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Patterns of Cataract in Patients Reporting to Christian Hospital, Taxila, Pakistan

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Volume 1- Issue 6 : 2017
1628
Research Article Open Access
Patterns of Cataract in Patients Reporting to Christian
Hospital, Taxila, Pakistan
Arnold Rafiq1 and Noureen Latif2*
1Hospital pharmacist at Christian Hospital, Taxila, Pakistan
2Lecturer at Sarhad University, Islamabad campus, Pakistan
Received: October 25, 2017; Published: November 07, 2017
*Corresponding author: Noureen latif, Lecturer at Sarhad University, Islamabad campus, Pakistan
ISSN: 2574-1241
DOI: 10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000502
Noureen latif. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res
Introduction
Cataract is a haziness (clouding) of the eye lens that leads to a
decrease or in severe condition loss of eye vision. One or both of the
eyes can be affected by this condition. It does not develop at once
rather it grows and develops slowly. Symptoms of this condition
may be:
a. fading of colors they may become discolored if prolonged
 
c. Corona around the light,
d. Trouble while sighting bright lights
 

result in trouble driving, book reading, perceiving or recognizing

33% of the vision impairment is the results of the cataract

i. Aging
ii. Trauma or radiation exposure,
iii. can be present at birth,
 

A. Diabetes,
B. Hypertension,
C. Obesity,
D. Smoking,
E. Use of corticosteroids for long time,
Cite this article: Arnold R, Noureen L. Patterns of Cataract in Patients Reporting to Christian Hospital, Taxila, Pakistan. Biomed J Sci & Tech
Res 1(6)- 2017. BJSTR. MS.ID.000502. DOI : 10.26717/BJSTR.2017.01.000502
Abstract
Introduction: Cataract is cause of blindness in about 5% of the population in America and twenty million throughout the world. There are
many reasons behind it and they can be controlled at the early age to prevent blindness at the old age.
Objectives: The main purpose of this dissertation was to study patterns of cataract in patients reporting to Christian Hospital, Taxila.
Methodology: The data was collected through self-designed questionnaire.
Results: Patients reporting to Christian Hospital, Taxila who were diagnosed cataract were approached and asked questions about cataract,

due to poor vision in left eye. 7.5% of the respondents had poor vision of both eyes. 59.17% of the respondents had history of hypertension,




Conclusion: In the present study most of the respondents were suffering from age related cataract. Nuclear cataract was more prevalent
among th
Keywords: Patterns; Cataract; Patient; Smoking
Submission Link: http://biomedres.us/submit-manuscript.php
Noureen latif. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res Volume 1- Issue 6 : 2017
1629
F. Use of statins (reduce cholesterol).
 
H. Ulttraviolet radiation,
I. Previous eye surgery,
J. Hormone replacement therapy,
K. Alcohol consumption,
L. Prolonged myopia,
M. Inherited.
Cataract is cause of blindness in about 5% of the population in
America and twenty million throughout the world. In developing
       
       
becomes tough to see in low light. It creates ring around dark lights.
It may also become impressive to see. It creates a yellow or brown
distort around anything that is viewed. It causes colors to become
bleached. Cataract does not spread from one eye to another eye.
The destructive eyesight evolves slowly. It takes time. Cataract
becomes worse and worse if it is not treated. The severity of
cataracts increases. It is rose complications on reading and writing.
Surgery is wanted to eradicate the lens that is affected. Surgery also
altered the affected lens. Cataract appears usually in the individuals
of older age. It is very common in older individuals. Because of
cataract, large numbers of people are facing blindness. It is at global

accessibility of surgery of cataract as spread more broadly. This is
in the developing countries. It has been proposed that the number
of blindness due to cataract has been reached more than 39 million

It will be in the year 2025. This has been proposed by
the recognizing of involvements that delay the evolvement or
          

       
causes many troubles and complications in the treatment of
cataract blindness. It has been proposed that cataract has become
the third leading cause of blindness. It has become in the United
           
The preponderance of blindness that occurred due to cataract was
more than 13 per 100,000. The incidence of blindness occurred due
to cataract was more than 1.5 per 100,000. It has been accounted

occurred. It has been recorded that cataract reduced since 1970
  
leading cause of blindness is cataract due to non-operated age
          
    


90% for people age from 75 to 85. Age related cataract is ranged
    
            
more than 60% in the age of 85 in United Kingdom. People with age
65 are suffering from cataracts. Its rate is 20%. It is 60% in the age
      
of cataract becoming doubles in Australia. It is becoming double
 
with age 90 is facing cataract. Same incidence and preponderance

the people are living long age so the preponderance of cataract is
on the peak. It has become usual in these days. The record has been
proposed freshly that cataracts appeared in more than 21 million
   
Data of incidence are accessible for cataract that is age related

         
for lens opacities and for cataract for 5 years. The 5-year incidence
records for ages, for lens opacities are as followed:
a. Age 55 was 10%,
b. Age 60 was 16%,
c. Age 65 was 23%,
d. Age 70 was 31%,
 
The 5-year incidence records for ages, for cataract, the
corresponding incidence records were 1, 2, 5, 9, and 15% . These
records show that the lens opacities are not revocable. They also
shows that the lens opacities not attended by a differential mortality.
The incidence rate reached to more than 80% for persons. The age

risk factor for age related cataracts. It has been proposed that the
preponderance of cataract blindness increased. It has been also


  
many studies proposes a minor excess risk of cataract for women
compared with men. An extensive risk of cortical cataract may
        
It has been proposed that cortical and nuclear cataracts are more
usually commence in blacks than whites. It has been proposed that
cataracts are the leading cause of blindness in blacks.
It has been studied that an extensive preponderance of cataract
in tropical regions compared with non tropical regions are complex

         
almost threefold reach in the preponderance of cataract at a level
of 185m compared with locations at more than 1,000m. In this
study, due to tall neighboring mountains, extensive ascensions had
less sunlight than lower ascensions. There was a strong positive
combination between increasing hours of sunlight exposure and
         
vision at global level. Cataracts particularly affect populations
in evolving countries. They cause blindness. The study has been
Submission Link: http://biomedres.us/submit-manuscript.php
Noureen latif. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res Volume 1- Issue 6 : 2017
1630
expressed in India that the preponderance of cataracts is three times
greater than in the United States. The preponderance rate is 82% of
         

from age 75 to 83 years. It has been recorded that the cataract will
increase in the evolving countries. The population increases will be
the extensive. The people with the age 65 are increasing day by day.
Due to the increase of this day by day, the incidence of cataract will

Materials and Methods
It was a cross-sectional descriptive study done in Christian
         

collect the medical history of the patients. Study population was
the patients reporting to Christian Hospital, Taxila. Convenient
sampling technique was used to data collection. A self structured
questionnaire was used as a data collection tool. Study duration was
2 months and sample size was n=120. A pilot study was done on 12
patients to assess the language and accuracy of the questionnaire.

was designed. After collecting the data, all the variables were
coded and data was entered in to SPSS version 20 software and
was analyzed for the result. An informed written consent was
         
the questionnaire. A permission letter from the Christian Hospital,
Taxila was taken before starting the study to collect data.
Results
Figure 1: Type of cataract diagnosed.
Table 1: Medical history of the respondents.
Sr. History of Yes (%) No (%)
1 Hypertension 71 (59.2) 
2 Diabetes 62 (51.33) 
3 Obesity 21 (17.50) 99 (82.50)
Smoking 66 (55.00) 
5Use of statins for
cholesterol reduction  115 (95.8)
6  115 (95.8)
7 Previous eye surgery 21 (17.5) 99 (82.5)
8Any family history of
cataract 22 (18.3) 98 (81.7)
120 persons were interviewed on the basis of convenient
       

and maximum age was found to be 20 and 89 years respectively.
           

belonged to low socioeconomic status. n=57 came to hospital due
            
n=9 had poor vision in both eyes. Further results are given below
(Tables 1,2).
Table 2: Reason of cataract.
Frequency Percent (%)
Age related 101 
Obesity 2 1.7
Statins (medicine) 2 1.7
 11 9.2
Congenital 3.3
Total 120 100.0
Figure 2: Duration of having cataract condition.
Figure 3: Suggestion of surgery.
Figure 4: Difculty in walking.
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Noureen latif. Biomed J Sci & Tech Res Volume 1- Issue 6 : 2017
1631
Discussion
        

of the main reasons of the blindness is the cataract. There are many
reasons behind this condition. It can be age related in most of the
cases, congenital and secondary to other causes. Surgery is the most
effective and easy way to get rid of this situation and to stop visual


respondents were suggested surgery and intra ocular lens was to be
inserted in place of the cataract lens. Study done in Europe support
the results of the present study which properly explain the total
literature of the cataract and blindness and other complications
         
normally. The enzyme aldose reductase changes glucose to sorbitol
through the polyol pathway. Sorbitol should be changed to fructose
by the enzyme sorbitol dehydrogenase, but the sorbitol is produced
faster than it can be converted to fructose, causing a buildup of
sorbitol in the lens.
Accumulation of sorbitol leads to increased water within
          
cataracts. Osmotic stress caused by the sorbitol accumulation 3
        
of cataract. Increased glucose levels in the aqueous humor may
cause chemical changes of lens proteins. This has negative effects
upon the lens. Lenses of diabetics show an impaired antioxidant
capacity, increasing the effect oxidative stress. For this reason, a
healthy lifestyle to reduce the risk of developing diabetes over one’s
 
cataract risk and is one reason eyecare practitioners have been
more diligent to discuss smoking cessation with patients. One study
reported that anyone with a history of smoking cigarettes was
associated with an increased risk of age-related cataract. Current
smokers had a higher risk of incidence. They found that former and
current smokers were associated with nuclear and sub-scapular

relationship between smoking and the need for cataract extraction.
Conversely, smoking cessation was associated with a decrease in

Various types of cataracts occur related to systemic disease.


 
idiopathic arthritis, Behçet’s syndrome, and sarcoidosis. Repeated
treatment of allergies using oral steroids or chronic use of topical or
inhaled steroids may also cause posterior sub-scapsular cataracts
       
causing tumors to form on nerve tissue, is associated with cataract
formation, as is Wilson disease, an inherited disorder associated
with copper accumulation in the liver, ocular tissues, and other
organs. Cataracts are now associated with syndromes such as
Cohen syndrome, Degos disease, and Dubowitz syndrome. In some
cases, the formation of cataracts may lead to initial diagnosis of a


as seen with head trauma. It may be blunt or penetrating trauma, or
it may be related to radiation exposure.
         
diagnosis is often made based upon appearance even if the patient
is unable to report a traumatic event. A monocular, presenile
cataract is a telltale sign of trauma. Blunt trauma is associated with
       

        

Retinal surgery, such as scleral buckling and vitrectomy, may
result in presenile cataracts. To prevent blindness due to cataract
routine medical checkups should be done. To prevent the further
eye damage, risk factors should be controlled. Smoking should be
avoided and diet high in anti-oxidants and carotenoids should be
taken to prevent cataract in old age.
Conclusion
In the present study most of the respondents were suffering
from age related cataract. Nuclear cataract was more prevalent


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... In comparison to this an earlier study reported 7.5% prevalence in Azad Kashmir [2] but another study reported it as 20.9% in Karachi [8]. Similarly in another study conducted in Taxila cataract prevalence was reported as 20% [9]. These variations in reported prevalence is attributed to different climates, regions, etiology and any other morbidity present in the targeted population. ...
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Background: Visual impairment caused by cataract is a major cause of treatable blindness. Vision 2021: the Right to Sight, a global
... In comparison to this an earlier study reported 7.5% prevalence in Azad Kashmir [2] but another study reported it as 20.9% in Karachi [8]. Similarly in another study conducted in Taxila cataract prevalence was reported as 20% [9]. These variations in reported prevalence is attributed to different climates, regions, etiology and any other morbidity present in the targeted population. ...
Article
Background: Visual impairment caused by cataract is a major cause of treatable blindness. Vision 2021: the Right to Sight, a global
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