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Pigmented radish (Raphanus sativus): Genetic variability, heritability and inter-relationships of total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity

  • ICAR-Indian Institute of Vegetable Research (IIVR)
  • Indian Council of Agricultural Research-Indian Institute of Vegetable Research
  • ICAR-Indian Institute of Soil Science

Abstract and Figures

Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important salad vegetable grown and consumed throughout the world for fleshy roots which has numerous categories-varying in root colour, size, shape and flavour. The uses of coloured radishes in the salads and their anthocyanins as colourants are gaining popularity because of the colour characteristics, health benefits as well as antioxidant activities. However, information on the genetic variability, heritability and interrelationship of total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant activities in pigmented radish is very limited, but prerequisite to initiate breeding programme; and therefore investigated in the present study. Radish genotypes were significantly diverse for all the antioxidants; differed by 4.98-fold for total phenolics, 36.16-fold for anthocyanins content, 4.96-fold for FRAP activity and 4.03-fold for CUPRAC activity; and the genotypes accounted for >97% of total variations. The meager differences between phenotypic and genotypic coefficient of variation reveals the greater role of genotypes and lesser influence of the environment on the biosynthesis and accumulation of antioxidants. Significantly positive correlations along with higher magnitude for anthocyanins content, total phenolics, FRAP activity and CUPRAC activity (r= 0.823 to 0.964) could be used as indirect selection criteria for improving levels of antioxidant compounds. The estimates of heritability and genetic advance indicate the role of additive and non-additive genes for biosynthesis of antioxidants and root development, respectively; therefore, recurrent selection would be the best breeding approach to improve both the traits simultaneously in coloured radish.
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Research Articles
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 87 (12): 1600–6, December 2017/Article
Pigmented radish (Raphanus sativus): Genetic variability, heritability and inter-
relationships of total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant activity
ICAR-Indian Institute of Vegetable Research (IIVR), Shahanshahpur, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh 221 305
Received: 16 April 2017; Accepted: 26 July 2017
Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is an important salad vegetable grown and consumed throughout the world for eshy
roots which has numerous categories– varying in root colour, size, shape and avour. The uses of coloured radishes in the
salads and their anthocyanins as colourants are gaining popularity because of the colour characteristics, health benets
as well as antioxidant activities. However, information on the genetic variability, heritability and inter-relationship of
total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant activities in pigmented radish is very limited, but pre-requisite to initiate
breeding programme; and therefore investigated in the present study. Radish genotypes were signicantly diverse
for all the antioxidants; differed by 4.98-fold for total phenolics, 36.16-fold for anthocyanins content, 4.96-fold for
FRAP activity and 4.03-fold for CUPRAC activity; and the genotypes accounted for >97% of total variations. The
meager differences between phenotypic and genotypic coefcient of variation reveals the greater role of genotypes
and lesser inuence of the environment on the biosynthesis and accumulation of antioxidants. Signicantly positive
correlations along with higher magnitude for anthocyanins content, total phenolics, FRAP activity and CUPRAC
activity (r= 0.823 to 0.964) could be used as indirect selection criteria for improving levels of antioxidant compounds.
The estimates of heritability and genetic advance indicate the role of additive and non-additive genes for biosynthesis
of antioxidants and root development, respectively; therefore, recurrent selection would be the best breeding approach
to improve both the traits simultaneously in coloured radish.
Key words: Anthocyanins, Antioxidants, Correlation, Inheritance, Radish, Raphanus sativus, Variability
Radish (Raphanus sativus L., 2n=2x=18), Brassicaceae
family, is an important vegetable grown and consumed
throughout the world for eshy edible roots (hypocotyls)
which are eaten as crunchy salad, cooked or preserved by
salting, pickling, canning and drying. Also, the soft leaves
are cooked and used as a leafy vegetable. Radish is an
ancient crop, native to the eastern Mediterranean and the
Middle East. Moreover, central China, central Asia and India
appear to have been secondary centers where differing forms
were evolved during the course of domestication. The rst
record about radish consumption in human nutrition date
back to about 2700 BC in the ancient Egypt, however its
cultivation started in China and Korea about 400 BC (George
and Evans 1981, Kaneko and Matsuzawa 1993). Radish has
numerous categories, varying in root colour, size, shape,
avour and period of maturity; moreover differences in leaf
morphology were also observed. The ancient varieties were
long and tapering rather than cylindric, apically bulbous,
elliptic or spherical. The different forms of radishes arose
in the various time sequences, i.e. black radishes were the
earliest in cultivation, white radishes were being cultivated
in Europe by the 1500's, and red and round radishes were
developed in the 1700's. In the West, commonly, the radish
is seen as a small-rooted, short-season vegetable; while in
the Far East and Asian countries, a diverse, large-rooted and
long-season radish is widely grown. In India, it is grown
in one or the other parts of the country almost throughout
the year because of the varied climatic conditions, and its
stable and productive cultivars, economic importance and
increasing demand.
The black to red colour of radish is due to anthocyanins,
the most versatile polyphenols and a class of pigments
responsible for the red, purple and blue colours of many
vegetable, fruits and cereals. They have nutraceutical,
colourant and anti-oxidative properties (Delgado-Vargas
and Paredes-Lopez 2003, Giusti and Wrolstad 2003,
Horbowicz et al. 2008, Pojer et al. 2013, Jing et al. 2014).
Within the plant, they play a role as key antioxidants and
pigments contributing to the colouration of various plant
parts. Given their antioxidant properties, i.e. acting as free
radical scavengers, anthocyanins in general have ability to
1601December 2017]
lower the LDL cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular
disease (Ross and Kasum 2002, Prior and Wu 2006, Castilla
et al. 2008), to prevent obesity (Prior and Wu 2006, Peng
et al. 2011), to inhibit the formation and progression of
atherosclerosis (Estruch et al. 2004, Iwasaki-Kurashige et
al. 2006), diabetes (Iwasaki-Kurashige et al. 2006), certain
cancers (Ross and Kasum 2002, Prior and Wu 2006, Wang
and Stoner 2008), to improve visual function (Kramer
2004, Ghosh and Konishi 2007), oxidative stresses and
age-related diseases (Tsuda 2012, Pojer et al. 2013). Within
the plant, they play a role as pigments contributing to the
colouration of various plant parts. Moreover, they act as
antioxidants protecting cells against environmental stresses
such as ultraviolet and high intensity light, wounding,
cold temperature and water stress (Mo et al. 1992, Koes
et al. 1993, Li et al. 1993, Dixon and Palva 1995, Holton
and Cornish 1995, Shirley 1996, Chalker-Scott 1999,
Gould et al. 2002, Misyura 2014). Furthermore, uses of
anthocyanins as colourants have gained prominence as a
result of legislative action and consumers’ concerns over
the use of synthetic additives in foods. Among the various
anthocyanins, pelargonidine (acylated pelargonidin-3-
sophoroside-5-glucoside) and cyanidine (acylated cyaniding-
3-sophoroside-5-glucoside) are responsible for red/pink
and purple/violet colour of the roots in radish, respectively
(Giusti and Wrolstad 1996, Tatsuzawa et al. 2010). The
absence of anthocyanins resulted in a white colour. The
uses of coloured radish in the salads or as garnish gaining
popularity in India as it makes salad more nutritious,
healthier and attractive appearance. Radish anthocyanins
have been applied as natural colourants due to their tinctorial
power (i.e. colour intensity), stability, colour characteristics,
health benets as well as antioxidant activities (Giusti and
Wrolstad 1996, Giusti et al. 1998, Matsufuji et al. 2007,
Rahman et al. 2006). Most of the Brassica vegetables are
good source of antioxidants, ultimately beneting the human
and plant health (Singh 2007, Soengas et al. 2011, Singh
et al. 2010, Cartea et al. 2011, Kapusta-Duch et al. 2012).
Generally, the pigmented radish contains higher amounts
of anthocyanins, phenolic compounds and antioxidant
activity than non-pigmented radish. The authors have
estimated 20-250% higher antioxidants in coloured-rooted
radishes as compared to white-rooted commercial/ national
check cultivars, namely Japanese White and Kashi Shweta
(unpublished data). The daily intake of anthocyanins in the
USA diet is estimated to be as much as 180–255 mg/day
(McGhie and Walton 2007). Genetically, the presence or
absence of anthocyanins in grape skin is qualitative in nature,
i.e. controlled by oligogenes, while anthocyanins content is
quantitative character and controlled by polygenes (Liang et
al. 2009). The antioxidants and yield contributing traits are
genetically regulated and can be improved simultaneously
through various breeding approaches. Hence, the opportunity
to develop coloured radish genotypes/varieties with
higher antioxidants is great. To the best of our knowledge
and available literatures, very fragmented information
is available on genetic variability, heritability and inter-
relationship of total phenolics, anthocyanins and antioxidant
activities in radish. Therefore, the present study was assumed
with the objective to estimate antioxidants’ variability, their
heritability and inter-relationship for possible exploitation
to breed the genotypes/varieties having higher antioxidant
content/activity as well as better yield potential.
Twenty-four lines, including eleven of pink-rooted and
thirteen of purple colour, comprised the basic experimental
materials, were evaluated for this study. All the coloured-
rooted genotypes are developed and maintained at ICAR-
Indian Institute of Vegetable Research (ICAR-IIVR),
Shahanshahpur, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. The details of
morphological traits of basic experimental materials used are
given in Table 1.
Crop was raised during 2014-2015 at the Research
Farm, ICAR-IIVR, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh. The Farm is
located at 25°10’55’’ N latitude and 82°52’36’’ E longitude
Table 1 Details of basic experimental materials
Genotype Root colour-
Root shape Leaf
VRRAD 88 Pink* Iciclical Lyrate Green
VRRAD 125 Pink Iciclical Lyrate Pink
VRRAD 126 Light pink Iciclical Lyrate Green
VRRAD 127 Pink Elliptical Sinuate Pink
VRRAD 127-1 Pink Obtriangular Sinuate Pink
VRRAD 128 Purple Iciclical Lyrate Purple
VRRAD 128-1 Purplish
Iciclical Sinuate Purple
VRRAD 128-2 Light purple Iciclical Sinuate Purple
VRRAD 129 Purple* Iciclical Lyrate Purple
VRRAD 130 Pink Iciclical Lyrate Pink
VRRAD 130-1 Light pink Iciclical Lyrate Green
VRRAD 130-2 Purple Iciclical Lyrate Purple
VRRAD 130-3 Dark purple Iciclical Lyrate Purple
VRRAD 130-4 Dark purple Iciclical Lyrate Purple
VRRAD 131 Purple Iciclical Lyrate Purple
VRRAD 131-1 Purplish
Iciclical Lyrate Purple
VRRAD 131-2 Pink Iciclical Sinuate Pink
VRRAD 132 Purple Iciclical Lyrate Purple
VRRAD 134 Light purple Obtriangular Lyrate Purple
VRRAD 135 Purple Iciclical Lyrate Purple
VRRAD 136 Pink Obtriangular Lyrate Pink
VRRAD 143 Pink Iciclical Lyrate Pink
VRRAD 143-1 Pink Iciclical Sinuate Green
VRRAD 143-2 Purple Iciclical Sinuate Purple
*Shoulder colour
1602 [Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 87 (12)
with an altitude of 85 m above the mean sea level,
and receives an annual rainfall of 1050-1100 mm. Soil
preparation, sowing and other agronomic practices were
carried out uniformly to get better morphological expression
(Singh and Karmakar 2015). The seeds were sown at 1.0-1.5
cm interval in double row of 7-8 cm apart and 25-28 cm
wide ridge with the spacing of about 80 cm between each
pair of ridges. Each genotype comprises three ridges of
5.50 m long and triplicated in a randomized block design.
The crop was unvaryingly fertilized with optimum doses
of chemical fertilizers, i.e. 80 kg N, 40 kg P2O5 and 30 kg
K2O per hectare which were supplied as urea, single super
phosphate and muriate of potash, correspondingly. Half of
the N, and full P2O5 and K2O were applied as basal dressing
at time of ridges preparation, while remaining half dose of
N was furrow-dressed at 30 days after sowing. After seed
germination, thinning was done 10-12 days after sowing
keeping the distance in between the plants about 5-6 cm
apart for proper root development.
Each genotype in replicated trial was harvested at
marketable stage (horticultural maturity) i.e. 50 days after
sowing. Ten roots of each randomly selected and leaves
were cut manually. The roots were washed thoroughly
with normal tap water to remove adhering soil and other
extraneous matters. A representative of the edible root part
was taken for subsequent assay and estimation on fresh
weight (FW) basis.
Radish was minced with stainless steel knife and
homogenized using a warring blander. An aliquot of 25
g the commuted radish was extracted with 100 ml of
methanol/0.1% HCl (v/v) for 2 h under dark condition. After
centrifugation at 13000 rpm for 15 min, the supernatant
was recovered and the extract residues were re-extracted
with the same method. The combined supernatant were
evapourated to dryness and re-dissolved in distilled water.
The total monomeric anthocyanins content (anthocyanins)
was determined through measuring absorbance at 520 nm
against the blank on a UV–Visible spectrophotometer by
the pH-differential method (Wrolstad et al. 2005). Pigment
content was expressed as total monomeric anthocyanins
equivalents (μg/g FW).
Water soluble phytochemicals of radish were extracted
according to the method reported previously (Chu et al.
2002) with slight modication. For the extraction of soluble
nutraceuticals, 5 g of the edible part of radish was weighed
and homogenized with 80% ethanol (1:2 w/v) using a
chilled warring blender for 5 min. The sample was then
further homogenized using a polytron homogenizer for
an additional 3 min to obtain a thoroughly homogenized
sample. The homogenates were centrifuge at 13000 rpm
for 15 min. The supernatant were collected and stored at
-20 °C until analysis of total phenolics, ferric reducing
antioxidant power (FRAP) and cupric reducing antioxidant
capacity (CUPRAC) activity.
Total phenol was estimated spectrophotometrically
using Folin–Ciocalteu reagent (Singleton et al. 1999).
Aliquots (100 μl) of hydrophilic extract were mixed with 2.9
ml of deionized water, 0.5 ml of Folin–Ciocalteu reagent and
2.0 ml of 20% Na2CO3 solution. The mixture was allowed
to stand for 90 min and absorption was measured at 760 nm
against a reagent blank in UV–Visible spectrophotometer.
Results were expressed as gallic acid equivalent (mg
GAE/100 g FW).
The FRAP activity was performed according to the
procedure described by Benzie and Strain (1996). FRAP
reagent was prepared by mixing 300 mM acetate buffer (pH
3.6), 10 mM TPTZ in 40 mmol HCl and 20 mmol FeCl3 in
the ratio 10:1:1 (v/v/v). Three milliliter (3 ml) of the FRAP
reagent was mixed with 100 μl aliquot of hydrophilic extract
in a test tube and vortexed in the incubator at 37°C for 30
min in a water bath. Reduction of ferric-tripyridyltriazine
to the ferrous complex formed an intense blue colour which
was measured on a UV–Visible spectrophotometer at 593
nm. Results were expressed in terms of Trolox equivalent
(μmol TE/g FW).
The cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity of root was
determined according to the method of Apak et al. (2008).
Briey, according to the protocol 100 μl of hydrophilic
extract was mixed with 1 ml each of CuCl2 solution (1.0
× 10-2 mol/l), neocuproine alcoholic solution (7.5 × 10-3
mol/l), and NH4Ac (1 mol/l, pH 7.0) buffer solution and
1 ml of water to make the nal volume 4.1 ml. After 30
min, the absorbance was recorded at 450 nm against the
reagent blank. Standard curve was prepared using different
concentration of Trolox and results were expressed in terms
of μmol TE/g FW.
The data were analysed statistically for analysis
of variance (Panse and Sukhatme 1967), estimation of
variability (Burton and DeVane 1953) and correlation (Searle
1961). The standard error for genotypes was calculated as
per Singh and Chaudhary (1977). The variability estimates
(genotypic and phenotypic variance; and genotypic and
phenotypic coefcient of variation) were worked out
through analysis of variance, while correlation coefcients
were determined by covariance and variance between traits.
Broad-sense heritability (h2b) for each trait was calculated
by multiplying the ratio of genotypic variance (Vg) to
phenotypic variance (Vp) with 100, i.e. h2b=(Vg/Vp)*100.
Moreover, genetic advance (GA) as percentage of mean
was computed through dividing the factor of square root of
phenotypic variance (Vp½), h2b and selection differential
constant (k) at 5% (i.e. 2.06) by its mean, i.e. GA as % of
mean=(Vp½* h2b*k)/mean.
Nowadays, the breeders are giving due consideration
for the improvement of nutritional qualities as well as yield
potential. Like yield, nutritional improvement in crops also
requires sufcient genetic variation for phytochemical in
the gene pool. The mean square (Table 2) showed that
total phenolics, anthocyanins, FRAP value and CUPRAC
value, and root weight of radish varied signicantly (P <
0.01) among the 24 genotypes of coloured radish. Highly
signicant mean squares for antioxidants and root weight
1603December 2017]
phytochemicals (Chander et al. 2008, Singh et al. 2011,
Mahan et al. 2013, Harakotr et al. 2015). The magnitudes of
Vp and PCV were slightly higher than their corresponding
Vg and GCV for antioxidants, but the magnitude was wider
for root weight. The lower differences between Vp and
Vg, and PCV and GCV for total phenolics, anthocyanins,
FRAP and CUPRAC activity indicate the higher role of
genotypes and lesser inuence of the environment on the
biosynthesis and accumulation of antioxidants because the
anthocyanins’ presence and content is governed by dominant
polygenes (Liang et al. 2009). While, there is considerable
impact of environments on root yield of radish indicated
by comparatively higher differences between Vp and Vg,
and PCV and GCV. The root yield is a complex trait that
depends on several growth and component traits, and various
quantitative trait loci. The respective PCV and GCV were
high for total phenolics (40.4% and 40.8%), anthocyanins
(96.5% and 97.1%), FRAP value (35.3% and 35.8%) and
CUPRAC value (30.3% and 30.9%); while it was low for
root weight (8.5% and 10.5%). The trait having greater
GCV possesses a higher magnitude of variability and thus,
presents a better possibility of exploitation for improvement
in radish through various breeding approaches. Singh et
al. (2010), Singh et al. (2011) and Harakotr et al. (2015)
also reported stronger effects of genotypes for antioxidant
enzymes in cabbage, phenols and anthocyanins in strawberry,
and antioxidant content and activity in corn, respectively.
Kumar et al. (2014) also reported higher degree of Vg and
GCV for root length and root weight in radish.
Heritable portion of variation can be deduced by
computing the heritability in broad-sense and genetic advance
as percentage of mean (Table 4). High heritability (>80%)
was estimated for total phenolics (98.1%), anthocyanins
(98.7%), FRAP value (96.9%) and CUPRAC value (95.8%).
High heritability for a trait indicates that a large portion
of phenotypic variance is contributed through genotypic
variance and therefore, a reliable selection can be made
for these traits. Moreover, moderate heritability (50-80%)
was estimated for root weight (65.7%) which indicates a
considerable inuence of environment on root development.
These ndings are getting support from estimates of
indicate the presence of sufcient natural variation among
radish genotypes that could be effectively harnessed through
various breeding approaches. The mean performance,
standard error and range (Table 3) also showed large
variation for various antioxidants; while narrow range
of variation for root weight. Total phenolics differed by
4.98-fold (12.4-61.7 mg/100 g FW), anthocyanins content
by 36.16-fold (4.6-166.3 µg/g FW), FRAP value by 4.96-
fold (1.14-5.66 µmol/g FW), CUPRAC value by 4.03-fold
(2.73-11.01 µmol/g FW) and root weight by 1.37-fold
(120.1-164.8 g) among various genotypes. Previous study
has reported that the anthocyanins content in different
radish cultivars varied from 47-530 µg/g FW (Guisti et al.
1998). Furthermore, Karmakar et al. (2013) also reported
sufcient variation for antioxidant content and activity
(total phenolics, ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, DPPH-
RSA, ABTS-RSA and CUPRAC assay) in the parents and
hybrids of ridge gourd.
There was large contribution of radish genotypes to
total variations for total phenolics (97.98%), anthocyanins
(98.90%), FRAP activity (98.44%) and CUPRAC activity
(97.91%); while medium contribution for root weight
(66.29%). These results reveal that the genotypes are main
source of variations for total phenolics, anthocyanins and
antioxidant activity in radish; hence, it would be possible
to improve the content/activity of antioxidants by selection.
In corn and strawberry too, the researchers have reported
higher contribution of genotypes to the total variations
for anthocyanin, phenols, antioxidant activity and other
Table 2 Mean squares for total phenolics, anthocyanins, FRAP
activity, CUPRAC activity and root weight in coloured
radish genotypes
Source of
df Mean square
Replication 2 5.7 32.8 0.02 0.06 184.3
Genotype 23 403.9** 4803.2** 3.73** 8.61** 511.6**
Error 46 2.6 20.8 0.04 0.12 75.8
**Signicant at P< 0.01
Table 3 Estimates of variance and coefcient of variation for total phenolics, anthocyanins, FRAP activity, CUPRAC activity and
root weight in coloured radish genotypes
Antioxidant Mean±SEm Range Difference in fold CGTV (%) Vg Vp GCV (%) PCV (%)
Total phenolics
(mg/100 g FW)
28.6±0.9 12.4-61.7 4.98 97.98 133.8 136.4 40.4 40.8
Anthocyanins (μg/g
41.4±2.6 4.6-166.3 36.16 98.90 1594.1 1615.0 96.5 97.1
FRAP activity
(μmol/g FW)
3.15±0.11 1.14-5.66 4.96 98.44 1.23 1.27 35.3 35.8
CUPRAC activity
(μmol/g FW)
5.55±0.20 2.73-11.01 4.03 97.91 2.83 2.95 30.3 30.9
Root weight (g) 141.6±5.0 120.1-164.8 1.37 66.29 145.2 221.1 8.5 10.5
FW, Fresh weight; SEm, Standard error of mean; CGTV, Contribution of genotypes to the total variation; Vg, Genotypic variance;
Vp, Phenotypic variance; GCV, Genotypic coefcient of variation; PCV, Phenotypic coefcient of variation
1604 [Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 87 (12)
coefcient of variation (GCV and PCV) reported in Table 3.
Mahan et al. (2013) also estimated high heritability (broad
and narrow sense) for total phenolic content in corn. The
efcacy and potentiality of the traits under selection could
be revealed by an assessment of genetic gain. Heritability
values along with genetic advance as percentage of mean,
together, are more useful tools for selection than either of
them alone. Genetic advance as percentage of mean ranged
from 14.2-197.4% for antioxidants and root weight in radish.
It was high for anthocyanins content (197.4%) followed by
total phenolics (82.5%), FRAP activity (65.35%), CUPRAC
activity (61.1%), and low for root weight (14.2%). In
the present study, a high heritability accompanied with
a high genetic advance for total phenolics, anthocyanins,
FRAP value and CUPRAC value clearly reect the role of
additive genes, and thus, a high genetic gain is expected
from selection and hybridization for these traits. This
nding is in accordance to Singh et al. (2011) for phenol
and anthocyanins content in strawberry. In ridge gourd too,
Karmakar et al. (2013) found the role of additive genes for
various phytonutrients and antioxidants (total phenolics,
ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, DPPH-RSA, ABTS-RSA
and CUPRAC assay). Furthermore, Mahan et al. (2013)
also observed role of additive genes for phenolic content
in corn through the estimates of narrow sense heritability
and combining ability. Moreover, root weight showed
a low genetic advance along with moderate heritability
and consequently, reected the regulation of aforesaid
trait through non-additive genes that could be harnessed
effectively through heterosis, synthetics and hybridization
in coloured radish. Present result is in concurrence with the
ndings of Kutty and Sirohi (2003), and Kumar et al. (2012)
for root weight. Realizing the importance of additive and
non-additive genes for biosynthesis of antioxidants and root
development, respectively; recurrent selection would be the
best breeding approach to improve both traits antioxidants
and root yield simultaneously.
The inter-relationship among antioxidants and root
weight was analyzed to determine the direction and
magnitude of association at the genotypic and phenotypic
levels (Table 5). Genetic associations provide basic criteria
for selection. The correlation coefcients at genotypic
level were higher in magnitude than of the corresponding
phenotypic correlation coefcients. Highly signicant
positive correlations, ranged from 0.823-0.964, were
observed for all the antioxidants, namely total phenolics,
anthocyanins, FRAP value and CUPRAC value. Previous
studies also conrmed a signicant positive correlation
among phenols, anthocyanins and antioxidants in corn
(Hu and Xu 2011, Zilic et al. 2012, Rodriguez et al. 2013,
Harakotr et al. 2015), strawberry (Singh et al. 2011) and
carrot (Koley et al. 2014). In contrast to these ndings,
Kallithraka et al. (2005) reported statistically insignicant
correlation between total anthocyanins content and
antioxidant capacity in Greek grape cultivars at harvest
stage. However, there were no correlations between
radish root weight and antioxidants (0.078-0.195) in the
present study. Nevertheless, negative correlations between
fruit weight and antioxidants were reported by Hanson
et al. (2004), Connor et al. (2005) and Karmakar et al.
(2013) in tomato, raspberry and ridge gourd, respectively.
Phenotypic correlation coefcients, in general, were slightly
lower in magnitude than of the corresponding genotypic
correlation coefcients especially for antioxidants which
indicate the lesser inuence of environmental interactions
on the genotypic expression. In this study, there was
strongest positive association between total phenolics and
anthocyanins content (0.964) because anthocyanins are the
phenolic subgroup with same biosynthetic pathway. As
anthocyanins content is directly related to total phenolics
and antioxidant activity in coloured radish, opportunity to
breed varieties/genotypes with high antioxidants is great.
In conclusion, sufcient amount of genotypic variation
were estimated for total phenolics, anthocyanins, FRAP
activity and CUPRAC activity among coloured radish
genotypes. High heritability was estimated for all the
antioxidant compounds indicated that a large portion of
Table 4 Estimates of heritability, genetic advance (GA) and GA
as percentage of mean for total phenolics, anthocyanins,
FRAP activity, CUPRAC activity and root weight in
coloured radish genotypes
Antioxidant Heritability
GA GA as percentage
of mean (%)
Total phenolics 98.1 23.6 82.5
Anthocyanins 98.7 81.7 197.4
FRAP activity 96.9 2.2 71.5
CUPRAC activity 95.8 3.4 61.1
Root weight 65.7 20.1 14.2
GA: Genetic advance
Table 5 Correlation coefficient between total phenolics,
anthocyanins, FRAP activity, CUPRAC activity and
root weight in coloured radish genotypes
Antioxidant Total
Total phe-
g0.964** 0.918** 0.940** 0.165
p0.948** 0.899** 0.908** 0.125
g 0.859** 0.908** 0.083
p 0.833** 0.882** 0.078
g 0.862** 0.195
p 0.823** 0.163
g 0.132
p 0.123
**Signicant at P< 0.01; g, Genotypic level; p, Phenotypic
1605December 2017]
variance is contributed through genotypic variance and a
reliable selection could be made for antioxidant compounds.
The signicant positive correlations among total phenolics,
anthocyanins content, FRAP value and CUPRAC value
could be used as indirect selection criteria for improving
the levels of antioxidants. Examining the involvement
of additive and non-additive genes for biosynthesis of
antioxidants and root development, respectively; recurrent
selection would be the best breeding approach to improve
the both traits antioxidant concentration and root yield
simultaneously. The information, therefore, gained from
this study could be used in future breeding programmes to
improve the yield and antioxidant levels of radish.
The authors would like to express their special thanks to
the Director, ICAR-Indian Institute of Vegetable Research,
Shahanshahpur, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India for nancial
support during the present research work. The authors
declare that there are no conicts of interest.
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... However, Central China, Central Asia and Hindustani centers of origin appear to be secondary center where differing forms were evolved during the period of domestication. Radish has numerous categories, varying in leaf morphology (lyrate, sinuate, entire); root color (white, red, purple, black); root shape (tapered, cylindrical, apically bulbous, elliptical, spherical); root size (small, medium, large); period of maturity (short, medium, long); and vernalization requirement (temperate, tropical) (Herbst 2001;Singh et al. 2017). Radish ranks high in importance and is grown commercially in China, Japan, Korea, USA, Europe, India, Pakistan, Yemen and Southeast Asian countries. ...
... Radish ranks high in importance and is grown commercially in China, Japan, Korea, USA, Europe, India, Pakistan, Yemen and Southeast Asian countries. In India, it is cultivated in one or the other parts of country almost throughout the year because of geographical distribution, heat/humid tolerant productive cultivars, economic importance and consumers' demand (Singh et al. 2017). There are many radish cultivars with different sink strengths (sink sizes) ranging from 25 to 6000 g root weight; hence this can be used as a model plant to study the effects of sink-source balance on photosynthesis and growth (Sugiura et al. 2015). ...
... The radish green is richer in nutrients than the roots. Red/pink, and purple/black color of the radish roots is due to the presence of anthocyanin pigments i.e. pelargonidine and cyanidine, respectively (Giusti and Wrolstad 1996;Singh et al. 2017). Eye-catching colorful radishes make salad elegant and nutritious . ...
Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a popular salad vegetable in tropical, subtropical and temperate regions grown for its root and soft leaves. The highest crop diversity is found in the regions running from the eastern Mediterranean to the Caspian Sea, probably the primary gene center. Radish has numerous categories, varying in leaf morphology; color, size, shape and flavor of the root; vernalization requirement and period of maturity. Ancient varieties were long and tapered rather than cylindrical, apically bulbous, elliptic or spherical. There are three independent domestication events for black Spanish radish, European cultivated forms and Asian cultivated radish. The different types of radishes arose in the various time sequences of domestication: black radishes were the earliest in cultivation, white radishes were being cultivated in Europe by the 1500s, and red and round radishes were developed in the 1700s, altogether belonging to two botanical varieties i.e. R. sativus L. var. radicula or (sativus) and R. sativus L. var. niger. Cross-pollination is high in radish due to protogyny, self-incompatibility, and open architecture and attractiveness of the flowers. The uses of sporophytic self-incompatibility (SI), cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and doubled haploids (DH) are basic tools for harnessing heterotic potential. Main emphases of radish breeding are: higher and early root yield; uniformity in shape/size/color/maturity; suitability to high temperature and rainfall conditions; longer field stay and delayed bolting; robust SI, CMS and DH lines to produce F1 hybrids; tolerance to Alternaria blight, Fusarium wilt, aphids and beetles; free from pithiness, forking and cracking; and wider adaptability. Rapidly increasing knowledge of advance biotechnological tools will provide enhanced precision and extend options in identification of cultivars and parental lines, testing genetic purity of seed, analyzing phylogenetic relationships and genetic diversity, molecular characterization of quantitative traits, and introgression of specific transgene traits.
... It has various category, broadly varying in leaf shape or leaf division incision (lyrate, sinuate, entire), root colour (white, red, purple), root shape (triangular, cylindrical, apically bulbous, elliptic), and vernalization requirement (temperate, tropical) [Singh 2021]. Coloured radishes make salad decorative and nutritious, and good source of polyphenols and anti-oxidative properties (Singh et al. 2017). Globally, the uses of F 1 hybrids of many vegetables have increased manifold during last few decades, including India. ...
... Globally, the uses of F 1 hybrids of many vegetables have increased manifold during last few decades, including India. In India, it is cultivated in one or the other parts of country almost throughout the year because of geographical distribution, heat/humid tolerant productive cultivars, economic importance and consumers' demand (Singh et al. 2017). Heterosis (hybrid vigour) is of direct interest for development and commercialization of F 1 hybrids in various vegetable crops which is being facilitated by cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) and self-incompatibility (SI) in radish. ...
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The CMS line ‘VRRAD-201’ has been registered as unique germplasm (INGR20032, IC 0625064) by ICAR-NBPGR, New Delhi. Robust CMS line ‘VRRAD-201’ is very effective in harnessing heterotic potential, developing F1 hybrids for winter and summer season cultivation, and cost-effective commercial hybrid seed production in radish.
... A lower genetic diversity of a species means less genetic variation and adaptability, which threatens its long-term survival [31,32]. The role of world genetic resources for economic use has been repeatedly emphasized by many researchers [33][34][35][36]. When creating new cultivars, the leading role belongs to the initial material for hybridization. ...
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Small radish and radish are economically important root crops that represent an integral part of a healthy human diet. The world collection of Raphanus L. root crops, maintained in the VIR genebank, includes 2810 accessions from 75 countries around the world, of which 2800 (1600 small radish, 1200 radish) belong to R. sativus species, three to R. raphanistrum, three to R. landra, and four to R. caudatus. It is necessary to systematically investigate the historical and modern gene pool of root-bearing plants of R. sativus and provide new material for breeding. The material for our research was a set of small radish and radish accessions of various ecological groups and different geographical origin, fully covering the diversity of the species. The small radish subset included 149 accessions from 37 countries, belonging to 13 types of seven varieties of European and Chinese subspecies. The radish subset included 129 accessions from 21 countries, belonging to 18 types of 11 varieties of European, Chinese, and Japanese subspecies. As a result of the evaluation of R. sativus accessions according to phenological, morphological, and biochemical analyses, a wide variation of these characteristics was revealed, which is due to the large genetic diversity of small radish and radish of various ecological and geographical origins. The investigation of the degree of variation regarding phenotypic and biochemical traits revealed adaptive stable and highly variable characteristics of R. sativus accessions. Such insights are crucial for the establishment and further use of trait collections. Trait collections facilitate germplasm use and contribute significantly to the preservation of genetic diversity of the gene pool.
... It has numerous kinds, varying in leaf division incision (lyrate, sinuate, entire, lacerate), root colour (white, red, purple, black, yellow), size (small, medium, big), shape (triangular or iciclical, cylindric, apically bulbous, elliptic) and period of maturity (short, medium, long). Coloured radishes, especially red, purple & black are good source of anthocyanins/polyphenols and have nutraceutical, colorant and anti-oxidative properties , Singh et al. 2017, Koley et al. 2020. The increasing trend for use of F 1 hybrids of many vegetables has increased manifold during the past three decades in India and many countries. ...
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Field experiments were conducted during 2018-20 to estimate the heterosis in radish (Raphanus sativus L.). The significant differences of mean squares among parents and hybrids for various traits of economic importance indicated the presence of sufficient variation. Economic heterosis for various traits of economic importance were observed during winter and summer seasons to the tune of -23.9–15.8% & 3.4–41.8% for days to first harvest, -30.2–32.4% & 5.9–95.8% for root length, -15.3–16.5% & -7.3–24.5% for leaf length, -23.1– 30.0% & -9.3–85.1% for root weight, -32.9–39.6% & -18.1– 36.4% for leaf weight, -5.3–9.7% & -15.8–40.4% for harvest index, and -24.2–33.6% & 1.8–42.8%, respectively for marketable yield. Realizing the importance of marketable root as well as consumers’ preference for sinuate/entire leaf shape during summer; the most promising CMS-based F1 hybrids are VRRAD-12×VRRAD-213, VRRAD-11×VRRAD-213, VRRAD-201×VRRAD-213, VRRAD-13×VRRAD-213 & VRRAD-12×VRRAD-200 for winter season cultivation; and VRRAD-201×VRRAD-200, VRRAD-198×VRRAD-200 & VRRAD-13×VRRAD-200 for summer season cultivation at high temperature (28.5-43.4 °C). Furthermore, the following parents are the best combiners for harnessing the heterotic potential such as VRRAD-12 & VRRAD-201 as female and VRRAD-213 & VRRAD-200 as male for winter season; and VRRAD-201 & VRRAD-19 as female and heat tolerant line VRRAD-200 as male parent for summer season.
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Cultivated genotypes of leafy chenopod evaluated for plant growth; yield potential; dry matter; and concentration of phytochemicals such as total carotenoids, vitamin C, total phenolics and antioxidant ability expressed in the form of CUPRAC activity which is developed at ICAR-IIVR, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. Plant height at flowering stage, biomass yield potential and dry matter content ranged from 169.8-214.1 cm, 31.2-43.3 t/ha and 13.4-16.3%, respectively. The content of phytochemicals i.e. total carotenoids (26.7-71.3 mg/100 g FW), vitamin C (108.4-149.7 mg/100 g FW), total phenolics (191.8-292.6 mg GAE/100 g FW) and CUPRAC antioxidant ability (27.4-43.2 ìmol TE/g FW) is higher in green leafed genotypes than purplish-green genotypes to the tune of 99.2%, 15.1%, 23.5%, 31.8%, respectively. In Amaranthaceae family, red/purple colour of plant parts is due to presence of betalain pigments and their presence in purplish-green leafed genotypes of leafy chenopod might be possible reason for lower values of phytochemicals/ antioxidants; and hence, green leafed cultivars should be promoted for commercial utilization.
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Carrot (Daucus carota L.) is one of the main root vegetables rich in bioactive compounds with appreciable health-promoting properties, largely consumed in Algeria. In the current study, the storage effect (at 4 °C throughout 12 days) on bioactive compound stability and the antioxidant activity of two Algerian orange carrot varieties (Supermuscade and Touchon) were investigated. Total phenolic content of samples was determined by the Folin–Ciocâlteu method. Antioxidant capacity was determined spectrophotometrically, based on the evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging Activity (FRSA) using DPPH radical and Ferric Reducing Power (FRP). The results showed that the Touchon variety is richer in phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids and presents higher antioxidant activity in comparison with the Supermuscade variety. At the end of storage, the bioactive compound content and antiradical activity increased significantly (p < 0.05). Also, an extremely significant correlation (p < 0.001) was observed between the antioxidant contents and the antioxidant capacities of aqueous carrot extracts.
Vegetables are essential protective diet ingredients that supply ample amounts of minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, proteins, dietary fiber, and various nutraceutical compounds for protection against various disease conditions. Color is the most important quality parameter for the farmers to access the harvest maturity while for the consumer's reliable indices to define acceptability or rejection. The colored vegetables contain functional compounds like chlorophylls, carotenoids, betalains, anthocyanins, etc. well recognized for their anti-oxidant, anti-microbial, hypolipidemic, neuroprotective, anti-aging, diuretic, and anti-diabetic properties. Recently, there has been a shift in food consumption patterns from processed to semi-processed or fresh fruits and vegetables to ensure a healthy disease-free life. This shifted the focus of agriculture scientists and food processors from food security to nutrition security. This has resulted in recent improvements to existing crops like blue tomato, orange cauliflower, colored/black carrots, with improved color, and thus enriched bioactive compounds. Exhaustive laboratory trials though are required to document and establish their minimum effective concentrations, bioavailability, and specific health benefits. Efforts should also be directed to breed color-rich cultivars or to improve the existing varieties through conventional and molecular breeding approaches. The present review has been devoted to a better understanding of vegetable colors with specific health benefits and to provide in-hand information about the effect of specific pigment on body organs, the effect of processing on their bioavailability, and recent improvements in colors to ensure a healthy lifestyle.
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Microgreens are the seedlings of herbs and vegetables which are harvested at the development stage of their two cotyledonary leaves, or sometimes at the emergence of their rudimentary first pair of true leaves. They are functional foods, the consumption of which is steadily increasing due to their high nutritional value. The species of the Brassicaceae family are good sources of bio-active compounds, with a favorable nutritional profile. The present study analyzed some phyto-chemical compounds with nutritional values, such as chlorophylls, polyphenols, carotenoids, an-thocyanins, ascorbic acid, total and reducing sugars, and the antioxidant activity of five Brassicaceae species: broccoli (Brassica oleracea L.), daikon (Raphanus raphanistrum subsp. sativus (L.) Domin), mustard (Brassica juncea (L.) Czern.), rocket salad (Eruca vesicaria (L.) Cav.), and watercress (Nastur-tium officinale R.Br.). Broccoli had the highest polyphenol, carotenoid and chlorophyll contents, as well as a good antioxidant ability. Mustard was characterized by high ascorbic acid and total sugar contents. By contrast, rocket salad exhibited the lowest antioxidant content and activity. The essential oil (EO) composition of all of these species was determined in order to identify their profile and isothiocyanates content, which are compounds with many reported health benefits. Isothiocyanates were the most abundant group in broccoli (4-pentenyl isothiocyanate), mustard (allyl isothiocya-nate), and watercress (benzyl isothiocyanate) EOs, while rocket salad and daikon exhibited higher contents of monoterpene hydrocarbons (myrcene) and oxygenated diterpenes (phytol), respectively. Broccoli microgreens exhibited the overall best nutritional profile, appearing as the most promising species to be consumed as a functional food among those analyzed.
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Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most important vegetable having year round demand and consumed fresh, cooked or processed. It occupies maximum area under vegetables in India. The consumption of onion has been associated with many health benefits. The genetic improvement work mainly focused on improving yield and there has been little effort on improving quality traits. Therefore, information on variability, heritability and trait association of phytochemicals content, antioxidant activity and bulb traits are lacking. The present study was conducted to bridge the gap and generate information on these aspects. A total of eight quality traits and four bulb traits were analyzed in 22 onion genotypes of five different skin colour. The genotypes were procured from diverse geographic region. The total soluble solids content (TSS), pungency, total phenol, flavonoids content, and antioxidant activities as estimated through CUPRAC and FRAP in the onion varieties varied from 10.13-16.65 °Brix, 4.67-12.28 μmol Pyruvic acid/g FW, 740.67-1145.33 μg Gallic acid equivalent/ml, 31.67-465.0 μg Quercetin equivalent/ml, 2.23-5.14 μmol Trolox/g and 1.60-4.63 μmole Trolox/g, respectively. There was less difference between phenotypic and genotypic components of variance for pungency, total phenols, antioxidant activity and juice recovery, suggesting greater role of genotype in the expression of quality traits and better scope of improvement for these traits. The high heritability estimates (>75%) for bulb diameter, total phenols, flavonoids, pungency and antioxidant activity, and higher value of genotypic correlation coefficient over phenotypic coefficient supports greater role of genotype in the expression of quality traits. The high estimate of heritability and comparatively, low estimate of genetic advance and genetic gain suggest the role of both additive and non-additive gene action. Thus hybridization and selection would be the best strategy to improve quality traits in Indian onion genotypes. Future breeding attempt to develop onion varieties with higher health benefits should focus on medium sized varieties without compromising on yield.
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As our understanding of the science and functions of color in food has increased, the preferred colorants, forms of use, and legislation regulating their uses have also changed. Natural Colorants for Food and Nutraceutical Uses reflects the current tendency to use natural pigments. It details their science, technology, and applications as well as their nutraceutical properties. Starting with the basics, the book creates an understanding of physical colors, discusses color measurement, and analyzes why natural pigments are preferred today. The authors present an overview of global colorants, including safety, toxicity and regulatory aspects. Information about inorganic and synthetic colorants is included. The book then focuses on applications of natural colorants, with special attention given to characteristics, extraction and processing stability, and the use of biotechnology and molecular biology to increase colorant production. Finally, the book examines the nutraceutical properties of natural colorants and compares them to other well-known nutraceutical components. From the basics to highly specialized concepts and applications, Natural Colorants for Food and Nutraceutical Uses presents essential, practical information about pigments in the food industry. With its coverage of state-of-the-art technologies and future trends in the application of color to food, this book provides the most comprehensive, up-to-date survey of the field.
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Anthocyanins are one of the largest and most important group of watersoluble pigments in most species in the plant kingdom. They are accumulated in cell vacuoles and are largely responsible for diverse pigmentation from orange to red, purple and blue in flowers, fruits, such as: blackberry, red and black raspberries, blueberries, bilberries, cherries, currants, blood orange, elderberries, grapes, and vegetables such as: red onion, radish, red cabbage, red lettuce, eggplant, red-skinned potato and purple sweet potato. Anthocyanins in fruits and vegetables are present in glycosylated forms. The qualitative and quantitative determination of anthocyanins in plant can be performed by classical (spectrophotometric) or contemporary methods - HPLC coupled with a various types of mass spectrometers or NMR apparatus. Anthocyanins are widely ingested by humans, mainly due to consumption of fruits, vegetables and red wines. Depending on the nutritional habits, the daily intake of anthocyanins for individuals has been estimated from several milligrams to hundreds of milligrams per person. Anthocyanins as well as other flavonoids occuring in fruits, and vegetables are protective against a variety of diseases, particularly cardiovascular disease and some types of cancer. Also the visual acuity can be markedly improved through administration of anthocyanin pigments to animals and humans.
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There is a need to study variability and divergence for horticultural traits in temperate radishes (Raphanus sativus L.) to develop new cultivars for commercial cultivation in Himachal Pradesh. The study was carried out at the Experimental Farm of the Department of Vegetable Science, Dr. Y.S. Parmar University of Horticulture and Forestry, Nauni, Solan, India, during the months of September–January in 2009–2010. Plant material consisted of 35 temperate environment radish genotypes. Observations were made on plant emergence, days to marketable maturity, number of leaves, leaf length, leaf width, root color, root shape, root/top ratio, root length, root diameter, average root weight, crown diameter, dry matter, and contents of total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, total sugar, and fiber. Genotype affected all characters. Genotype CGN-17290 had 51% more yield over the check ‘White Icicle’ and performed better for plant emergence, days to marketable maturity, leaf length, leaf width, root/top ratio, root length, dry matter, average root weight, and fiber content. Genotypes CGN-23811, CGN-11997, and CGN-11994 performed better than the check for total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, and total sugar. High coefficients of variability (phenotypic and genotypic) were found for root length, average root weight, total soluble solids, root/top ratio, fiber content, and total sugar, indicating close association between phenotype and genotypes. High heritability (h 2), with moderate to high coefficients of variability, and genetic gain were recorded for all characters except plant emergence and days to marketable maturity, indicating a role of additive gene action for their inheritance and the possibility of improvement through selection. There was moderate genetic divergence among genotypes. Genotypes could be grouped into four clusters. The highest intercluster distance was between clusters II and IV, and hybridization between entries in these clusters can be utilized for developing transgressive segregants in subsequent generations. Variety CGN-17290 appeared to be the best genotype, followed by ‘CGN-23811’, ‘CGN-11997’, and ‘CGN-11994’, for yield and quality characters of temperate radishes and can be used in breeding programs to improve yield and quality of temperate radishes.
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Variance components and narrow-sense heritabilities were estimated for antioxidant activity (AA), total phenolic content (TPH), and fruit weight in red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) fruit from offspring of a factorial mating design. Forty-two full-sib families utilizing seven female and six male parents were evaluated in each of two years in Motueka, New Zealand. In a single year, values within individual half-sib families ranged as widely as 25.3–79.4 µg·g –1 fruit for AA, 205–597 mg/100 g fruit for TPH, and 1.06–7.69 g for fruit weight. Analyses of variance for these three variates demonstrated signifi cant parental source variation in both individual and combined year analyses. For AA and TPH, female parental effects accounted for ≈7% to 19% of total variation, while male effects accounted for ≈6% to 8%. A partially pigment defi cient R. parvifolius L. derivative female parent accounted for some of these differences. Female × male parent interaction was not signifi cant for AA and TPH and was marginally signifi cant for fruit weight in combined year analysis. Year had a signifi cant effect on the overall mean AA and TPH, but contributed less than genetic effects to the overall variation in all three traits. Interactions of year with genetic effects were not statistically signifi cant for AA or TPH, indicating that between-year rank or scale changes among families were negligible. The largest propor-tion of variation was found within rather than among full-sib families. However, variation among plots within full-sib families accounted for 12% to 19% of total variation, indicating environmental differences accounted for some of the observed within-family variation in AA and TPH. Antioxidant activity and TPH were highly phenotypically correlated (r = 0.93); their genetic correlation (r = 0.59) implies that substantial additive genetic factors underlie the phenotypic correlation, but that nonadditive genetic or environmental infl uences are also important. Both AA and TPH were weakly negatively phenotypically correlated with fruit weight (r = –0.34 and –0.33, respectively), but the corresponding genetic correlations were close to zero. Thus, selection for both high AA or TPH and high fruit weight is possible. Narrow-sense heritability estimates based on variance components from combined year data were h 2 = 0.54, 0.48, and 0.77 for AA, TPH, and fruit weight, respectively. These estimates imply a rapid response to selection is possible. Fruit and vegetables supply to the human diet "non-nutrient" compounds as well as providing macro-and micro-nutrients. Included among the non-nutrient substances are polyphenolic com-pounds, including the fl avonoids (e.g., anthocyanins, fl avanols, fl avonols, fl avanones), as well as simple phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids. These polyphenolics and simple phenolics are present only in plant food sources of our diets and are thought to have a role in maintaining human health. Most epidemiological studies support the hypothesis that higher intakes of fl avonoids are associated with lowered risk of acquiring or dying from certain chronic diseases in a number of populations (Commenges et al., 2000; Geleijnse et al., 2002; Hertog et al., 1997; Hirvonen et al., 2001; Knekt et al., 2002). In vitro and in vivo studies provide further evidence of the bioactivity of these compounds (for review, see Middleton et al., 2000). The mechanisms by which phenolic compounds confer their benefi ts are not entirely known, but appear to be due, in part, to their antioxidant activity (AA). Increased consumption of antioxidants has been shown to alleviate some of the adverse effects that are associated with cellular and tissue oxidation. For example, dietary inclusion of high-antioxidant Received for publication 3 Oct. 2004. Accepted for publication 27 Nov. 2004. We thank Patricia Harris-Virgin and Laura Barnett for technical assistance. Funding for this work was from the New Zealand Foundation of Research Science and Technology project number CO6X0214 (Emerging Horticultural Export Crops programme).
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Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) is among the most widely consumed vegetables worldwide and an important source of certain antioxidants (AO) including lycopene, β-carotene, and vitamin C. Improvement of tomato for content of AO and overall antioxidant activity (AOA) could potentially benefit human health in many countries. We evaluated 50 L. esculentum and three L. pimpinellifolium (L.) Mill. entries for contents of lycopene, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, total phenolics, and two assays for antioxidant activity [anti-radical power (ARP) and inhibition of lipid peroxidation (ILP)] for 2 years during the same period in south Taiwan. We detected high levels of genetic diversity for the AO and AOA measured in this study. Group means of the L. pimpinellifolium entries were significantly higher than L. esculentum group means for ARP, ILP, lycopene, ascorbic acid, phenolics, and soluble solids concentration, suggesting that introgression of alleles from L. pimpinellifolium may have potential to improve cultivated tomato for these traits. Ranking of entries for ILP and ARP were consistent between years, particularly for those entries with the highest means and these assays could be adopted by tomato breeders. Results from ILP and ARP assays were highly correlated (r = 0.82**) and it would be unnecessary to use both assays for tomato. Lycopene, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, soluble solids, and total phenolics were all positively correlated with ARP. Among AO, total phenolics content was most closely associated with ARP (r = 0.90**) and ILP (r = 0.83**); this suggests that phenolics make a major contribution to AOA in tomato fruit. Fruit size was negatively correlated with ARP (r = -0.74**) and ILP (r = -0.71**), indicating that combining large fruit size and high AOA will be challenging.
Identification of germplasm sources of waxy corn (Zea mays L. var. ceratina) with high variability for anthocyanins, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity is an important phase for waxy corn breeding for improvement of useful phytochemicals. The objectives of this study were to evaluate 49 genotypes of waxy corn for color parameters, monomeric anthocyanin content (MAC) and total phenolic content (TPC), and antioxidant activities. The experiment was conducted under field conditions in a randomized complete block design with three replications for two seasons in the rainy and the dry season 2010. Corn genotypes and seasons were significantly different (P ≤ 0.01) for most traits under study except for TPC. Variations due to genotype were large for all characters, accounting for 74.43-95.70 % of total variations. The interactions between genotype and season were significant for all characters. Forty-nine corn genotypes were divided into four groups based on antioxidants and their activities. Significant and positive correlations were found among the anthocyanins, phenolics, and antioxidant activities, and correlation coefficients between anthocyanins with 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging ability and Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays were high (r = 0.94 and 0.88, respectively). All of the Hunterlab color parameters, including chroma and hue angle were highly correlated with anthocyanins, phenolics and their activities and therefore could be used as indirect selection criteria for improving levels of antioxidants and antioxidant activity in waxy corn.
Maize (Zea mays L.) genetic diversity includes an array of kernel colors (red, blue, and purple), which are minimally used specialty corns when compared to yellow and white types commonly grown. Plant pigments are antioxidant phytochemicals produced as secondary metabolites. Antioxidants have been linked to various anticancer and other anti-inflammatory health benefits. Alternate colors have been the subject of little breeding research, including the potential for high grain yield and high phenolic content from the same hybrid. We evaluated 84 maize hybrids from an 11-parent diallel mating design, many of which were developed in Texas and lacked sufficient characterization. A high narrow-sense heritability of 0.80 as well as very little genotype x environment (GxE) variation (4%) was observed for total phenolics. Because of low residual error, our trait analysis procedure proved robust in detecting and separating genotypes across diverse environments. Top combiners for phenolics were the purple 'Maiz Morado' with levels nearly twice as high as the red lines, the next highest. Maiz Morado's dark purple phenotype was visually dominant, masking all other colors, but complemented each parent's total phenolics. High per kernel antioxidants (as measured by total phenolics) and not top grain yield may be an option for producing the most total phenolics content. In the current study, the top colored hybrid yielded greater than twice the total phenolics as the top grain yellow hybrid.
and in many instances the estimate of a phenotypic correlation is reported smaller in magnitude than that of the corresponding genetic correlation, e.g. with certain poultry records, in Lerner & Cruden [1948], sheep records in Morley [1951] and with certain dairy records in VanVleck [1960] and Searle [1961]. Such results may seem a little unexpected at first sight since phenotype includes genotype and one might anticipate the correlation between phenotypes to be larger than that between genotypes. When estimates have not followed this pattern the explanation is sometimes given that a phenotypic correlation less than a genetic correlation is the result of a negative environmental correlation in the records of the two traits. This paper investigates the relationship between these three correlations on the basis of a linear model, and demonstrates the situations in which this explanation is correct. Other comparisons are also made.