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Traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities of Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr., an underutilized multipurpose tree bean: a review

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Tree bean, Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr. (Fabaceae) is an underutilized nutritious leguminous tree found in North-eastern states of India and other Southeast Asian countries. Ethnobotanically, tree bean has much importance among the ethnic groups in various states of Northeast India. Decoctions of bark, fruit and leaf parts are used to treat various diseases. Right from flowers and tender pods to mature seeds of this plant are edible, provide a good source of nutrients and fetch high market price during particular seasons. Cultivation of this tree will not compete with other legumes in an existing field and it could be a supplementary source of vegetable proteins if properly exploited. Anti-nutritional factors, total free phenols, tannins and lectins can be eliminated if the seeds are properly processed by heating or cooking since these factors are heat-labile. Only a few researchers worked on phyto-constituents of the plant with lacuna in nutritional studies and pharmacological activities. The plant has been reported to possess antioxidant, α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory properties, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiproliferative and insecticidal activities. Though it has much importance in commercial purposes, research and knowledge on this wonder plant is meagre and its utilization for human consumption has not yet been fully exploited. The present review is aimed to provide a botanical description and highlights ethnobotanical uses, nutritional value and biological activities along with its toxicity and future prospects.
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NOTES ON NEGLECTED AND UNDERUTILIZED CROPS
Traditional uses, phytochemistry and biological activities
of Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr., an underutilized
multipurpose tree bean: a review
Thejangulie Angami .Rupankar Bhagawati .Letngam Touthang .
Badapmain Makdoh .Nirmal .Lungmuana .Kumar Avinash Bharati .
Rajendran Silambarasan .Muniappan Ayyanar
Received: 18 July 2017 / Accepted: 29 November 2017
ÓSpringer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2017
Abstract Tree bean, Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr.
(Fabaceae) is an underutilized nutritious leguminous
tree found in North-eastern states of India and other
Southeast Asian countries. Ethnobotanically, tree bean
has much importance among the ethnic groups in
various states of Northeast India. Decoctions of bark,
fruit and leaf parts are used to treat various diseases.
Right from flowers and tender pods to mature seeds of
this plant are edible, provide a good source of nutrients
and fetch high market price during particular seasons.
Cultivation of this tree will not compete with other
legumes in an existing field and it could be a
supplementary source of vegetable proteins if properly
exploited. Anti-nutritional factors, total free phenols,
tannins and lectins can be eliminated if the seeds are
properly processed by heating or cooking since these
factors are heat-labile. Only a few researchers worked
on phyto-constituents of the plant with lacuna in
nutritional studies and pharmacological activities. The
plant has been reported to possess antioxidant, a-
glucosidase and a-amylase inhibitory properties,
antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiproliferative and insec-
ticidal activities. Though it has much importance in
commercial purposes, research and knowledge on this
wonder plant is meagre and its utilization for human
consumption has not yet been fully exploited. The
present review is aimed to provide a botanical
description and highlights ethnobotanical uses, nutri-
tional value and biological activities along with its
toxicity and future prospects.
Keywords Ethnopharmacology Medicinal uses
Parkia roxburghii Review Toxicity
Introduction
Legume family (Fabaceae/Leguminosae) is third
largest family of angiosperms with about 730 genera
and more than 19,400 species worldwide (Mabberley
1997) and second only to Poaceae (grass family) in
view of agricultural and economic importance.
T. Angami R. Bhagawati L. Touthang
B. Makdoh Nirmal
ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Arunachal
Centre, Basar, West Siang 791101, Arunachal Pradesh,
India
Lungmuana
ICAR Research Complex for NEH Region, Mizoram
Centre, Kolasib 796081, Mizoram, India
K. A. Bharati
Central National Herbarium, Botanical Survey of India,
P.O. - Botanic Garden, Howrah 711103, West Bengal,
India
R. Silambarasan M. Ayyanar (&)
Department of Botany and Microbiology, A.V.V.M. Sri
Pushpam College (Autonomous),
Poondi, Thanjavur 613503, Tamil Nadu, India
e-mail: asmayyanar@yahoo.com
123
Genet Resour Crop Evol
https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-017-0595-0
Fabaceae covers about 27% of the world’s primary
crop production with grain legumes and 33% of
dietary protein nitrogen needs of mankind (Graham
and Vance 2003). The number of economically
important plants in Fabaceae is not larger than that
of Poaceae, but they exceed them in range of uses
(Doyle and Luckow 2003). The different species of
Fabaceae provide food, pharmaceuticals, medicines,
biodiesel fuel, commercially important enzymes,
wood for building, construction, textiles, furniture
and crafts, paper and pulp, mining, chemicals, fertil-
izers, waste recycling, horticulture, pest control and
also ecotourism (Lewis et al. 2005).
Most species of Fabaceae have developed a number
of chemical defence mechanisms with alkaloids,
tannins, terpenoids and isoflavonoids, however the
chemical mechanisms are relatively easy to de-toxify
or to remove by breeding programmes (Hammer and
Khoshbakht 2015). The general characteristic features
of Fabaceae are distinctive in being trees, shrubs, vines
or herbs, with stipulate, often compound leaves and
typically pentamerous flowers, usually with a single,
unicarpellous pistil, marginal placentation, the fruit a
legume (Simpson 2006). Roots of many species have
symbiotic association with N
2
-fixing bacteria (Rhizo-
bium spp.) which induce formation of root nodules
(common in the Faboideae). The symbiosis with root
bacteria which are able to bind nitrogen from air
makes them vital in land improvement and used as
green manuring (Hammer and Khoshbakht 2015).
The Fabaceae is classified into three subfamilies
viz. Papilionoideae (Faboideae), Caesalpinioideae and
Mimosoideae. The subfamily Mimosoideae (Mi-
mosaceae) consists of 80 genera (3270 species) of
trees, shrubs and lianas found mainly in tropical,
subtropical and warm temperate regions of the world
where they serve as important sources of forage and
fuel (Luckow et al. 2003). Until recently, Bentham’s
(1875) classification was followed for Mimosoideae,
who recognized five tribes based partly on aestivation
of sepals and male reproductive parts. Recent phylo-
genetic studies based on molecular and morphological
data have cast serious doubt on monophyly of these
tribes in Mimosoideae and is revised into four tribes
such as Acacieae, Ingeae, Mimoseae and Mimozy-
gantheae (Wojciechowski et al. 2004).
Parkia: an Indo-Pacific genus
Parkia R. Br. is a genus of the tribe Mimoseae (family
Fabaceae, sub-family Mimosoideae) with 31 species
distributed throughout both the New World and the
Old World tropics. It was named in memory of
celebrated Scottish explorer of West Africa, Mungo
Park (1771–1805). Some species of Parkia are known
as ‘African locust bean’’ . Parkia is taxonomically
most diverse in rainforest of Amazon basin, four
species are found in Africa and Madagascar and about
10 species in the Indo-Pacific region (Luckow and
Hopkins 1995). Parkia is a major tree legume
producing human food and condiment in savannah
areas.
‘‘ The Plant List’ includes 39 accepted names for
the genus Parkia which are widely distributed in
tropical regions of the World with six scientific names
of infra-specific rank (www.theplantlist.org). Hooker
(1879) reported four species of Parkia from India such
as Parkia biglandulosa Wight et Arn., P. insignis
Kurz, P. leiophylla Kurz and P. roxburghii G. Don
with cosmopolitan in distribution in tropical areas.
Hopkins (1994) revised the genus Parkia and descri-
bed 12 species which occur from Northeast India to
Fiji and they appear to be more closely related to the
African species of this section than to the American
ones. According to current taxonomic studies, avail-
able species of Parkia in India are P. timoriana (DC.)
Merr., P. biglandulosa Wight et Arn., P. filicoidea
Oliv., P. speciosa Hassk., P. clappertoniana Keay and
P. bicolor A. Chev.
Botanical description and distribution of Parkia
timoriana
Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr. is the accepted botan-
ical name of ‘Tree Bean’’ ( www.theplantlist.org). The
synonyms of P. timoriana are Parkia roxburghii
G. Don, Acacia niopo Litv., Inga timoriana DC.,
Mimosa peregrina Blanco, Parkia calcarata Lecomte
and Parkia grandis Hassk. The plant was sometimes
misapplied as Mimosa biglobosa auct. non Jacq.,
Parkia africana auct. non R. Br., Parkia biglobosa
auct. and Parkia javanica auct. (http://www.
theplantlist.org/tpl1.1/record/ild-24964). Parkia
timoriana is one of the most widespread species of
Parkia in the Indo-Pacific region. It is quite similar to
P. biglandulosa from which it can be distinguished by
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
broader, rather sigmoid, not linear leaflets and to P.
speciosa from which it differs by acute, not rounded
apex of leaflets and lack of pubescence on outer side of
corolla lobes (Hopkins 1994).
P. timoriana is a large tree with spreading branches
having white to brown or light grey bark with white
spots, generally found in lowland rainforests and often
along streams (Fig. 1). It’s height at maturity varies
approximately from 6 to 20 m or even more and
spreads around 6–17 m. Leaves are compound bipin-
nate i.e. the mid-rib produces secondary axes which
bear the leaflets. There are 14–31 pairs of pinnae and
52–71 pairs of leaflets in each pinna.
The inflorescence is head or capitulum of racemose
type with clusters of yellowish-white tiny flowers,
hanging at top of long stalks from the branches and
emerges during June–July. The young inflorescences
are protected by foliaceous bracts which are free from
each other. The axillary bud does not develop fully but
persist till the development of secondary bud and
forms new shoots of subsequent season. At the base of
every flower there is a thin membranous structure
called bracteole; it covers individual flowers in
inflorescence during juvenile stages thereby imparting
its brown greenish colour to the head (Hopkins 1994).
The heads produce numerous flowers, the majority of
which are fades and drops off.
Flowering starts by last week of July and fruit set
starts after 10–15 days of flowering. The five calyx
lobes are partially gamosepalous and petaloid and are
persisting with the flower. Corolla lobes are five,
membranous, polypetalous which are attached to the
tubular structure of stamens about 2–2.5 mm above
the calyx. There are 10 whitish stamens fused one
another at the base and forms a tubular structure called
staminal tube. The ovary is simple with single stigma
and has marginal placentation (Hopkins 1994). The
fruits in early stages are soft, tender and bright green in
colour and comprises bunches of pods up to 50 cm in
length. The fruits mature during March–April. Pods
are formed in clusters of 10–15 and remain suspended
on long peduncles. Depending on shape and size of
pod, size and number of seeds also varies. Pods turn
black on maturation and contain yellow dry powdery
pulp in which several black seeds are embedded
(Longvah and Deosthale 1998).
P. timoriana is a little known nutritious, legumi-
nous tree which grows luxuriantly in north-eastern
hilly regions of India and distributed in Southeast
Asian countries like Burma, Bangladesh, Thailand and
the Malaysian region. It is an important multipurpose
leguminous tree having commercial and ecological
significance. This tree is distributed in tropical and
subtropical zones with an altitudinal variation from 40
to 820 m a.s.l. (Robert et al. 2003). P. timoriana is
commonly grows in every house yard, jhums and
forests in Northeast states in India such as Mizoram,
Nagaland, Manipur, Meghalaya and Assam (Kanjilal
et al. 1938). The tree is well adapted to grow in diverse
agro-climatic regions from colder hilly regions to
hotter plains without any special care (Thangjam
2014).
The plant has been locally recognized with different
vernacular names (Table 1) in India (Firake et al.
2013) and other countries (Hopkins 1994). Wood of
Parkia is classified as light hardwood, soft to moder-
ately hard and light to moderately heavy (Hopkins
Fig. 1 Parkia timoriana,AA mature tree with drooping fruits,
Btree beans planted on roadside near to ICAR Research
Complex for NEH Region, Kolasib, Mizoram, India, CA
seedling of tree bean, grown in the backyard of ethnic hamlet in
Mizoram
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
1984). Approved vernacular name in timber trade for
P. timoriana is petai kerayong. However problems
associated with taxonomy of Parkia are caused by
confusion of names, aggravated by cultivation,
paucity of illustrations and incomplete or missing
types (Thangjam et al. 2003). The present review
highlights the nutritional, ethnomedicinal and phar-
macological properties of P. timoriana.
Nutritional value
Tree bean can be a good source of various nutrients
and supplements. Seeds of P. timoriana contain rich in
protein (albumins and globulins), minerals (potas-
sium, iron, magnesium, zinc, phosphorus and man-
ganese), essential amino acids (isoleucine, leucine,
phenylalanine and tyrosine) and fatty acids such as
oleic and linoleic acids (Mohan and Janardhanan
1993). Processing method had a major role in deter-
mining nutritional and antinutritional components of
this species. Sathya and Siddhuraju (2015) attempted
some processing methods in kernels of P. timoriana
and found that protein (15–36%) and lipid contents
(11–69%) were enhanced after processing. All the
methods attempted by them significantly reduced anti-
nutrients such as tannins, phytate, saponins, trypsin
and chymotrypsin inhibitors and lectins which led to
an increase in protein and starch digestibility, whereas
total phenolic content was increased.
Protein content of pods ranged from 12.1% in
tender to 18.8% in mature pods, but protein content of
kernels (28.8%) was much higher than pods, whereas
maturity of pods led to an increase in protein and fat
content accompanied by a decrease in ash and
carbohydrate content (Longvah and Deosthale 1998).
Fat content in seeds was less in tender stage and
increased with age of pods (Salam 2011). Seeds and
pods of P. timoriana have better mineral content than
other grain legumes (Gopalan et al. 1989).
Composition of aspartic acid in tender pods of P.
timoriana was exceptionally high, accounting for
almost 26% of total amino acids (Longvah and
Deosthale 1998). Level of essential amino acids is
ranged from 33% in tender pods to 42% in kernels and
increased with maturity of kernels. Development of
pod from tender to mature stage led to a rapid decline
in aspartic acid with an increase in glutamic acid
content. Lysine in immature and mature pods and
kernels were comparable to other legumes such as
soybean (Gopalan et al. 1989) and P. filicoidea
(Balogun and Odutuga 1982).
The essential amino acid content of P. timoriana
kernel is comparable to the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985)
pattern of essential amino acid requirement of pre-
school children (Longvah and Deosthale 1998). Fer-
mented kernels recorded minor change in leucine,
lysine and tyrosine content and 18.8% of trypsin loss
was noticed which followed by cysteine (8.8%) and
methionine (5%) when compare to raw kernels
Table 1 Vernacular names of Parkia timoriana in India and other countries
Vernacular names in India
(languages)
Vernacular names in other countries (languages)
Supota, Kharial—Hindi Burma—Mai-Karien (Shan)
Urohi, Yongchak—Manipuri Thailand—Riang, Karieng & spelling variants (Thai)
Manipuri seem—Bengali Malay Peninsula—Kedawong, Kada-ong, Petai kerayong, Gudayong, Kuayong, Neneting,
Tayur
Zawngtrah—Mizo Sumatra—Alai, Alei (Indonesian)
Khorial—Assamese Java—Kedawung, Peundeuj, Dawung, Petir (W Java)
Aoelgap—Garo Sumbawa—Kopang (Indonesian)
Bire-phang—Kachari Kalimantan—Koepang (Bandji)
Themuk-arang—Mikir Sarawak—Buah batar (Kelabit)
Unkamn-pinching—Naga Sabah—Timbarayong
Shivalingada mara—Kannada Sulawesi—Olimbopo (Tolalaki)
Unkampinching—Marathi Palawan—Amarang
Luzon—Cupang or Kupang (Taf, Tagalog, Visayan)
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
(Sathya and Siddhuraju 2015). They also revealed that
fatty acid content was increased in fermented kernels
and it might be due to lipase/esterase activity. P.
timoriana is reported to have a good source of ascorbic
acid (26.0 mg 100 g
-1
), fat (20.28%), proteins
(32.82%) and minerals (4.45%), though it contains
lesser amount of Na (51.0), Mg (34.7) and P (160 mg
100 g
-1
) in seeds, Ca (97.47), K (2400), Cu (2.3) and
Zn (2.77 mg 100 g
-1
) which is at par with other
legumes (Salam et al. 2009). P. timoriana was found to
be a good source of Fe and Mn with 57.1 and 35.0 mg
100 g
-1
in pod and 34.9 and 9.4 mg 100 g
-1
in seeds,
respectively.
Albumins and globulins derived from raw seeds
showed haemagglutinating activity without any speci-
ficity against human ABO system (Mohan and
Janardhanan 1993). Lectins purified from the pods
mediate agglutination of red blood cells of rabbit and
rat and no haemagglutination was recorded in human,
sheep or goose red cells (Utarabhand and Akkayanont
1995). They also stated that, up to 64-fold increase in
specific haemagglutinating activity of lectin was
observed in trypsin treatment of rabbit RBC prior to
haemagglutination test. The haemagglutinating activ-
ity was rapidly declined when the lectin was pre-
heated to over 50 °C. The haemagglutinating activity
was reduced to one half at 55 °C and completely lost at
70 °C (Utarabhand and Akkayanont 1995).
Devi et al. (2007) examined nutritional quality in
leaf, seed and pods of P. timoriana in which crude
protein was significantly high in seed (22.9%) than
leaf and pods, whereas total carbohydrate was higher
in pods (23.2%). Seeds have maximum fat (29.6%)
whereas crude fibre was significantly higher in leaf
(5.5%). Ascorbic acid and calcium are higher in leaf
followed by seed and pod. Carbohydrate content in P.
timoriana was ranged from 59.26 to 67.82% in
different stages of pods (Salam 2011) and increase in
carbohydrate content with maturity of pods was also
noticed (Geervani and Devi 2006). It was reported that
crude fibre content was ranged from 10.16% in tender
pods and 19.28% in matured pods, while seeds has
9.03% of fibre (Salam, 2011). Different processing
and cooking methods on seeds of P. timoriana led
major increase in moisture, fat and carbohydrate
content (Salam et al. 2010).
Phytochemical constituents
Parkia timoriana was investigated scarcely on phyto-
chemistry point of view (Fig. 2) with lacuna in
pharmacological actions of isolated compounds. Phy-
toconstituents present in pods was studied by Salam
et al. (2009). Presence of anti-nutritional factors, total
free phenols, tannins and lectins was reported by
Mohan and Janardhanan (1993) and these anti-nutri-
tional factors can be exterminated if the seeds are
properly processed by heating or cooking. An appre-
ciable amount of tannins, flavonoids, saponins, antho-
cyanins and leuco-anthocyanins are reported from
pods of P. timoriana (Salam et al. 2009). L-DOPA, a
non-protein amino acid was recorded with very low
quantity in this plant when compared to other legu-
minous crops (Mohan and Janardhanan 1993) like
Mucuna.
Hyperin and epigallocatechin gallate are two
biomolecules isolated from ethyl acetate fraction of
edible pods of P. timoriana (Sheikh et al. 2016).
Javanicoside A, Javanicoside A pentaacetate, Javan-
icoside B and Javanicoside B hexaacetate along with
known compounds like ursolic acid and b-sitosterol
were isolated from methanol extract of leaf and stem
bark of P. timoriana (Dinda et al. 2009). Kaur et al.
(2005) isolated novel mannose/glucose specific lectins
from seeds of P. timoriana. Parkinol, a new compound
isolated from leaves of P. timoriana along with several
other known compounds (Dinda et al. 2010).
Production technology
P. timoriana is commonly propagated by seeds and
vegetatively through cuttings. Depending on age and
growing condition, a mature tree bears 500–1500 pods
tree
-1
(90–260 kg plant
-1
) (Roy et al. 2014). Good
emergence was obtained by mature seeds extracted
from pods, dried for 10 days and soaked in water for
48 h. After soaking, seeds can be treated with
Carbendazim 12% and Mancozeb 63% @ 2 g L
-1
of
water for 2 min. A mixture of sand, soil and farmyard
manure (1:1:1) treated with Carbendazim @ 1 g
10 kg
-1
provide good substrate for germination. The
seeds can be sown in polybags are filled with the
mixture. The ideal sowing time is the last week of
April to first week of June.
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
Roy et al. (2014) suggested that pits of 2 9292ft
should be dug at a spacing of 24–30 924–30 ft and
filled with top soil thoroughly mixed with farmyard
manure. Thongbam et al. (2012) reported that appli-
cation of 10–15 kg compost annually along with
chemical fertilizers at the time of mulching helps in
growth and development in addition with application
of 160 g urea, 300 g SSP and 80 g MOP plant
-1
at the
time of transplantation and increasing the dose to
325 g urea, 625 g SSP and 165 g MOP from 5th year
onwards. One or two year old seedlings which are
propagated through seeds can be transplanted in field
(Firake et al. 2013), it also enrich soil by fixing
atmospheric nitrogen. P. timoriana has higher diam-
eter at breast height, canopy spread and timber
production than its associated tree species like Alnus
nepalensis, Michelia oblonga and Pinus kesiya in hilly
areas of north east India (Saha et al. 2007).
Local people in Manipur state of India believe that
narrow and uniform pods with light green colour are
superior in flavour and accordingly thirteen genotypes
were identified based on their morphological charac-
ters (Meitei and Singh 1990). Likewise, nine geno-
types of P. timoriana were reported from different
Parkia growing belts in Manipur based on their
palatability and other eating qualities (Salam and
Singh 1997). Germination percentage of P. timoriana
was higher at constant temperature (25 °C) and among
the pre-treatment methods, nicking of seed coat
significantly increased the rate of germination (Sahoo
et al. 2007) than seeds treated with chemicals or
soaked in water either cold or hot. Germination of tree
beans for 2–7 days resulted in a decrease in total
protein indicating that proteins were utilized for
germination and amount of total protein from
extracted solution varied with age of tree beans used
for extraction (Utarabhand and Akkayanont 1995).
Traditional uses
Ethnobotanically, tree bean is quite important and has
high nutritional and medicinal values (Table 2and
Fig. 3). Since time immemorial, different ethnic
groups in the state of Manipur have practiced the art
of dying cloths and other items with fruit skin of P.
timoriana. The plant is one of the costly vegetable (due
to its vast ethnobotanical uses) fetching a market value
of Rs. 70–120 kg
-1
(Firake et al. 2013) in north east
India. Nutritional value of P. timoriana is similar to
that of apple (Chandrabalan 2011). Besides containing
antioxidants that can ward off many diseases and also
improves learning ability of children.
P. timoriana is of immense use among the local and
indigenous people in northeast India, especially
decoctions of bark, fruit skin and leaves are used to
treat various diseases (Hopkins 1994). The pods and
kernels have been traditionally used as a supplemen-
tary food source in Manipur (Longvah and Deosthale
1998) and to treat leprosy and hypertension. In
Gambia, leaves and roots are used in preparing a
lotion to cure sore eyes (Ajaiyeoba 2002). Food can be
used as medicine and vice versa, while certain food
crops are used because of their health benefits and
hence called as medicinal foods. In case of P.
timoriana, pods, leaves and other parts of the plant
are consumed either raw or boiled with other ingre-
dients to treat various diseases and pods are eaten raw
as salads which contribute to health benefits among the
ethnic people.
Bioactivities of Parkia timoriana
Comprehensive literature survey on P. timoriana
revealed that only a few researchers have examined
the biological activities of this tree. Various parts of
the plant was reported to have antioxidant, a-glucosi-
dase and a-amylase inhibitory properties, antibacte-
rial, antidiabetic, antiproliferative and insecticidal
activities along with toxicity its pods (Fig. 4and
Table 3).
Antioxidant properties
Methanol and acetone extracts of pods of P. timoriana
recorded higher amount of total phenolic content with
49.39 and 79.63 GAE respectively and flavonoid
content with 4.05 and 4.35 mg g
-1
respectively
(Tapan 2011). Acetone extract of pods of the plant
has showed an appreciable quantity of flavonol
(5.00 mg g
-1
), high reducing power (32.25 mg g
-1
)
and strong inhibition (IC
50
=0.23 mg dry material)
bFig. 2 Major phytoconstituents of Parkia timoriana,AJavan-
icoside A, BHyperin, CJavanicoside B, DUrsolic acid,
EEpigallocatechin gallate, Fb-sitosterol, GParkinol
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
which shows that the tree has high radical scavenging
property (Tapan 2011). Total antioxidant capacity of
methanolic fruit extracts of P. timoriana was deter-
mined by DPPH and reducing power assays was
ranged from 160.44 ±2.26 to 157.31 ±1.90 mg/g
(Badu et al. 2012) which produced concentration-
dependent values comparable to ascorbic acid control.
Antioxidant standards, BHA (Butylated Hydroxy
Anisole) and rutin showed higher scavenging activity
than raw and processed legume seed extracts on the
radicals, DPPH and ABTS (Sathya and Siddhuraju
2013). Different processing methods steadily
increased the radical-scavenging activity on both
radicals (DPPH: 6–9%; ABTS: 24–80%) and it
Table 2 Uses of P. timoriana among the different ethnic groups of India and nearby regions
Region and people Traditional uses
Local people in Gambia Decoction of bark is used as a bath to get relief from fever; hot mouthwash is used to get
relief from toothache; pulped bark is taken orally with lemon to heal wound and ulcer
(Irvine 1961)
Tribal people in Malaysia Pods are consumed to treat kidney disorder, diabetes, urinary tract infection,
hypertension and headache (Samuel et al. 2010; Ong et al. 2011)
Local people in Ghana, West Africa Fruits are used to treat leprosy and hypertension (Badu et al. 2012)
Local people of Manipur and adjoining
states, India
Young and mature pods and seeds are cooked and eaten as a delicious vegetable (Jain
1981; Salam et al. 1995)
Mizos, Garos, Kacharis, Nagas, Mikir
tribals in northeast India
Pods are used as vegetables; pods pounded in water and used for washing head and face;
lotion made from bark and leaves are used to treat skin diseases and ulcer (Bhuyan
1996)
Local people in northeast Indian states Pods are consumed at different stages of maturity, either fresh or processed; beans, after
scraping out the skin, sliced into pieces, prepared as chutnies; mature flowers and
young shoots are used in preparation of curries and salads; leaves are used as fodder
and green manure; decoction of bark, fruit skin and leaf is used to treat diarrhoea and
dysentery (Rai et al. 2005)
Inflorescence, tender pods and mature seeds are eaten; flowers are taken as salads
whereas pods are used in preparation of salads, curries and chutnies (Salam et al.
2009)
Seeds/tender pods are taken orally to treat stomach and liver disorders; pods are
pounded in water and used for cleaning face and head (Paul et al. 2016)
Traditional healers from sacred groves of
Manipur, India
Tender pods and bark is eaten to treat intestinal disorders, piles, dysentery and diarrhoea
(Khumbongmayum et al. 2005)
Local people and ethnic communities of
Mizoram, India
Fruit paste is applied to heal wounds and scabies; fruit and juvenile shoots are eaten to
treat diarrhoea, dysentery and to get relief from food poisoning (Bhardwaj and Gakhar
2005)
Pod is consumed as vegetable, to prepare salad and chutney; wood is used as
firewood/timber (Thangjam and Sahoo 2012)
Flowers and pods are eaten as vegetable, used in preparation of singju, a typical salad,
this may be mixed with fish curry and used in preparation of local delicacy, Iromba
(Roy et al. 2014)
Pods/seeds are consumed as vegetable, used in salad/chutney preparations and sun dried
for future use (Thangjam 2014)
Fruit skin is soaked in water for 2–3 days and the liquid which shows dark brown colour
is used as adhesive for different dye mainly for red colour (Akimpou et al. 2005)
Local people of Mizoram, Manipur and
Nagaland, India
Pods, seeds, flowers and young shoots are taken raw or used in salads/curries; tree
provides fuel wood (Sahoo et al. 2007)
Meitei communities in Assam Leaves are used as green vegetable and grown in almost all home gardens (Devi and
Das 2010)
Meitei communities in Manipur Decoction obtained from bark is taken to treat diabetes (Devi 2011)
Dimasa and Kachari tribals, northeast
India
Paste made from the bark is used as plaster to treat eczema (Rathi et al. 2012)
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
Fig. 3 Traditional uses of
Parkia timoriana among the
different ethnic
communities
Fig. 4 Biological activities of different parts of Parkia timoriana
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
indicates free radical scavenging activity was mostly
depends on legume type, processing conditions and
nature of microbes involved in fermentation. Though,
processing methods had positive influence on scav-
enging activity of synthetic radicals like DPPH and
ABTS, it is not reflected on biologically relevant
radical species and this is due to variations in reaction
kinetics between radicals and antioxidants during
quenching process (Sathya and Siddhuraju 2013).
Antibacterial activity
Different parts of P. timoriana have the capacity to
inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria (Table 3)
like Streptococcus fecalis and Bacillus cereus (Thong-
bam et al. 2012). The leaf extract had significant
growth controlling effect against pathogenic bacteria
viz. Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Staphylococcus
aureus and B. cereus (Zuhud et al. 2001). Seed extract
had significant effect against all pathogenic bacteria
except E. coli (Devi et al. 2007). Gold and silver
nanoparticles synthesized from dried leaves of P.
timoriana produced significant inhibition against S.
aureus as compared to E. coli and it might be due to
accumulation and absorption of Au and Ag NPs on cell
wall of S. aureus (Paul et al. 2016).
Antidiabetic activity
Sheikh et al. (2016) revealed that significant reduction
in blood glucose levels which was dependent on dose
and duration of the treatment and ethyl acetate sub-
Table 3 Biological activities and toxicity studies in Parkia timoriana
Part of plant or extract used Observation Activity studied
Different parts of the plant Inhibits the growth of S. fecalis and B. cereus Antibacterial (Thongbam et al.
2012)
Leaf extract Effective against E. coli, V. cholerae, S. aureus and B.
cereus
Antibacterial (Zuhud et al.
2001)
Seed extract Inhibits the growth of several microorganisms except
E. coli
Antibacterial (Devi et al.
2007)
Gold and silver nano-particles
synthesized from dried leaves
Effective against S. aureus and E. coli Antibacterial (Paul et al. 2016)
Ethyl acetate sub-fraction of pods Significant reduction in blood glucose levels and
normalization of HbA1c, SGOT, SGPT, TG, TC and uric
acid in STZ induced diabetic rats
Antidiabetic (Sheikh et al.
2016)
Lectins isolated from seed extracts Inhibited proliferation of cancerous macrophage cell lines
such as P388DI and J774
Anti-proliferative activity
(Kaur et al. 2005)
Seed oil extract 100% of mortality was observed in 2.0% of oil extract
after four days
Insecticidal activity (Salam
et al. 1995)
Ethyl acetate fraction from pods No mortality was observed and animals treated with the
extract did not show any changes in their behavioural
pattern
Toxicity (Sheikh et al. 2016)
Methanolic extract of plant No acute cytotoxic effect on normal human cell lines Toxicity study (Aisha et al.
2012)
Crude methanol extract of pods Significant a-glucosidase and a-amylase inhibitory effects
with IC
50
values of 7.39 ±0.04 and
9.11 ±0.815 mg mL
-1
respectively
a-glucosidase and a-amylase
inhibitory potency (Sheikh
et al. 2016)
Ethyl acetate fraction of pods a-glucosidase inhibition with IC
50
value of
0.39 ±0.06 mg mL
-1
a-glucosidase inhibitory effect
(Sheikh et al. 2016)
Epigallo-catechin gallate and hyperin
isolated from ethyl acetate sub-
fractions of pods
Showed significant a-glucosidase inhibition with IC
50
values of 0.51 ±0.09 mM for epigallo-catechin gallate
and 0.71 ±0.03 mM for hyperin
a-glucosidase inhibitory
potency (Sheikh et al. 2016)
Raw seeds Albumins and globulins derived from raw seeds showed
haemagglutinating activity without any specificity
against human ABO system
Haemagglutinating activity
(Mohan and Janardhanan
1993)
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
fraction reduced blood glucose concentration to nor-
mal when administered with 10 mg/kg b.w. for
14 days after 48 h of streptozotocin (STZ) treatment.
They also believed that anti-hyperglycemic and hep-
ato-protective effects of enriched ethyl acetate sub-
fraction of pods of P. timoriana could be due to the
presence of hyperin and epigallocatechin gallate.
Levels of plasma glucose, serum glutamic oxaloacetic
transaminase, erum glutamic pyruvic transaminase,
triglyceride, total cholesterol and uric acid were also
elevated in STZ induced diabetic rats, which were
brought to near normal following the effect of ethyl
acetate sub-fractions at different doses (Table 3).
Anti-proliferative activity
Lectins isolated from the seed extracts of P. timoriana
inhibited proliferation of cancerous macrophage cell
lines such as P388DI and J774 with 48.13 and 67.93%
respectively (Kaur et al. 2005) and it could be used for
a range of other cancer cell lines including human
needs which should be investigated for anti-prolifer-
ative response (Table 3).
Insecticidal activities
Seed oil extract of P. timoriana possesses insecticidal
properties and holds promising agent in controlling a
variety of insect pests. Percentage of mortality of
aphids by seed oil extract was significantly increased
with increase in time and concentration and vice versa
under laboratory conditions (Salam et al. 1995). After
four days, 100% of mortality was recorded in 2.0% of
oil extract followed by 96.66, 86.66, 76.66, 63.33% of
mortality in concentrations of 1.5, 1.0, 0.5 and 0.1%
oil extract respectively (Table 3).
Toxicity studies
Local people in Manipur, India stated that consump-
tion of one pod every day by a person (mostly after
cooking) does not cause any adverse effects (Sheikh
et al. 2016). But, eating raw pods causes bad breathe
due to the presence of volatile disulphide compounds
which are absorbed by blood and thus exhaled in
breath so that odour persists for many hours (Meyer,
1987). Several toxic substances were isolated from
seeds of Parkia including non-protein amino acids,
lectins and alkaloids (Hopkins 1984). No mortality
was observed with ethyl acetate fraction of pods of P.
timoriana in acute toxicity study (Table 3) and
animals treated with pod extract did not show any
change in their behavioural pattern up to a dose of
2000 mg/kg (Sheikh et al. 2016). Methanolic extract
of pods showed no cytotoxicity on normal human cell
lines (Aisha et al. 2012). Seeds of P. timoriana contain
fewer amounts of anti-nutritional factors, viz., phytate
phosphorus, tannins, saponins, trypsin and amylase
inhibitors which can be further removed by processing
and cooking methods (Salam et al. 2010).
Significant a-glucosidase and a-amylase inhibitory
potencies with methanol extract of P. timoriana pods
showed IC
50
values of 7.39 ±0.04 and
9.11 ±0.815 lgmL
-1
respectively (Sheikh et al.
2016). Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction showed higher a-
glucosidase inhibition (0.83 ±0.01 lgmL
-1
) fol-
lowed by n-butanol (1.89 ±0.01 lgmL
-1
) and water
(1.39 ±0.60 lgmL
-1
) fractions. Strong a-glucosi-
dase inhibition with IC
50
value of
0.39 ±0.06 mg mL
-1
was observed with EA sub-
fraction. Hyperin and epigallocatechin gallate isolated
from EA sub-fractions showed a-glucosidase inhibi-
tion with IC
50
value of 0.51 ±0.09 mM and
0.71 ±0.03 respectively (Table 3). All the studied
extracts of P. timoriana showed moderate a-amylase
activity.
Need for domestication assessment for P. timoriana
Wild plants have major role in the life of indigenous
people around the world and several comprehensive
catalogues for edible plants are available in the
literature. During the last few decades, collection
and consumption of non-cultivated food plants has
been highly focused. Also field studies aimed at
documenting traditional knowledge through anthro-
pological, ethnoecological and ethnobotanical per-
spective is also increasing nowadays (Hadjichambis
et al. 2008). Cultivated plants differ from wild plants
in the way they are reproduced and maintained
(Zohary and Hopf 2000) and trait assessment studies
on the basis of diversity of crop plants will provide
their domestication values.
Domestication provides us vast arrays of morpho-
logical, anatomical, physiological and chemical
changes which have evolved in crops in a very short
Genet Resour Crop Evol
123
span of evolutionary time in plants (Zohary and Hopf
2000). Also, selection under domestication moulded
gene pools of major food crops to become backbone
for production of food and other essential utilities for
humankind. Domestication is generally considered to
be the end-point of a continuum that starts with
exploitation of wild plants, continues over cultivation
of plants selected from wild but not yet genetically
different from their wild progenitors (Pickersgill
2007). Further studies are suggested to explore genetic
diversity in wild populations (especially for under-
utilized and neglected crops of economic importance
like Parkia timoriana) and traits of economic impor-
tance based on wider sampling across whole distribu-
tion range including transferred land races (Ekue et al.
2011).
Conclusion and future prospects
In recent years, unfortunately the tree is reported to be
associated with various pests and infestations accom-
panied with die-back symptoms leading to mass
decline in many locations in northeast India, espe-
cially in the valley of Manipur. This led to fear of
being threat of extinction in wild in the region. The
reasons could be due to changing climate, Verticillium
wilt disease, mobile radiation, etc., but the real cause is
still unknown (Ashem 2012). Thus there is an urgent
need to address issues for decline in their population
and further research for mass multiplication and
conservation of this tree should be undertaken.
Therefore it becomes important to prioritize the
conservation of P. timoriana wild populations through
both ex situ and in situ strategies and emergence of a
regional tree bean breeding program using wild
genetic resources appears promising.
In most of the hilly states of Northeast India, the
forest lands are becoming barren due to practice of
Jhum cultivation. The tree bean may act as an
excellent crop in reducing shifting cultivation (Jhum)
which is still a common practice in north eastern hills.
Now it is time to rethink, introducing fast growing
leguminous tree bean in large scale on priority basis,
which can help in maintaining ecological balance,
enrich and improve soil of jhum through nitrogen
fixation and prevent soil erosion as well as uplift the
socioeconomic status of the jhumias of the region.
The pods of P. timoriana are considered as a
delicacy in north-eastern states in India and Southeast
Asian countries. Owing to its nutritious pods, wide
adaptability in different soils in varied altitudes, if
properly exploited P. timoriana can be considered as a
supplementary source of protein. Despite a presence of
high amounts of saponin, flavonoid and tannin which
are heat labile and which can be removed through
processing methods (Salam et al. 2009). Besides its
immense nutritional values, P. timoriana has reported
to have anti-oxidant properties, antibacterial, antidia-
betic, anti-proliferative and insecticidal properties.
Although a very few studies have been available in
literature on effect of specific compounds from tree
bean, still many functions and interactions are yet to be
investigated. Further studies needs to be done exten-
sively to understand its potential for health promotion
and potential drug discovery to enhance our knowl-
edge and appreciation for the use of P. timoriana in
daily diet.
Studies on optimizing various products of tree bean,
its sustainable production in large scale and imple-
mentation in industrial scale would lead us to achieve
food and nutritional security. Also, it is of outmost
importance to obtain data about popular uses of wild
food plants like P. timoriana before this knowledge
disappears from the present day traditional healers and
ethnic people. Hence, there is a need for collaboration
among the scientists, institutions, private seed com-
panies etc. to pay more attention towards research and
improvement of the dying bounty Parkia timoriana.
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... In India, it grows in Northeastern states, and several vernacular names are available for this species, viz, Manipur-Urohi; Khorial (Assamese); Manipuri seem (Bengali); Zawngtah (Mizo); Yongchak (Manipuri); Aoelgap (Garo); Unkamn-pinching (Naga) and Bairethai (Dimasa) ( Firake et al., 2013 ). It is a medium-sized tree (10-20 m) and planted in the home gardens, jhum fallows, and marginal land along roads in northeastern India ( Kanjilal et al., 1938 ;Angami et al., 2018 ). Flowers, tender pods, and seeds of this plant are edible and are a good source of carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and proteins compared to other legumes ( Saha et al., 2007 ;Seal, 2011 ). ...
... P. roxburghii has been widely studied for its nutritional value and biological activities ( Angami et al., 2018 ;Singh et al. 2020 ); however, information is limited on its role in environmental management. Therefore, this article aims to provide updated information on the diversity, distribution, traditional uses, and its role in food security, land reclamation, and carbon sequestration potential. ...
... Merr.) is the most widespread species of Parkia in the Indo-Pacific region, and the only one to occur on both sides of Wallace's line ( Hopkins, 1994 ). In India, the species is distributed in Arunachal Pradesh, Cachar hills of Southern Assam, Garo and Khasi Hills of Meghalaya, Lushai Hills, Kolasib-Bukpui, and Sialsuk road in upper Thenzawl area of Mizoram and Imphal, Kangpokpi and Pachao of Manipur ( Firake et al., 2013 ;Angami et al., 2018 ). The species is also reported from Chittagong and Sylhet of Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Malay Peninsula ( Hooker, 1973 ). ...
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With the ad­vent of the Green Rev­o­lu­tion fo­cus­ing on in­creas­ing crop yields to en­sure ad­e­quate calo­ries, less at­ten­tion was given to crop­ping sys­tems di­ver­sity. This has led to the ne­glect and un­der­uti­liza­tion of tra­di­tional crops, in­clud­ing many legume species. Parkia rox­burghii com­monly known as tree bean is an un­der­uti­lized legu­mi­nous tree with rich nu­tri­tious value and grows in north­east In­dian states and other South­east Asian coun­tries. This species plays a crit­i­cal role in the liveli­hoods of in­dige­nous peo­ple of North­east In­dia and else­where. The dif­fer­ent tree parts like pod, flower, and bark are used as food and pro­vide a source of earn­ings. Hence, the species' sus­tain­able cul­ti­va­tion and man­age­ment are re­quired for its sus­tain­able use by lo­cals and non-lo­cals. This re­view aims to give a clear vi­sion of eth­nob­otan­i­cal ben­e­fits, nu­tri­tional value, man­age­ment and the prospects of the Parkia in In­dia. The re­view sug­gests a vast po­ten­tial for the cul­ti­va­tion and uti­liza­tion of this un­der­uti­lized crop for ad­vanc­ing food se­cu­rity and rural liveli­hood. We syn­the­size the cur­rent knowl­edge, prac­tices, and iden­tify gaps in re­search and de­vel­op­ment in an ef­fort to con­tribute to the sus­tain­able uti­liza­tion of this species for fu­ture food, nu­tri­tional and re­gional cli­mate se­cu­rity.
... Various plant parts of this tree species (such as flower, young shoots, pods and seeds) have traditionally been consumed by local communities either in raw form or in various preparations such as salads, curries or chutneys (Rocky and Sahoo, 2002;Roy et al., 2016;Thanjam and Sahoo, 2017;Singh, 2019). In addition, the tree provides reasonable economic returns to the local communities (Rocky and Sahoo, 2002;Kumar et al., 2012), besides these, it also serves as an important dietary supplement as well as therapeutic significance for curing various ailments (Angami et al., 2017). Several studies reported nutritional (Longvah and Deosthale, 1998;Seal, 2011;Sathya and Siddhurajy, 2015;Roy et al., 2016), ethnomedicinal (Rathi et al., 2012;Paul et al., 2016), insecticidal (Salam et al., 1995;Morisawa et al., 2002;Chen et al., 2004;Thanjam and Maibam, 2006), piscicide (Abalaka et al., 2010), antibacterial (Zuhud et al., 2001) and pharmacological (Magani et al., 2009;Paul et al., 2016;Sheikh et al., 2016) ...
... P. timoriana seed has a popular folkloric ethnomedicinal for the treatment of colic, cholera, spasms during menstruation, and stomach strengthening (Sumarni et al. 2021). Moreover, Malaysians consumed P. timoriana pods to treat kidney disorders, urinary tract infections, hypertension, and headache (Angami et al. 2018). In spite of having long ethnomedicinal history, research on P. timoriana is very limited. ...
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Parkia roxburghii G.Don seeds have popular folkloric ethnomedicinal use in the treatment of many diseases especially in Indonesia. Methanol, distilled water, n-hexane, and ethyl acetate extracts from the seeds of Parkia roxburghii were assayed for secondary metabolism quantitative, antioxidant, antidiabetic and antibacterial and activities as well as determined the presence of phytochemical constituents. The extracts were investigated for antioxidant possession by DPPH free-radical (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2’ Azinobis (3-ethylbenz-thiazoline-6-sulfonic-acid) scavenging ability, Antidiabetic potential was invitro assayed by α-amylase inhibition and α-glucosyde inhibition while antibacterially by applying the disk diffusion procedure, as well as refined for the attendance of bioavailable phytochemical components. The result showed the existence of phytochemical components in diverse extracts could attribution free scavenging, antidiabetic and antimicrobial activities. The qualitative results all extracts of Parkia roxburghii seeds have expressed the presence of alkaloid, flavonoid, steroid, terpenoids, saponins and tannin whereas, methanol, distilled water, and n-hexane extracts expressed the presence of anthraquinones, The entire phenolic contents were examined as attested by the Follin-Ciocalteu methods, which varied from 43.82 - 137.42 mg GAE/g. The entire flavonoid compounds were measured with aluminum chloride colorimetric procedure, which varied from 20.42 – 45.90 mg QEDW/g. The total phenolic compound were measure Follin Ciocalteu which varied from 43.82-137.42 mg/g. The alkaloid, saponin, tanic acid, terpenoid and cardiac glycoside quantitative were measured with spectrofotometri UV-VIS which varied from 16.34 – 48.90 mg for alkaloid. The Saponin content varied 1.76 – 16.04 mg/g. Tanic acid which varied 0.21 – 7.29 mg/g. Terpenoid which varied 50.12 – 91.02 mg/g. Cardiac glycoside which varied 7.24-36.53 mg/g. The potential antioxidant were measured with ABTS and DPPH method, the methanol extract is the potential antioxidant. Antidiabetic potential were measured with alfa amylase and alfa glucosyde inhibition, the best antidiabetic is methanol extract. The potential antibacterial and antifungal was the methanol extract for Eschericia Coli and Candida Albicans. The conclusion established the tremendous perspective of the Parkia roxburghii seeds as another option fountain of food supplement, as well as drug components.
... It is a valuable tree that ranges from 40 to 820 m a.s.l. in tropical and subtropical zones [5]. The common names of Nitta beans are Burma-Mai-Karien, Thailand-Riang, Malay Peninsula-Kedawong, Kada-ong, Petai kerayong, Indonesia-Alai, India-Supota, Yongchak, and Khorial [6]. Nitta beans are ...
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The present study was undertaken to analyze the impact of germination (NBG) and hydrothermal cooking (NBHTC) on the nutritional profile and physicochemical, functional and microstructural properties of Nitta bean (Parkia timoriana) (NBR) seeds. Results demonstrated that the highest crude protein and fat content could be found in NBG and NBHTC, whereas the ash content was significantly higher in NBG. Compared to NBHTC and NBR, NBG has higher emulsion capacity and stability, with values determined to be 58.33 ± 1.67 and 63.89 ± 2.67, respectively. In addition, the highest color intensity was also reported for NBG, followed by NBHTC and NBR. Likewise, NBG showed complete gel formation at a lower concentration (12 g/100 mL) than NBR flour (18 g/100 mL). Furthermore, structural changes in the lipid, protein, and carbohydrate molecules of NBG and NBHTC were evidenced by FTIR studies. Morphological changes were noticed in dif-ferent samples during microscopic observations subjected to germination and hydrothermal treatment. In contrast to NBR and NBHTC, NBG showed the highest total polyphenol content, ORAC antioxidant, and DPPH radical scavenging activity, which demonstrated the potential utilization of Nitta bean flour as a natural plant-based protein source in food security product formulations.
... A mature tree can yield 500 to 1500 pods annually with a market value ranging between 65 USD and 90 USD for 100 pods during the peak season (Roy et al. 2016). Aside from being a source of food, pods have a high nutritional value (Longvah and Deosthale 1998;Salam et al. 2009) and many medicinal and diverse bioactivity properties as reviewed by Thejangulie et al. (2017). The tree bean is a common perennial species in many agroforestry systems and there is a growing interest amongst farmers to integrate it into their farming system (Lyngdoh et al. 2016;Thangjam et al. 2019;Singha et al. 2021). ...
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Tree bean (Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr.) is an indigenous fruit tree species of North-east (NE) India that yields pods of high economic value. for the preparation of many traditional recipes. In this study, we attempted to refine criteria for selection of superior genotypes of tree bean by developing a pod ideotype and matching it to 26 trees-selected by farmers in Manipur, India. The pod ideotype was developed based on seven pod characteristics, viz. seed size, pod length, seed number per pod, pod width, colour, aroma and harvest stage. T A significant variation was observed for all pod and seed traits amongst the selected trees. Pod width ranged from 23.4 to 33.0 mm, the number of seeds per pod from 7.6 to 19.1 and the seed diameter from 4.7 to 18.7 mm. The perentage of trees that possessed traits preferred by consumers ranged from 15.4% for colour to 73.1% for aroma. Out of the 26 trees that were identified, only one produced pods that were similar and two that were close to the ideotype. The need to refine selection criteria to include consumer preferences and farmer traits in tree domestication for enhancing marketability of products towards greater economic and social benefits is discussed.
... Each seed accompanies a guarantee to provide living on earth [1].Endurance of these kernel, be that as it may, is extraordinarily impacted by both abiotic and biotic factors. Kernel weight of types speaks to multifaceted versatile tradeoffs and assumes an indispensable job in foundation of adolescent period of a shrub's development bend. ...
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Kernels of Parkia timoriana demonstrates both intra explicit and bury explicit variety in kernel mass. An examination was completed to contemplate the impact of seed weight on propagation and early developmental levels of the sorts. Develop kernels were gathered from origin of Mizoram, India. They were further built and assembled into three classifications as light (lwt), intermediate (mwt) and heavy (hwt), utilizing a predecided mass technique. The assembled kernels are further planted utilizing 1 mm sieved sod as an intermediate in polythen packs. Post germination and via two leaf phase we begin checking the saplings length, neckline distance across, dry mass, and alike at regular intervals interim and up to 90th day, by utilizing dangerous strategy. Studies on germination and seedling growth parameters presume that aside from mean germination time (MGT) and germination index (GI), various modes are decidedly related to expanding mass. Relative growth rate (RGR) and average growth rate (AGR) utilization seedling dry mass likewise indicated a affirmative connection with seed mass. Aside through this, the dispersion example of seed loads as determined from the recurrence appropriation of 255 seeds didn't show log typical dissemination (K-S test: P<0.05, d=0.163, n=255). Kernel weight (n=255) fluctuated from 0.39 g to 0.81 g. Within the weight class, mid weight (0.5 to 0.69 g) seeds made up 56.48% of the total populace followed by substantial mass (23.14 %) and afterward by light mass (20.39 %).
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Background Medicinal plants have been used countless times for curing diseases mainly in developing countries. They are easily available with little to no side effects when compared to modern medicine. This manuscript encompasses information on ethnomedicinal plants in Champhai district, located in the North East Region (NER) of India. The region lies within Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. This study will be the first quantitative report on the ethnomedicinal plants used by the local tribes of this region. Knowledge of medicinal plants is mostly acquired by word of mouth, and the knowledge is dying among the local youths with the prevalence of modern medicine. Hence, there is urgency in deciphering and recording such information. Methods Information was gathered through interviews with 200 informants across 15 villages of the Champhai district. From the data obtained, we evaluate indices such as used report (UR), frequency of citation (FC), informant consensus factor (Fic), cultural values (CVs) and relative importance (RI) for all the plant species. Secondary data were obtained from scientific databases such as Pubmed, Sci Finder and Science Direct. The scientific name of the plants was matched and arranged in consultation with the working list of all plant species (http://www.theplantlist.org). Results Totally, 93 plant species from 53 families and 85 genera were recorded. The most common families are Euphorbiaceae and Asteraceae with six and five species representatives, respectively. Leaves were the most frequently used part of a plant and were usually used in the form of decoction. Curcuma longa has the most cultural value (27.28 CVs) with the highest used report (136 FC), and the highest RI value was Phyllanthus emblica. The main illness categories as per Frequency of citation were muscle/bone problem (0.962 Fic), gastro-intestinal disease (0.956 Fic) and skin care (0.953 Fic). Conclusion The people of Mizoram living in the Champhai district have an immense knowledge of ethnomedicinal plants. There were no side effects recorded for consuming ethnomedicinal plants. We observed that there is a scope of scientific validation of 10 plant species for their pharmacological activity and 13 species for the phytochemical characterisation or isolation of the phytochemicals. This might pave the path for developing a scientifically validated botanical or lead to semisyntheic derivatives intended for modern medicine.
Chapter
Plants with better nutritional quality, withstanding the fluctuating climatic conditions, need to be introduced to minimize the maximum exploitation of specific cash crops. This will diversify our food-basket and address the food and nutritional issues of the community. Sustainable ways to improve crops for better climatic adaptation, resisting biotic and abiotic stresses coupled with large-scale production and nutritional diversity, are the key requirements at present. Legumes are the prime protein source for the majority of the population. Efforts need to be undertaken to bring the lesser-known legumes to mainstream cultivation, domestication, and value-addition processes. This will partially be helpful in addressing protein malnutrition and providing nutritional security to the community. Biotechnological interventions to reduce the biosynthesis of specific antinutrients will be helpful in large-scale adoption of these orphan legumes for further use and utilization. This chapter describes some of the selected underutilized legumes, their nutraceutical values, and their importance for mainstreaming.
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Oil analysis and antimicrobial activity from the seeds of tree bean (Parkia timoriana DC. Merr.) was performed in this study. The highest oil yield (7.12%) from the seeds was recovered via Soxhlet extraction using n-hexane. The physicochemical parameters analysed were congealing point (5.25 oC), specific gravity (0.9133), absolute viscosity (86.4 cP), iodine value (116 mg I2/g), saponification value (188 mg KOH/g) and acid number (0.93). The most abundant fatty acid was linoleic acid (69.2%) according to gas chromatography (GC). The value of the total unsaturated fatty acids (89.3%) was greater than the saturated (16.7%) which was further confirmed from its Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrum. Tree bean seed oil showed high antimicrobial activity against Trichophyton mentagrophytes and was inactive against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans. The obtained results confirmed that tree bean seed oil can be used in the production of industrial, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical products.
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Despite the importance of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and dark septate endophyte (DSE) fungi on the growth and yield of field-grown crops, there is limited information on the indigenous root fungal associations in vegetable trees. Hence, we assessed the AM morphology and diversity of AM fungi in rhizosphere soils, as well as colonization patterns of AM and DSE fungi in the roots of two vegetable tree species viz. Parkia timoriana and Solanum betaceum growing under shifting cultivated lands of North East India. The maximum AM spore density and species richness occurred in S. betaceum. Altogether based on spore morphology, 16 AM fungal species were isolated from the field and trap culture soils of studied vegetable trees. Both P. timoriana and S. betaceum had dual colonization of AM and DSE fungi. Parkia timoriana had Intermediate-type AM morphology, whereas, Paris-type morphology was reported for the first time in S. betaceum. Incidence of total AM and DSE fungal colonization in the roots of two plant species varied significantly (P < 0.05). A significant positive correlation also existed among some AM fungal variables and soil properties (P < 0.05). Thus, the occurrence of AM and DSE associations in two economically important vegetable trees grown in hilly terrains indicate the possibility of utilizing them in the future for sustainable vegetable food production.
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Ethnopharmacological relevance: Parkia roxburghii G. Don. is a traditional medicinal plant and its pods are extensively used as food and medicine. It is believed by the traditional healers to have medicinal properties to treat diabetes, hypertension and urinary tract infections (Jamaluddin et al., 1994). Materials and methods: The methanolic extract of pods of P roxburghii and fractions were screened for their α-glucosidase and α-amylase inhibitory activity. Anti-hyperglycemic effects were studied on streptozotocin (45mg/kg b.w.) induced diabetes in albino rats (seven groups, n = 7), using different doses for 14 days. Plasma glucose concentration (HbA1c) was analysed using whole blood, while SGOT, SGPT, TG, TC and uric acid were analysed using serum, employing commercial kits. Quantitative analysis of the major active constituent was carried out by HPLC-PDA. Results: Bioactivity guided chemical investigation of the edible pods of P roxburghii identified sub-fraction EA-Fr 5 which significantly inhibited α-glucosidase (IC50 0.39 ± 0.06 µgmL(-1)), reduced the blood glucose level to normal, and lowered the elevated levels of liver function enzymes SGOT and SGPT in STZ-induced diabetic rats. EA-Fr 5 was found to contain epigallocatechin gallate (1) and hyperin (2) which exhibited significantly higher α-glucosidase inhibitory potency with IC50 0.51 ± 0.09 and 0.71 ± 0.03µM respectively. EA-Fr 5 contained 379.82± 2.90mg/g of EGCG, the major active constituent which manifests a broad spectrum of biological activities. Conclusion: The present investigation for the first time reports the occurrence of EGCG and hyperin in P roxburghii and substantiates the traditional use of pods of P roxburghii as dietary supplement for management of diabetes with significantly promising α-glucosidase inhibitory potency and anti-hyperglycemic as well as hepatoprotective effects.
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Tree bean Parkia roxburghii, (G. Don) is a very important multipurpose tree species distributed in the northeastern hill region of India. Its inflorescence, fruit, tender leaf and pod are edible and highly valued in this region. Pods, outer skin of pod and seed have been used as a traditional medicine since time immemorial. During this study it was found that the aqueous extracts of seed, outer skin of pod and leaf are highly effective against some human pathogenic bacteria and parasitic nematodes. Seed and leaf extract was found to be highly effective against rice-knot root nematode. Seed was found to be highly nutritious with high protein and oil content. Leaf was found to be a good source of Vitamin C and calcium.
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Raw, dehulled and dehulled and soaked seeds of parkia were analyzed for proximate composition, mineral content and presence of anti-nutritional and toxic substances. On dry matter basis, it contained 27.79% crude protein, 9.08% crude fibre, 19.29% crude lipid, 39.74% crude carbohydrate and 4.10% ash. Compared to raw samples, processing and cooking methods significantly increased moisture (62.99%), fat (23.62%), carbohydrate (43.34%) and significantly reduced in crude protein (23.11%) and ash (3.11%). Minerals in raw seed (mg/100) were 211.35 Ca, 302.33 Mg, 1416.67 K, 81.63 S, 154.57 P, 39.53 Fe, 6.02 Zn, 1.67 Mn and 4.9 Cu. Cobalt was not detected in the raw as well as processed seeds. Except for Mg, S, P and Cu, other minerals were leached significantly during cooking processes. Quantities of Mg, K, S, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu appeared adequate for dietary purposes. Trypsin inhibitor activity and amylase inhibitor activity decreased during cooking by 61.34% and 72%. Phytate phosphorus and tannins were significantly reduced during processing and cooking methods. Among the toxic factors, cyanide was not detected. Presence of saponin in the seed (23mg/g) is further destroyed by the processing and different cooking methods up to the extent of 35% of the original content.
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Parkia roxburghii, a lessar known nutritious leguminous plant is grown luxuriantly in North-Eastern India and South-East Asian countries. Right from flowers and tender pods to the mature seeds of this plant are edible and is a good source of ascorbic acid (26.0mg/100g), fat (20.28%), proteins (32.82%) and minerals (4.45%). Though it contains lesser amounts of Na (51.0), Mg (34.7) and P (160 mg/100g) in the seeds, it contains Ca (97.47), K (2400), Cu (2.3) and Zn (2.77 mg/100g) at par with other legumes. As regards Fe and Mn, P. roxburghii was found to be a good source containing 57.1 and 35.0 mg/100g in the pod and 34.9 and 9.4 mg/100g in the seeds, respectively. Its protein fractionation revealed that globulin and albumin are the major fractions. Globulin to albumin ratio was very less (1.6) thereby indicating higher amounts of albumins (8.14%) to compare with the globulins (13.05%). Higher amounts of albumins indicate more protein digestibility and higher content of sulphur containing amino acids which means more nutritive values as these are the limiting amino acids in legumes. P. roxburghii pods also contained saponins, flavonoids and tannins as in other legumes but alkaloids and cyanogenetic factors were absent. Though these constituents are known to inhibit digestion and absorption in the ruminants, they could be removed through processing. Cultivation of this plant will not compete for the available land with other legumes and if properly exploited may be a supplementary source of vegetable proteins.
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The present communication deals with the antioxidant activity of the acetone and aqueous methanol extracts of four wild edible fruits e.g. Eleagnus latifolia, Eleagnus pyriformis, Myrica nagi and Myrica esculenta, collected from Meghalaya state in India. The total phenol varied from 7.13±0.09 to 19.31±0.51 mg/g in the aqueous methanol extract and 6.42±0.34 to 28.56±0.78 mg/g in the acetone extract of the fruits. Flavanoids content were between 1.76±0.02 and 2.38±0.07 mg/g in aqueous methanol extract and varied from 1.66±0.08 to 9.67±0.08 mg/g in the acetone extract. 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging effect of the extracts was determined spectrophotometrically. The highest radical scavenging was observed in the acetone extract of M. esculenta with IC = 0.16±0.001 mg dry material. The greater amount of phenolic compounds leads 50 to more potent radical scavenging effect as shown by the acetone extract of M. esculenta. Flavanol content was observed highest in the acetone extract of E. latifolia (16.58±0.14 mg/g) and least in the aqueous methanol extract of M. esculenta (1.55±0.08 mg/g). The reducing power of the extracts of the plants were also evaluated as mg AAE (ascorbic acid equivalent)/g dry material. The results indicate that these wild edible fruits can be utilized as natural antioxidant.