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1. Introduction
Strawberry (Fragaria x annanasa Dutch) has been
grown commercially in various parts of the world for
many years but in India it was only introduced in the early
1960’s (Sharma and Sharma, 2004) and it has now accli-
matized well in different parts of India. This is essentially
a temperate fruit crop hence its expansion in the Kashmir
valley has been gaining popularity in the last decade. It is
not only consumed as fresh fruit but is also used in pro-
cessed foods such as jam, ice cream, biscuits and so on.
The demand for strawberry fruits for domestic as well as
export markets has been increasing steadily. The standard
planting time in the valley ranges from late October to the
first fortnight of November, and harvesting from 15 March
to late April in controlled conditions and from the second
fortnight of April to late May in open conditions. Climatic
conditions under various production methods during the
growing season may affect fruit quality. Soluble solids
concentration, acidity and colour of strawberry fruit have
all been reported to be affected by environmental factors
(Sacks and Shaw, 1994; Vlachonasios et al., 1995), as well
as harvest date (Shaw, 1988). Temperature is an important
factor for floral initiation under short day conditions. The
optimum temperature for short day floral initiation is 15-
18oC, while below 10°C and above 25°C short day induc-
tion is rather ineffective (Manakasem and Goodwin, 2001;
Sonsteby and Heide, 2006; Verheul et al., 2007). Although
both diurnal and nocturnal temperatures are important,
strawberry requires an optimum daytime temperature of
22°C and nighttime temperature of 13°C for maximum
growth and yield (Shoemaker, 1977). Growing strawber-
ries under polyhouse decreases the dependence of fruit
quality on climate and soil conditions. Such cultivation
system also enables better water, light and temperature
control to a certain extent. In Kashmir valley, cultivation
is generally carried out under open field conditions and
takes advantage of the local climatic conditions, but due
to the long duration of winters the availability of fruit is
very late. There is no information regarding the protected
cultivation and management practices on the performance
of commercialized cultivars of strawberry in the Kashmir
valley. Hence, the present study was conducted to study
the feasibility of growing strawberry under polyhouse to
obtain an early crop and to evaluate the cultivars which
may be suitable for commercial exploitation.
2. Materials and Methods
Experimental site and material
The experiment was laid out under polyhouse during
2008-09 and 2009-10 at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pulwama,
Jammu and Kashmir. The KVK is located at 33° North
and 74° East at an altitude of 1601 m amsl. The mean an-
nual rainfall ranges from 500 to 850 mm. The minimum
and maximum temperatures of the station during summers
range between 10 and 30oC and between -4 and 10°C dur-
Growth, yield and fruit quality of strawberry under
protected cultivation in South Kashmir
A. Kumar, I. Ahad
Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Extension Training Centre, Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences
and Technology Kashmir, Malangpora (Pulwama) Jammu & Kashmir, India.
Key words: fruit quality, growth, protected cultivation, strawberry, yield.
Abstract: Field experiments were conducted at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Pulwama, Jammu and Kashmir at an altitude of
1601 m amsl to identify the suitable strawberry cultivars for higher production of good quality fruits. Eight strawberry
cultivars were evaluated for two consecutive years (2008-09 and 2009-10) under polyhouse conditions. Maximum plant
spread (27.43 cm) along with maximum number of runners (8.54) was produced by ‘Chandler’. ‘Tioga’ produced rst
ower in 97 days after planting, while runners of ‘Chandler’ (56.79) owered for maximum number of days. ‘Chandler’
produced maximum number of owers per plant (27.23) and set maximum berries (86.01%), however nal yield of ber-
ries was more in ‘Tioga’ which recorded maximum yield per plot (2.26 kg), closely followed by ‘Chandler’ (2.19 kg). Berry
weight (12.24 g) and berry size (5.10 cm length and 4.73 cm) was maximum in ‘Tioga’. ‘Catskill’ registered maximum
for all the biochemical characters, closely followed by ‘Tioga’. Overall, ‘Chandler’, ‘Catskill’ and ‘Tioga’ performed well
under polyhouse conditions in Kashmir Valley.
Adv. Hort. Sci., 2012 26(2): 88-91
Received for publication 17 October 2011.
Accepted for publication 21 May 2012.
89
ing winter under open conditions. A polyhouse with steel
pipe framework clad with twin layer UV stabilized 200 µm
plastic sheet of was used to create a modified environment.
The polyhouse was additionally fitted with a high pressure
fan on each west side. Under the polyhouse the tempera-
ture was maintained up to 25°C. The soil of the location
is silty clay, loam neutral in reaction (pH 7.07) having or-
ganic C 10.02 g/kg, available N 248.6 kg/ha, available P
14.7 kg/ha and available K 250.3 kg/ha. The experimental
materials were comprised of eight commercial cultivars
(‘Catskill’, ‘Chandler’, ‘Confutura’, ‘Gorella’, ‘Pajaro’,
‘Selva’, ‘Tioga’ and ‘Fern’) collected from SKUAST-K
and the Department of Horticulture, Ramban, Jammu and
Kashmir. The experiment was laid out in a completely ran-
domized block design (CRBD) with three replications. The
spacing between the runners was 30 x 30 cm on 1 x 1 m2
raised beds of 15 cm height with 55 cm spacing between
the beds. Uniform runners were planted in the first week of
November 2008 in three rows on each bed accommodat-
ing nine runners. For the second year crop, the emerged
runners were removed in the last week of October 2009
in order to maintain the proper spacing for the next year’s
crop. Usual irrigations, manures and fertilizers, weeding
and hoeing were applied equally to the experimental plots
during the study years.
Observations recorded
Data were recorded for different growth, flowering and
fruiting characters for three years. Plant spread (cm) and
length of the runners (cm) was measured with the help of
a measuring tape. Number of runners per plant, number
of flowers per plant and number of berries per plant were
counted from five randomly selected plants. Days to first
flower was recorded from the date of planting of runners
to initiation of first flower. Flower duration was counted by
subtracting the date of initiation of first flower from the date
of last flowering. Percentage of berry set was calculated by
dividing the number of berries by the number of flowers.
Yield per plant (g) was calculated by weighing whole fruits
from a single plant. Ten fruits were randomly selected for
all the physio-chemical characters. Berry weight was deter-
mined with the help of a weighing scale; berry length and
width were determined using a Vernier Calliper. TSS, acid-
ity and TSS/acid ratio were estimated using standard proce-
dures. Total sugar and reducing sugar were determined by
Shaffer Somogy, micro method (Ranganna, 1991). Data on
temperature and humidity under polyhouse were recorded
with a portable thermohygrometer.
Data analysis
The pooled data of two years were statistically ana-
lyzed following Panse and Sukhatme (1985). The mean
of attributes was compared by paired ‘t’ test and the least
significant difference was calculated at 5% level.
3. Results and Discussion
The average monthly data on minimum and maximum
temperature and relative humidity inside the polyhouse
from transplanting to harvesting are presented in figure 1.
The pooled data of two consecutive years shown in Table
1 reveal that ‘Chandler’ had maximum plant spread (27.43
cm) which was statistically at par with ‘Catskill’ (25.49
Table 1 - Growth and flowering characters of strawberry cultivars under polyhouse
Cultivar Plant spread (cm) No. of runners/ plant Runners length
(cm)
Days taken first
flower to produce
Duration of
flowering
Number of flower/
plant
Catskill 25.49 ef 7.09 ef 81.94 f 106 def 50.86 ab 26.92 e
Chandler 27.43 f 8.54 h 82.59 fg 101 bc 56.79 d 27.23 f
Confutura 24.18 cde 6.11 d 89.78 h 99 ab 53.92 bcd 20.93 ab
Gorella 25.44 def 5.67 bc 75.40 de 103 cd 51.12 abc 21.90 bc
Pajaro 21.75 ab 4.89 a 67.58 b 105 de 49.39 a 20.48 a
Selva 23.08 bcd 5.44 b 73.95 cd 116 h 47.82 a 21.84 bc
Tioga 20.19 a 7.35 fg 70.42 bc 97 a 55.49 cd 25.64 d
Fern 22.35 abc 6.93 e 60.92 a 110 g 48.91 a 21.45 bc
Mean 23.74 6.50 75.32 104.6 51.79 23.31
CD0.05 2.40 0.29 3.70 3.84 4.43 0.99
Fig. 1 - Average maximum, minimum temperature (oC) and relative hu-
midity (%) month wise from transplanting to harvesting time.
90
cm) and ‘Gorella’ (25.44 cm), while minimum plant
spread was recorded for ‘Tioga’ (20.19 cm). Maximum
number of runners per plant in pooled data was found in
‘Chandler’ (8.54) which differed significantly from all
other cultivars, whereas minimum number of runners per
plant was recorded in ‘Pajaro’ (4.89). The pooled data of
two years shows that ‘Confutura’ (89.78 cm) produced
maximum runner length which differed significantly from
the other cultivars; minimum length of runners was ob-
served in ‘Selva’ (67.58 cm). Two years of data relative to
runner length shows that in the first year runner length was
greater than in the second year: the material may have de-
generated with the passage of time (Childers, 1975). ‘Tio-
ga’ (97) produced flowers earlier among the considered
cultivars and was closely followed by ‘Confutura’ (99) and
‘Chandler’ (101); ‘Selva’ ranked last and took 116 days
to produce first flower (Table 1). Runners of ‘Chandler’
(56.79) flowered for the maximum number of days fol-
lowed by ‘Tioga’ (55.49) and ‘Confutura’ (53.92) which
was statistically at par with both the cultivars, whereas
‘Selva’ (47.82) produced flowers for the fewest number of
days. Kaska et al. (1997) cultivate nine cultivars of straw-
berry under high tunnels in Adana (Turkey) observed that
‘Selva’ took maximum days to produce first flower and
flowered for least number of days while ‘Chandler’ flow-
ered for maximum number of days.
Maximum number of flowers per plant (27.73) (Ta-
ble 1) and maximum number of berries per plant (23.42)
(Table 2) were both produced by ‘Chandler’ which was
statistically at par with ‘Catskill’ (26.92) with respect to
the number of flowers per plant, while for the number of
berries per plant the former was significantly higher than
all the cultivars. This indicates that the number of flowers
per plant certainly has a bearing on the number of fruits
per plant to be harvested, i.e. greater the number of flow-
ers/plant, greater the number of fruits to be harvested but
the total yield per plant may vary due to berry weight. ‘Pa-
jaro’ (20.48) produced the fewest flowers per plant, which
was statistically at par with ‘Fern’ (21.45), however the
lowest number of berries per plant was produced by the
latter (14.49) which was statistically at par with ‘Pajaro’
(14.74). Paraskevopoulou-Paroussi et al. (1990) also re-
corded a minimum number of flowers per plant and num-
ber of berries per plant in ‘Pajaro’ and ‘Fern’ while grow-
ing these cultivars under greenhouse in northern Greece.
The data in Table 2 reveal that ‘Chandler’ (86.01%)
gave the maximum berry set, which was statistically at par
with ‘Tioga’ (83.48 %); the minimum berry set (71.84%)
was recorded for ‘Pajaro’. Maximum yield per plot of
berries was recorded in ‘Tioga’ (2.26 kg) which was sta-
tistically at par with ‘Chandler’ (2.19 kg) and ‘Catskill’
(2.17 kg), and minimum yield per plot was recorded in
‘Selva’ (1.08 kg). Paraskevopoulou-Paroussi et al. (1990)
also noted that ‘Pajaro’ (24%) and ‘Fern’ (38%) produced
marketable yield under greenhouse conditions in northern
Greece, however, Kaska et al. (1997) reported that ‘Chan-
dler’ and ‘Selva’ produced the highest and lowest yield,
respectively under high tunnel conditions in Adana (Tur-
key). Observations from two years of data on yield per
plant shows that yield was greater in the second year than
the first which might be due to substantial annual variation
in fruit set in strawberry (Smolarz et al., 1968; Misic et al.,
1976). ‘Tioga’ scored as having maximum berry weight
(12.24 g) along with maximum berry length (5.10 cm) and
berry breadth (4.73 cm), closely followed by ‘Chandler’.
‘Selva’ had minimum berry weight (8.71 g), however min-
imum size [i.e. berry length (3.70 cm) and berry breadth
(3.62 cm)] was recorded for ‘Pajaro’. Pathak et al. (2006)
observed similar results with respect to weight, length and
breadth of berries while growing strawberry cultivars un-
der cover.
Maximum TSS was scored by ‘Catskill’ (9.85%), fol-
lowed by ‘Tioga’ (9.32%), however both these cultivars
significantly differed from each other (Table 3); ‘Selva’
had minimum TSS (6.72%). Minimum acidity was ob-
served in ‘Catskill’ (0.88%), closely followed by ‘Tioga’
(0.89%), yet the pooled data of two years showed non sig-
nificant results. ‘Catskill’ (10.51) showed maximum TSS/
acid ratio which was statistically at par with Tioga (10.47)
while minimum TSS/acid ratio was recorded for ‘Selva’
(6.25). Maximum reducing sugar (6.27 %) and total sugar
(8.09%) were observed in ‘Catskill’ which was the highest
Table 2 - Yield and fruiting characters of strawberry cultivars under polyhouse
Cultivar Number of berries/
plant Berry set (%) Yield/plot (kg) Berry weight (g) Berry length (cm) Berry breadth (cm)
Catskill 22.32 e 82.90 e 2.17 d 11.11 e 4.98 de 4.55 de
Chandler 23.42 f 86.01 f 2.19 d 12.11 f 4.79 d 4.31 c
Confutura 16.93 c 80.86 d 1.44 d 10.54 d 4.78 d 4.48 cd
Gorella 16.62 c 75.81 c 1.28 c 9.76 c 4.25 bc 3.76 a
Pajaro 14.74 a 71.84 b 1.18 b 9.03 b 3.70 a 3.62 a
Selva 15.94 b 72.73 b 1.08 a 8.71 a 4.39 c 3.72 a
Tioga 21.32 d 83.48 ef 2.26 d 12.24 f 5.10 e 4.73 e
Fern 14.49 a 66.95 a 1.13 ab 9.22 b 4.03 b 4.01 b
Mean 18.22 77.57 1.59 10.34 4.50 4.14
CD0.05 0.64 2.73 0.09 0.27 0.22 0.23
91
among all the studied cultivars, and ‘Pajaro’ scored mini-
mum reducing sugar (3.71%) and total sugar (5.55%). Our
investigation showed much variation in the various culti-
vars for all the characters and this could be attributed to
the genetic make up of the cultivars (Dhaliwal and Singh,
1983; Chandel and Badiyala, 1996). Factors which may
significantly influence strawberry composition include
mineral and organic fertilization but weather conditions
and variety are also important.
It is concluded from the present study that ‘Chandler’
for growth and yield characteristics, ‘Catskill’ for bio-
chemical characters and ‘Tioga’ for yield and physical
characters of strawberry fruits are profitable for cultivation
under polyhouse conditions in the Kashmir valley.
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Table 3 - Biochemical characters of strawberry cultivars under poly-
house
Cultivar TSS
(%)
Acidity
(%)
TSS/acid
ratio
Reducing
sugar (%)
Total sugar
(%)
Catskill 9.85 h 0.88 10.51 g 6.27 f 8.09 e
Chandler 9.06 ef 0.94 9.64 d 5.45 d 7.18 d
Confutura 9.24 fg 0.97 10.11 e 5.85 e 7.14 d
Gorella 8.03 d 1.02 7.85 c 4.63 c 6.65 c
Pajaro 7.81 b 1.00 7.78 c 3.65 a 5.55 a
Selva 6.72 a 1.04 6.25 a 4.04 b 5.86 b
Tioga 9.32 g 0.89 10.47 fg 5.88 e 7.19 d
Fern 7.83 cd 1.02 7.64 bc 3.76 a 5.70 a
Mean 8.48 0.97 8.78 4.94 6.67
CD0.05 0.20  0.35 0.19 0.22
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Article
Full-text available
Dormancy and flowering responses of the strawberry cultivars Korona and Elsanta have been studied in controlled environments. After short day (SD) floral induction for 5 weeks at temperatures ranging from 9 to 27°C, long photoperiods only were required for optimal leaf and inflorescence growth and development at 18°C, with no additional effect of chilling. However, with extended SD treatment for 10 or 15 weeks at 15°C the plants entered the usual semi-dormant state typical for strawberry plants in late autumn, and subsequent long day (LD) conditions could not fully reverse the restrained growth habit. Extended SD treatment at 6°C did not bring about this dormant state, indicating that the dormancy-inducing effect of SD is continuously nullified by such low temperature. When SD induced plants were forced under continued SD conditions, leaf and inflorescence growth were strongly restrained even in plants that had been chilled for up to 6 weeks. The restrained plant growth habit attained in SD, proved not to be a reliable indicator of the dormant state of the plants as it occurred also at low temperature. Floral induction in ‘Korona’ and ‘Elsanta’ was shown to have an obligatory SD requirement at temperatures ranging from 9 to 21°C, while SD floral induction was marginal at 27°C. The floral inducing effect of SD was also strongly reduced at temperatures below 9°C. Application of these findings for multiple cropping of inherently single-cropping strawberry cultivars in winter season greenhouse production systems is discussed.
Article
Modified environments enable out-of-season strawberry fruit production, but factors that regulate growth and flowering need to be understood to obtain optimum production. Phytotron and controlled temperature glasshouse studies compared the responses of two shortday (SD, Junebearing) cultivars (Redgauntlet and Torrey) and three dayneutral (DN) cultivars (Aptos, Brighton and Hecker) of strawberry (Fragaria X ananassa) to various daylength and temperature regimes. The responses were determined independently for inflorescence initiation and the development of inflorescences and fruit. Daylength (9 or 15 h) and day/night temperature regime (18/13, 21/16 or 30/25°C), during inflorescence initiation had major effects on yield parameters in the SD cultivars. Floral initiation was repressed in long days, with poor fruit set and development compared with flowers initiated under short-day conditions. The day-neutral cultivars were less affected by daylength, but each had specific temperature/daylength combinations during floral bud initiation for optimum fruit development. During floral initiation, exposure to short days and a 25/20°C temperature regime resulted in poor fruit development for all three DN cultivars, but SD cultivars were less affected. Daylength during the development of organs - runners, inflorescences, flowers and fruit -- affected only vegetative characteristics, with long days promoting the number of runners and the length of petiole, peduncle and pedicel. For all cultivars, low temperatures (18/13°C) during the development of organs enhanced the number of flowers per inflorescence, fruit set and fruit size, but reduced runner production. Additional experiments were carried out using wider temperature ranges (15/10, 18/13, 21/16, 24/19, 27/22, 30/25°C). The optimum temperature during floral initiation for the reproductive development of all cultivars was between 18/13°C and 21/16°C, with sharp decreases in flower number, fruit set and fruit weight at lower or higher temperatures. Although daylength does not limit floral initiation in day-neutral cultivars, all five cultivars tested had poor floral and fruit development outside a relatively restricted temperature range, 18/13°C (mean 15.5°C) to 21/16°C (mean 18.5°C), and this remains a key limit to their productivity.
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Genotypic variances and genotypic correlations were estimated for soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acids, and their major constituents, using strawberry genotypes ( Fragaria × ananassa ) not previously selected for flavor or other commercial traits. Genotypic variances estimated for SSC and total sugars were nonsignificant, whereas those estimated for acids were significant and large. Relative expression of acids was stable throughout the season; large genetic × harvest date interactions reduced genotypic consistency for SSC. Despite the absence of detectable genotypic variation for SSC and total sugars, significant genotypic variation was detected for sucrose, glucose, and fructose, and the relative expression of these sugars was stable over harvest dates. The total allocation of sugar to fruit appears fixed, but the distribution pattern among sugar constituents at commercial ripeness is variable. This interpretation was supported by the observation of a strong negative genotypic correlation between sucrose and its components, glucose and fructose. These results suggest that opportunity exists for genetic improvement of acids, but that selection response for SSC will be difficult to obtain.
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Components of variance were estimated for 10 strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa ) color traits to determine their relative importance and to design optimal sampling strategies. The color attributes of >2000 fruit from 47 genotypes from the Univ. of California Strawberry Improvement Program were evaluated over three harvest dates (HDs) in one growing season. Measurements were obtained for a moderate number of fruit from each genotype on each date, and two measurements were obtained for each trait on all fruit. Variances for HDs were nonsignificant or small (0% to 8% of the total variance). Genotype × date variances were highly significant but small (≤6% of the total) for all color traits except internal hue (14% of the total). For external color traits, the within-fruit variance was greater than the among-fruit variance (16% to 64% and 0% to 14% of the total, respectively). For internal color traits, the among-fruit variance was greater than the within-fruit variance (20% to 37% and 9% to 19% of the total, respectively). Obtaining two measurements per fruit for several fruit on one HD is an efficient strategy for characterizing a genotype's fruit color; seven to 22 fruit are needed to estimate a genotype's fruit color within 2 units (Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage L * a * b * or degrees) with 95% confidence.
-Performance of some strawberry cultivars in foothills of Himachal Pradesh. -Annals of Agricultural Research
  • J S Chandel
  • S D Badiyala
CHANDEL J.S., BADIYALA S.D., 1996 -Performance of some strawberry cultivars in foothills of Himachal Pradesh. -Annals of Agricultural Research, 17(4): 375-378.
Evaluation of strawberry cultivars under Ludhiana conditions
  • S Dhaliwal G
  • Singh K
DHALIWAL G.S., SINGH K., 1983 -Evaluation of strawberry cultivars under Ludhiana conditions. -Haryana Journal of Horticultural Science, 12(1/2): 36-40.
1976 -Self fertility in strawberry
  • D Misic P
  • R Tdodrovic R
  • N K Lakie
MISIC P.D., TDODROVIC R.R., LAKIE N.K., 1976 -Self fertility in strawberry. -Jugoslovensko vocarstovo, 10(37/38): 355-360.