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The Development of Self Esteem in Children: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis



Abstract Background/Purpose: Tis study is aimed at providing a comprehensive acknowledgement of various factors that play a signifcant role in developing, shaping and affecting the self-esteem in children, and identifying relationships among its fundamental factors and their effects on studies conducted on children's self esteem, including social economic status (SES). Method: A thorough and properly organized research was conducted across ( various platforms) to extract and analyze reliable and comparable data on children psychology, their self-esteem needs, underlying characteristics and changes in personality and behaviors in different children. Te study resulted in a literature review and meta-analysis (including regression analysis) that investigated fundamental selfesteem factors and importance of their effects on children's personalities. Results: A total of 20 studies were selected out of which 16 had only general age categorization instead of specifc age references (of children). Hence, Children were divided in categories due to lack of this data. Tey were grouped in preschool, kindergarten and grade 1 according to the availability of respective data and age range. Literature review and meta-analysis were combined to reach the fnal conclusion. Limitations to methods and research base were identifed. Age of children was found to be the most signifcant factor in the development of self-esteem needs and its affects impacted children more as their age grew. Different studies found different continuous variables to be affecting esteem differently, however, certain factors including age factor produced similar results. Conclusion: All selected studies on children's self esteem showed positive correlation and similar relationship to effects of different underlying factors, age, SES, sample sizes and methods for data collection. Studies also happened to be most affected by age and sample sizes and showed dramatic effects on overall results with even slight changes in their respective values.
3346 The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention, vol. 4, Issue 3, March, 2017
The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention 4(3): 3346-3355, 2017
DOI: 10.18535/ijsshi/v4i3.01 ICV 2015: 45.28
ISSN: 2349-2031
© 2017, THE-IJSSHI
Review Article
Positive Thinking as a Means for Enhancing the Self-Esteem of Visually Impaired and
Blind People: A Systematic Review
Mogeda El Sayed El Keshky 1, Nisreen Yacoub Mohammed 2
1 Associate professor of Clinical psychology , Department of Psychology , Faculty of Arts and Humanities, King Abdulaziz
University, Jeddah & Department of Psychology , Faculty of Arts, Assiut University , Egypt . E-mail: drmogeda
2 Associate professor of psychology , Department of Psychology ,Faculty of Arts and Humanities, King Abdulaziz University-
Kingdom of Saudi Arabia ,Jeddah 21551 - PO. Box 42803. E-mail: yacoub.nisreen
A. Purpose of the article
The research is based on a systematic review that analyzes and correspondingly applies the three separate domains and binds them
together in a nutshell to present viable results. The systematic review focused on locating all the relevant literature from the
related fields namely biomedical analysis and interpretations, social factors and positive thinking impacts, and technology oriented
solutions for the visually impaired and blind.
B. Material and methods
The research followed the criteria of inclusion and exclusion was carried in two phases. The first phase of the evaluation applied
generic parameters to find out whether the literature was strong enough to be considered or not. The second phase of the
evaluation used more detailed criteria based on the relevant field‘s mappings. The objective of the study was to establish ground
rules for analysis of three domains.
C. Results
The results of the methodology and analysis indicate that self-esteem can indeed be established and that people respond to positive
inclusion. Behavioral changes in both self-esteem and the positive effect of social inclusion are directly relevant to the impact of
corrective behavioral therapy.
D. Conclusion
The research analysis suggests that inclusion of practices that increase positivity in visually impaired people help them develop
self-esteem, and achieve better treatment standards, as well as better quality of social life. The research is based on the
implications of regularly providing behavioral therapies and positive experiences in variable scenarios. Performing patient and
personality analysis before hand is strongly advised for designing a program of positive influences to best serve each individual.
E. Implications for rehabilitation
The research is based on the implications of regularly adding the behavioral and positive implication therapies resulting in
variable cases and scenarios. It is strongly advised to perform patient and personality analysis beforehand for designing a positive
infliction program to best serve and match his/her personality.
Keywords: positive thinking, self-esteem, blind, visual impairment.
The modern world is advancing in so many ways and so many
fields that perspective and reflective studies need to be carried
out more often. The concerns of humanity have been addressed
for quite some time now, and the effective results of all human
effort range from moderate to outstanding. There are still
various issues that need to be addressed relating to various
levels of integrity, communication, skill-set and potential. One
debated and now settled topics concerns providing appositive
environment and opportunities to a disabled group of humanity
(Pinter & Greenwald, 2005).
The current focus of study and research follows up on the
establishment of a well-structured and positive basis for both
consumers and contributors in the field of visual impairment.
The cures, management, equal opportunities, special
opportunities, easy lifestyle, and many other social factors,
such as the ease of interaction with ATMs, speed cameras and
other technologies in daily life, provide support and benefits
for visually impaired and blind people(McGregor et al.,2009).
Scope and Overview
Mogeda El Sayed El Keshky & Nisreen Yacoub Mohammed / Positive Thinking as a Means for Enhancing the Self-Esteem
of Visually Impaired and Blind People: A Systematic Review
3347 The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention, vol. 4, Issue 3, March, 2017
This study aims to determine the appropriate areas of
concentrations as to find a more suitable and empowering
environment for people with disabilities (Burgstahler & Doe,
2014). The concepts of positive thinking and positive
accelerators have been debated, researched and studied by
many socio-medical scientists and simple social scientists as
well. Positive thinking can help solve many problems
associated with humans requiring special care. The idea
inherent in this research is that positivity can culture and
present itself in three different spectrums for three categories of
effectiveness, because many researchers have not only focused
on studying the social behavior of people with impairments
such as visual or hearing impairment etc (Leary, 2007).
Studies have been carried out about potential and non-potential
caring regimes in hospitals to discover the various patterns of
response patients and people with impairments have to
therapies, and to the positively created environments specially
designed for them. Surprisingly, special care may sometimes
lead to more depression and states of disassociation from other
people, groups or communities. For some people. it seems to
feed negative thoughts that bind a negative energy into their
thinking style. Human do seem to conduct their behavior based
on various different personality types (Major et al., 2003).
Background Information
In the study under consideration, the effects and role of positive
thinking are put to observation and experimentation in order to
find a better manner of coping with ailments like visual
impairment and blindness. Visual impairment, including total
blindness, can be prevalent at birth or can appear in old or
middle age as well be caused by specific environmental factors
an individual is associated with.
Visual impairment was expected to decrease with health care
and modern technology-oriented biological operations (Walton
et al., 2014, p. 860).However, according to the international
standards and statistics provided by the World Health
Organization (WHO)about 285 million people on earth are
categorized as having visual impairment. In this, the category
about 39 million are blind people, which is a huge number, and
approximately 246 million out of these 385 million have been
classified as people with disabled vision, or more
appropriately, as people with low powered vision system.
Statistics of Visual Impairment
There are various factors that contribute towards visual
impairment, and the statistics provide a guide to understanding
the variable factors that can lead to visual impairment. Half the
people with visual impairment are over the age of 50. Thus,
studies and research in the development of visual impairment
and its associated problems are driven by the statistics
(Wentura et al., 2005).
The fact that50% of the population suffering from the visual
impairment is aged above 50 has opened up three areas of
mainstream research in the past 14 years. One of these areas
focuses on minimizing the cost of health care and providing
facilities, since another statistic provided by WHO clearly
states that90% of visual impairment is observed in areas with
low-income and hence low budgets. This is a very good reason
to provide more facilities to low-income areas (Sedikides &
Gregg, 2008).
Cost of Blindness and other Visual Impairments
These statistics do serve the purpose of revealing a problem,
and also provide evidence to ask for valid support for it.
However, the costs associated with such treatments do not
become easy with statistics (Papadopoulos, 2014). The costs
of blindness and visual impairment, as for any other disease,
are usually classified into two broad spectrums: tangible costs
and intangible costs. Tangible costs can be covered by funds,
sponsorships, and the deployment of rightful medical teams
and associations.
Whereas need for costs and managing costs is well understood,
the direct opposite applies to intangible costs (Hall & Tarrier,
2003).Managing intangible costs presents solutions, as well as
generates even more problems over time (Harrison,2006).
Understanding the role of intangible costs in context suggests
that positivity and a more focused intention to spread positive
aspirations and aims, at the same time as managing procedures
increases the value of tangible costs, and also suggests that
socio-medical miracles can be achieved hand-in-
hand(Hayeems,et al,2005).
Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratio
The Incremental Cost-effectiveness Ratio (ICER) is a highly
viable statistic used to understand and analyze cost
effectiveness. Its application is particular to medical support
and interventions. ICER is defined by analyzing the difference
in costs that exists, or might exist, between any two possible
medical interventions. The complete ICER is further achieved
by a division of difference effectiveness (Jones et al., 2002).
Many researchers have presented methodologies that serve the
same objective and have analyzed how ICER is very helpful in
determining the costs of possible outcomes or existing
shortfalls. The perturbing research is focused on understanding
the non-financial costs associated with positive actions and
methodologies that can be adopted alongside various medical
interventions to deal with visual impairment and blindness
(Krahé& Altwasser, 2006).
Literature Review & Literature Search
In relation to the study under consideration various platforms
were explored for gathering literature such as research papers,
case studies, analysis reports, white papers, medical research
papers, social research papers, and articles etc. The main data
set collection was classified into three primary categories for
the purposes of research review and analysis. The categories
are listed below.
Category-1: Biomedical data, statistics, and research in the
field of visual impairment and blindness.
Category-2: The impact of social aspects and positive
thinking on visually impairment and blindness.
Category-3: Technical aspects of visual impairment and
blindness (Krizan& Suls, 2008).
The standard and economic databases relevant to medical and
social journals and databases, as well as those with a
technological aspect,were searched for the literature study. The
medical databases searched with higher frequencies were Pub
Med and OVID. The IEEE database for the technological
aspects was searched and reviewed with UCI repository for the
medical issues related to blindness and visual impairment
(Heider, 2014). The common terms that were used to search
the databases are as follows.
Mogeda El Sayed El Keshky & Nisreen Yacoub Mohammed / Positive Thinking as a Means for Enhancing the Self-Esteem
of Visually Impaired and Blind People: A Systematic Review
3348 The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention, vol. 4, Issue 3, March, 2017
Table I: Keyword Search List
Keyword searched for
Impaired vision
Low vision
Cause of blindness
Recent developments in blindness
Visual impairment
Visually impaired
Blindness in various countries
Cost of visual treatment
Health cares related to blindness
Age-related blindness
Ratio of blindness to heart failure
the ratio of blindness to clinical depression
Blindness at birth
Age-related macular degeneration
The techniques of research also used ‗and‘ as well as ‗or‘
operators to refine the research. Moreover, the keyword list of
analysis was searched on the basis of newest and most relevant
Research Literature Criteria
The three distinct yet closely related categories of research
were evaluated by different criteria, such as the criteria for
including an article or research as a part of the systematic
review. The criterion for each field‘s exclusion and inclusion is
provided below.
A. Inclusion criteria for biomedical datasetsand biomedical
journals, articles &research
The variability-1: in procured data for research and study;
also the associated cost of variation in the impairment
studies. Studies that presented ground-based rules for
disease perception and causes with the associated rate of
relevancy and data accuracy were included in the
systematic review (Taylor& Brown, 1988).
The cost of procurement of data-2: category focused on
analyzing and acquiring data sets of value. Any data set
from a regular website was not considered. Only the
datasets that were regarded as the part of research or
study in the related research or articles were considered.
Moreover, to analyze the statistics and to measure
patient health, data collections from various hospitals all
over the globe were requested based on contractual
acceptance. The contract bound the provider and
consumer to utilize the data sets for educational and
research purposes only.
Data sensitivity issues and ratio of accuracy-3: were
calculated and checked for every piece of research that
was considered as a part of the systematic review. Thus,
any research selected that did not correspond to claims
when compared with the data sets actually referred was
excluded from the research.
Studies that presented a model-4: or summarized
calculations for tangible and intangible costs associated
with blindness.
Standard data value evaluation and run length-5:
specifications that conform to patient health, care and
B. Exclusion criteria for biomedical datasetsand biomedical
journals, articles &research
Any research or study that did not specify the frequency
of data recording was not included in the systematic
Any research that did not conform to result in
rehabilitation process on separate variable functions was
not included.
Studies that failed to provide associated (MacDonald, et
al., 2003) cost of repair in treatment, when the
mainstream of the study was focused on managing and
understanding costs was also excluded.
Studies that did not reveal the severity division of disease,
or whose data was recorded without any reference to the
severity of the disease were also excluded (Leksell et al.,
Economic costs pertaining to third world countries
without reference to dataset availability and
authentication were also excluded from the research
C. Inclusion criteria for social impacts of positive thinking
on visual impairment and blindness datasets and social
journals, articles &research
Articles from social journals and scientific journals that
presented ground rules and functioning of the
mathematical prospects for how the brain and thinking
work were included.
Articles and papers that presented or suggested new
models for building up emotional intelligence and
defining new social interactions for people with any kind
of disease or impairments, particularly blindness, were
included(Jahnke et al.,2014).
Studies that provided mathematical inductions backed up
with scientific data for supporting results of success in
dealing with cases of impairment and ailmentwere
Case studies of effective support groups and therapies
were included(Ickes, et al., 1973).
D. Exclusion criteria for social impacts of positive thinking
on visual impairment and blindness datasets and social
journals, articles &research
Research papers, studies or articles that did not provide
metric based analysis or any model were excluded from
the study.
Studies that did not have a strong literature reference were
also excluded from the systematic review (Van & Maes,
All social papers that did not consider a dataset of a
minimum of 100 cases were not included as a part of the
E. Inclusion criteria for technological solution development
&processes for visual impairment and blindness datasets and
Mogeda El Sayed El Keshky & Nisreen Yacoub Mohammed / Positive Thinking as a Means for Enhancing the Self-Esteem
of Visually Impaired and Blind People: A Systematic Review
3349 The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention, vol. 4, Issue 3, March, 2017
technical/engineering journals, articles &research
All research papers that presented a methodological
solution to aid blindness and help impairment were
included (Leksell et al., 2001).
White papers related to successful implementation were
also included.
Latest research relevant to process and data set selection
were considered.
Research studies with strong citation literature were
considered (Ambachtsheer ,2012).
Research studies that developed technological support
such as aiding materials, new technology of sensors etc.
were allotted strong importance (Jambor & Elliott, 2005).
f. Exclusion criteria for technological solution development
&processes for visual impairment and blindness datasets and
technical/engineering journals, articles &research
Research papers or studies that did not use a registered
data set were excluded (Link, & Phelan, 2001).
Studies or implementations that did not provide
experimental results or discussion material were
Studies that did not include a mathematical background
based on models were excluded (Hewett et al., 2015).
If no correlation mapping was provided, the study was
only utilized for its research idea only.
Cost Analysis Evaluation
The cost analysis for treatment and cure was also analyzed
(Riddick, 2009). Special purpose graphs and metrics were
observed so as to bring mathematical concepts into the review.
Some software techniques were analyzed in comparison with
the cost of development and cost of quality assurance. This
particular phase of there view was very helpful in designing
and understanding a model that could serve both developing
and developed economic sectors (Gebauer et al., 2008).
Most commonly the cost studies were conducted for
biomedical treatment and therapies that pertain to patients‘
well-being. The costs related to software development or
technology oriented solutions were not particularly mixed with
the former two areas. The mixing was not performed because
the technological solutions as well as their maintenance bear a
predominantly economic cost (Koole et al., 2009). Thus, the
technological solutions were studied and reviewed as a part of
the process but their cost management was calculated
Current Perception
Current perceptions and methodologies address various aspects
in different domains. The main idea behind the research
analysis was to understand the logistics behind perceptive and
analytical processing that could lead to better solutions for
visually impaired and blind people. The critical aspect is,
however, that positivity is reflected upon a brain and its
corresponding functionality. The personality types of people
are different and this tends to change perception. Thus, a
patient may not respond to therapies and positivity procedures
when it comes to treatment (Gilbert, 2007).
The medical treatments thus need to be paired with
technological solutions since social groups of their own accord
are not capable of influencing all personality types. The use of
technological alterations and the improvement of human
independence should be conducted as a part of any medical
treatment, and before any therapeutic concept of positivity is
applied. The equality of the two concepts is crucial. A patient
will focus on the anticipated level independence to be hoped
for after the visual impairment has been compensated for
(DeHart & Pelham, 2007).
Analytical Processing
However, the daily life activities of humans and their needs to
participate equally cannot simply provide the content of a
therapy session. Thus, scientists from social and technical
domains need to comprehend that special equipment for
visually impaired people must allow them to easily and equally
participate in the environment (Riddick, 2009). The use of aids
and the provision of employment in social sectors as well as
openings in technical and non-technical companies should be
brought about as a reform. This would ensure dignity and more
social standing for people who are visually impaired or blind.
With the inclusion of public employment, visually impaired or
blind people will be able to see themselves as more responsible
and more connected to society. This change of perspective on
how best to combine treatments with positivity brings to light
more socially-oriented approaches as well as technological
advancements (Murray et al., 2009).
Positive Approach
To bring about a positive effect on the environment for visually
impaired and blind people such social implications need to be
developed as laws or reforms. This also implies that social
groups and the government might have to consider their own
errors(De Laat, et al., 2013), since openings of positions and
even legalized groups require permission to operate. Legal
constructs must always be followed. Importantly, impaired
people should be provided special opportunities, and should
never be automatically regarded as not being capable enough
The testing services and entry level examinations should all be
of the normal standard, however, the key point is that the use of
technology will enable impaired people to learn and be
prepared to achieve that standard (Dayan et al.,2010).
The study was conducted under the guidance of standards and
rules provided by the Preferred Reporting Items for systematic
reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA). This systematic review
was structured to not only achieve a perspective analysis based
study on visual impairments and blindness, it was also
conducted to achieve higher end possibilities, i.e. solutions on
three different domains that affect the category of visual
impairment and blindness. The systematic review was
conducted using various resources from standard journals.
Many research items were studied, and based on the research
study and analysis, the methodological review has been
presented as a part of the study and analysis. A standard
collaborating checklist was formulated alongside the PRISMA
standard 27-item checklist to understand and clearly define the
results associated with the research review and analysis.
A new self-constructed list was also established to serve the
three distinct categories that have been reviewed and studied in
order to meet the requirements and categories that a single list
would not have been able to accomplish on its own(Krahé &
Altwasser, 2006). The selection of items prevalent in the list
was based on the three primary categories and the constraints
that follow up from the research area of that particular domain.
The category checklists for this particular review have been
Mogeda El Sayed El Keshky & Nisreen Yacoub Mohammed / Positive Thinking as a Means for Enhancing the Self-Esteem
of Visually Impaired and Blind People: A Systematic Review
3350 The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention, vol. 4, Issue 3, March, 2017
combined for common areas to observe the findings,
correlation mapping, and discrepancies that might appear in
analyzing the social and technical aspects related to health care
of visually impaired and blind people.
Functional Properties
The functional properties that are associated with the checklist
used are not deployed as a criterion for measuring the strength
and quality of articles or research considered. The metrics have
been designed to analyze the prevalent situation, and to further
highlight both its intern linter-connections and the
interconnections between various categories. This systematic
review is focused on three categories namely: the biomedical
research, studies with a visual impairment focus, and blindness
statistics, cases and guidance.
Biomedical Studies
The systematic review of biomedical studies related to
blindness was put through the channel of checklists and
analysis phase of the study to understand the causes,
shortcomings, disparities, needs, and skills such as soft and
hard skills that vary over the map. Both regional and local
studies were analyzed through various platforms for a better
understanding of the literature, and for more effective
communication of the changes that require both attention and
renovation at different levels.
Role of Positive Thinking
The next mainstream field of review analysis was for the
purpose of understanding and exploring the role of positive
thinking to change the lives of people who are visually
impaired and blind. The research review conducted was
focused on analyzing the latest as well as early decision-based
models about the impact positive thinking has on the mind, and
how it can be used to bring about change in the mentality of
people who are struggling with impairment and blindness.
Medical as well as social papers on positivity, that can bring
about change,have been studied and reviewed (Gregg, &
Sedikides, 2010). The study of social and medical aspects was
carried on with various criteria, to help understand the cause
and effects related to visual impairment. Recent studies and
projects have been undertaken to facilitate building a model
that helps to identify the changes that actually have promising
results, as well as those changes that can be used to bring about
more opportunities for blind and visually impaired people
(ZeiglerHill, 2006).
Use of Technology
The third category concentrated on results from the previous
two categories. This technological category, studied as
literature for the perturbed systematic review, covered the use
of technology to bring about change in the lives and living
standards for visually impaired and blind people. It revealed
that ideas and interventions undertaken to support blind or
visually impaired people were based on both positive thinking
and the need to overcome the social barriers impaired people
encounter in daily life. Typically, the category incorporated
positive thinking by using cognitive medical sciences and
establishing more comprehensible concepts that help the
visually impaired and blind.
The search was based on different research platforms and
comprised of almost 450 articles. Each article was processed
through the criteria of exclusion and inclusion. The following
procedure was followed for generating an article set for
research study and review.
Phase-1: For this phase, the 450 articles were gathered and the
articles were categorized into the specific categories:
a. Biomedical
b. Social aspects of positive thinking
c. Technologically oriented solutions
Phase-2: In this phase each list of gathered articles was
scrutinized. Each article was processed through the checklists
as well as the exclusion and inclusion criteria for that particular
Each article was subject to some common checklists for quality
standards and data standards; the checklist was extensive and
broad. It covered many aspects based on the type of
concentration under consideration. The generic checklist for
each of the category is summarized below (Dandeneau &
Baldwin, 2004).
Table II: Generic Checklist for Article Scrutiny
The results from Phase 2became input into the next phase that
analyzed each and every article based on the models or
definition-based claims the articles provided (Crowther et al.,
Phase-3:This phase comprises analysis of the models or
solutions presented as a part of the research or study. The
selection of parameters for analyzing the domains depended
upon the many distinct categories available (Marigold, et
al.,2007).Each category reflected the nature of the domain
under consideration. The following considerations were
analyzed for each domain separately. For the economic
evaluation, some of the selected questions have been presented
below to provide an idea of the evaluation (Crocker et al.,
a. Economic Evaluation: This was done by gathering data
and analyzing for the health costs and benefits provided
by each study conducted. The metric of evaluation was
based on the following criteria 
b. Cost Minimization Analysis (CMA): This was
evaluated for studies that involved closely related
concepts and results. The intervals between two studies
reflected similar outputs in a decided range. This
standard was selected from the World Health
Organization to serve as a deciding factor in the selection
of studies (Morag et al., 1999).Thus, any blindness
treatment can be categorized using the following process
in incremental formulation: If a New Blindness
Treatment cost is approximately same as for an Old
Treatment or a New Therapy cost is approximately same
as for an Old Therapy, then the cost will be regarded as
incrementally same and the study or process could be
included. Three research articles supported this
detail level
Mogeda El Sayed El Keshky & Nisreen Yacoub Mohammed / Positive Thinking as a Means for Enhancing the Self-Esteem
of Visually Impaired and Blind People: A Systematic Review
3351 The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention, vol. 4, Issue 3, March, 2017
Table-III: Generic CMA Results & Analysis
Degree of Resemblance
CMA application
Technological solutions
Yes, Valid
Technological solutions
Yes, Valid
c. Cost Effectiveness Analysis (CEA): This was applicable on all biomedical domain articles. This focused on finding out
the effect of intercessions that can be primarily and very easily expressed in a single unit of measure such as the
considered ones were for improvement in vision, the degree of blindness, and so on,(Buhrmester et al,2011).
d. Cost Utility Analysis (CUA):This was used to create the aspect category for determining the extent of the side effects of
a treatment, and the benefits of a prescribed treatment (Brunnström et al., 2004).
e. Cost Benefit Analysis (CBA): This was used as a comparison of two different prevalent conditions related to vision.
Two separate diseases were subject of interest (Brockner, & Guare, 1983).
f. Quality Adjusted Life Year (QALY): This metric was used for combining the quantitative (months count) measure
with a qualitative (effective quality over the month count) measure.
Table-IV: Generic Checklist for Therapy Observation(3 cases only have been presented.)
Effect of therapy
% change in condition
Ability to perfor-
m daily tasks
Accept-ance rate
Cause of other
Reluctan-ce towards
67% +/-
The overall view of systematic review analysis for article selection is presented in the flow chart below.
Figure-I: Overall systematic review process flow
The systematic review has presented solid ground rules that
establish the fact that positive thinking can bring about change
in the lives of people who suffer from visual impairment and
blindness. The review was conducted in three different
domains that classified the interjections between the three
categories (Briñolet al., 2006).The points to be considered are
the social causes and social awareness, since the medical
world is working and treating communities. However, the cost
associated with treatment and benefits that are made available
to people are highly dependent on the region and economic
conditions (Bosson et al., 2006). The basic purposeof cost
functionality should be to provide high-quality treatment for a
better-living standard for visually impaired and blind people
(Jambor& Elliott, 2005).
Consequently, the studies set forththe ideas that lower
economic conditions. Economic barriers need to be minimized
in order to tackle more health related issues in blindness and
visual impairment (Rolland & Walsh, 2006).Based on analysis
techniques and procedures, the economic trade-offs observed
present the following results.
Third world countries tend to be less careful about
operations (Hodge et al., 2013)
Third world countries are more focused on earning money
to survive rather than to take care of health related to
visual impairment or any other disease (Movahedi et
Economic conditions present a much worse situation since
low-income areas are not provided with the facility for
regular check-ups or medication (Burgstahler & Doe,
Mogeda El Sayed El Keshky & Nisreen Yacoub Mohammed / Positive Thinking as a Means for Enhancing the Self-Esteem
of Visually Impaired and Blind People: A Systematic Review
3352 The International Journal of Social Sciences and Humanities Invention, vol. 4, Issue 3, March, 2017
Medication is considered as a non-healthy choice in rural
areas of third world countries thus presenting a harsh
attitude towards the treatment (Huurre et al., 1999).
No public or free health care hospitals have been
established in rural areas to benefit people suffering from
blindness (Bergh et al., 2012).
Blindness at birth is considered a taboo in rural countries,
as revealed by the statistics from rural areas studies in
third world countries.
Treatment at government or public hospitals involves
many sanitation problems that cause the operations to
require further surgeries (Sowislo & Orth,2013).
Cost management and care at hospitals for special patients
is expensive and inadequate (Marinoble, 1998).
The 50 and above age group tend to have more eye
ailments compared to young people.
Health insurance policies do not exist in third world
countries. There are banking systems that do provide
insurance and companies that offer health insurance to
their employees. But then again studies reflect that most
of the patients that do not receive such privileges belong
to the low-income category (Baker et al., 2002).
Many other factors presented themselves as a part of the
systematic review. However, the impact of social and positive
thinking related to many crucial considerations, such as:
The positive thinking study reveals which groups
effectively contribute towards the development of centers
for blind and visually impaired people (Lombana, 1980).
The studies reveal that a positive outlook from society is
more effective than the effect of the patient‘s own positive
thinking (Back et al., 2009).
The research studies conducted tests and presented
analysis reports that suggest that the greater part of society
needs to understand that blindness (Vandereycken, 1986)
is not a curse or a mortal disease. Thus, the acceptance rate
from society can be increased by a public education
program using various forms of seminars and public health
conferences, as well as helpful charity organizations that
can communicate the message and createa more
sympathetic environment for blind and visually impaired
people (Anthony at et al., 2007).
The cost associated with bringing about a change in
perception is directly proportional to the level of illiteracy
and economic support of an area or country
The establishment of rehabilitation centers is another way
to encourage less privileged people to come and improve
their prospects (Altman, 1981).
Therapy and local group establishments can greatly
increase the morale of local patients, especially those
whose environments that are more like normal refreshment
centers for blind people, so that the psychology
(McFarlane, 1988) of the patients is not compromised.
Special schools for students who are blind should increase
the degree of acceptance in college in countries, whether
they are low-income or high-income based countries
(Althof et al., 2006).
Teaching parents and community members to be more
responsible towards the special people in the society
should increase the degree of acceptance.
Building traffic rules to help blind people move about even
when they are alone would obviously be of assistance
(Ahmed& Holtz, 2007).
The studies and analysis presented suggest that positive
thinking and inclusion in behavior does bring about change for
the visually impaired and blind community.. The use of
technology and the creation of new technologies can help
bring people with blindness closer to an unimpaired visual
reality with greater happiness and more success-oriented life
stories. The above 50s can be given good health care, and they
can still be made feel wonderful and useful members of
The social behavior studies in this case indicate that a more
positive outlook from the society can change the way
blindness and blind people are perceived currently. The next
phase of improvement and the area of concentration involves
building economic conditions in the favor of sight impaired
and blind people, without the disparities and barriers that exist
at the moment. Finally, technology has provided many
solutions that not only bring ease to people suffering from
visual impairment and blindness, but also focus on changing
their possible courses of action in daily life. In this way,
people will be able to reach out for more opportunities even
with a lifelong impairment.
This project was funded by the Deanship of Scientific
Research (DSR), at King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, under
grant no. (G- 430/246/1437). The authors, therefore,
acknowledge with thanks to DSR for their technical and
financial support.
Declaration of Interest Statement
The authors declare that they have no competing interests.
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... For instance, people who were able to build their self-esteem earlier in their lives, because of the love they enjoyed as children, are not easily compromised when they become adults (Keshky and Samak 2017). If people who were able to build their selfesteem earlier in their lives, because of the love they enjoyed as children, are not easily compromised; there is a high probability that victims of ODGL will grow up with a low self-esteem that may be difficult to completely overturn even as adults (Hänel 2020). ...
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While there is a substantial body of research on the health implications of walking, the physical, emotional and social outcomes of walking have received limited attention. This paper explores the wellbeing effects of walking and how the walking environment fosters or hinders such wellbeing effects. This is done using a novel mobile data collection technique, allowing for in situ recording of walking experiences, combined with focus groups. The results of the study suggest that the affect level of pedestrians is highest in places with many activities going on and many people being around. However, in support of restoration theory, we find that places with lower activation levels may also foster positive feelings, especially if they contain natural elements (such as trees and water) or buildings with a more contemplative character. While perceived safety of walking locations does not directly increase the affect level, it makes people feel more active, probably because it increases people's autonomy and self-esteem.