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Metabolic control and complications in Italian people with diabetes treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion

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Background and aim: The objective of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the degree of glycaemic control and the frequency of diabetic complications in Italian people with diabetes who were treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII). Methods and results: Questionnaires investigating the organisation of diabetes care centres, individuals' clinical and metabolic features and pump technology and its management were sent to adult and paediatric diabetes centres that use CSII for treatment in Italy. Information on standard clinical variables, demographic data and acute and chronic diabetic complications was derived from local clinical management systems. The sample consisted of 6623 people with diabetes, which was obtained from 93 centres. Of them, 98.8% had type 1 diabetes mellitus, 57.2% were female, 64% used a conventional insulin pump and 36% used a sensor-augmented insulin pump. The median glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level was 60 mmol/mol (7.6%). The HbA1c target (i.e. <58 mmol/mol for age <18 years and <53 mmol/mol for age >18 years) was achieved in 43.4% of paediatric and 23% of adult participants. Factors such as advanced pump functions, higher rate of sensor use, pregnancy in the year before the study and longer duration of diabetes were associated with lower HbA1c levels. The most common chronic complications occurring in diabetes were retinopathy, microalbuminuria and hypertension. In the year before the study, 5% of participants reported ≥1 episode of severe hypoglycaemic (SH) episodes (SH) and 2.6% reported ≥1 episode of ketoacidosis. Conclusions: Advanced personal skills and use of sensor-based pump are associated with better metabolic control outcomes in Italian people with diabetes who were treated with CSII. The reduction in SH episodes confirms the positive effect of CSII on hypoglycaemia. Clinical trial registration number: NCT 02620917 (ClinicalTrials.gov).

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... Metabolic changes that occur during pregnancy can make pregnant diabetics more inclined to DKA [5]. At present, prenatal diabetes screening, regular prenatal examination, and positive and correct treatment have greatly improved the incidence and prognosis of ketoacidosis during pregnancy, and the maternal mortality has decreased significantly [6,7]. However, compared with nonpregnancy, pregnancy complicated with DKA can occur when blood sugar slightly increases, and the disease progresses rapidly, which often leads to delayed diagnosis and delayed treatment; perinatal mortality is still as high as 35%-90%, and the long-term complications of surviving offspring are also high [8,9]. ...
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... To achieve optimal blood glucose control, blood glucose monitoring and insulin delivery are very important (Giuseppe et al., 2018;Pickup et al., 2015). Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) were successively introduced for people with T1DM, which can achieve continuous injection of exogenous insulin through an infusion pump and 24-hr real-time blood glucose monitoring (Forlenza et al., 2016). ...
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Aim: To explore the experiences and perspectives of the combined use of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) on parents of children with TIDM on their daily life. Design: A systematic review and meta-synthesis of qualitative studies. Methods: A systematic literature search of English studies published in seven databases between 2006-2021: CINAHL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, PsycINFO, Cochrane Library and Scopus. All included studies underwent the process of thematic interpretive integration by the author team. Results: Nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Six derived themes were generated which contained interacting with devices, interacting with glycaemic information, improving quality of life for parents of children with T1DM, burden of living with CSII therapy and CGM, impact on the parent-child relationship, requirement and expectation to advanced diabetes technology. Advanced diabetes technologies affect physical, emotional and relationship between the daily life of parents and their children with T1DM.
... In a national Spanish survey, CSII therapy was associated with a sustained improvement in glycemic control and a reduction in severe hypoglycemia [23]. The combination of advanced personal skills and the use of sensor-based insulin pumps are necessary in order to achieve better metabolic control outcomes [24]. The results concerning better longterm diabetes regulation are not reflected through the glycated hemoglobin test (HbA1 c ), but through the significantly reduced rates of hypoglycaemia and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) [25,26]. ...
Article
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Article
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Article
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Article
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Insulin pump therapy (continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII]) and multiple daily injections (MDIs) with insulin glargine as basal insulin and mealtime insulin lispro have not been prospectively compared in people naïve to either regimen in a multicenter study. We aimed to help close that deficiency. People with type 1 diabetes on NPH-based insulin therapy were randomized to CSII or glargine-based MDI (both otherwise using lispro) and followed for 24 weeks in an equivalence design. Fifty people were correctly randomized, and 43 completed the study. Total insulin requirement (mean +/- SD) at end point was 36.2 +/- 11.5 units/day on CSII and 42.6 +/- 15.5 units/day on MDI. Mean A1C fell similarly in the two groups (CSII -0.7 +/- 0.7%; MDI -0.6 +/- 0.8%) with a baseline-adjusted difference of -0.1% (95% CI -0.5 to 0.3). Similarly, fasting blood glucose and other preprandial, postprandial, and nighttime self-monitored plasma glucose levels did not differ between the regimens, nor did measures of plasma glucose variability. On CSII, 1,152 hypoglycemia events were recorded by 23 of 28 participants (82%) and 1,022 in the MDI group by 27 of 29 patients (93%) (all hypoglycemia differences were nonsignificant). Treatment satisfaction score increased more with CSII; however, the change in score was similar for the groups. Costs were approximately 3.9 times higher for CSII. In unselected people with type 1 diabetes naïve to CSII or insulin glargine, glycemic control is no better with the more expensive CSII therapy compared with glargine-based MDI therapy.
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Introduction: Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse effect of diabetes therapy, particularly insulin treatment. Hypoglycemia is associated with considerable clinical and economic burden, and may be under-reported. The aim of this study was to com pare the frequency of hypoglycemic events reported in real-world settings with those reported in clinical trials. Methods: We conducted a structured literature review in PubMed to identify hypoglycemic event rates in patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) and insulin-treated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from real-world data (RWD) and randomized controlled trials (RCTs). The search was restricted to English language, full-text publications from 2010 onwards, reporting on treatment of T1DM or T2DM with basal only, basal-bolus, or premix insulin. Results: The final dataset included 30 studies (11 RWD studies and 19 RCTs). Six studies (RWD, n = 2; RCT, n = 4) reported hypoglycemia event rates in people with T1DM. For all reported categories of hypoglycemia (severe, non-severe, and nocturnal), rates were consistently higher in RWD studies compared with RCTs. Twenty-five studies (RWD, n = 10; RCT, n = 15) reported hypoglycemia event rates in people with insulin-treated T2DM. For T2DM basal-oral therapy; the highest rates were observed in RWD studies, although there was an overlap with RCT rates. For basal-bolus therapy, there was considerable between-study variability but higher rates of severe and non-severe hypoglycemia were generally observed in RWD studies. For T2DM premix insulin, reported rates of hypoglycemia in RWD studies and RCTs were similar. Conclusion: We found that higher rates of hypoglycemia are observed in real-world settings compared with clinical trial settings, although there is a large degree of overlap. Due to the inherent constraints of RCTs, they are likely to underestimate the burden of hypoglycemia in clinical practice. Further, high-quality RWD are needed to determine a more accurate incidence of hypoglycemia in clinical practice.
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Article
The effect of insulin pump [continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII)] treatment on diabetes complications in a modern clinical setting is largely unknown. We investigated the effect of 4 years CSII treatment on HbA1c, albuminuria and kidney function compared with multiple daily injections (MDI) in a single-centre clinical setting. All patients initiating CSII treatment from 2004 to 2010 and followed for at least 4 years were included in the study: 193 people with Type 1 diabetes were matched (1 : 2) with 386 patients treated with MDI in the same period. Matching was based on diabetes duration, gender, HbA1c and normo-, micro- or macroalbuminuria at baseline. Urinary albumin/creatinine ratio (UACR) was measured yearly and annual change assessed from linear regression. CSII- vs. MDI-treated patients were comparable at baseline. After 4 years, HbA1c was 62 ± 11 vs. 68 ± 11 mmol/mol (7.8 ± 1.0 vs. 8.4 ± 1.0 %) (P < 0.001). Annual UACR change in CSII- vs. MDI-treated patients was [mean (95% confidence interval)] -10.1 (-13.3; -6.8) vs. -1.2 (-3.6; 0.9)% (P < 0.001). Reduction in UACR was significantly associated with CSII treatment after adjustment for age, gender, diabetes duration, estimated GFR, UACR, mean arterial pressure, HbA1c , cholesterol, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition, anti-hypertensive treatment and smoking (P < 0.001). This remained significant (P < 0.001) when only including patients on stable renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system inhibition during follow-up (n = 465). Treatment with CSII over 4 years independently reduced HbA1c and UACR compared with MDI. Reduced UACR may be due to less glycaemic variability because the effect of CSII on HbA1c could only partially explain the effect. This needs confirmation in randomized controlled trials. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Article
To examine the overall state of metabolic control and current use of advanced diabetes technologies in the U.S., we report recent data collected on individuals with type 1 diabetes participating in the T1D Exchange clinic registry. Data from 16,061 participants updated between 1 September 2013 and 1 December 2014 were compared with registry enrollment data collected from 1 September 2010 to 1 August 2012. Mean hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) was assessed by year of age from <4 to >75 years. The overall average HbA1c was 8.2% (66 mmol/mol) at enrollment and 8.4% (68 mmol/mol) at the most recent update. During childhood, mean HbA1c decreased from 8.3% (67 mmol/mol) in 2-4-year-olds to 8.1% (65 mmol/mol) at 7 years of age, followed by an increase to 9.2% (77 mmol/mol) in 19-year-olds. Subsequently, mean HbA1c values decline gradually until ∼30 years of age, plateauing at 7.5-7.8% (58-62 mmol/mol) beyond age 30 until a modest drop in HbA1c below 7.5% (58 mmol/mol) in those 65 years of age. Severe hypoglycemia (SH) and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) remain all too common complications of treatment, especially in older (SH) and younger patients (DKA). Insulin pump use increased slightly from enrollment (58-62%), and use of continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) did not change (7%). Although the T1D Exchange registry findings are not population based and could be biased, it is clear that there remains considerable room for improving outcomes of treatment of type 1 diabetes across all age-groups. Barriers to more effective use of current treatments need to be addressed and new therapies are needed to achieve optimal metabolic control in people with type 1 diabetes. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.
Article
Hypoglycemia is a critical obstacle to the care of patients with type 1 diabetes. Sensor-augmented insulin pump with automated low-glucose insulin suspension has the potential to reduce the incidence of major hypoglycemic events. To determine the incidence of severe and moderate hypoglycemia with sensor-augmented pump with low-glucose suspension compared with standard insulin pump therapy. A randomized clinical trial involving 95 patients with type 1 diabetes, recruited from December 2009 to January 2012 in Australia. Patients were randomized to insulin pump only or automated insulin suspension for 6 months. The primary outcome was the combined incidence of severe (hypoglycemic seizure or coma) and moderate hypoglycemia (an event requiring assistance for treatment). In a subgroup, counterregulatory hormone responses to hypoglycemia were assessed using the hypoglycemic clamp technique. Of the 95 patients randomized, 49 were assigned to the standard-pump (pump-only) therapy and 46 to the low-glucose suspension group. The mean (SD) age was 18.6 (11.8) years; duration of diabetes, 11.0 (8.9) years; and duration of pump therapy, 4.1 (3.4) years. The baseline rate of severe and moderate hypoglycemic events in the pump-only group was 20.7 vs 129.6 events per 100 patient months in the low-glucose suspension group. After 6 months of treatment, the event rates decreased from 28 to 16 in the pump-only group vs 175 to 35 in the low-glucose suspension group. The adjusted incidence rate per 100 patient-months was 34.2 (95% CI, 22.0-53.3) for the pump-only group vs 9.5 (95% CI, 5.2-17.4) for the low-glucose suspension group. The incidence rate ratio was 3.6 (95% CI, 1.7-7.5; P <.001). There was no change in glycated hemoglobin in either group: mean, 7.4 (95% CI, 7.2-7.6) to 7.4 (95% CI, 7.2-7.7) in the pump-only group vs mean, 7.6 (95%, CI, 7.4-7.9) to 7.5 (95% CI, 7.3-7.7) in the low-glucose suspension group. Counterregulatory hormone responses to hypoglycemia were not changed. There were no episodes of diabetic ketoacidosis or hyperglycemia with ketosis. Sensor-augmented pump therapy with automated insulin suspension reduced the combined rate of severe and moderate hypoglycemia in patients with type 1 diabetes. anzctr.org.au Identifier: ACTRN12610000024044.
Article
Objective: To review the evidence about the impact of hypoglycemia on patients with diabetes that has become available since the past reviews of this subject by the American Diabetes Association and The Endocrine Society and to provide guidance about how this new information should be incorporated into clinical practice. Participants: Five members of the American Diabetes Association and five members of The Endocrine Society with expertise in different aspects of hypoglycemia were invited by the Chair, who is a member of both, to participate in a planning conference call and a 2-day meeting that was also attended by staff from both organizations. Subsequent communications took place via e-mail and phone calls. The writing group consisted of those invitees who participated in the writing of the manuscript. The workgroup meeting was supported by educational grants to the American Diabetes Association from Lilly USA, LLC and Novo Nordisk and sponsorship to the American Diabetes Association from Sanofi. The sponsors had no input into the development of or content of the report. Evidence: The writing group considered data from recent clinical trials and other studies to update the prior workgroup report. Unpublished data were not used. Expert opinion was used to develop some conclusions. Consensus process: Consensus was achieved by group discussion during conference calls and face-to-face meetings, as well as by iterative revisions of the written document. The document was reviewed and approved by the American Diabetes Association's Professional Practice Committee in October 2012 and approved by the Executive Committee of the Board of Directors in November 2012 and was reviewed and approved by The Endocrine Society's Clinical Affairs Core Committee in October 2012 and by Council in November 2012. Conclusions: The workgroup reconfirmed the previous definitions of hypoglycemia in diabetes, reviewed the implications of hypoglycemia on both short- and long-term outcomes, considered the implications of hypoglycemia on treatment outcomes, presented strategies to prevent hypoglycemia, and identified knowledge gaps that should be addressed by future research. In addition, tools for patients to report hypoglycemia at each visit and for clinicians to document counseling are provided.
Article
Background: Patients with diabetes mellitus need information about the effectiveness of innovations in insulin delivery and glucose monitoring. Purpose: To review how intensive insulin therapy (multiple daily injections [MDI] vs. rapid-acting analogue-based continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion [CSII]) or method of monitoring (self-monitoring of blood glucose [SMBG] vs. real-time continuous glucose monitoring [rt-CGM]) affects outcomes in types 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus. Data sources: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials through February 2012 without language restrictions. Study selection: 33 randomized, controlled trials in children or adults that compared CSII with MDI (n=19), rt-CGM with SMBG (n=10), or sensor-augmented insulin pump use with MDI and SMBG (n=4). Data extraction: 2 reviewers independently evaluated studies for eligibility and quality and serially abstracted data. Data synthesis: In randomized, controlled trials, MDI and CSII showed similar effects on hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and severe hypoglycemia in children or adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus and adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus. In adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus, HbA1c levels decreased more with CSII than with MDI, but 1 study heavily influenced these results. Compared with SMBG, rt-CGM achieved a lower HbA1c level (between-group difference of change, 0.26% [95% CI, 0.33% to 0.19%]) without any difference in severe hypoglycemia. Sensor-augmented insulin pump use decreased HbA1c levels more than MDI and SMBG did in persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus (between-group difference of change, 0.68% [CI, 0.81% to 0.54%]). Little evidence was available on other outcomes. Limitation: Many studies were small, of short duration, and limited to white persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Conclusion: Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion and MDI have similar effects on glycemic control and hypoglycemia, except CSII has a favorable effect on glycemic control in adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus. For glycemic control, rt-CGM is superior to SMBG and sensor-augmented insulin pumps are superior to MDI and SMBG without increasing the risk for hypoglycemia. Primary funding source: Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.
Article
Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) is a recommended treatment for reducing severe hypoglycaemia in Type 1 diabetes, but the change in hypoglycaemia compared with multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) is unclear. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis comparing severe hypoglycaemia and glycaemic control during CSII and MDI. Databases and literature (1996-2006) were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and before/after studies of > or = 6 months' duration CSII and with severe hypoglycaemia frequency > 10 episodes/100 patient years on MDI. In 22 studies (21 reports), severe hypoglycaemia during MDI was related to diabetes duration (P = 0.038) and was greater in adults than children (100 vs. 36 events/100 patient years, P = 0.036). Severe hypoglycaemia was reduced during CSII compared with MDI, with a rate ratio of 2.89 (95% CI 1.45 to 5.76) for RCTs and 4.34 (2.87 to 6.56) for before/after studies [rate ratio 4.19 (2.86 to 6.13) for all studies]. The reduction was greatest in those with the highest initial severe hypoglycaemia rates on MDI (P < 0.001). The mean difference in glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) between treatments was less for RCTs [0.21% (0.13-0.30%)] than in before/after studies [0.72% (0.55-0.90%)] but strongly related to the initial HbA(1c) on MDI (P < 0.001). The severe hypoglycaemia rate in Type 1 diabetes was markedly less during CSII than MDI, with the greatest reduction in those with most severe hypoglycaemia on MDI and those with the longest duration of diabetes. The biggest improvement in HbA(1c) was in those with the highest HbA(1c) on MDI.
Article
To investigate the efficacy of sensor-augmented pump therapy vs. multiple daily injection therapy in patients with suboptimally controlled Type 1 diabetes. In this investigator-initiated multi-centre trial (the Eurythmics Trial) in eight outpatient centres in Europe, we randomized 83 patients with Type 1 diabetes (40 women) currently treated with multiple daily injections, age 18-65 years and HbA(1c) ≥ 8.2% (≥ 66 mmol/mol) to 26 weeks of treatment with either a sensor-augmented insulin pump (n = 44) (Paradigm(®) REAL-Time) or continued with multiple daily injections (n = 39). Change in HbA(1c) between baseline and 26 weeks, sensor-derived endpoints and patient-reported outcomes were assessed. The trial was completed by 43/44 (98%) patients in the sensor-augmented insulin pump group and 35/39 (90%) patients in the multiple daily injections group. Mean HbA(1c) at baseline and at 26 weeks changed from 8.46% (SD 0.95) (69 mmol/mol) to 7.23% (SD 0.65) (56 mmol/mol) in the sensor-augmented insulin pump group and from 8.59% (SD 0.82) (70 mmol/mol) to 8.46% (SD 1.04) (69 mmol/mol) in the multiple daily injections group. Mean difference in change in HbA(1c) after 26 weeks was -1.21% (95% confidence interval -1.52 to -0.90, P < 0.001) in favour of the sensor-augmented insulin pump group. This was achieved without an increase in percentage of time spent in hypoglycaemia: between-group difference 0.0% (95% confidence interval -1.6 to 1.7, P = 0.96). There were four episodes of severe hypoglycaemia in the sensor-augmented insulin pump group and one episode in the multiple daily injections group (P = 0.21). Problem Areas in Diabetes and Diabetes Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire scores improved in the sensor-augmented insulin pump group. Sensor augmented pump therapy effectively lowers HbA(1c) in patients with Type 1 diabetes suboptimally controlled with multiple daily injections.
Article
To compare the effect of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) and multiple daily insulin injections (MDI) on albumin excretion rate (AER) in Type 1 diabetic patients. In a 3-year multicentre retrospective observational study, 110 Type 1 diabetic patients treated with CSII were compared with 110 patients treated with MDI matched at baseline for age, sex, diabetes duration and HbA(1c). At entry, 90 patients in each group had normal AER and 20 persistent microalbuminuria. AER, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), HbA(1c,) lipids and blood pressure were assessed. HbA(1c) was lower in the CSII than in the MDI group (8.1 +/- 0.9 vs. 8.4 +/- 1.3%; P < 0.005 after 3 years). Blood pressure and eGFR were similar during the study. AER [median (95% confidence interval)], similar at baseline [6.0 microg/min (9, 21) in the CSII group vs. 4.4 (8, 16) in the MDI group, NS] was significantly lower in the patients treated with CSII both at year 2 and at year 3 of follow-up [4.7 microg/min (6, 12) vs. 6.4 (13, 29), P < 0.002]. This difference was observed even when normo- and microalbuminuric patients were analysed separately. Nine patients progressed to microalbuminuria in the MDI group and only one in the CSII group. Nine patients regressed to normoalbuminuria in the CSII group, whereas only two regressed to normoalbuminuria in the MDI group. Despite a small benefit in terms of improved glycaemic control, CSII therapy may be useful in decreasing the progressive increase in AER in Type 1 diabetic patients.
Article
The superiority of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) over multiple daily injections (MDI) with glargine is uncertain. In this randomized cross-over study, we compared CSII and MDI with glargine in patients with Type 1 diabetes well controlled with CSII. The primary end-point was glucose variability. Thirty-nine patients [38.1 +/- 9.3 years old (mean +/- sd), diabetes duration 16.6 +/- 8.2 years, glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) 7.6 +/- 0.8%], already on CSII for at least 6 months, were randomly assigned to CSII with lispro or MDI with lispro and glargine. After 4 months they were switched to the alternative treatment. During the last month of each treatment blood glucose variability was analysed using glucose standard deviation, mean amplitude of glycaemic excursions (MAGE), lability index and average daily risk range (ADRR). As secondary end-points we analysed blood glucose profile, HbA(1c), number of episodes of hypo- and hyperglycaemia, lipid profile, free fatty acids (FFA), growth hormone and treatment satisfaction. During CSII, glucose variability was 5-12% lower than during MDI with glargine. The difference was significant only before breakfast considering glucose standard deviation (P = 0.011), significant overall using MAGE (P = 0.016) and lability index (P = 0.005) and not significant using ADRR. Although HbA(1c) was similar during both treatments, during CSII blood glucose levels were significantly lower, hyperglycaemic episodes were fewer, daily insulin dose was less, FFA were lower and treatment satisfaction was greater than during MDI with glargine. The frequency of hypoglycaemic episodes was similar during both treatments. During CSII, glucose variability is lower, glycaemic control better and treatment satisfaction higher than during MDI with glargine.