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The Global E-waste Monitor 2017 is a collaborative effort of the United Nations University (UNU) represented through its Vice-Rectorate in Europe hosted Sustainable Cycles (SCYCLE) Programme, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU), and the International Solid Waste Association (ISWA). This report provides the most comprehensive overview of global e-waste statistics and an unprecedented level of detail, including an overview of the magnitude of the e-waste problem in different regions. The report includes up-to-date information on the amounts of e-waste generated and recycled, makes predictions until 2021, and provides information on the progress made in terms of e-waste legislation. The e-waste volumes are indicative of the recycling industry’s potential to recover secondary resources, as well as setting environmental targets for detoxification. The report highlights the need for better e-waste data and information for policymakers to track progress, identify the need for action, and to achieve sustainable development, including the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs).
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... Recycling e-waste using economic, sustainable, and eco-friendly technologies can serve as a secondary source for metals, especially for critical metals of high value. The recovery of metals from e-waste can minimise environmental and public health deterioration through exposure to heavy recovery of metals from e-waste can minimise environmental and public health deterioration through exposure to heavy hazardous metals such as mercury, lead, and cadmium [6,7]. The quantity of e-waste recycled globally remains small, and South Africa only recycles 11% of their generated e-waste annually, with a significant percentage of valuable metals contained in complex materials such as Printed Circuit Boards (PCBs), being exported for subsequent processing [8]. ...
... The PCBs are the core component of many EEE, which are used for conventional functioning in small and large electronic devices, and they contain various metals and several hazardous pollutants that cannot be disposed of in landfills or incinerated. The disposal of e-waste in landfills or via incineration are the methods majorly adopted for e-waste management and this results in the release of toxic gases such as greenhouse gases and dioxins to the atmosphere, even at low temperatures, and the contamination of soil and groundwater by heavy metals (mercury, lead, and cadmium) that have leached from the e-wastes [5,7]. These pollutants can eventually accumulate and be absorbed by plants, directly affecting the lives that feed on such resources. ...
... Pulp density (10, 50, 100 g/L), Glycine (2.5, 5, 7.5, 10 g/L), Temperature (25,30,35,40), and pH (7,8,9) Pseudomonas balearica Stirred tank (150 rpm) Au and Ag (68.5% and 33.8%) ...
Article
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Electronic waste (e-waste) is an emerging health and environmental burden due to the toxic substances present within e-wastes. To address this burden, e-wastes contain various base, rare earth and noble metals, which can be recovered from these substances, thus serving as secondary sources of metals. Pyrometallurgical and hydrometallurgical processes have been developed to extract metals from e-waste. However, these techniques are energy-intensive and produce secondary wastes, which will add to the operating costs of the process. However, the biohydrometallurgi-cal approach has been deemed as an eco-friendly, cost-effective, and environmentally friendly process that does not produce large quantities of secondary waste. However, research has focused chiefly on one-stage bioprocesses to recover the metals of interest and majorly on base metals recovery. Hence, this review proposes a two-stage bio-hydrometallurgical process where the first stage will consist of acidophilic iron and sulphur oxidising organisms to extract base metals, followed by the second stage which will consist of cyanide-producing organisms for the solubilisation of rare earth and precious metals. The solid waste residue that is produced from the system can be used in the synthesis of silica nanomaterials, which can be utilised for various applications.
... They include large and small household appliances, IT equipment, consumer electronics, lamps and luminaires, toys/leisure products, tools, medical devices, monitoring and control instruments, and automatic dispensers [10,19]. Balde et al. [20] group e-waste into six categories: small household machines, large household appliances, temperature exchange equipment, screens and monitors, communication and information technology devices, and consumer products. Still, recycled e-waste includes five groups: home appliances, communication and information technology devices, home entertainment, electronic utilities, office equipment, and medical devices. ...
... Researchers list numerous factors contributing to the staggering volume of e-waste (see Table 1) as the appetite for electronic devices increases, along with their development, use, spread, and discard. [20] Rising global GDP per capita leads to increased spending on electronics [4] Growing dependencies on digital systems by government, private, and individuals [22] Digitalization of civilization for political, economic, and social dominations [23] Digital migration for remote work and increasing adoption of digital platforms [24] The popularity of non-fungible tokens is driven by cryptocurrency [8] Planned hardware/software design obsolescence [25] Institutionalization of advanced technologies as a benchmark for literacy [25] Rapid technological changes in network technologies-from 3G to 4 and 5G [26] Infrastructure to enable technological changes [27] Growing disposal of appliances to replace the new ones (e.g., Artificial Intelligence) [27] Accelerated raw material discovery and developments [28] Growing awareness of environmentally friendly products [2] ...
Article
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Human activities are at the heart of interactions between physical and digital spheres enabled by the Internet and the proliferation of Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices destined to be discarded. The rejected devices, called e-waste, contain toxic substances that negatively impact environmental sustainability. There are no studies to examine the impacts of the Internet and IoT on the sheer volume of e-waste, which is the objective of this paper. Based on an extensive literature review, two propositions were advanced, and three secondary datasets were used to test the propositions from 2000 to 2021. The first dataset relates to the world Internet penetration through variables associated with network accessibility. The second dataset is linked to the global proliferation of the IoT through its technological functionality. The third dataset is the worldwide volume of e-waste measured in millions of metric tons. Our findings indicate that the Internet and the IoT play pivotal roles in the e-waste crisis. Network accessibility and technological functionality significantly and positively influence the variability in the volume of e-waste, thus threatening environmental sustainability. Several actionable recommendations encourage developers, politicians, policymakers, and users of electronic devices to pay closer attention to the escalating size of e-waste threatening environmental sustainability.
... Classification of e-waste is done in six divisions on the basis of their life span, temperature change devices, monitors, lights, large machinery, small devices, and small stuff. This implies that every group has distinct amounts of waste content, commericial standards and consequences that have a lasting influence on environment as well as health [23]. ...
Chapter
E‐waste is a rapidly growing subject that has gained the attention in past few years. It is not only harmful in terms of environmental aspects but also in terms of health as well. Along with these negative impacts, a positive impact is the remarkable amount of valuable metals that can be recovered from it. International organisations, which are the concerned authorities of e‐waste, have made many rules and regulations for the collection, recycle, disposal, etc., but these efforts are still not implemented to their full potential. Although several types of research have been carried out on different aspects of e‐waste, still execution is not up to the mark and the outcome is not satisfactory. This chapter deliberates on the overview of the several issues of e‐waste management. The global status of e‐waste, industrial practices of e‐waste, recycling of e‐waste is also reviewed in this chapter. It thereafter examines the future and benchmarking of e‐waste management. Another striking issue is that the steps taken toward the control and regulation of management are not sufficient and is not receiving many contributions.
Article
In India, unskilled workers, including children, extract precious metals like Fe, Al, Cu, Cd, Ag, Au, Pd, and Pb without personal protective equipment. They are exposed to a variety of toxic chemicals through dermal contact, inhalation, and ingestion, which are not only detrimental to their health but to the environment. The paper adopts a cross-sectional study design to gain insights into hazardous ways of processing e-waste by the informal sector, and subsequently, health illness arises among the recycler. ANOVA and multiple regression analysis are used for analyzing the data of the study. The test statistic reveals that there is a significant relationship between education and hazardous recycling practices followed by informal workers. Those who lack formal education were indifferent towards crude recycling practices as it was linked to livelihood wherein educated were forced to carry out such activity as they had no other opportunity available for them.
Article
China has the highest level of plastic production and consumption in the world. The plastic waste ban has resulted in a lack of raw materials for plastic reprocessing, while household appliance-related plastic (HAP), as a high-value and high-quality plastic waste source, receives great attention to fill such a gap. As HAP is scattered and has been rapidly increasing, a better understanding of the spatial-temporal patterns of HAP waste is critical. For the first time, this study quantifies the stocks and flows of plastics contained in five categories of household appliances (refrigerator, washing machine, air conditioner, TV, and computer) in China over 1978–2016 and maps their province-specific distribution through a dynamic stock-driven material flow analysis model. We find that (i) the HAP stocks are growing rapidly to reach around 25.4 million tonnes (MT) in 2016 and the HAP waste generated in 2016 is over 2 MT while the dismantling capacity is failing to catch up; (ii) the HAP waste in southeastern provinces is notably more than in northwestern provinces by approximately 11 times; (iii) washing machines (37%) and refrigerators (24%) are the major types of household appliances that contribute most to HAP waste generation; (iv) PP (38%) and PS (34%) are the major plastic types in HAP waste. These findings can provide quantitative references for the government to arrange waste management facilities, improve recycling capacities of dismantling companies, and promote coordinated efforts from multiple stakeholders to achieve efficient waste management of HAP.
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The global desire for modernization through technology has thrown up a major disposal challenge for e-wastes, especially in low-economic countries. This study assessed the environmental impacts and possible health risks of potentially toxic metals emanating from poorly managed e-wastes across three main representative sites in southwest Nigeria. Soil samples were collected from three major cities in Southwestern Nigeria and analyzed for As, Cd, Pb, Cu, Cr, Ni and Zn. Pollution assessments were done using indices including contamination factor (Cf), pollution load index (PLI) and potential ecological risk index (PERI) coupled with evaluation of non-cancer and cancer health risks. Results showed enrichment of the local soil with metals due to e-wastes related activities, with elevated level of Cf (>6), revealing that the soils around the e-waste dumpsites were severely contaminated. In addition, assessment of individual metal potential ecological risk index (Eⁱf) showed a high level of potential ecological risk for Cd (Eⁱf >320) at all the sites while As, Pb, Cu and Ni exhibited high ecological risk at the sites, especially at topsoil layer. Furthermore, the study established varying potentials for carcinogenic health risk for residents around the dumpsites, such that while a negligible risk index occurred for Cd and Ni (RI < 10⁻⁶), the risk is tolerable for Pb (0⁻⁶ < RI < 10–4) but within cancer-development range for As and Cr (RI > 10⁻⁴). The study concluded that poorly managed e-wastes in the area poses significant threats to health of humans and the entire ecosystem. Further study is recommended to identify similar e-waste dumpsites at regional and national – scale for sustainable restoration and improved e-waste management.
Article
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In the age of digital economy, the use of electronic devices and consequently e-waste has increased so that e-waste is considered as the fastest growing waste in the world. Also, these wastes, like other wastes, have a detrimental effect on the environment. Therefore, control of e-waste and planning for its recycling is a management problem at the national, global and environmental levels. In this research, using the system dynamics approach and using document model building (DMB) and reviewing the literature, the dynamics model is designed to identify the structure governing the generation of e-waste and its recycling and predict the amount of e-waste and the capacity required for its recycling. The results of the model showed that although the amount of waste and consequently its recycling has increased, this growth is limited and is S-shaped. However, recycling industries have increased revenues.
Article
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Zusammenfassung Bewertungen sind an der Hervorbringung sozialer Ordnungen beteiligt. Wenngleich als Leitunterscheidung benannt, wird im Forschungsfeld der Bewertungssoziologie die Unterscheidung von wertvoll und wertlos jedoch häufig übergangen und die Rolle von destruktiven Praktiken unterbeleuchtet; das Feld kann profitieren von den instruktiven, aber disziplinär fragmentierten Beiträgen der Abfallforschung. Der vorliegende Beitrag entwickelt eine soziologische Perspektive, in der Abfälle als werterzeugende Instanzen im Zentrum stehen. Wie können Abfall und Wert in ihrer Relation und im Sinne einer Überschneidung von Sozialität und Materialität näher bestimmt werden? Inwiefern wirken abfallspezifische Praktiken ordnungsstiftend? Teilnehmende Beobachtungen aus einem Recyclingbetrieb und die Ethnographie einer gescheiterten digitalen Innovation von Google haben die Untersuchung angeregt. Mit den zwei qualitativen Fallstudien wird die Grundunterscheidung von Bewertung und Wertung weiterentwickelt, als fruchtbar erweist sich dabei, eine wirtschaftssoziologisch geläufigen Optik von „Wertschöpfung“ umzustellen auf soziomaterielle Prozesse von „Deformation“ und „Entsorgung“.
Thesis
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The United Nations defined sustainability as “the ability to meet the needs of the present generations without compromising future generations […]”. The access to clean and low-cost energy is paramount to achieve sustainability on the global scale. The formidable technological advances of recent decades, paralleled by high purchasing power, growing urbanization and industrialization, have broadened access to consumer electronics, leading to a growing demand for electrical and electronic equipment (EEE). The rapid growth of market demand is giving rise to manufacturing processes that are unsustainable in terms of electronic waste (e-Waste or WEEE) streams, depletion of key chemical elements, energy consumption and ecotoxicity. In this scenario, green (sustainable) organic electronics can constitute a valuable route to alleviate the footprint of electronics. Green organic electronics is based on the use of organic carbon-based bio-sourced (i.e., extracted from natural sources or synthesized following the green chemistry principles), low embodied energy, low-cost, biocompatible, biodegradable, solution processable materials. The molecular structure of organic electronic materials exhibits conjugation (alternance of single double carbon bonds). This structure can also allow the formation of hydrogen bonds. The mechanical flexibility of organic materials allows a combined electronic and ionic (sometimes protonic) transport. Remarkably, mixed ionic-electronic conductivity enables the connection between biology, which speaks the language of protons, and conventional electronics based on electron and hole transport. Organic electronics devices cannot currently compete in terms of performance with silicon technology, but they represent its most promising complement. Eumelanin, a black-brown subgroup of melanins (abundant biopigment in flora and fauna), has proven an ideal candidate in the field of green organic electronics and bioelectronics. Eumelanin is non-toxic, biocompatible, solution-processable, conjugated biomacromolecule exhibiting UV-Vis absorption, metal-ion chelation, radical scavenging, redox activity and mixed ionic (protonic)-electronic transport. Several eumelanin-based applications have been demonstrated, including memory devices, n-p type porous Si/eumelanin heterojunctions, electrodes for energy storage devices, electrochemical transistors and phototransistors. This PhD thesis focuses on the study of a few fundamental properties of eumelanin films and pellets for the optimal design and development of eumelanin-based sustainable organic electronic and bioelectronic technologies. In chapter 1, we provide the research context and present the key objectives of this PhD work, namely: (i) investigating the process of formation and the morphology of (5,6)-dihydroxyindole (DHI)- and (5,6)-dihydroxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (DHICA))-eumelanin films as determined by physical and chemical interactions, (ii) exploring the possibility of exclusive electronic transport in dry Sepia melanin pellets (i.e., eumelanin powders extracted and purified from the ink sac of cuttlefish) and shedding light on their resistive switching behavior. At the end of the chapter, we provide the structure of this PhD thesis. In chapter 2, we provide a general overview on melanins, with special attention to supramolecular structure, chemical and physical disorder and to the physicochemical properties of eumelanin. In chapter 3, we provide an in-depth summary of eumelanin’s film technology, with focus on morphology and film processing techniques. Afterwards, we review the electronic and protonic transport properties of bio-sourced materials to provide a detailed context for presenting the charge carrier transport properties of eumelanin. At the end of the chapter 3, we present the state-of-the-art of the organic electronics and bioelectronics applications demonstrated for eumelanin. In chapter 4, we give a description of the characterization techniques used to achieve the research objectives of this work. In chapter 5, we investigate the dynamic evolution from molecular state to film, after spin coating solutions of DHI and DHICA eumelanin building blocks (synthetic eumelanin) on SiO2/Si. We follow film growth in different environmental conditions (i.e., dark versus laboratory daylight, ambient conditions versus an ammonia enriched atmosphere (polymerization catalyst)) by atomic force microscopy (AFM), Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), and UV-Vis spectroscopy. We find that DHI and DHICA films undergo changes of morphological and chemical properties over time. DHI films kept in the dark exhibit the presence of fern-like structures that we attribute to diffusion limited aggregation processes (DLA). Upon exposure to laboratory daylight, pillar-like and crystal-like structures grow on top of ferns. DHICA films kept in the dark and then exposed to laboratory daylight, form rod-shaped like structures. On the other hand, DHI and DHICA films exposed to ammonia are characterized by pronounced polymorphism. IR spectroscopy suggests the occurrence of physical (i.e., π-π stacking and hydrogen bonding) and chemical interactions (formation of new covalent bonds by films oxidation) in the films as a function of time after deposition. In chapter 6, we investigate the electrical response of dry and highly hydrated (wet) Sepia melanin pellets to find conditions under which dry eumelanin features predominant electronic transport. We press dry and wet pellets Sepia melanin powders in sandwich configuration between copper and stainless steel. Prior to pressing, dry and wet powders are kept in inert atmosphere (argon) and at 90% relative humidity (%RH), corresponding to about 20% of weight gained. We measure the electrical response of dry and wet Sepia melanin pellets by performing sequential I-V scans at 100 mVs-1 and by changing it from the voltage scan rate from 1 mVs-1 to 4500 mVs-1. At 100 mVs-1 (i) dry pellets electrically switch during the first scan. From the second scan I-V response is linear with decrease of the electrical resistance scan by scan; (ii) wet pellets repeatedly switch during all tested I-V scans. Furthermore, the I-V response of dry (wet) pellets is independent (dependent) on the voltage scan rate after switching. Particularly, wet pellets feature linearization of the I-V response without switching beyond 2000 mVs-1. Transient current measurements of dry pellets after switching show a plateau-like behavior attributable to electronic transport. Conversely, the current-time characteristics of wet pellets is an exponential decay attributable to the formation of ionic double layers. Nyquist plots (i.e., the negative imaginary part of the impedance vs the real part) of dry and wet pellets show one semicircle and multiple semicircles that we interpret as signature of predominant electronic and ionic transport, respectively. All in all, these observations lead us to explain the electrical resistive switching of dry (wet) Sepia melanin pellets by the formation of electronic (ionic) space charge layers at the Sepia melanin/metal interfaces, respectively. The possibility to observe, for the first time, exclusive electronic transport in dry eumelanin through the π-π stacked structure expected in Sepia melanin granules, opens new opportunities to exploit the full potential of the biopigment for applications in organic electronics. In chapter 7, we discuss the insights gained with respect to eumelanin film formation and transport physics, and with reference to the literature presented in chapter 2 and chapter 3. In chapter 8, we summarize the global insights gained in this thesis with reference to the research objectives of this PhD and introduce a number of possible future investigations that this work opens in regard to the study of eumelanin film formation and its charge carrier transport properties. In conclusions, in this thesis we examine the physicochemical properties biopigment eumelanin such as synthetic film processing parameters, morphology electrical and chemical properties as well as electronic transport and electrical resistive switching in Sepia melanin pellets for applications in green organic electronics. All in all, this work highlights the importance of (i) unraveling eumelanin structure-property relationship and (ii) describing the charge carrier transport properties of the biopigment with the appropriate model for the design and the development of low embodied energy, eumelanin-based organic electronics technologies.
Article
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Waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) is difficult to sustainably manage. One key issue is the challenge of planning for WEEE flows as current and future quantities of waste are difficult to predict. To address this, WEEE generation and gross domestic product (GDP) data from 50 countries of the pan-European region were assessed. A high economic elasticity was identified, indicating that WEEE and GDP are closely interlinked. More detailed analyses revealed that GDP at purchasing power parity (GDP PPP) is a more meaningful measure when looking at WEEE flows, as a linear dependency between WEEE generation and GDP PPP was identified. This dependency applies to the whole region, regardless of the economic developmental stage of individual countries. In the pan-European region, an increase of 1000 international $ GDP PPP means an additional 0.5 kg WEEE is generated that requires management.
Article
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The seriousness of e-waste problem is down to three realities: exponential increase in total amount, environmental degradation and health complications. A call for sustainable e-waste management is no longer a utopian ambition but an absolute necessity. In accordance to that, this study aims to evaluate e-waste management practices in three Asian countries: Japan, Taiwan, and Malaysia, and consequently propose recommendations and insights for Malaysia on how to manage e-waste in a sustainable manner. The comparative analysis is conducted based on three central aspects comprising governance, infrastructure, and stakeholders' participation. The outcome of this study indicates that e-waste management needs to be initiated by comprehensive regulations that are focussed on proper e-waste handling and stakeholders' accountability. Besides, it has to be accompanied by robust infrastructure where appropriate mechanisms and effective enforcement are taking place. Finally, active participation from relevant stakeholders through involvement, support and compliance is crucial. On the whole, developing a sustainable e-waste management system is not an easy endeavour; it requires sufficient effort, capital, and time while complemented with continuous improvement. Full text downloadable from: http://www.worldscientific.com/doi/abs/10.1142/S146433321650023X
Article
India, like many other developed and developing countries, has adopted an extended producer responsibility (EPR) approach for electronic waste (e-waste) management under its E-waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 2011. Under these rules, producers have been made responsible for setting up collection centers of e-waste and financing and organizing a system for environmentally sound management of e-waste. In this article, weuse the implementation of these rules in Ahmedabad in western India as a case studyto conduct a critical analysis of the implementation of India’s Rules. Interviews of main stakeholder groups, including a sample of regulated commercial establishments, regulatory agencies enforcing the Rules, informal actors involved in waste collection and handling,as well as publicly available information on the implementation constitute data for our case study. Our results indicate that while there has been an increase in the formal waste processing capacity after the implementation of the Rules, only 5% to 15% of the total waste generated is likely channeled through formal processing facilities. While the EPR regulation forced the producers to take action on a few relatively inexpensive aspects of the Rules,the collection and recycling system has not been made convenient for the consumers to deposit e-waste in formal collection and recycling centers. Based on our findings, we argue that Indian EPR regulation should go beyond simple take-back mandates and consider implementing other policy instruments such as a deposit-refund system. An important implication for developing countries is the need for careful attention to instrument choice and design within EPR regulations.
Article
Used or Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment (UEEE or WEEE) have attracted worldwide attention, especially the export from developed countries to developing countries. While WEEE is prohibited from being exported according to the Basel Convention on Waste Transboundary Movement, WEEE could be exported in the name of UEEE or recycling materials, which are not controlled. Significantly, a clear-cut distinction between UEEE and WEEE is still very difficult. Macau is very likely to become an import and re-export center for WEEE due to its coastal location and trade system, which is similar to Hong Kong’s. On the basis of historical import and export trade data of electronic products (e-products), this study employed the used-new unit threshold value and waste-used unit threshold value approach to identify, and then quantify the potential imports and re-exports of UEEE and WEEE. Trade data of personal computers (PCs) and TV sets in 2000–2015 in Macau has been the focus of this review. The results found that the UEEE/WEEE imports and re-exports both happened in Macau. Macau is a regional transfer center, and could effectively augment Hong Kong and China’s mainland ports. The analysis also implies that the major import countries (to Macau) were developed economies including, in the order of quantity, the USA, Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, and Canada. Hong Kong was the most common re-export destination, followed by mainland China. The outcomes are helpful to understand and manage the current import and export situations of UEEE and WEEE in Macau, and the method could be also referenced to look at other electronics and other countries.
Article
Globally, electrical and electronic equipment (EEE) is now a part of daily life. When this equipment becomes waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE or E-waste), however, it needs to be properly processed, for use as a source of materials for future production and renewable energy, and to minimize both the exploitation of raw materials and the deleterious effects on both the environment and human health. A large quantity of e-waste is generated in both India and China, and both countries still suffer from an entrenched informal e-waste processing sector. Consequently, valuable materials in e-waste are disposed in open land, rather than being properly extracted for reuse and recycling. In this article we note that the major portion of e-waste in China and India is collected by the informal sector and treated with primitive methods. Additionally, illegal shifting agents also play a role by mislabeling e-waste and exporting them to developing countries. This article proposes that: the implementation of e-waste management laws and policies for proper e-waste collection, treatment and recycling, better educate consumers on the dangers of e-waste contamination, restrict the illegal movement of e-waste across borders, and support the development of a formal, regulated e-waste processing industry by funding incentive programs constructing recycling infrastructure. These measures should increase the recycling capacity and decrease the amount of WEEE contaminating the environment and endangering human health.
Article
This paper proposes a new value-based indicator to assess the performance of actors in the supply chain in terms of resource efficiency and circular economy. Most of the methodologies developed so far measure resource efficiency on the basis of the environmental burden of the resource relative to the value of output. However, the key point of circular economy is keeping resources within the economy when products no longer serve their functions so that materials can be used again and therefore generate more value. The unit in which resource efficiency and circular economy are measured greatly affects both the ease of acceptance by policymakers and the direction in which green policy will change our society. Whereas the most common approaches to assessing resource efficiency and circular economy use mass, in this paper we advocate measuring both resource efficiency and circular economy in terms of the market value of ‘stressed’ resources, since this value incorporates the elements of scarcity versus competition as well as taxes representing urgent social and environmental externalities. The market value of resources is well-documented and responds automatically to the locality and time at which resources are used. Applying this unit, circularity is defined as the percentage of the value of stressed resources incorporated in a service or product that is returned after its end-of-life. Resource efficiency is the ratio of added product value divided by the value of stressed resources used in production or a process thereof. It is argued that precisely the concept of a free market, in which materials, parts and components are exchanged purely on the basis of their functionality and cost, allows the resource efficiency of a process (KPI for industry and governance) to be distinguished from the resource efficiency of a product (KPI for consumers and governance). Using standard industry data from Statistics Netherlands, the resource efficiency of several Dutch industries were evaluated using the new methodology and compared with a traditional mass-based approach.
Article
This study aims to find an efficient and fair policy on using a recycling fund in an uncertain environment. After over a decade's experience on E-waste management, the current policy of Taiwan's Recycling Fund Management Board (RFMB) is reviewed in search of a better policy. RFBM's environmental goal is to maximize the recycling rate with an uncertain fund. The study evaluates the fund on two models, yearly balance and multi-period, and illustrates the concept of two fund settings, offset yearly and earmarked. We generate four scenarios covering the estimated fund incomes in future years, using waste printers as an example in the analysis. The results herein show that the multi-period model provides more benefits than the yearly balance model for any situation under the four scenarios, and that the earmarked setting has an edge over the offset yearly setting in the above situations. We recommend that RFMB switch its fund setting into an earmarked fund and use the multi-period model, as it can obtain more option values against uncertainties in the long run. The finding on how to manage a recycling fund offers reference value for other countries adopting such a subsidy system for extended producer responsibility.
Article
E-waste is a complex stream of toxic waste which requires specific handling considerations. Effective and responsible management of E-waste is a global concern today. Considering the depth of the E-waste problem, this paper is an attempt to review two key elements greatly accountable for influencing sustainable E-waste management initiatives: Consumers’ E-waste 1) ‘Disposal Behaviour’ and 2) ‘Awareness’. Taking into account the locale specific characteristics of consumers’ E-waste disposal behaviour and awareness, we have attempted to perform an extensive review on the global context and identify the measures adopted by the consumers of different countries to dispose off their E-waste. We observe significant differences in consumers’ E-waste disposal behaviour not only ‘between’ the developed and developing countries, but also ‘within’ these countries. The paper further especially explains the complexities in India’s E-waste management system due to its multifaceted socio-economic, cultural and other associated connotations influencing consumers’ disposal behaviour and awareness. We conclude that global experiences on consumers’ E-waste disposal behaviour and awareness could be helpful for a particular country to devise inclusive E-waste management strategies to adequately address their current E-waste crisis.