic procedures that are appropriate when there are only a few studies. We provide formulas for calculating effect sizes and converting effect sizes from one metric to another (e.g., from Cohen's d to r), as well as annotated Excel spreadsheets and a step-by-step guide on how to conduct a simple meta-analysis. A series of related studies can be strengthened and better understood if accompanied by a mini meta-analysis.
Article
Gratitude, like other positive emotions, has inspired many theological and philosophical writings, but it has inspired very little vigorous, empirical research. In an effort to remedy this oversight, this book brings together prominent scientists from various disciplines to examine what has become known as the most-neglected emotion. The volume begins with the historical, philosophical, and theoretical foundations of gratitude, and then presents the current research perspectives from social, personality, and developmental psychology, as well as from primatology, anthropology, and biology. The volume also includes a comprehensive, annotated bibliography of research on gratitude. This work contributes a great deal to the growing positive psychology initiative and to the scientific investigation of positive human emotions. It will be an invaluable resource for researchers and students in social, personality, developmental, clinical, and health psychology, as well as to sociologists and cultural anthropologists.
Article
Evidence indicates that dispositional gratitude may improve romantic relationships by reinforcing positive emotions between partners and by increasing awareness of affective needs, such as receiving emotional support, nurturance, and reassurance. However, little research has investigated the influence of gratitude on relationships characterized by violence. In the present study, participants (N = 421) completed a cross-sectional survey of experiences with dating violence, dispositional gratitude, and affective need. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Among individuals with lower rates of dispositional gratitude, higher levels of affective need were associated with lower frequency of dating violence victimization. However, among individuals with higher rates of dispositional gratitude, there was no evidence to suggest an association between affective need and frequency of victimization. These preliminary findings compel further investigation of how positive processes impact the perceived qualities of negative romantic relationships.
Article
In this chapter, we sought to strengthen the science of gratitude. We suggest effective approaches for studying gratitude, present a theoretical framework for researching gratitude, review recent gratitude research, and suggest directions and questions for future research, all in an attempt to encourage research on this important virtue. After presenting a brief historical background of gratitude, we define state and trait gratitude and describe several useful measurement tools. We review research that has examined traits that are associated with gratitude and show that grateful individuals have many salutary traits. We then overview research strategies that have been used to investigate gratitude and pay particular attention to successful experimental manipulations of gratitude. A number of studies have investigated the advantages of gratitude. Not only is gratitude strongly associated with happiness, but experimental studies have shown that gratitude actually enhances happiness. We propose several mechanisms whereby gratitude might enhance happiness. Gratitude may support happiness through enhancing enjoyment of benefits, relationships, self-esteem, and coping ability. Grateful processing of pleasant events may also enhance the accessibility of pleasant memories. Conversely, gratitude may support happiness by inhibiting envy and preventing depression. We conclude by presenting some concerns and prospects for the future of gratitude research. Continued understanding of this important emotion and virtue will do much to advance our understanding of the critical components of the good life.
Article
A large international sample was used to test whether hedonia (the experience of positive emotional states and satisfaction of desires) and eudaimonia (the presence of meaning and development of one's potentials) represent 1 overarching well-being construct or 2 related dimensions. A latent correlation of .96 presents negligible evidence for the discriminant validity between Diener's (1984) subjective well-being model of hedonia and Ryff's (1989) psychological well-being model of eudaimonia. When compared with known correlates of well-being (e.g., curiosity, gratitude), eudaimonia and hedonia showed very similar relationships, save goal-directed will and ways (i.e., hope), a meaning orientation to happiness, and grit. Identical analyses in subsamples of 7 geographical world regions revealed similar results around the globe. A single overarching construct more accurately reflects hedonia and eudaimonia when measured as self-reported subjective and psychological well-being. Nevertheless, measures of eudaimonia may contain aspects of meaningful goal-directedness unique from hedonia. (PsycINFO Database Record
Article
Although the study of midlife has increased somewhat over the last decade, middle-aged adults are often omitted from research on adult development and aging. Possible reasons for the lack of attention to middle age are considered and recommendations for ways to increase research on midlife are suggested to generate new knowledge and to dispel the myths. Findings related to the happiness curve and the midlife crisis are discussed in the context of addressing misconceptions. A model of midlife as a pivotal period in the life course at the intersection of growth and decline is presented. Closing the research gap in the middle of the life course will help to further our understanding of this understudied age period. The findings can inform interventions to promote well-being among the middle-aged with concomitant benefits for the welfare of those younger and older who depend on them.
Article
Little is known about how optimism differs by age and changes over time, particularly among older adults. Even less is known about how changes in optimism are related to changes in physical health. We examined age differences and longitudinal changes in optimism in 9,790 older adults over a 4-year period. We found an inverted U-shaped pattern between optimism and age both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, such that optimism generally increased in older adults before decreasing. Increases in optimism over a 4-year period were associated with improvements in self-rated health and fewer chronic illnesses over the same time frame. The findings from the current study are consistent with changes in emotion regulation strategies employed by older adults and age-related changes in well-being.
Article
This is my review of the textbook, not the textbook itself. ResearchGate keeps crediting me with citations to the textbook.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine the potential universality of age differences in romantic attachment. Relatively few studies have investigated attachment processes beyond young adulthood and very little is known about age differences in romantic attachment orientations in geographic regions outside North America. We examined attachment anxiety and avoidance among 90,904 Internet respondents in 81 countries. Attachment anxiety was highest among younger adults and lowest in middle-aged and older adults. Attachment avoidance was lowest among younger adults and highest in middle age and older adults. Further, the patterns of age differences were universal across individualistic and collectivistic regions. Findings are discussed in the context of normative social roles and the universality of their influence on life span personality development.
Article
In a three-wave, year-long, large-sample dataset (N = 755), 10 candidate "personality strengths" (Grit, Gratitude, Curiosity, Savoring, Control Beliefs, Meaning in Life-Presence, Strengths Use, and Engagement, Pleasure, and Meaning-Based Orientations Toward Happiness) were compared as predictors of 6-month increases in goal attainment, and as moderators of goal attainment effects upon boosted subjective well-being (SWB). Seeking internal replication, we tested our models twice, both during T1-T2 and during T2-T3. We also examined whether any Personality × Attainment moderator effects upon change in SWB at T2 still persisted at T3. Grit was the only candidate strength that predicted increased goal attainment from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3, and Curiosity was the only candidate strength that moderated attainment effects on well-being from T1 to T2 and from T2 to T3. T2 Goal attainment effects on SWB were best sustained at T3 when Meaning Orientation increased from T1 to T2. Implications for identifying keystone constructs in personality (and positive) psychology are discussed. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.