Conference PaperPDF Available

BANKNOTE PAPER PRODUCED FROM HEMP PULP

Authors:
1
Prof.Dr. Milorad
Krgovic
;
TMF, Karnegijeva
4,
11000 Beograd, Serbia and Montenegro;
krgo@beotel.yu
2 R. Assistant Danijela Osap, dipl.ing;
TMF
,
Karneg
i
jeva
4
,
11000 Beograd, Serbia and
Montenegro
;
osap@bitsyu
.
net
3
Prof.Dr. Srecko Nikolic; TMF, Karnegijeva
4,
11000 Beograd, Serbia and Montenegro
4 Assistant
M
r
.
Nadezda Borna, TMF, Karnegijeva
4,
11000
Beograd
,
Serbia and Montenegro;
borna@tmf
.
bg
.
ac. yu
5
Boris
M
ij
atovic
,
dipl.
i
ng; TMF, Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Beograd, Serbia
a
n
d
Montenegro;
bobilim@EUnet.yu
6
Mr. Sefkija Botonnc
,
dipl.ing; Fabrika NA TRON, Maglaj, Bosnia and Hercegovina; natron@bih.net.ba
M.
Krgovi6
1
, D.
Osap
2
,
S
.
Nikoli6
3
,
N.
Borne",
B.
Mijatovi6
5
,
S
.
Botonji6
6
FROM HEMP PULP
BANKNOTE PAPERS PRODUCED
Banknote paper produced from hemp pulp
SchlUsselworter:
Hanf
,
Banknote
,
Zellstoff
Mechanische Eigenschaften des Banknotenpapiers (Wertpapier) rnussen erstklassig sein
im Vergleich zu anderen Papiertypen
.
Die Baumwollezellstoff ist sehr ublich
in
der
Produktion dieser
Wertpapiere
.
Der Hanf hat lange Fasem, die ausserst stark sind und als Rohstoff-Alternative benutzt
werden konnen,
In
unserem Papier haben wir die Moglichkeit der Produktion von
Banknotenpapier aus dieser Zellstoffsorte
analysiert
.
Die gewonnenen Papierbogen haben bessere Oberflachen- und Festigkeitseigenschaften
im Vergleich zum Papier, das auf der Baumwollebasis
p
r
oduziert wurde
.
.
Wirsind zumSchluss gekommen, dass die Hanffasern fur die Produktion von
Spezialpapieren, wie z.B. Wertpapiere und dunne Papiere geeignet sind.
Kurzfassung
Key
words
:
hemp, banknote, pulp
Mechanical properties of banknote (security) papers have to be superior
compared to another paper types. For this security papers production
commonly is used cotton
pulp
.
Hemp has long fibers which are extremely
strong and can be used as alternative row material.
In
our work we were
analyzing possibilities of banknote paper production from this kind of pulp.
Obtained paper sheets have both, surfaces and strength, properties better
then cotton based papers. We concluded that hemp fibers are suitable for
production of specialty papers; such are security and thin papers.
ABSTRACT
2
Banknote paper produced from hemp pulp
The history of paper money
in
Europe
is
inte
r
esting
.
It
started as emergency
money substituting for regular money. The
firs
t emergency
pape
r
bills are from
1483
.
The first bank notes
we
r
e
pr
i
nted
in
the
1th
century. The first European
banknotes were
p
r
inted
in
Sweden
-
in
1661
.
In
Eng
l
and, Scotland, Denmark and
France paper money production have started
in
begin of
1
e"
century
.
Because of
When Marco Polo came back from his travels
i
n
China
(1275-1292)
,
people
in
Europe didn't
bel
i
eve that the Chinese used paper
f
or money.
Pape
r
money
in
Europe came 300 years
la
t
er
.
Paper came comparatively late
in
the history
o
f man. Prior to
this
,
all sorts of
materials were used including leather, parchment, clay tablets and various other
objects
.
The first true paper money appeared
in
China
,
in
the same country where
paper has been
i
nvented, about 700
AD
.
In
the year
812
,
the Chinese Emperor
used
it
as
a
temporary solution because of the copper
shortage
.
T
h
is
money was
called "flying money".
It
was so popular that by 970
it
dominated as
a
monetary
unit. These first bank notes carried
a
gua
r
antee that
i
t
cou
l
d
be traded at any time
for
coinage
.
The name of this bank note was
"
cash"
.
Fig.
1
-
His
to
ry
o
f
b
a
nk
i
ng
fa
c
i
lities
.
The
h
i
story of banking
is
as old as
c
i
vilized
man
.
Records exist of banking facilities
in
Babylon
fou
r
thousand years ago, and there
is
evidence that the
Chinese,
·
Greeks and Romans had banking facilities long before the Christian
era
.
On Figure
1
is
shown history of banking facilities
1
.
1.
History of
paper money
3
Banknote paper
produc
ed
from hemp pulp
Production of bank note papers
is
done on paper machines specially made for
production of this kind of paper. Picture and scheme of this kind of paper machine
3.
Technology of production
TABLE
1
:
Some
properties
Of
banknote
papers
Traditional bank note paper
is
made from cotton fibers, but for this purpose could
be used a-cellulose and hemp fibers, as well. Among fibers, for bank note paper
production are used
a
different types of colored fibers, plachettes, threads and
another security elements. As fillers
in
bank note paper production are used
CaC03 (7-17%) and Ti02 (4%). These papers are treated with PVA. Some of bank
note paper
characteristics
3
are shown
in
Table
1.
2. Raw materials
for
bank note paper
production
The Bank of England began issuing notes
in
1694. The design was very simple
.
.
There were just
a
few lines of engraved text, promising to pay
a
specified sum at
the Bank's premises. Also on the note were spaces for
a
hand-written date,
number, signature and the name of the payee. The top center of the note showed
the figure of Britannia, but there were few other decorative features. The notes
were printed
in
black. The following year, the Bank ran into counterfeiting
difficulties. They promptly arranged for
a
specially designed watermark to be
made. The first watermarked paper was used
in
a
Swedish bank note
in
1666.
There have passed
a
lot of time before there were founded other security features.
uncertainties connected with paper money, other states waited until the late
19th
century
2
.
4
Banknote paper produced from hemp pulp
General or local multitone watermark
Filigree watermark
Metallic thread
UV fluorescent security thread with microtext
Bank note papers can be produced with varying of thickness and durability. These
papers have unique combination of security features which should ensure
impossibility to duplicate them outside of factory. The principal security elements
include:
A bank note
is
only
a
piece of printed paper, which costs very little to make, and
promises to pay a value for goods or services far
in
excess of this cost.
It
is
clear
therefore that the issuing of bank notes must be carefully controlled by an
appropriate authority, and they must be designed, produced and printed
in
such
a
way that they cannot be counterfeited.
Fig.
2.
Paper machine
for
banknote
paper
production
picture
(a)
and
scheme
(b).
4.
Securities
is
shown on Figure
2
4
.
Paper web
is
usually formed
in
two layers on two cylinder
moulds. Between these layers
is
usually incorporated security thread which can
be metallised, printed or
it
can include hologram to achieve better bank note paper
protection from forgery. Between these two layers could be incorporated another
security elements, too. Security elements, such are colored fibers, planchettes etc.
could be added in paper mass, as well. Present banknote papers always
comprehend mould made watermark. Watermark
is
formed by varying of thickness
of paper during its formation.
5
Banknote paper produced from hemp pulp
Planchettes
are small
co
l
ored discs randomly
distr
i
buted all over the paper or
in
a
band
.
They have the advantage of
be
i
ng
readily visible to the naked
eye
,
or by
fluorescence under UV light.
Iridescent planchettes
are small colored
d
i
scs
randomly
d
i
stributed
in
the paper or
i
n
a
band with
a
shiny
appearance
.
They
F
ig.
3
-
B
ank
n
ote
s
ecur
i
ty
e
l
em
en
ts.
Security threads
are incorporated
in
security papers as an anticounterfeit feature.
They are embedded
in
the paper during its manufacture and can be "w
i
ndowed",
personalized by
printing
,
demetallisat
i
on,
fluorescence or holographic effect.
Recommended by Interpol, they are extremely difficult to counterfeit successfully.
The
Watermark
i
s
the fundamental security feature
in
bank note
papers
.
It
is
produced by selectively varying the grammage of the paper during its
manufacture
.
There are two types of Watermarks
:
Mould made and Fourdrinier
.
Recommended
by
Interpol
,
watermarks
a
r
e very
d
i
fficult to counterfeit since they are an integral
part of the
paper
.
Some of this elements are shown on Figure
3.
Various types of protective fibers
Indiv
i
dually created compositions of different types of fibrous
half
-
finished
products
Planchettes and other insertions of protective elements randomly and
evenly incorporated
in
the paper
Chemical security features
6
B
an
knote paper
pr
o
duced from hemp
p
u
lp
In
this work are researched possibilities and advantages of banknote paper
production from long hemp fibers comparing to banknote paper produced from
cotton
fibers
.
For this researching cotton pulp
is
bought and pulp from long hemp
fibers is produced
in
laboratory conditions. From this two kinds of pulp hand sheets
are made and some of their mechanical properties are measured. Researching is
done
in
laboratory conditions
in
Pulp and Paper Mill MATROZ, Sremska
Mitrovica
,
Board Mill UMKA, Umka and Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, Belgrade.
Tests are done
in
stable technical conditions.
EXPERIMENTAL PART
Security papers are sensitized against chemicals to protect against the alteration
,,_ ,,
of printed information on
documents
.
When
a
forger attempts to remove the ink,
the paper reacts violently producing
a
stain. This makes
it
obvious that the
document has been tampered
with
.
There are six families of chemicals which
effectively remove inks, laser printer toner, and other substances used to print
information.
The
fibers
are very small viscose or nylon threads, and can be either visible or
invisible to the naked eye, randomly distributed
in
the paper or
in
a
band
.
change color according to the angle of the light. Visible to the naked eye, their
glossy appearance can not
be
reproduced by copiers or
scanners
.
Fluorescent
hilites
are tiny particles of fluorescent
pigments
,
and can be either visible or
invisible to the naked
eye
.
The fluorescent effect cannot be reproduced by printing.
7
Banknote paper produced from hemp pulp
TABLE
3.
Mechanica
l
properties
of
hand
sheets
produced from
hemp
long
fibers
TABLE
2.
Mechanical properties
of
hand
sheets
produced from
cotton
pulp
Breaking length
Folding resistance
Bursting strength
Hemp
wh
i
ch
is
used
in
experiments self-produced
in
Odzac
i
,
Serbia and
Montenegro. After cutting long hemp fibers are separated from hemp woody core.
Pulp
is
produced form long hemp fibers. Cooking
is
done by sulfite cooking
method
.
Active material (white liquor) was
15%
so
l
ution of Na20 (NaOH,
Na
2
S).
Cooking temperature was
165°C
,
and total cooking time was
1
hand
50
min
.
Pulp
produced
in
that way
is
washed, all chemicals are removed and pulp
is
dried on
92% of dry matter. Beating of pulp
is
done on laboratory Hollander, Frank with pulp
consistention of 2%. For beating
is
used standard TAPP! T 200. Freeness of pulp
is
measured on Schopper Riegler instrument by using standard ISO
5267/1
.
Both
kinds of pulp are beaten on 40°SR. Hand sheets
f
rom these pulp samples are
formed on Blat Bildner Frank by using standard TAPPI T
205
.
Han
d
sheets are
produced with grammage of
80g/m
2
for both row materials. After producing, hand
sheets are acclimatized under conditions
exp
l
ained
in
standard T
APP
i
T 402, and
these samples are used for measuring of
mecha
n
ica
l
properties of this two kinds
of papers. On samples are measured following
mec
h
anical properties:
8
Banknote paper produced from hemp pulp
Banknote papers are traditionally produced from cotton pulp.
In
this paper
is
shown possibility of banknote paper production from long hemp fibers, also
is
shown that hemp based papers have better mechanical properties than cotton
based
papers
.
In
paper
is
shortly
exp
l
ained pulping process of long hemp fibers
in
laboratory
conditions
.
From this pulp are produced hand sheets; as well as from
cotton pulp, and for both samples are measured mechanical properties and
obtained results are compared. Comparison have shown that all measured
properties (breaking length, folding resistance and bursting strength) are
significantly better for papers made from hemp
pulp
.
These better mechanical
properties ensure higher durability of banknote papers, which
is
very important
property for banknotes.
CONCLUSIONS
Values obtained from paper produced from long hemp fibers are compared with
values obtained from paper produced form cotton pulp. Measuring results for
paper produced from cotton pulp are shown
in
Table
2,
and measuring results for
paper produced from long hemp fibers are shown
in
Table
3.
As
it
possible to see
in
these tables, papers produced from long hemp fibers have
all
properties better
then papers produced from cotton pulp. These advantages are very important for
durability of
banknotes
.
9
Banknote paper produced from hemp pulp
4.
VO/TH Sulzer, Banknote and Security Paper Machines,
2,
5,
october 2002
3. Radece Papir, Banknote and Security
papers
,
12
,
2.
Papierfabrik Louisenthal, The Fascinating History
of
Money,
12,
2003
1.
Explaining Currency, New Zealand's bank notes and coins, Reserve
Bank
of
New Zealand, may 2000
References
10
,
Banknote paper produced from hemp pulp
ResearchGate has not been able to resolve any citations for this publication.
Banknote and Security papers, 12, 2. Papierfabrik Louisenthal, The Fascinating History of Money
  • Radece Papir
Radece Papir, Banknote and Security papers, 12, 2. Papierfabrik Louisenthal, The Fascinating History of Money, 12, 2003