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The Global E-waste Monitor 2017 is a collaborative effort of the United Nations University (UNU) represented through its Vice-Rectorate in Europe hosted Sustainable Cycles (SCYCLE) Programme, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and the International Solid Waste Association (ISWA). This report provides the most comprehensive overview of global e-waste statistics and an unprecedented level of detail, including an overview of the magnitude of the e-waste problem in different regions. The report includes up-to-date information on the amounts of e-waste generated and recycled, makes predictions until 2021, and provides information on the progress made in terms of e-waste legislation. The e-waste volumes are indicative of the recycling industry’s potential to recover secondary resources, as well as setting environmental targets for detoxification. The report highlights the need for better e-waste data and information for policymakers to track progress, identify the need for action, and to achieve sustainable development, including the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
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... globally increased from 33.8 Million metric tons in the year 2010 to 44.7 Million metric tons in 2016 and is expected to increase to 52.2 million metric tons in 2021 (Baldé et al. 2017) with most coming from Asia (Baldé et al. 2015). ...
... For instance, it is estimated that e-waste contains about 7% of the world's gold (World Economic Forum 2019). Implementation of proper e-waste management is linked to the achievement of six (6) SDGs (Goals 3, 6, 8, 11, 12 and 14) (Baldé et al. 2017). Following the global interest in the informal e-waste recycling activities in Ghana, particularly, at the Agbogbloshie e-waste site in Accra, the Government of Ghana with support from Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs), Development Partners and Research Institutions has implemented interventions to minimize the negative impacts of the informal recycling activities. ...
... In recent years, the consumption of electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) has increased mostly in developed countries due to increased domestic and industrial utilization (Prakash et al. 2010), falling prices and the relatively shorter replacement cycles of EEE equipment (Baldé et al. 2017). This has led to the generation of large volume of different electrical and electronic waste (e-waste) streams on a daily basis. ...
Article
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In recent times, increasing attention of academic and political discussion is directed at issues of time and cost. The incidence of time and cost overruns have always been found to have their attendant cost consequences on construction projects and this has made the problem of time and cost overruns of international concern. Using survey and historical design approaches, this study therefore examines time and cost models for road projects in Nigeria. The purpose of this research was to develop construction model for predicting time and cost performance of road projects in Ondo and Ekiti states. The study adopted purposive/judgemental sampling technique. A total of 131 completed set of questionnaire were retrieved from the construction practitioners out of 188 administered, while archival data on completed road projects executed between 2003 and 2013 were also sourced. Percentile and regression correlation were used to assess cost and time performance of road projects. The results revealed that the average rate of cost overrun of road projects in Ondo state is 2.53% while that of Ekiti state is 1.79%; also time overruns is experienced at the average rate of 26.32% and 19.92% for Ondo and Ekiti states respectively. Keywords: Ekiti state, Ondo state, Road construction projects in Nigeria, Time and cost model
... The widespread use of personal electronics and electrical appliances has generated a substantial amount of electronic waste worldwide. The growth of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is expected to increase by 1.48 million tons per year under the current projected growth rate scenario, and the global e-waste generation is anticipated to reach 74.7 million tons by 2030 (Baldé et al., 2017). Despite its steady growth, only around 20% of e-waste is recycled, the rest is disposed of in local landfills, or worse, being transported to developing nations illegally as used goods, which might get processed with sub-standard practices, such as open-burning, for the metallic content recovery (Baldé et al., 2017). ...
... The growth of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is expected to increase by 1.48 million tons per year under the current projected growth rate scenario, and the global e-waste generation is anticipated to reach 74.7 million tons by 2030 (Baldé et al., 2017). Despite its steady growth, only around 20% of e-waste is recycled, the rest is disposed of in local landfills, or worse, being transported to developing nations illegally as used goods, which might get processed with sub-standard practices, such as open-burning, for the metallic content recovery (Baldé et al., 2017). Several environmental studies have detected a variety of dioxin-related compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls in the local soil deposit in the vicinity of the open-burning sites in developing nations such as Ghana (Fujimori et al., 2016) and India (Awasthi et al., 2016). ...
... All experiments contained an initial (T 0 ) sample to ensure no Cu (or WPCB) powder was carried over from the previous trial. The Faradaic efficiency FE (A,C) was calculated based on the amount of Cu oxidized or reduced, which was quantified by ICP-MS, using equation (Baldé et al., 2017): ...
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The continuous growth of e-waste necessitates an efficient method to recover their metal contents to improve their recycling rate. The successful recovery of the metallic component from Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) can generate great economic benefits to incentivize the industrial recycling effort. In this study, we report the use of slurry electrolysis (SE) in pH-neutral ethylene glycol (EG) electrolyte to extract and recover the metallic component from waste printed circuit broad (WPCB) powder. The system operates at room temperature and atmospheric pressure, and the electrolyte can be recycled multiple times with no signs of chemical degradation. The EG electrolyte system can oxidize the metallic component without triggering anodic gas evolution, which allowed us to incorporate a reticulated vitreous carbon (RVC) foam anode to maximize the capture and oxidation of the metal content. The system demonstrated up to 99.1% Faraday efficiency for the cathodic metal deposition and could recover Cu from the WPCB powder in a selective manner of 59.7% in the presence of 12 other metals. The SE reaction system was also scalable and displayed no compromises on the Cu recovery selectivity. With the ability to leach and recover metallic content from WPCB in a mild and chemically benign condition, the SE system displayed much promise to be adapted for industrial-scale metal recovery from WPCB.
... The widespread use of personal electronics and electrical appliances has generated a substantial amount of electronic waste worldwide. The growth of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is expected to increase by 1.48 million tons per year under the current projected growth rate scenario, and the global e-waste generation is anticipated to reach 74.7 million tons by 2030 (Baldé et al., 2017). Despite its steady growth, only around 20% of e-waste is recycled, the rest is disposed of in local landfills, or worse, being transported to developing nations illegally as used goods, which might get processed with sub-standard practices, such as open-burning, for the metallic content recovery (Baldé et al., 2017). ...
... The growth of Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (WEEE) is expected to increase by 1.48 million tons per year under the current projected growth rate scenario, and the global e-waste generation is anticipated to reach 74.7 million tons by 2030 (Baldé et al., 2017). Despite its steady growth, only around 20% of e-waste is recycled, the rest is disposed of in local landfills, or worse, being transported to developing nations illegally as used goods, which might get processed with sub-standard practices, such as open-burning, for the metallic content recovery (Baldé et al., 2017). Several environmental studies have detected a variety of dioxin-related compounds and polychlorinated biphenyls in the local soil deposit in the vicinity of the open-burning sites in developing nations such as Ghana (Fujimori et al., 2016) and India (Awasthi et al., 2016). ...
... All experiments contained an initial (T 0 ) sample to ensure no Cu (or WPCB) powder was carried over from the previous trial. The Faradaic efficiency FE (A,C) was calculated based on the amount of Cu oxidized or reduced, which was quantified by ICP-MS, using equation (Baldé et al., 2017): ...
... Industrialization in many developing countries, increase of good and services consumption, and people's attraction to new technologies (e.g., tablets and cellphones) result in growing waste generation [56][57][58]. Increasing household waste not only affects the environment but also threatens human health [59]. Electronic waste (E-waste) refers to all elements of electrical and electronic apparatus and its parts that are disposed of as waste without the intent of reuse [57], and it is one of the fastest-growing waste streams in the world in terms of volume and environmental impact on the planet [58]. ...
... Increasing household waste not only affects the environment but also threatens human health [59]. Electronic waste (E-waste) refers to all elements of electrical and electronic apparatus and its parts that are disposed of as waste without the intent of reuse [57], and it is one of the fastest-growing waste streams in the world in terms of volume and environmental impact on the planet [58]. ...
... What is more alarming is that the global waste is expected to grow to 3.4 billion tonnes by 2050, more than double population growth over the same period [60]. The total E-waste generated worldwide was approximately 41.8 million metric tonnes in 2014 (5.9 kg/inhabitant) and 44.7 million metric tonnes in 2016 [57]. In fact, the estimated annual E-waste growth rate situates around 3-5% [61], and even more disturbing, estimates indicate that the E-waste could increase more than 33% during the next decade [56]. ...
Article
This paper presents a systematic review of the research literature that applies quantitative techniques to inform incentive programs and policies promoting pro-environmental behavior and technology adoption among individual consumers. The paper points out that, while the number of active incentive programs is large, there is a dire need for scientific advances that could increase their impact in calculated ways. The expertise of the operations research and management science community, as well as industrial, systems, civil, and environmental engineering experience, appears to be particularly well suited to support such effort. The review covers the research work performed in three areas of practical importance: efficient energy consumption, waste management, and stormwater management. The types of analytical models and data analysis techniques developed to support policy-making in each area are summarized, highlighting the imbalance between the descriptive versus prescriptive contributions made to date.
... At the same time, the increasing growth and accumulation of e-waste also places a heavy burden upon the environment, which has already received a great deal of attention [1]. Globally, 44.7 million tons of e-waste was produced in 2016, which grew to 49.80 million tons in 2018, and it is estimated that the number will reach 52.2 million tons by 2021, with a growth rate of 3% to 4% per year [2][3][4]. ...
... The homemade plasma pyrolysis device consists of three electrodes with a three-phase AC power supplier connected to them. Figure 1 presents the illustration of the three-phase AC arc plasma device, including power supplier (4), gas supplier (2), cooling system (Not shown in the illustration), and sample collection system (3). Graphite rods (6) are used as electrodes, copper tubes (7) are used to connect the graphite electrodes with the power supplier, and polytetrafluoroethylene (Teflon, 8) is used for electrode jackets for insulation between the electrodes and reactor walls. ...
Article
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Accumulation of electronic waste (e-waste) will place a heavy burden on the environment without proper treatment; however, most ingredients contained in it are useful, and it could bring great economic benefits when recycled. A three-phase alternating current (AC) arc plasma pyrolysis device was designed for resourcing treatment of waste printed circuit boards (WPCBs). This paper focuses on the analysis of plasma pyrolysis gas products, and the results showed that the plasma could operate stably, and overcame the problems of the poor continuity and low energy of single-arc discharge. Air-plasma would generate NOx contaminants, burn the organics, and oxidize the metals; therefore, air had not been selected as a working gas. Ar-plasma can break the long chains of organic macromolecules to make a combustible gas. Moreover, the strong adhesion between the metals and fiberglass boards would be destroyed, which facilitates subsequent separation. Ar/H2-plasma promoted the decrease of carbon dioxide and the increase of combustible small molecular hydrocarbons in the pyrolysis product compared with Ar-plasma, and the increase of the H2 flow rate or plasma power intensified that promotion effect. The percentage of other components, except the hydrogen of CO2, CO, CH4, C2H4, and C3H6, accounted for 55.7%, 34.2%, 5.6%, 4.5%, and 0% in Ar-plasma, and changed to 35.0%, 29.0%, 11.2%, 24.3%, and 0.5% in Ar/H2-plasma. Ar/H2-plasma could provide a highly chemically active species and break chemical bonds in organic macromolecules to produce small molecules of combustible gas. This laboratory work presents a novel three-phase AC arc plasma device and a new way for recycling WPCBs with high value.
... The massive generation of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has displayed exponential growth with a rate of more than 3-5% annually. In 2016, the global amount of electronic waste, so called e-waste, was approximately 44.7 million metric tons (Mt) and has reached 57 Mt in 2021 [3,4]. Printed circuit boards (PCBs) are a major and critical constituent of electrical and electronic equipment [5] and the resultant waste PCBs (WPCBs) account for approximately 3-6 wt.% of total e-waste [6,7]. ...
The rapid pace of innovations and the frequency of replacement of electrical and electronic equipment has made waste printed circuit boards (WPCB) one of the fastest growing waste streams. The frequency of replacement of equipment can be caused by a limited time of proper functioning and increasing malfunctions. Resource utilization of WPCBs have become some of the most profitable companies in the recycling industry. To facilitate WPCB recycling, several advanced technologies such as pyrometallurgy, hydrometallurgy and biometallurgy have been developed. Bioleaching uses naturally occurring microorganisms and their metabolic products to recover valuable metals, which is a promising technology due to its cost-effectiveness, environmental friendliness, and sustainability. However, there is sparse comprehensive research on WPCB bioleaching. Therefore, in this work, a short review was conducted from the perspective of potential microorganisms, bioleaching mechanisms and parameter optimization. Perspectives on future research directions are also discussed.
... Therefore, electronic devices are now phased out faster or even before the end of their actual life-cycles. A global e-waste monitoring report by Balde et al. (2017) says that the amount of e-waste around the globe was 44.7 million metric tonnes (MMT) in 2016; this amount is estimated to increase to 52.2 MMT by 2021. An individual, on average, generated 6.1 kg of e-waste in 2016 and is expected to generate 6.8 kg a year by 2021. ...
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... Rather, E-waste refers to electronic and electrical appliances that are discarded by their consumers and are no longer considered value unless they are recovered and recycled. Generally, E-waste covers six waste categories as shown in Fig. 1. [23]. Major categories of EEE contemplated in different shops in developing and developed countries are television and accessories (include television, receiver cables, decoder, DVD player, satellite dish); computer and accessories (such as laptops, computer speakers, computer, desktop computers, CD-R, CD-RW & DVD, notebooks, hard drives, USB sticks, CDMA sticks, printers, keyboards & mouse); Mobile devices and accessories (for instance mobile phone batteries, headsets, mobile chargers (separate), mobile phones) and other electronic objects (like radios, power adaptor, tape recorders, power cables, stoves, washing machines, ironing machine, air conditioner, power dividers, men and women beauty appliances, varieties types of lamps, refrigerators, juice maker, dry cell batteries, coffee grinder, rechargeable batteries, kettles, and vacuum cleaners). ...
Article
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Electrical and electronic waste (E-waste) production are not only increasing enormously every day but also continue to pollute water and soil which are very essential elements to assert life completely and crucial to sustainable development and prosperity. With the emergence of information and communication technology (ICT), people are excited to explore emerging innovations, contributing robust demand for and the use of today’s electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). Due to the lack of a precise management and disposal approach, the expired EEE are rapidly discarded as E-waste in mass and dumped in an inapt landfill or stowed where large soil areas are available, such as near industries, institutions, etc. In addition, the majority of those areas are near to the water table and other watercourses. These induce soil and water to be unsuitable for different purposes due to harmful toxic metals. Consequently, they are leading harsh health and environmental problems in developing countries and to some extent in developed countries. This review paper compiles E-waste categories and their effects, as well as soil and water contamination processes, and also advocates viable remediation technology.
... Owing to the increasing demand for display devices, such as televisions, monitors, mobile phones, and other electronics, a large amount of waste liquid-crystal display (LCD) glass has been generated in recent years. In particular, most of the LCD panels are produced in East Asian countries [19], and 44.7 million tons of waste monitor was generated in 2017, increasing with time [20]. The waste LCD glass satisfies the chemical requirements (SiO 2 , Al 2 O 3 , and Fe 2 O 3 ) of a pozzolanic material, as specified in ASTM C618 [21], and most of it is composed of amorphous phases. ...
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In this study, a strain-hardening geopolymer mortar, based on waste liquid-crystal display (LCD) glass and ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS), was first developed by incorporating 2% polyethylene (PE) fibers. The influence of silica sand content on the packing density, porosity, fiber/matrix interfacial bond, compressive strength, and tensile performance of the geopolymer composites was also investigated. The test results indicated that the compressive and tensile strengths of the geopolymer increased with the addition of silica sand and by increasing its content up to a sand-to-binder (S/B) ratio of 1.0, which is related to the increased packing density. The total porosity of the geopolymer was insignificantly influenced by the silica sand (8.5%–9.15%), whereas the air voids and volumes of gel pores and mesopores were effectively decreased due to the addition of silica sand. However, the pseudo strain-hardening capability deteriorated when the silica sand content exceeded a certain value, that is, the S/B ratio of 0.3, causing significantly lower strain capacity and energy. The highest strain energy density of 227 kJ/m3 was achieved in the geopolymer mortar with the S/B ratio of 0.2, which is approximately 13% higher than that of the geopolymer paste. Both the strain capacity and energy absorption capacity were inversely correlated to the compressive strength, implying that achieving pseudo strain-hardening characteristics is more difficult for (ultra-) high-strength geopolymer composites than for normal-strength composites.
Article
Rare earth elements (REEs) are among the important elements in various high-technological appliances globally. Recently, the recovery of REEs from the waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) has gained significant interest for the sustainability of global electrical and electronic industrial markets. The fast evolving and rapid changing of technology has made many of these hi-tech equipment become obsolete with high disposal rates. Rising concerns over the depletion of REE sources has led to the need to extract and recover the REEs from WEEE. However, many studies still need to be carried out to optimize the recovery processes of the REEs in terms of the extraction methods employed and to minimize the environmental impact and hazard towards the flora and fauna. This review outlines the various REEs available in a wide range of electrical and electronic equipment, the various types of REE recovery methods, as well as their environmental impacts. The future perspectives and research directions in terms of the circular economy, policy and regulatory framework and research roadmap for REE recovery from WEEE are also discussed.
Article
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Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is difficult to sustainably manage. One key issue is the challenge of planning for WEEE flows as current and future quantities of waste are difficult to predict. To address this, WEEE generation and gross domestic product (GDP) data from 50 countries of the pan-European region were assessed. A high economic elasticity was identified, indicating that WEEE and GDP are closely interlinked. More detailed analyses revealed that GDP at purchasing power parity (GDP PPP) is a more meaningful measure when looking at WEEE flows, as a linear dependency between WEEE generation and GDP PPP was identified. This dependency applies to the whole region, regardless of the economic developmental stage of individual countries. In the pan-European region, an increase of 1000 international $ GDP PPP means an additional 0.5 kg WEEE is generated that requires management.
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The seriousness of e-waste problem is down to three realities: exponential increase in total amount, environmental degradation and health complications. A call for sustainable e-waste management is no longer a utopian ambition but an absolute necessity. In accordance to that, this study aims to evaluate e-waste management practices in three Asian countries: Japan, Taiwan, and Malaysia, and consequently propose recommendations and insights for Malaysia on how to manage e-waste in a sustainable manner. The comparative analysis is conducted based on three central aspects comprising governance, infrastructure, and stakeholders' participation. The outcome of this study indicates that e-waste management needs to be initiated by comprehensive regulations that are focussed on proper e-waste handling and stakeholders' accountability. Besides, it has to be accompanied by robust infrastructure where appropriate mechanisms and effective enforcement are taking place. Finally, active participation from relevant stakeholders through involvement, support and compliance is crucial. On the whole, developing a sustainable e-waste management system is not an easy endeavour; it requires sufficient effort, capital, and time while complemented with continuous improvement. Full text downloadable from: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S146433321650023X
Article
India, like many other developed and developing countries, has adopted an extended producer responsibility (EPR) approach for electronic waste (e-waste) management under its E-waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011. Under these rules, producers have been made responsible for setting up collection centers of e-waste and financing and organizing a system for environmentally sound management of e-waste. In this article, weuse the implementation of these rules in Ahmedabad in western India as a case studyto conduct a critical analysis of the implementation of India’s Rules. Interviews of main stakeholder groups, including a sample of regulated commercial establishments, regulatory agencies enforcing the Rules, informal actors involved in waste collection and handling,as well as publicly available information on the implementation constitute data for our case study. Our results indicate that while there has been an increase in the formal waste processing capacity after the implementation of the Rules, only 5% to 15% of the total waste generated is likely channeled through formal processing facilities. While the EPR regulation forced the producers to take action on a few relatively inexpensive aspects of the Rules,the collection and recycling system has not been made convenient for the consumers to deposit e-waste in formal collection and recycling centers. Based on our findings, we argue that Indian EPR regulation should go beyond simple take-back mandates and consider implementing other policy instruments such as a deposit-refund system. An important implication for developing countries is the need for careful attention to instrument choice and design within EPR regulations.
Article
Used or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (UEEE or WEEE) have attracted worldwide attention, especially the export from developed countries to developing countries. While WEEE is prohibited from being exported according to the Basel Convention on Waste Transboundary Movement, WEEE could be exported in the name of UEEE or recycling materials, which are not controlled. Significantly, a clear-cut distinction between UEEE and WEEE is still very difficult. Macau is very likely to become an import and re-export center for WEEE due to its coastal location and trade system, which is similar to Hong Kong’s. On the basis of historical import and export trade data of electronic products (e-products), this study employed the used-new unit threshold value and waste-used unit threshold value approach to identify, and then quantify the potential imports and re-exports of UEEE and WEEE. Trade data of personal computers (PCs) and TV sets in 2000–2015 in Macau has been the focus of this review. The results found that the UEEE/WEEE imports and re-exports both happened in Macau. Macau is a regional transfer center, and could effectively augment Hong Kong and China’s mainland ports. The analysis also implies that the major import countries (to Macau) were developed economies including, in the order of quantity, the USA, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, and Canada. Hong Kong was the most common re-export destination, followed by mainland China. The outcomes are helpful to understand and manage the current import and export situations of UEEE and WEEE in Macau, and the method could be also referenced to look at other electronics and other countries.
Article
Globally, electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is now a part of daily life. When this equipment becomes waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or E-waste), however, it needs to be properly processed, for use as a source of materials for future production and renewable energy, and to minimize both the exploitation of raw materials and the deleterious effects on both the environment and human health. A large quantity of e-waste is generated in both India and China, and both countries still suffer from an entrenched informal e-waste processing sector. Consequently, valuable materials in e-waste are disposed in open land, rather than being properly extracted for reuse and recycling. In this article we note that the major portion of e-waste in China and India is collected by the informal sector and treated with primitive methods. Additionally, illegal shifting agents also play a role by mislabeling e-waste and exporting them to developing countries. This article proposes that: the implementation of e-waste management laws and policies for proper e-waste collection, treatment and recycling, better educate consumers on the dangers of e-waste contamination, restrict the illegal movement of e-waste across borders, and support the development of a formal, regulated e-waste processing industry by funding incentive programs constructing recycling infrastructure. These measures should increase the recycling capacity and decrease the amount of WEEE contaminating the environment and endangering human health.
Article
This paper proposes a new value-based indicator to assess the performance of actors in the supply chain in terms of resource efficiency and circular economy. Most of the methodologies developed so far measure resource efficiency on the basis of the environmental burden of the resource relative to the value of output. However, the key point of circular economy is keeping resources within the economy when products no longer serve their functions so that materials can be used again and therefore generate more value. The unit in which resource efficiency and circular economy are measured greatly affects both the ease of acceptance by policymakers and the direction in which green policy will change our society. Whereas the most common approaches to assessing resource efficiency and circular economy use mass, in this paper we advocate measuring both resource efficiency and circular economy in terms of the market value of ‘stressed’ resources, since this value incorporates the elements of scarcity versus competition as well as taxes representing urgent social and environmental externalities. The market value of resources is well-documented and responds automatically to the locality and time at which resources are used. Applying this unit, circularity is defined as the percentage of the value of stressed resources incorporated in a service or product that is returned after its end-of-life. Resource efficiency is the ratio of added product value divided by the value of stressed resources used in production or a process thereof. It is argued that precisely the concept of a free market, in which materials, parts and components are exchanged purely on the basis of their functionality and cost, allows the resource efficiency of a process (KPI for industry and governance) to be distinguished from the resource efficiency of a product (KPI for consumers and governance). Using standard industry data from Statistics Netherlands, the resource efficiency of several Dutch industries were evaluated using the new methodology and compared with a traditional mass-based approach.
Article
This study aims to find an efficient and fair policy on using a recycling fund in an uncertain environment. After over a decade's experience on E-waste management, the current policy of Taiwan's Recycling Fund Management Board (RFMB) is reviewed in search of a better policy. RFBM's environmental goal is to maximize the recycling rate with an uncertain fund. The study evaluates the fund on two models, yearly balance and multi-period, and illustrates the concept of two fund settings, offset yearly and earmarked. We generate four scenarios covering the estimated fund incomes in future years, using waste printers as an example in the analysis. The results herein show that the multi-period model provides more benefits than the yearly balance model for any situation under the four scenarios, and that the earmarked setting has an edge over the offset yearly setting in the above situations. We recommend that RFMB switch its fund setting into an earmarked fund and use the multi-period model, as it can obtain more option values against uncertainties in the long run. The finding on how to manage a recycling fund offers reference value for other countries adopting such a subsidy system for extended producer responsibility.
Article
E-waste is a complex stream of toxic waste which requires specific handling considerations. Effective and responsible management of E-waste is a global concern today. Considering the depth of the E-waste problem, this paper is an attempt to review two key elements greatly accountable for influencing sustainable E-waste management initiatives: Consumers’ E-waste 1) ‘Disposal Behaviour’ and 2) ‘Awareness’. Taking into account the locale specific characteristics of consumers’ E-waste disposal behaviour and awareness, we have attempted to perform an extensive review on the global context and identify the measures adopted by the consumers of different countries to dispose off their E-waste. We observe significant differences in consumers’ E-waste disposal behaviour not only ‘between’ the developed and developing countries, but also ‘within’ these countries. The paper further especially explains the complexities in India’s E-waste management system due to its multifaceted socio-economic, cultural and other associated connotations influencing consumers’ disposal behaviour and awareness. We conclude that global experiences on consumers’ E-waste disposal behaviour and awareness could be helpful for a particular country to devise inclusive E-waste management strategies to adequately address their current E-waste crisis.