ArticlePDF Available

Probable mode of action of nasya- an overview

Authors:
PROBABLE MODE OF ACTION OF NASYA AN OVERVIEW
Smita Lokhande1, Swapnil Patil2, Avinash Chogule3, Vishal Patil4.
1Assistant Professor, Dept. of Kayachikista, 2Assistant Professor, Dept. of RognidanAvemVikru-
tividnyan, 3Associate Professor, Dept. of Rasashastra&BhaishjyaKalpana, 4Associate Professor,
Dept. of Kriyasharir, ADAMC, Ashta, Dist- Sangli,
Maharashtra, India
INTRODUCTION
Nasya is one of the Panchakarma
mentioned in Ayurveda. It is a process
wherein the drug herbalized oil or liquid
medicine is administered through the nos-
trils.Since nose is the gateway of the head1,
the therapy is highly effective in curing a
number of diseases pertaining to the head,
ifit is performed systematically. The therapy
cleanses and opens the channels of the head,
thereby improving the process of oxygena-
tion (Prana), which has a direct influence on
the functioning of brain2. Drug adminis-
tered through nose mainly acts on olfactory
receptors present in superior concha. This
therapy is beneficial if done on a regular ba-
sis. It keeps the eyes, nose and ear healthy &
it also prevents the early graying of hair and
bear. Our classical texts have been men-
tioned various types of Nasya according to
different aspects like depending upon drug
used, functions, dose etc. Time and dose
ofdrug foradministration are important
things.
Types of Nasya:
A} ACCORDING TO FUNCTIONS :
1. VirechanNasya (Cleansing
nasya):Usually strong drugs are used in the
Virechananasya karma. It is also called as
Shirovirechananasya. In Virechan Nasya
,forms of drug used are Kwatha, Choor-
na,Swarasa, Sneha, Madhu,
Saindhva,Aasava, Pitta, Mootra3etc. These
are mixed with the Shirovirechana drugs.
Choorna create Vegas simply by keeping it
Review Article International Ayurvedic Medical Journal ISSN:2320 5091
ABSTRACT
Nose is one among the Panchadnaanendriya, whose functions are not only limited to ol-
faction and respiration but also considered as a pathway for drug administration.So the drug ad-
ministered through nose as Nasya reaches to the brain and eliminates the morbid Doshas respon-
sible for producing the disease. Present article shows, actual drug administered in nose how it
will probably act on vital points located in brain and also how it will act on organs related to the-
se points.e.g.in AshtangaSamgraha it is explained that Nasa being the entry to Shira, the drug
administrated through nostril reaches Shringataka -a SiraMarma by Nasastrotas and spreads in
the Brain reaches at a junction place of Netra , Shrotra , Kantha, Siramukhas (opening of the
vessels) etc. and remove or detach the morbid Doshas present above supraclavicular region and
expel them from The Uttamanga.
Keywords: Nasya, Dnanendriya, Shringatakamaram, Doshas
Smita Lokhande: Probable Mode Of Action Of Nasya An Overview
360
www.iamj.in IAMJ: Volume 4; Issue 03; March - 2016
near the nostril. VirechanaNasya is mainly
used to treat Kapha type of diseases such as
headaches, heaviness in the head, cold, na-
sal congestion, inflammation of the nasal
mucosa, sinusitis,loss of smell, sticky eyes
and hoarseness of voice due to sticky
Kapha, . Chronic diseases such as cervical
lymph adenitis and tumors can also be treat-
ed by Pradhaman Nasya4. Some skin dis-
eases like ring warm infestation,itching,
blebs are easily treated by this type of
Nasya karma. Epilepsy, drowsiness, Parkin-
sonism, greed and lust can be effectively
treated by the therapy. Powders such as
Brahmi are used in this therapy.
2}SnehanaNasya / Brihmana-
Nasya/(Nutrition Nasya):
In this type form of Nasya drug used is
Sneha i.e. Shatavari ghee, medicated milk
,niryas , mamsa rasa etc.This treatment is
mainly given in Vata type of disorders. It is
beneficial to cure migraine head-
ache,hemicranias, and dryness of voice,
constriction of the eyes, defects of the vi-
sion, toothache, earache, tinnitus, and diffi-
culty in speech, nervousness, anxiety, fear,
dizziness and emptiness5. Negative thoughts
can be banished by undergoing this treat-
ment. In case of the person is suffering from
bursitis, stiffness in the neck, frozen shoul-
ders, dry sinuses and loss of sense of smell,
dry nose, BruhanaNasya would be the best
bet. It imparts strength to
Neck,Shoulder,and Chest6.
3} Shaman Nasya (Sedative Nasya):In this
type of Nasya, form of the drugs used are
Sneha, Swarasa ,Ksheera, Udaka, Kwath,
tail etc. ShamanNasya is used according to
Dosha which is aggravated in the human
body. It is mainly administered to treat Pittaj
&Raktaj-type disorders such as thinning of
hair, conjunctivitis, ,ringing in the ears,
premature wrinkles, premature graying of
hairs ,hair fall, blackish discoloration of face
,psoriasis of scalp ,bleeding from nose etc7 .
B} ACCORDING TO QUANTITY OF
DRUG USED
1} MarshyaNasya (Ghee or Oil Nasya) 8:
This type of MarshyaNasya karma makes
use of ghee/oil. The therapy is administered
for a particular reason, which may not be
disease, but a condition of uneasiness aris-
ing from particular diseases.
Contraindications: Marsha nasya is con-
traindicated before the ageof 7years& after
age of 80 yrs.
Quantity of the unctuous medicine in
Marsha Nasya9:
Uttamamaatra ---------10 bindu,
Madhyamamaatra ------ 8 bindu,
Hrswamaatra ----------- 6 bindu
2} Pratimarshya (Daily Oil Nasya)10:- This
type of therapy is administered by dipping
the clean little finger in ghee or oil and in-
serting into each nostril. After inserting the
clean finger (dipped in ghee or oil) into the
nostril, the nasal passage is lubricated and
given a gentle massage. By doing this, the
deep nasal tissues are opened up. By doing
Pratimarshya on a regular basis, stress can
be released to a great extent.
Generally it can be given in weak persons,
in old age, child, in delicate persons, timid
persons etc. It can be administered in unsea-
sonable time. It is also given in persons who
had injury to chest, dryness of oral cavity.
Pratimarsha can be administered in unsea-
sonable time, inauspiciousday and rainy
season and also from birth to death.
CONTRAINDICATIONS11:
PratimarshaNasya cannot be given in
chronic catarrha, Worm infestation and dis-
eases of head involving multiple
doshas,One who drank alcohol (madyapee-
Smita Lokhande: Probable Mode Of Action Of Nasya An Overview
361
www.iamj.in IAMJ: Volume 4; Issue 03; March - 2016
ta) ,Weakness of the hearing organ and
when Doshas are in highly aggravated state.
Dose of Pratimarshanasya medicine:
Thaila is the best Sneha (unctuous sub-
stance) for the daily use as head is the main
seat of Kapha Dosha.Administering the
Pratimarshanasya daily gives us the effect
same as that of Marsha nasya, but theyare
not the same.
Dose12: 1 2 bindu.
C} Different types of the Nasya karma
depending on the preparation of the
drug:
1} Avapeedanasya13: -Virechana or Shama-
na nasya:
Where the paste of the drug is squeezed into
the nostril is called Avapeedanasya. It is in-
dicated in Vitiation of Kapha and Meda , A
person who is unconscious due to snake
bite.If person is weak i. e. Ksheena purusha
and Raktapitta rogi - drugs like Sharkara,
Ikshurasa, Milk, Ghee and Mamsa rasa are
used for the Avapeedanasya. In case of
Krisha, durbala, bheeru, sukumara, stree,-
the unctuous substance processed with Shi-
rovirechana drugs or the kalka of the Shiro-
virechana drug are used for the
Avapeedanasya.
2}Pradhamananasya14: Sushruta stated
that,Shirovirechana drug is powdered and
sprayed into the nasal orifice with the help
of a tube. Pradhamananasya is indicated in
cases of derangement of the mind (cheta-
navikriti), worm infestation (krimi), and poi-
soning (vishapeedita).
Dose of PradhamanaNasya: The quantity
of powder required to reach the throat
when blown through a 6 angula long pipe is
the quantity for Pradhamananasya. This can
be repeated multiple times depending on the
intensity of the drug snuffed in nasal pas-
sage15.
3} NavanaNasya15: Decoctions and medi-
cated oils are used for Nasya.This type of
therapy is used in Vata-Pitta or Kapha-Pitta
disorders. The main purpose of all Nasyas is
to expel the Kapha Dosha from the head. So
all Nasyas arec alled as VirechanaNasya.
The unctuous substance used for Nasya
according to the Doshas16:
In Vatakaphaj -Thaila
In kevalavata - Vasaa
In pitta - Ghee
In vaata pitta -Majja
Contraindications for Nasya 17:
After taking food, unctuous substance, alco-
hol, water nasya is contraindicated. If there
is Garavisha in his body, After taken and
want to take head bath, after bloodletting,
who has urge for passing urine, stools etc,
who is suffering from injuries, Immediately
after vamana, virechana, basti , In Pregnant
lady, First 45days after delivery, in Acute
coryza,In Breathing difficulty, cough,in
Amenorrhea, on inauspicious day nasya
karma is contra indicated.
Probable mode of action:
Modernanatomical and physiological as-
pect of Nose18:
The nose is connected through vascular sys-
tem, nerve plexus of olfactory nerve and
ophthalmic and maxillary branches of tri-
geminal nerves to the brain.
1. NEUROLOGICAL PATHWAY:
It is concernedwith olfactory stimuli. The
olfactory nerve differs from other cranial
nerves in its close relation with the brain.
The peripheral olfactory nerves are chemo-
receptor in nature. The olfactory nerves are
connected with the higher centers of brain
i.e. limbic system, consisting mainly of
amygdaloidal complex, hypothalamus, epi-
theliums, anterior thalamic nuclei parts of
basal ganglia etc. so the drugs administered
Smita Lokhande: Probable Mode Of Action Of Nasya An Overview
362
www.iamj.in IAMJ: Volume 4; Issue 03; March - 2016
through nose stimulate the higher centers of
brain which shows action on regulation of
endocrine and nervous system functions.
So Hypothalamus regulates:
1. a. Regulates contraction of smooth and
cardiac muscles secretions of many
glands .
b. It is a major regulator of visceral ac-
tivities includes heart rate, movement of
food through the gastrointestinal tract
and contraction of bladder.
2. Regulation of hormone synthesis:-
a) Responsible for integrating the functions
of the endocrine system and the nervous
system.
b) It is known to have direct nerve connec-
tion with the posterior lobe of pituitary.
c) In addition hypothalamus is connected
with anterior lobe of pituitary through
portal vessels which supply blood to
the gland conveying chemical messages
through inhibitory and releasing hor-
mone.
3. Regulation of emotional and behavioral
patterns:
a) Together with limbic system participate
in expression of rage, aggression, pain,
pleasure and behavioral pattern relating
to sexual arousal etc.
b) Regulation of eating and drinking
through the arcuate and paraventrical
nuclei and thirst centre thus regulating
osmotic pressure.
4. Regulates body temperature:
5. Regulation of circadian rhythm and
states of consciousness
6. Effects of stimulating the amygdaloidal
same as hypothalamus.
7. Epitheliums consisting of pineal gland
and habenular nuclei- Pineal gland is a
part of endocrine system, secreting mel-
atonin and also contributes to the setting
of the body‟s biological clock.
8. Habenular nuclei involved in olfac-
tion, especially emotional responses to
odors.
9. Sub thalamus contain the sub thalamus
nuclei and portions of the red nucleus
and the substantianigra. These regions
communicate with the basal ganglia help
to control body movements.
The drug administrated even enters into
the systemic circulation and also direct
pooling into the intracranial region by
vascular path.
2. DIFFUSION OF THE DRUG:
Lipid soluble substances have grater af-
finity for passive absorption through the cell
walls of nasal mucosa. “The cilia of the ol-
factory cells and perhaps the portions of the
body of the olfactory cells contain relatively
large quantities of lipid materials.
Non- polar hydrophobic molecules dif-
fuse through the lipid bilayer of the plasma
membrane, into and out of cells. Such mole-
cules include oxygen, carbon dioxide and
nitrogen gases; fatty acids, steroids, and fat
soluble vitamins. It is a route of absorption
of some nutrients and excretion of waste by
body cells which are lipid soluble. Further
drug absorption can also be enhanced by
local massage and fomentation.
VASCULAR PATH: Vascular path trans-
portation is possible through the pooling of
nasal venous blood into the facial vein,
which naturally occurs, at the opposite en-
trance, the inferior ophthalmic vein also
pool into the facial vein.“The facial vein has
no valves. It communicates freely with the
intracranial circulation, not only at its com-
mencement but also by the supra orbital
veins which are connected with the oph-
thalmic vein, a tributary of the deep facial
vein, which communicates through the pter-
Smita Lokhande: Probable Mode Of Action Of Nasya An Overview
363
www.iamj.in IAMJ: Volume 4; Issue 03; March - 2016
ygoid plexus with the cavernous venous si-
nus.”19Such a pooling of blood from nasal
veins to venous sinuses of the brain is more
likely to occur in head lowering position due
to gravity, the absorption of drug into mean-
ings and related intracranial organ is a point
of consideration.
CONCLUSION
Nasya kala i.e. proper time and duration
of drug administration is important factor.
Age, Dosh avastha, vyadhiavastha, Form
of drug used is also important factor in
Nasya karma. Keeping in the view of the
above said facts, it can be concluded that
either the essence of Nasya or Nasyadravya
is reaching the brain and acting on im-
portant centers controlling different neuro-
logical, endocrine and circulatory functions
and thus showing systemic ef-
fects.Following things should be consid-
ered in case of drug used.PH & osmolarity
& concentration of drug used are important
factors for absorption of drug through nasal
passage. Bioavailability can be affected by
concentration of drugs like Salt, honey etc.
Various delivery systems affect the site of
deposition, degree of absorption. Viscosity
increases the contact time between nasal
mucosa & drug, which enhances the poten-
tial of the drug action.In Mechanism of
drug absorption, Transcellular passive dif-
fusion, Drug diffuses through membrane. It
is an active transport process. More suitable
for lipophilic drug, snehanasya may absorb
through this process.Para cellular passive
diffusion- drug is transported between the
cells and transcytosis by vesicle carrier. It
is a suitable mechanism for hydrophilic
drugs e.g. avpeedak, dugdhs &kwathnasya.
REFERENCES:
1. AshtangHridayaSutrasthana 20-
1,Collated by Dr. Anna
MoreshwarKunte, ChaukhambhaOrie-
talia 9th Ed.2005
2. CharakaSamhita, by Ambikadat-
taShastri,siddhisthana 9-4,Published by
Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Vara-
nasi, 8th Ed 2004.
3. SushrutSamhita by AmbikadattaShastri,
Sutrasthana 39-4,Published by
Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Vara-
nasi, 11th Ed 1997.
4. Charaksamhita by KashinathShas-
tri,Siddhisthana 9-12,Published by
Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Vara-
nasi, 8th Ed 2004.
5. SushrutSamhita by AmbikadattaShastri,
Sutrasthana40-22,Published by
Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Vara-
nasi, 11th Ed 1997
6. SushrutSamhita by AmbikadattaShastri,
Sutrasthana40-29,Published by
Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Vara-
nasi, 11th Ed 1997
7. SushrutSamhita by AmbikadattaShastri,
Sutrasthana 40-29,Published by
Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Vara-
nasi, 11th Ed 1997
8. Charaksamhita by KashinathShastri,
Siddhisthana 9-12, Published by
Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Vara-
nasi, 8th Ed 2004.
9. AshtangHridayaSutrasthana 27-9-
10,28,Collated by Dr.Anna
MoreshwarKunte,ChaukhambhaOrietali
a 9th Ed.2005
10. Charaksamhita by KashinathShastri,
Siddhisthana 9-12, Published by
Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Vara-
nasi, 8th Ed 2004.
11. Charaksamhita by KashinathShastri,
Siddhisthana 2-21-22, published by
Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Vara-
nasi, 8th Ed 2004.
Smita Lokhande: Probable Mode Of Action Of Nasya An Overview
364
www.iamj.in IAMJ: Volume 4; Issue 03; March - 2016
12. Charaksamhita by KashinathShastri,
Siddhisthana 9-117, Published by
Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Vara-
nasi, 8thEd 2004.
13. SushrutSamhita by AmbikadattaShastri,
Chikistastansthana 40-44,Published by
Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Vara-
nasi, 11th Ed 1997
14. SushrutSamhita by AmbikadattaShastri,
Sutrasthana 40-29,Published by
Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Vara-
nasi, 11th Ed 1997
15. AshtangHridayaSutrasthana 27-9-
10,28,Collated by Dr. Anna
MoreshwarKunte, ChaukhambhaOrie-
talia 9th Ed.2005
16. Charaksamhita by KashinathShastri,
Siddhisthana 2-21-22, published by
Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Vara-
nasi, 8th Ed 2004.
17. Principles of Anatomy and Physiolo-
gyby Tortora Grabowski, 10th edition
18. Medical physiology by Guyton & Hall
10thed page no.616 published by Har-
court publishers
19. Grays‟ Anatomy by Richard drake pub-
lished by Elsevier publication Ed. 2005
CORRESPONDING AUTHOR
Dr. SwapnilSabgondaPatil
„Padmini‟ house no. 2079,
near R.P. Patilhighschool, Kupwad, Sangli,
Maharashtra, India
Email:vdswapnilpatil@gmail.com
Source of support: Nil
Conflict of interest: None Declared
... Diffusion of the drug [17] Substances which are Lipid soluble, have great affinity for absorption through the cell wall of nasal mucosa. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this competitive era, it is a big challenge for a person to maintain healthy life. Ayurveda has described preventive aspects in detail such as Dincharya (daily regimen), Ritucharya (seasonal regimen), Rasayana (rejuvenation) and Yoga (exercise). Apart from these factors related to preventive aspects, some factors like Ritu-Shodhana (~body purification according to season) is also one of the factors. There are five types of Shodhana (body purification) procedures. Nasya is one of them which administered to prevent the disease mainly of organs above the Urdhva Jatrugata (organs above from the jugular notch). Nasya is classified in various ways by different Ayurvedic literatures, all types of Nasya are not only use for curing the diseases but also for prevention. Pratimarsha Nasya is one of important type among them. Pratimarsha Nasya is a special type of Snehana Nasya with low dose and minimal complications. It can be administered daily and even in all the season at morning and evening time. It is given by dipping the finger in the required Sneha then dropping it in each nostril. It can also be administered during rainy season. Acharya Vagbhatta has explained its beneficial effects on various organs. Detail description including indication and contraindication regarding the Pratimarsha Nasya explained in this study. Key words: Pratimarsh Nasya, Snehana Nasya, Urdhva-jatrugat Vikara.
Published by Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Varanasi, 11 th Ed
  • Ambikadattashastri Sushrutsamhita By
SushrutSamhita by AmbikadattaShastri, Sutrasthana 40-29,Published by Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Varanasi, 11 th Ed 1997 15. AshtangHridayaSutrasthana 27-9-10,28,Collated by Dr. Anna MoreshwarKunte, ChaukhambhaOrietalia 9 th Ed.2005
Siddhisthana 2-21-22
  • Kashinathshastri Charaksamhita By
Charaksamhita by KashinathShastri, Siddhisthana 2-21-22, published by Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Varanasi, 8 th Ed 2004.
Email:vdswapnilpatil@gmail.com Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None Declared
  • Dr
  • Swapnilsabgondapatil
Dr. SwapnilSabgondaPatil "Padmini" house no. 2079, near R.P. Patilhighschool, Kupwad, Sangli, Maharashtra, India Email:vdswapnilpatil@gmail.com Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None Declared
ChaukhambhaOrietalia 9 th Ed
  • Moreshwarkunte
MoreshwarKunte, ChaukhambhaOrietalia 9 th Ed.2005
Ambikadat-taShastri,siddhisthana 9-4,Published by Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Varanasi, 8 th Ed
  • Charakasamhita
CharakaSamhita, by Ambikadat-taShastri,siddhisthana 9-4,Published by Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Varanasi, 8 th Ed 2004.
Sutrasthana 39-4,Published by Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Varanasi
  • Ambikadattashastri Sushrutsamhita By
SushrutSamhita by AmbikadattaShastri, Sutrasthana 39-4,Published by Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Varanasi, 11th Ed 1997.
Siddhisthana 9-117, Published by Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Varanasi, 8 th Ed
  • Kashinathshastri Charaksamhita By
Charaksamhita by KashinathShastri, Siddhisthana 9-117, Published by Choukhamba Sanskrit Sansthana Varanasi, 8 th Ed 2004.