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Sea cucumber saponin liposomes ameliorate obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance in high-fat-diet-fed mice



Obesity has become a worldwide concern in recent years, which may cause many diseases. Much attention has been paid to food components that are considered to be beneficial in preventing chronic metabolic diseases. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of sea cucumber saponins liposomes on certain metabolic markers associated with obesity. C57/BL6 mice fed with high-fat diet were treated with different forms of sea cucumber saponins for eight weeks. Results showed that liposomes exhibited better effects on anti-obesity and anti-hyperlipidemia activities than common form of sea cucumber saponins. Sea cucumber saponins liposomes could also effectively alleviate adipose tissues inflammation by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokines releases and macrophage infiltration. Moreover, sea cucumber saponins liposomes improved insulin resistance by altering uptake and utilization of glucose. Taken together, our results indicated that intake of sea cucumber saponins liposomes might be able to ameliorate obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance.
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Food &
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P. Dong, Z. Li, T. Yanagita, C. Xue, T. Zhang and Y. Wang, Food Funct., 2017, DOI: 10.1039/C7FO01599B.
Sea cucumber saponins liposomes ameliorate obesity-induced inflammation and
insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed mice
Cheng Chen
, Xiuqing Han
, Ping Dong
, Zhaojie Li
, Teruyoshi Yanagita
, Changhu Xue
, 3
Tiantian Zhang
*, Yuming Wang
* 4
College of Food Science and Engineering, Ocean University of China, No.5 Yushan Road, 5
Qingdao 266003, P. R. China 6
Qingdao National Laboratory for Marine Science and Technology, Laboratory of Marine Drugs 7
& Biological products, Qingdao 266237, Shandong, China 8
Department of Health and Nutrition Science, Nishikyushu University, Kanzaki, Japan 9
*Author (Tiantian Zhang) for correspondence (E-mail:; phone: 10
+86-532-82032597) 11
*Author (Yuming Wang) for correspondence (E-mail:; phone: 12
+86-532-82032597) 13
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Abstract: Obesity has become a worldwide concern in recent years, which may cause many 15
diseases. Much attention has been paid to food components that are considered to be beneficial in 16
preventing chronic metabolic diseases. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects 17
of sea cucumber saponins liposomes on certain metabolic markers associated with obesity. 18
C57/BL6 mice fed with high-fat diet were treated with different forms of sea cucumber saponins 19
for eight weeks. Results showed that liposomes exhibited better effects on anti-obesity and 20
anti-hyperlipidemia activities than common form of sea cucumber saponins. Sea cucumber 21
saponins liposomes could also effectively alleviate adipose tissues inflammation by reducing 22
pro-inflammatory cytokines releases and macrophage infiltration. Moreover, sea cucumber 23
saponins liposomes improved insulin resistance by altering uptake and utilization of glucose. 24
Taken together, our results indicated that intake of sea cucumber saponins liposomes might be 25
able to ameliorate obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. 26
Key words: sea cucumber saponins; liposomes; obesity; inflammation; insulin resistance 28
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1. Introduction 30
Obesity gradually becomes a serious threat to health worldwide, which is considered to be 31
strongly associated with prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), type 2 diabetes (T2D) and 32
non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), endangering the morbidity and quality of life
. The 33
fundamental characteristic of obesity is an imbalance between caloric intake and consumption, 34
leading to storage of excess energy in adipose tissues
. It has been suggested that expanding 35
adipocytes would release large amounts of free fatty acid and then adipose tissues started to 36
produce chemotactic signals to recruit macrophage, which finally resulted in a chronic low-grade 37
inflammation state
. Besides, insulin resistance, characterized by inefficient utilization of glucose 38
and disturbance of glucose homeostasis, played an essential role in the development of metabolic 39
. Dietary intervention has been proved to be good strategies for chronic metabolic 40
diseases resulted from unhealthy lifestyle. A large number of researches have been focusing on the 41
use of bioactive compounds including saponins originated from food in the treatment Japanese 42
researchers have indicated that Holothuria atra reduced serum total cheolesterol level of MetS
. 43
Japanese researchers have indicated that Holothuria atra reduced serum total cheolesterol level
. 44
Our previous studies showed that a dietary saponin supplement significantly suppressed adipose 45
accumulations, and reduced serum and hepatic lipids, moreover, saponin proved to be more 46
effective than other isolated components and was considered to be the main lipid-lowering 47
components in sea cucumber
. 48
Liposomes are spherical colloidal particles in which the internal aqueous cavity is surrounded by 49
a self-assembled lipid membrane
. Plenty of drug delivery vehicles have been developed from 50
different biomaterials, such as natural polymers and liposomes
12 13.
Many evidences suggested that 51
liposomes could be able to enhance activities of functional components in medicine or food
. Sea 52
cucumber saponins, also named as triterpene glycoside, are secondary metabolite of sea cucumber 53
and mainly distributed in the body wall and internal organs
. As one of the most important sea 54
cucumber compositions, they possess a wide range of biological activities including anti-tumor, 55
anti-fungal and anti-angiogenic effects
. In addition, sea cucumber saponins also play an effective 56
role in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. It has been reported that dietary saponions of sea 57
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cucumber could ameliorate obesity, hyperlipaemia, glucose intolerance and fatty liver in high-fat 58
diet-fed mice and NAFLD rats
17, 18
. Sea cucumber saponins have good solubility in water and this 59
property could reduce permeability and absorption in intestine
, which probably limits 60
bioavailability and bioactivity to a large degree. The usage of liposomes may overcome this 61
weakness and thus effectively increase the biological activities of sea cucumber saponions. 62
However, until now, little research has focused on the effects of sea cucumber saponins liposomes 63
on obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. 64
Therefore, we evaluated the protective activity of sea cucumber saponins liposomes using 65
high-fat diet-induced mice. The aim of this work was to observe whether sea cucumber saponins 66
liposomes had better effects on some aspects of metabolic syndrome than its common form. 67
Furthermore, preliminary research was performed to study the possible mechanisms, which 68
provided a theoretical basis for utilization of sea cucumber saponins in form of liposomes. 69
2. Materials and methods 70
2.1 Extraction and analysis of sea cucumber saponins 71
Sea cucumbers, Pearsonothuria graeffei, were purchased from Nanshan aquatic market of 72
Qingdao (Shandong, China). Sea cucumber saponins were prepared according to the method of 73
Hu and made some alterations
. Air-dried body walls of sea cucumbers were grinded into powder 74
and extracted six times with 60% ethanol. The combined extracts were evaporated in vacuum and 75
then the water layers were collected. Samples dissolved in water layer were applied with HP20 76
resin column, eluted with water and 80% ethanol in turn. The fraction eluted with 80% ethanol 77
was collected to evaporate and sea cucumber saponins were finally obtained. The extracts were 78
analyzed with an Agilent 1100 high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. 79
2.2 Preparation of sea cucumber saponins liposomes 80
Egg phosphatidylcholine was selected for the wall material to entrap sea cucumber saponins in 81
this study due to the relatively high stability. It was purchased from Aoboxing Biology Technology 82
Co., Ltd (Beijing, China). A certain amount of egg phosphatidylcholine was weighted and 83
dissolved in chloroform-methanol (2:1) and then the solution was evaporated at 30 °C until it 84
formed a thin film in container. Sea cucumber saponins were weighted at the lipid-drug ratio of 85
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1:10 and dissolved in saline thoroughly. The sea cucumber saponins solution was added to the 86
container coating with a thin film, and then was dealt with ultrasonic processing in low 87
temperature to obtain crude liposomes with smaller particle size and higher entrapping efficiency. 88
Finally, the opalescent liposomes were suffered in a homogeneous system. It is noteworthy that 89
the sea cucumber saponins liposomes must be prepared every two days and preserved in low 90
temperature. 91
2.3 Animals and diets 92
The experiment was conducted according to guidelines provided by the ethical committee of 93
experimental animal care at Ocean University of China (Qingdao, China) ,according to guidelines 94
provided by the Ethical Committee of the University(Approval No.: SPXY2015012). Eight-week 95
male C57BL/6J mice (20-25 g) were purchased from Vital River (Beijing, China). After one-week 96
adaptation feeding, mice were randomly divided into four groups consisting of eight mice each. 97
Mice were assigned to the following groups: 1) low-fat group (LF); 2) high-fat group (HF); 3) sea 98
cucumber saponins liposomes group (SEL); 4) sea cucumber saponins and egg 99
phosphatidylcholine solution group (SW+EL). Basic diet was given in LF group and the rest of 100
groups were all given high-fat diet adding 20% lard to develop obesity. Meanwhile, two 101
experiment groups were treated with sea cucumber saponins in the way of drinking. The details 102
were as follows: SEL-liposomes solution (0.45 mg/ml mL sea cucumber saponins) and 103
SW+EL-simple mixture (containing the same concentration of sea cucumber saponins and egg 104
phosphatidylcholine). SW+EL were designed for contrast to SEL in this experiment. Diets were 105
prepared on the basis of AIN-93G, and detailed diet compositions were summarized in Table 1. All 106
mice had free access to water and food, and were housed individually in a room at a 12 h 107
light/dark cycle, constant temperature of 22 ± 2 °C. Daily food and water intakes were recorded 108
during experiment. After eight weeks, mice were sacrificed after fasting overnight. Blood was 109
collected by orbital venipuncture and serum was separated by centrifuging at 7,500 rpm for 15 110
min at 4 °C. Liver, adipose tissues and muscle were quickly excised, weighted and stored at 111
-80 °C until analysis. 112
2.4 Glucose tolerance tests 113
Glucose tolerance test was performed at the seventh week. Following 10 h of food deprivation, 114
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20 uL of tail blood was used to measure the fasting blood glucose levels. The glucose (2g/kg body 115
weight) was injected orally before experiment started. The measurement of serial blood glucose 116
was taken at 30, 60, and 120 min after injection. Blood glucose levels were determined using 117
diagnostic kit (Biosino, Beijing, China). 118
2.5 Analysis of serum lipids and glucose 119
Serum triacylglycerol (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) 120
and glucose level were determined using enzymatic reagent kits according to the manufacturer’s 121
instructions (Biosino, Beijing, China). 122
2.6 Assay of free fatty acid, glycerol and cytokines in adipose tissues 123
Frozen epididymal adipose tissues (100 mg) were homogenized in phosphate buffer saline (1 124
mL) at 4°C. Homogenates were centrifuged at 12,000 rpm for 15 min, and supernatants were 125
saved for analysis. The free fatty acid and glycerol content were measured by chemical method 126
according to the protocol supplied (Jiancheng Bioengineering Institute, Nanjing, China). 127
Commercially available ELISA kits were used to measure Tumor Necrosis Factor-α(TNF-α), Inter 128
Leukin-6(IL-6) and Prostaglandin G2(PGE2) levels in adipose tissues (Wuhan USCN Business 129
Co., Ltd, China). 130
2.7 Quantitative real-time PCR 131
Total RNA was extracted from frozen epididymal adipose tissues (100 mg) using Trizol reagent 132
(Invitrogen, USA) for analysis of gene expression. One microgram of total RNA, random primer 133
(TOYOBO, Japan) and Moloney Murine Leukemia Virus Reverse Transcriptase (M-MLV RT) 134
(Promega, USA) were used for cDNA synthesis. The concentration of cDNA was analyzed by iQ5 135
Multicolor Real-Time PCR Detection System (Biorad, USA) using SYBR Green I Master Mix 136
(TOYOBO, Japan). Every sample was normalized to β-actin to determine the relative expression 137
. The primer sequences used for real-time PCR were listed in Table 2. 138
2.8 Western blotting 139
Frozen livers were homogenized in RIPA buffer at 4 °C. The homogenate was centrifuged at 140
12,000 rpm for 15 min, and the supernatant was used as total protein. The extraction of 14 1
cytoplasmic and membranous proteins of epididymal adipose tissue and muscle were performed 142
using protein extraction kits (Sangon, Shanghai, China). The proteins subjected to SDS–PAGE 143
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was transferred to polyvinylidene fluoride membranes (Merck Millipore, Billerica, USA). 144
Membranes were incubated for 2h at room temperature in TBST buffer containing 5% albumin 145
bovine V (Solarbio, Beijing, China), followed by washing and incubation with antibodies against 146
Extracellular Regulating Kinase (ERK1/2), phospho-Extracellular Regulating Kinase (p-ERK1/2), 147
Forkhead box protein O1 (foxO1), phosphor-Forkhead box protein O1 (p-foxO1), Glycogen 148
Synthase Kinase 3 (GSK3), phosphor-Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 (p-GSK3), protein kinase B 149
(AKT), phosphor-protein kinase B (p-AKT), Glucose Transporter Type 4 (GLUT4) and β-actin 150
(Cell Signaling Technology) overnight at room temperature
. Finally, membranes were 151
incubated with anti-rabbit IgG HRP-linked antibody (Cell Signaling Technology) for 2 h. Bands 152
were visualized by enhanced chemiluminescence (ECL) substrate with UVP Auto Chemi Image 153
system (UVP Inc., Upland, CA, USA). Normalization of protein expressions was conducted using 154
β-actin as control. 155
2.9 Statistical analyses 156
All values in tables were expressed as mean ± SEM. Statistical analyses were performed using 157
SPSS 18.0. t-test was used to compare means between LF group and HF group. Differences 158
among HF group and sea cucumber saponins groups were determined by Duncan’s multiple-range 159
test. 160
3. Results and discussion 161
3.1 Components analysis of sea cucumber saponins 162
The 100 mg extracts contained 90.6 mg total triterpene glycosides, suggesting that triterpene 163
glycosides were the main component. The result of HPLC analysis of the sea cucumber saponins 164
was shown in Fig. 1A. Holothurin A (HA) and Echinoside A (EA) were the main compounds in 165
sea cucumber saponins, and the structures of them were illustrated in Fig. 1B and 1C. 166
3.2 Effects of sea cucumber saponins liposomes on body weight, serum lipids and fat weight 167
in high-fat-diet induced obese mice 168
C57BL/6 mice were fed with experimental diets for 8 weeks. At the beginning of the feeding 169
experiment, the initial body weights were similar among all groups (22.85 to 22.88 g, Table 3). 170
The food intake of HF group was lower than LF group whereas the HF group gained higher body 171
weight (6.27 g) compared with the LF group (2.29 g), which indicated a successful model 172
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establishment (Table 3). Moreover, there was no statistically difference in water intake between 173
SEL and SW+EL groups, suggesting that the supplements of sea cucumber saponins were equal in 174
the two groups. After intaking saponins for 8 weeks, SEL group gained lower body weight (3.79 g) 175
than SW+EL group (5.07 g). In addition, the serum lipids were also evaluated. As expected, the 176
HF group showed the highest concentrations of serum TG, TC and LDL-C (Table 3). SEL-treated 177
group exhibited better effect on decreasing serum TC and LDL-C than SW+EL group. There were 178
no statistic differences (p>0.05) between SEL and SW+EL groups in serum TG but obvious 179
decrease for serum TG was observed in the SEL group (0.63 mmol/L) relative to the HF group 180
(0.80 mmol/L) (Table 3). The weights of liver and muscle had no statistical differences among all 181
groups (data not shown), while there were significant variations in weights of white adipose 182
tissues. The amount of total white adipose tissues in the SEL-treated mice were significantly 183
different (p<0.05) from those of HF group, which showed better effect than SW+EL group (Fig. 184
2A). Furthermore, both SEL and SW+EL groups had significant decreases in epididymal, 185
subcutaneous, mesenteric and perirenal fat relative to those of HF group and SEL group exhibited 186
the lowest values, suggesting that the liposomes solution had a better effect on fat accumulation 187
than simple mixture solution. However, there were no statistical differences in brown fat weight 188
among all groups (Fig. 2B), which probably because that excess energy was mainly accumulated 189
in white adipose tissues while brown fat played a part role in thermogenesis
. 190
3.3 Effects of sea cucumber saponins liposomes on GTT and fasting serum glucose 191
Mice were subjected to glucose tolerance test (GTT) in the seventh week of experiment. After 192
30 min, 60 min and 120 min of glucose administration, the blood glucose levels of HF group were 193
about 1.5 times higher than LF group (Fig. 2C), suggesting a severe impairment in glucose 194
tolerance. According to blood glucose levels in each time and calculated area under the curve of 195
GTT (Fig. 2D), we observed that SEL (p<0.05) could improve systemic glucose tolerance while 196
SW+EL did not exhibit improvement effect. The result from fasting blood glucose after scarifying 197
showed similar tendency as well (Fig. 2E). 198
3.4 Effects of sea cucumber saponins liposomes on inflammation in adipose tissues 199
Excessive accumulation of fat in adipose tissues led to aggravation of lipolysis
Consistent 200
with it, adipocytes in HF group released more free fatty acids (p<0.05) and glycerol (p<0.01) than 201
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those of LF group (Fig. 3A and 3B). Both SEL and SW+EL showed significant inhibition effects 202
on lipolysis (p<0.05) and SEL had better effect in reducing free fatty acid (p<0.05). More and 203
more studies had suggested that increased adipocyte lipolysis led to macrophages infiltration in 204
obese condition
. In addition, elevated circulating free fatty acid resulted from increased lipolysis 205
in obesity also potentially contributed to the impairment in insulin sensitivity
. Therefore, the 206
inhibition of lipolysis is advantageous for systemic metabolism. 207
Obesity is often accompanied by inflammation in adipose tissues and the pathological state is 208
associated with macrophages infiltration
. In this study, we first examined the release of 20 9
cytokines in epididymal adipose tissues. Mice fed with high-fat diet secreted more TNF-α (p<0.05) 210
and IL-6 (p<0.01) than LF group (Fig. 3C and 3D), which reflected an inflammatory state. SEL 211
exhibited apparent alleviation effect on inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines production (p<0.05) 212
whereas SW+EL did not show any effects on them. Adipose tissue acted as a crucial site for 213
generation of inflammatory adipokines and mediators, including TNF-α, IL-6 and MCP1, which 214
was probably the main cause of systemic insulin resistance
. 215
Next, we observed the macrophages infiltration in this experiment. F4/80 and CD11b are the 216
surface markers of macrophages and may reflect the number of macrophages. High-fat-diet 217
feeding recruited more macrophages in adipose tissues than LF group, manifested by increasing 218
mRNA expressions of F4/80 (p<0.05) and CD11b (p<0.05) (Fig. 3E and 3F). Notably, SEL could 219
significantly reduce macrophages infiltration (p<0.05; p<0.05) whereas SW+EL showed no 220
alterations. These results were in accordance with those of pro-inflammatory cytokines. 221
During inflammation and obesity development, S100A8 and A9 recruited macrophages in 222
adipose tissue and might regulate inflammation through inflammasome activation
. Consistent 223
with previous studies
, the mRNA expressions of S100A8 and A9 in adipose tissues of obese 224
mice were three times higher than that in low-fat-diet feeding mice (p<0.05), and both SEL and 22 5
SW+EL were able to decrease the mRNA expressions of the heterodimer effectively (Fig. 3G). It 226
has been suggested that S100A8 and S100A9 induced the secretion of several pro-inflammatory 227
cytokines including IL-6, TNF-α and IL-1β by stimulating production of reactive oxygen species 228
. Their causations were unknown and subsequent research could target on this point. 229
3.5 The mechanism investigation on the production of PGE2 230
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Previous research had indicated that adipocyte-originated prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) played 231
important roles in mediating lipolysis-induced macrophage recruitment and inducing the 232
inflammatory response
. We examined the level of PGE2 and found a remarkable increase in HF 233
group (Figure 4A). Both SEL and SW+EL showed inhibition effects (p<0.05). PGE2 has been 234
defined as a pro-inflammatory molecule and metabolic product of arachidonic acid
. cPLA2 235
promoted the release of arachidonic acid from the plasmatic membrane, leading to the synthesis of 236
prostaglandins and leukotrienes through cyclooxygenases (COX) action
. It has been reported 237
that cPLA2α was activated by phosphorylation at serine-505 by extracellular signal-regulated 238
kinase (ERK)
. Therefore, the expressions of proteins and mRNA in this pathway were then 239
investigated. Results showed that high-fat diet induced the phosphorylation of ERK (p<0.05) and 240
downstream mRNA expressions of cPLA2 (p<0.05) and COX1 (p<0.05) (Figure 4B-4D). SEL had 241
significant inhibitory actions on p-ERK, cPLA2 and COX1 (p<0.05), whereas SW+EL only 242
showed inhibition on the phosphorylation of ERK (P<0.05). There were no significant differences 243
(p>0.05) in the mRNA expression of COX2 among all groups (Figure 4E). COX is an important 244
enzyme involved in production of prostaglandin, which exists two isoforms referred to as COX1 245
and COX2
. COX1 is expressed constitutively in most cells and COX2 is induced by 246
inflammatory stimuli, hormones and growth factors. Both enzymes contributed to the release of 247
prostaglandin but most studies indicated that COX2-derived PGs appeared to be more important in 248
inflammatory process
. However, our results showed no differences in COX2 mRNA expression 249
while that of COX1 was in line with alterations of p-ERK and cPLA2, which were different from 250
previous studies. In addition, previous study had showed that suppression of the phosphorylation 251
of ERK could regulate inflammation thus the levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were down regulated
. 252
Hence, the inhibition of the phosphorylation of ERK was probably one of the main causes to 253
reduce pro-inflammatory cytokines releases and macrophages infiltration in present study. 254
3.6 Effects of sea cucumber saponins liposomes on insulin responding in liver and peripheral 255
tissues 256
Insulin exercise its function on regulating glucose mainly through the PI3K/AKT 257
(phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B) signal pathway. Activated PI3K can phosphorylate 258
AKT to activate AKT so that insulin signal can be transducted
. Gluconeogenesis and glycogen 259
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synthesis are two major responding to insulin in liver
. The phosphorylation of glycogen synthase 260
kinase 3(GSK3) inhibits the acitivity of itself and leads to the activition of glycogen synthase and 261
enhancement in glucose uptake
. However, the decrease in hepatic Akt-dependent FoxO1 262
phosphorylation can enhance glycogenesis
. Skeletal muscle and adipose tissues are the main 263
sites for insulin-stimulated glucose uptake and glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) is an important 264
protein involved in this process. 265
An impairment in glucose tolerance was observed based on the GTT result. Dietary alteration 266
might affect the protein expressions invloved in gluconeogenesis, glycogen synthesis and glucose 267
uptake. In our experiment, high-fat-diet feeding significantly decreased the phosphorylation of 268
GSK3 (p<0.05) and FoxO1 (p<0.05) in liver(Fig. 5A and 5B). Compared with HF group, SEL and 269
SW+EL could statistically increase the phosphorylations of GSK3 and FoxO1, importantly, SEL 270
exhibited better effects than SW+EL group. In skeletal muscle, high-fat diet-feeding decreased the 271
phosphorylation of AKT significantly(p<0.01)(Fig. 5C) and the same tendency was observed in 272
adipose tissues(Fig. 5D). GLUT4 contents in both cytoplasm and plasma membrane decreased in 273
both skeletal muscle and adipose tissues (p<0.05;p<0.05)(Figure 5E and 5F). Compared with HF 274
group, SEL increased the phosphorylation of AKT (p<0.05;p<0.05) and thus increased the uptake 275
of glucose through the action of GLUT4(p<0.05;p<0.05) in the two peripheral tissues. However, 276
SW+EL showed no alterations on p-AKT and GLUT4. The failure in insulin signal transduction 277
by a series of proteins interactions might account for the decrease in insulin sensitivity. 278
The good performances of sea cucumber saponins liposomes were probably resulted from the 279
similar phospholipid bilayer structure of liposomes to intestinal epithelial cell so that liposomes 280
could be relative easily absorbed in intestinal tract. Previous studies had demonstrated that the 281
improved absorption of calcitonin as well as insulin using liposomes were due to prolonged 282
retention and higher mucoadhesiveness in intestinal tract
. These findings might support our 283
hypothesis in some aspects. Beyond that, the embedding effect of liposomes could protect sea 284
cucumber saponins from enzymes and microorganism, which probably further contributed to the 285
utilization of liposomes. 286
Together, our findings suggested that the sea cucumber saponins liposomes had therapeutic 287
potential in treating obesity and related diseases through mitigating adipose inflammation and 288
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impaired glucose metabolism induced by a high-fat diet while the same dosages of common sea 289
cucumber saponins could not achieve equivalent effects. Sea cucumber saponins liposomes could 29 0
effectively reduce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and infiltration of macrophage by 291
inhibition of ERK activation. Moreover, the uptake of sea cucumber saponins liposomes improved 292
insulin resistance, which could be attributed to alteration in uptake and utilization of glucose 293
through up-regulating GSK3 and foxO1 phosphorylation and GLUT4 content (Fig. 6). 294
4. Conclusion 295
In present study, sea cucumber saponins liposomes proved to be a better form in alleviating 296
obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance than its common form. Both forms of sea 297
cucumber saponins could regulate body weight, fat weight and serum lipid levels effectively, in 298
which the liposomes exhibited superior performances. Interestingly, only sea cucumber saponins 299
liposomes could reduce the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and infiltration of macrophage 300
in obese mice. Especially, sea cucumber saponins liposomes could effectively act on 301
p-ERK/cPLA2/COX1 pathway and finally reduced PGE2 level in adipose tissues. The insulin 302
resistance in high-fat-diet feeding mice was only improved in the action of sea cucumber saponins 303
liposomes, which might be attributed to the enhanced abilities of liver to utilize glucose and 304
peripheral tissues to uptake glucose. Overall, liposomes proved to be a good form in the intake of 305
sea cucumber saponins, which exhibited better bioactivity in preventing diseases related to 306
metabolic syndrome. 307
Acknowledgement 308
This work was supported by the State Key Program of National Natural Science of China 309
(Grant No. 31330060), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31571771), National 310
Natural Science Foundation of China(NSFC)-Shandong Joint Fund for Marine Science Research 311
Centers (U1606403), the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (No. 312
201762028). 313
References 314
1. R. P. Blackstone, Obesity-Related Diseases and Syndromes: Insulin Resistance, Type 2
Diabetes Mellitus, Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, Cardiovascular Disease, and Metabolic
Syndrome, Springer International Publishing, 2016.
2. E. D. Rosen and B. M. Spiegelman, Adipocytes as regulators of energy balance and glucose
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Fig 1- HPLC analysis of saponins extracted from Pearsonothuria graeffei and structures of the two
main glycosides. (A) HPLC analysis of the crude sea cucumber saponins. The structure of sea
cucumber saponins Holothurin A (HA) (B) and Echinoside A (EA) (C).
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Fig.2- Effects of SEL and SW+EL on adipose tissues weights and glucose tolerance in high-fat
diet-fed C57/BL6 mice. Total white adipose tissues weight (A) and each adipose tissue weight (B)
in every group. Glucose tolerance test (GTT) curve (C) and the area under curve (D) in the
seventh week of experiment. (E) Fasting blood glucose levels after sacrificing.
p < 0.05,
p <
p < 0.001 compared to LF group; different letters indicate significant difference at p<
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Fig.3- Lipolysis and adipose tissues inflammation in high-fat diet-fed C57/BL6 mice. Free fatty
acid (A), glycerol (B), TNF-α (C) and IL-6 (D) levels in adipose tissues. mRNA expressions of
F4/80 (E), CD11b (F) and S100A8/9 (G) in adipose tissues determined by RT-PCR.
p < 0.05,
< 0.01 compared to LF group; different letters indicate significant difference at p< 0.05.
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Fig.4- The production of PGE2 through ERK-cPLA2-COX1 pathway in adipose tissues of
high-fat diet-fed C57/BL6 mice. (A) The PGE2 concentration in adipose tissues. (B) Western blot
analysis of expression of ERK phosphorylation. mRNA expressions of cPLA2 (C), COX1 (D) and
COX2 (E) in adipose tissues determined by RT-PCR.
p<0.05 compared to LF group; different
letters indicate significant difference at p< 0.05.
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Fig.5- Effects of SEL and SW+EL on protein expressions involved in insulin pathway in high-fat
diet-fed C57/BL6 mice. Western blot analysis of the expressions of GSK3 phosphorylation (A)
and foxO1 phosphorylation (B) in liver. Western blot analysis of the expressions of AKT
phosphorylation (CE) and GLUT4 contents (DF) in peripheral tissues.
p < 0.05,
p < 0.01
compared to LF group; different letters indicate significant difference at p< 0.05.
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Fig.6– Possible mechanism investigations of sea cucumber saponins liposomes on obesity-induced
adipose tissues inflammation and insulin resistance in high-fat diet–fed C57/BL6 mice.
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Table 1 Compositions of experimental diets (g/kg diet)
Casein 200 200 200 200
Fructose 0 200 200 200
Corn starch 650 250 248.425 248.425
lard oil 0 200 196.625 196.625
Corn oil 50 50 50 50
Cellulose 50 50 50 50
Mineral mix 35 35 35 35
Vitamin mix 10 10 10 10
DL-Methionine 3 3 3 3
Choline bitartrate
2 2 2 2
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Table 2 Primers used in this study
Gene Forward primer Reverse primer
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TG, triacylglycerol; TC, total cholesterol; LDL-C, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol
-- means the water intakes in LF group and HF group are not determined.
P < 0.01,
P < 0.001
compared to LF group; different letters indicate significant difference at P< 0.05 among HF diet
Table 3 Growth parameters and serum lipids in mice
Initial body weight (g) 22.85±0.94 22.85±0.45
Body weight gain (g) 2.29±0.91 6.27±0.62
Food intake (g/day) 4.56±0.51 3.19±0.32
Water intake (mL/day) -- -- 3.25±0.56
TG (mmol/L) 0.77±0.04 0.80±0.06
TC( mmol/L) 3.65±0.10 5.14±0.08
LDL-C(mmol/L) 1.71±0.07 2.06±0.07
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... Similarly, a liposomal preparation of triterpenoid glycoside (Holothurin A (Figure 2: (3)) and Echinoside A (Figure 2: (4)) isolated from Pearsonothuria graeffei reduced the inflammation by inhibiting the release of proinflammatory cytokines and infiltration of macrophages in the adipose tissue of HFD-fed obese mice. Moreover, this liposomal triterpenoid glycoside preparation significantly reduced the PGE2 levels in adipose tissue by modulating the p-ERK/cPLA2/COX-1 pathway [46]. Moreover, holothurin A and echinoside A also attenuated inflammation by downregulating the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in vascular and peritoneal macrophages of ApoE −/− mice [47]. ...
... Reduces ROS formation and NO production [114] Acanthaster planci Structures of anti-inflammatory astebatheriosides (glycosides) derived from starfish Asterina batheri (structures (46)(47)(48) re-used with permission from reference [116], Elsevier, 2016). ...
... More recently, the bioinformatics approach has been employed for target identification and the discovery of lead compounds, which has significantly reduced the length of the drug discovery process [117]. Lead compounds may come from combinational chemistry, computer-aided drug design, or from Structures of anti-inflammatory astebatheriosides (glycosides) derived from starfish Asterina batheri (structures (46)(47)(48) re-used with permission from reference [116], Elsevier, 2016). ...
Full-text available
Chronic inflammation can extensively burden a healthcare system. Several synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs are currently available in clinical practice, but each has its own side effect profile. The planet is gifted with vast and diverse oceans, which provide a treasure of bioactive compounds, the chemical structures of which may provide valuable pharmaceutical agents. Marine organisms contain a variety of bioactive compounds, some of which have anti-inflammatory activity and have received considerable attention from the scientific community for the development of anti-inflammatory drugs. This review describes such bioactive compounds, as well as crude extracts (published during 2010-2022) from echinoderms: namely, sea cucumbers, sea urchins, and starfish. Moreover, we also include their chemical structures, evaluation models, and anti-inflammatory activities, including the molecular mechanism(s) of these compounds. This paper also highlights the potential applications of those marine-derived compounds in the pharmaceutical industry to develop leads for the clinical pipeline. In conclusion, this review can serve as a well-documented reference for the research progress on the development of potential anti-inflammatory drugs from echinoderms against various chronic inflammatory conditions.
... QS-21, isolated from Quillaja saponaria bark (Quillajaceae), is one of the saponins that has passed clinical trials in different phases for use as an adjuvant in vaccination [107]. Accordingly, studies showed the beneficial therapeutic effects of saponins on various diseases, including metabolic diseases, such as obesity [108,109], diabetes [110,111], hypercholesterolemia [112], hypertension [113,114], and osteoporosis [115]. Dutta et al. showed that rasmuside A, as a steroidal saponin isolated from Asparagus racemosus fruits, had an anti-leishmaniasis effect on the Leishmania donovani strain at 1.31 ug/mL [116]. ...
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Saponins are one of the broadest classes of high-molecular-weight natural compounds, consisting mainly of a non-polar moiety with 27 to 30 carbons and a polar moiety containing sugars attached to the sapogenin structure. Saponins are found in more than 100 plant families as well as found in marine organisms. Saponins have several therapeutic effects, including their administration in the treatment of various cancers. These compounds also reveal noteworthy anti-angiogenesis effects as one of the critical strategies for inhibiting cancer growth and metastasis. In this study, a comprehensive review is performed on electronic databases, including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, and ProQuest. Accordingly, the structural characteristics of triterpenoid/steroid saponins and their anti-cancer effects were highlighted, focusing on their anti-angiogenic effects and related mechanisms. Consequently, the anti-angiogenic effects of saponins, inhibiting the expression of genes related to vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α (HIF-1α) are two main anti-angiogenic mechanisms of triterpenoid and steroidal saponins. The inhibition of inflammatory signaling pathways that stimulate angiogenesis, such as pro-inflammatory cytokines, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPKs), and phosphoinositide 3-kinases/protein kinase B (PI3K/Akt), are other anti-angiogenic mechanisms of saponins. Furthermore, the anti-angiogenic and anti-cancer activity of saponins was closely related to the binding site of the sugar moiety, the type and number of their monosaccharide units, as well as the presence of some functional groups in their aglycone structure. Therefore, saponins are suitable candidates for cancer treatment by inhibiting angiogenesis, for which extensive pre-clinical and comprehensive clinical trial studies are recommended.
... Previous studies show that nanoliposomes can effectively target infected and inflamed tissue [97]. Sea cucumber saponin liposomes could effectively alleviate adipose tissue inflammation by reducing pro-inflammatory cytokine releases and macrophage infiltration [98]. In addition, folic acid and PEG conjugated Pae-loaded liposomes (PAE-LS) inhibited STAT1 phosphorylation, decreased the levels of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α) and iNOS expression, and significantly increased the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10) and CD206 by increasing p-STAT6, reduce the inflammatory response in RA [99]. ...
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IntroductionInflammation is a defensive response of the organism to irritation which is manifested by redness, swelling, heat, pain and dysfunction. The inflammatory response underlies the role of various diseases. Ferroptosis, a unique modality of cell death, driven by iron-dependent lipid peroxidation, is regulated by multifarious cellular metabolic pathways, including redox homeostasis, iron processing and metabolism of lipids, as well as various signaling pathways associated with diseases. A growing body of evidence suggests that ferroptosis is involved in inflammatory response, and targeting ferroptosis has great prospects in preventing and treating inflammatory diseases.Materials and methodsRelevant literatures on ferroptosis, inflammation, inflammatory factors and inflammatory diseases published from January 1, 2010 to now were searched in PubMed database.Conclusion In this review, we summarize the regulatory mechanisms associated with ferroptosis, discuss the interaction between ferroptosis and inflammation, the role of mitochondria in inflammatory ferroptosis, and the role of targeting ferroptosis in inflammatory diseases. As more and more studies have confirmed the relationship between ferroptosis and inflammation in a wide range of organ damage and degeneration, drug induction and inhibition of ferroptosis has great potential in the treatment of immune and inflammatory diseases.
... Chen et al. [84] used a treatment with marine cucumber saponin liposomes. The treatment reduced the mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 and decreased macrophage infiltration in the adipose tissue, which decreased the F4/80 and CD11b mRNA expression. ...
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Obesity is characterized by an adipose tissue mass expansion that presents a risk to health, associated with a chronic increase in circulating inflammatory mediators. Anti-inflammatory agents are an obesity alternative treatment. However, the lack of effective agents indicates the need to assess the mechanisms and identify effective therapeutic targets. The present work identified and described the mechanisms of action of anti-inflammatory agents in adipose tissue in experimental studies. The review was registered in the International Prospective Registry of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO—CRD42020182897). The articles’ selection was according to eligibility criteria (PICOS). The research was performed in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, VHL, and EMBASE. The methodological quality evaluation was assessed using SYRCLE. Initially, 1511 articles were selected, and at the end of the assessment, 41 were eligible. Among the anti-inflammatory agent classes, eight drugs, 28 natural, and five synthetic compounds were identified. Many of these anti-inflammatory agents act in metabolic pathways that culminate in the inflammatory cytokines expression reduction, decreasing the macrophages infiltration in white and adipose tissue and promoting the polarization process of type M1 to M2 macrophages. Thus, the article clarifies and systematizes these anti-inflammatory agents’ mechanisms in adipose tissue, presenting targets relevant to future research on these pathways.
... Further study found that sea cucumber (Pearsonothuria graeffei) saponin liposomes exhibited better effects on antiobesity and anti-hyperlipidemia activities than the common form of sea cucumber saponins (Holothurin A and Echinoside A are main compounds) in the mouse model (Chen et al., 2018). ...
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Sea cucumbers are amongst the highest value seafoods available commercially, especially in the south-east Asian region, primarily due to their nutritional and health benefits as applied in Traditional Chinese Medicine. While the majority of studies for nutritional products derived from sea cucumber compounds have been conducted in vitro, the number of in vivo and evidence-based human clinical studies are limited. This review has critically assessed the advances in in vivo and clinical studies of sea cucumber-derived bioactives (both extracts and compounds) via a comprehensive literature research on papers published in the last ten years from 2012-2021. Sea cucumber-derived compounds were reported to have the following activities: anticancer, antihyperlipidemic, antihyperglycemic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant/antithrombotic, antioxidant, and antihypertension, immunomodulatory, wound healing and as treatments for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. These active compounds include triterpene glycosides (saponins), fucosylated chondroitin sulfate (FCS), cerebrosides, glycosaminoglycan, fucoidan, phospholipids, polysaccharides, peptides, long-chain bases, Frondanol A5, acid mucopolysaccharide, and phosphatidylcholines. Gaps, challenges and future directions have been identified and discussed separately to progress different areas of research and to further scientific validation, development and application of sea cucumbers for human health and nutritional products.
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Aging is an inevitable process influenced by genetics, lifestyles, and environments. With the rapid social and economic development in recent decades, the proportion of the elderly has increased rapidly worldwide, and many aging-related diseases have shown an upward trend, including nervous system diseases, cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases, and cancer. The rising burden of aging-related diseases has become an urgent global health challenge and requires immediate attention and solutions. Natural products have been used for a long time to treat various human diseases. The primary cellular pathways that mediate the longevity-extending effects of natural products involve nutrient-sensing pathways. Among them, the sirtuin, AMP-activated protein kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, p53, and insulin/insulin-like growth factor-1 signaling pathways are most widely studied. Several studies have reviewed the effects of individual natural compounds on aging and aging-related diseases along with the underlying mechanisms. Natural products from food sources, such as polyphenols, saponins, alkaloids, and polysaccharides, are classified as antiaging compounds that promote health and prolong life via various mechanisms. In this article, we have reviewed several recently identified natural products with potential antiaging properties and have highlighted their cellular and molecular mechanisms. The discovery and use of dietary supplements and natural products that can prevent and treat multiple aging-related diseases in humans will be beneficial. Thus, this review provides theoretical background for existing dietary supplements and natural products as potential antiaging agents.
Apostichopus japonicus is preserved in dried form after processing and used as food and traditional medicine. During the sea cucumber drying process, the boiled liquid is discarded as waste. In this study, the freeze-dried powder obtained from the boiled aqueous extracts from sea cucumbers cultured in Japan and Taiwan (SCAE-Tw and SCAE-Jp) were used to observe the anti-melanogenesis effects of the extracts on B16F10 cells and zebrafish embryos. A foam test, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and ultraviolet (UV) spectra analysis revealed that SCAEs had amphiphilic features similar to saponin. According to the saponin standard, we calculated that SCAE-Tw and SCAE-Jp contained 3.45 and 6.48 mg, respectively, of the saponin component per 100 mg after the lyophilization treatment. The survival rate experiments indicated that the lethal concentration in B16F10 cells is 54 and 201 μg/mL, respectively. The anti-melanogenic activity of the SCAEs was confirmed by assessing the inhibition of melanin content and intracellular tyrosinase activity in B16F10 cells and zebrafish embryos. qPCR analysis demonstrated that SCAEs suppressed the expression of Mitf, Tyr, and Trp-1 in a concentration-dependent manner. This research may provide new insights into the reuse of food processing wastewater and the development of novel anti-melanin treatments and applications in aquaculture, cosmetics, and medicine.
The sea cucumber is an important seafood that serves as both medicine and food in the Asian diet and is of great interest due to its diverse physiological regulatory functions. The nutritional efficacy and bioactivity of sea cucumber are related to the special structure of the nutrients and non-nutrient bioactive substances, also called “bioactive food components.” The main bioactive food components in sea cucumbers include proteins (collagens), peptides, sea cucumber saponins, and active lipids (phospholipids, glycolipids, and sterols). This chapter systematically introduces the physiological regulatory activities and nutritional health functions of different bioactive food components in sea cucumbers based on available research reports. These mainly include the alleviation of disorders related to glucose and lipid metabolism (metabolic syndrome), antioxidation, anticancer function, improvement of uric acidemia, anti-fatigue, and prevention and improvement of neurodegenerative diseases (Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s disease, etc.) associated with aging. Advances in research on the possible biological and molecular nutritional mechanisms underlying the role of bioactive components of sea cucumbers are also included. In addition, research progresses related to the differences in the structure and efficacy of different sea cucumber species and to similar bioactive components are also covered.KeywordsBioactive food componentsFunctional foodCollagenSulfated polysaccharideActive lipidsSea cucumber saponin
The present study investigated the anti-diabetic activity and potential mechanisms of sea cucumber gonad hydrolysates (SCGH) in a rat model of type II diabetes induced by streptozotocin (STZ) combined with high-fat diet (HFD). Results showed that SCGH significantly reduced water intake, fasting blood glucose level and glycated hemoglobin level. Moreover, the oral glucose tolerance, insulin resistance and plasma lipid level in diabetic rats were also alleviated. Furthermore, histological analysis showed that SCGH effectively protected the tissue structure of liver. In addition, mechanism studies showed that SCGH improved glucose metabolism via activating the IRS/Akt signaling pathway, and promoted lipid metabolism via activating the AMPK signaling pathway. In summary, these findings suggested that SCGH have potential anti-diabetic effects by improving insulin resistance and lipid metabolism disorders.
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Calgranulin genes (S100A8, S100A9 and S100A12) play key immune response roles in inflammatory disorders, including cardiovascular disease. Long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) may have systemic and adipose tissue-specific anti-inflammatory and cardio-protective action. Interactions between calgranulins and the unsaturated fatty acid arachidonic acid (AA) have been reported, yet little is known about the relationship between calgranulins and the LC n-3 PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). We explored tissue-specific action of calgranulins in the setting of evoked endotoxemia and n-3 PUFA supplementation. Expression of calgranulins in adipose tissue in vivo was assessed by RNA sequencing (RNASeq) before and after n-3 PUFA supplementation and evoked endotoxemia in the fenofibrate and omega-3 fatty acid modulation of endotoxemia (FFAME) Study. Subjects received n-3 PUFA (n = 8; 3600mg/day EPA/DHA) or matched placebo (n = 6) for 6–8 weeks, before completing an endotoxin challenge (LPS 0.6 ng/kg). Calgranulin genes were up-regulated post-LPS, with greater increase in n-3 PUFA (S100A8 15-fold, p = 0.003; S100A9 7-fold, p = 0.003; S100A12 28-fold, p = 0.01) compared to placebo (S100A8 2-fold, p = 0.01; S100A9 1.4-fold, p = 0.4; S100A12 5-fold, p = 0.06). In an independent evoked endotoxemia study, calgranulin gene expression correlated with the systemic inflammatory response. Through in vivo and in vitro interrogation we highlight differential responses in adipocytes and mononuclear cells during inflammation, with n-3 PUFA leading to increased calgranulin expression in adipose, but decreased expression in circulating cells. In conclusion, we present a novel relationship between n-3 PUFA anti-inflammatory action in vivo and cell-specific modulation of calgranulin expression during innate immune activation.
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Obesity is one of the greatest public health problems. This complex condition has reached epidemic proportions in many parts of the world, and it constitutes a risk factor for several chronic disorders, such as hypertension, cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. In the last few decades, several studies dealt with the potential effects of natural products as new safe and effective tools for body weight control. Saponins are naturally-occurring surface-Active glycosides, mainly produced by plants, whose structure consists of a sugar moiety linked to a hydrophobic aglycone (a steroid or a triterpene). Many pharmacological properties have been reported for these compounds, such as anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, hypocholesterolemic, hypoglycemic, antifungal and cytotoxic activities. The aim of this review is to provide an overview of recent studies about the anti-obesity therapeutic potential of saponins isolated from medicinal plants. Results on the in vitro and in vivo activity of this class of phytochemicals are here presented and discussed. The most interesting findings about their possible mechanism of action and their potential health benefits in the treatment of obesity are reported, as well.
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The discovery of the TRAIL protein and its death receptors DR4/5 changed the horizon of cancer research because TRAIL specifically kills cancer cells. However, the validity of TRAIL-based cancer therapies has yet to be established, as most cancer cells are TRAIL-resistant. In this report, we demonstrate that TRAIL-resistance of many cancer cell lines can be overcome after siRNA- or rocaglamide-mediated downregulation of c-FLIP expression and simultaneous inhibition of IAPs activity using AT406, a pan-antagonist of IAPs. Combined triple actions of the TRAIL, the IAPs inhibitor, AT406, and the c-FLIP expression inhibitor, rocaglamide (ART), markedly improve TRAIL-induced apoptotic effects in most solid cancer cell lines through the activation of an extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Furthermore, this ART combination does not harm normal cells. Among the 18 TRAIL-resistant cancer cell lines used, 15 cell lines become sensitive or highly sensitive to ART, and two out of three glioma cell lines exhibit high resistance to ART treatment due to very low levels of procaspase-8. This study provides a rationale for the development of TRAIL-induced apoptosis-based cancer therapies.
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Obesity induces accumulation of adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs), which contribute to both local and systemic inflammation and modulate insulin sensitivity. Adipocyte lipolysis during fasting and weight loss also leads to of ATM accumulation, but without proinflammatory activation suggesting distinct mechanisms of ATM recruitment. We examined the possibility that specific lipid mediators with anti-inflammatory properties are released from adipocytes undergoing lipolysis to induce macrophage migration. In the present study, we showed that conditioned medium from adipocytes treated with forskolin to stimulate lipolysis, can induce migration of RAW 264.7 macrophages. In addition to FFAs, lipolytic stimulation increased release of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and PGD2, reflecting cytosolic phospholipase A2α (cPLA2α) activation and enhanced cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2) expression. Reconstituted medium with the anti-inflammatory PGE2 potently induced macrophage migration while different FFAs and PGD2 had modest effects. The ability of conditioned medium to induce macrophage migration was abolished by treating adipocytes with the COX2 inhibitor sc236 or by treating macrophages with the EP4 antagonist AH23848. In fasted mice, macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue coincided with increases of PGE2 levels and COX1 expression. Collectively, our data show that adipocyte originated PGE2 with inflammation suppressive properties plays a significant role in mediating ATM accumulation during lipolysis.
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Hydrogels have been widely studied in various biomedical applications, such as tissue engineering, cell culture, immunotherapy and vaccines, and drug delivery. Peptide-based nanofibers represent a promising new strategy for current drug delivery approaches and cell carriers for tissue engineering. This review focuses on the recent advances in the use of self-assembling engineered β-sheet peptide assemblies for biomedical applications. The applications of peptide nanofibers in biomedical fields, such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, immunotherapy, and vaccines, are highlighted. The current challenges and future perspectives for self-assembling peptide nanofibers in biomedical applications are discussed.
Inflammation is closely linked to the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and chronic inflammation is one of the main causes of insulin resistance. Insulin pathway is very important for the regulation of glucose, lipid, and energy homeostasis, growth and mitogenic. Proinflammatory mediators can be related to obesity and induce insulin- resistance in adipose tissue. Signaling pathways of transcription factors, particularly NF-κB signaling, are involved in insulin-sensitivity. In addition, the crosstalk between M1-M2 macrophage polarizing plays an essential role in insulin resistance by switching from an M1 to an M2 phenotype and also activation of transcription factors such as NF-κB and AP1. Here, we focus on the roles of transcription factors in inflammation-induced insulin resistance and their involvement in pathogenesis of insulin resistance.
The flavonoids (POFs) from the leaves of Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco were purified using six different macroporous adsorption resins including polar resins NKA-9 and ADS-F8, semi-polar resins ADS-17 and AB-8, and non-polar resins D101 and ADS-5. Among semi-polar resins, AB-8 demonstrated the best adsorption and desorption capacities with an adsorption ratio of 86% and a desorption ratio of 52%. According to the Simultaneous Thermogravimetry-Differential Scanning Calorimetry (STA/TG-DSC) analysis, POFs showed three thermally decomposed temperatures (347.6 °C, 437.5 °C and 494.8 °C). The main flavonoids in POFs were identified as esculin, amentoflavone, glabridin, and afromosin. Meanwhile, POFs in the dosage range of 25 to 400 μg mL(-1) showed a significant anti-inflammatory effect on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 mouse macrophage cells, which could inhibit the secretion of NO, IL-6, and TNF-α through the inhibition of inflammatory-related gene expressions.
Fat accumulates within the body of a person who is overweight or obese until many small physiological changes accumulate to a tipping point where adipose tissue becomes “sick.” Adisopathy or “sick fat” leads to a host of other obesity-related diseases. In this chapter the development of adisopathy is discussed in detail with an emphasis on insulin resistance and the role of mitochondria, hormones, inflammatory markers and leptin. This chapter describes the mechanisms of disease for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes and explores the concept of metabolic syndrome. It also explains the pathophysiology of obesity as it relates to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The chapter ends with specific discussions about the relationships between obesity and other obesity-related diseases, including hypertension, dyslipidemia, atherosclerosis, coronary heart disease and stroke.
A polysaccharide fraction, here named POP1, was obtained from the leaves of Platycladus Orientalis (L.) Franco by water extraction first and then alcohol precipitation. Structure characterization revealed that POP1 had an average molecular weight of 8.10 × 103 Da and consisted of rhamnose (5.74%), arabinose (12.58%), mannose (10.97%), glucose (64.96%) and galactose (6.55%). The main linkages type of POP1 were comprised of (1→5)-linked α-L-Ara, (1→3)-linked α-L-Man, (1→6)-linked β-L-Rha, (1→4)-linked α-D-Glc, (1→6)-linked α-D-Glc, (1→6)-linked β-D-Gal, (1→3,6)-linked β-D-Gal and terminated with α-L-Man and α-D-Glc residues based on the periodate oxidation, Simith degradation, methylation and NMR analysis. POP1 exhibited excellent immunostimulating activity by enhancing macrophage NO, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-12 secretion and activating related mRNA expression in murine RAW 264.7 cells. Besides, POP1 showed significant anti-HBV activity through inhibiting the expression of HBsAg (IC50=1.33 ± 0.12 mg/mL) and HBeAg (IC50=1.67 ± 0.13 mg/mL) and interfering the HBV DNA replication (IC50=0.80 ± 0.03 mg/mL). These results suggested that POP1 could be developed as an immunoregulatory ingredient for functional foods or vaccine adjuvant for HBV infection treatment or prevention.