Smart transportation as a driver of transition: Big data management, behavioral change and the shift to automated vehicles

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Background: Smart mobility can contribute to the design of “Smart cities” to answer users’ requests in terms of transport network efficiency, environmental and social sustainability. Focusing on urban smart mobility issues, the most important aspects are the presence of a connected transportation system, the availability of its information in the arrangement of digital data and the possibility to rapidly communicate it in an effective way to the citizens, urban transportation stakeholders andlocal authorities. Therefore, the challenges for the new era of mobility behavior would range from the effort of big data management and the need to shape the innovation of traveler demand to the changes in requirements for road design. Nevertheless, road safety issues and network working operations must consider all the automated vehicles (AV) as part of an intelligent transportation system. There are types of active safety systems that can influence people’s lifestyles. Aims: This chapter highlights the working mechanism, advantages and disadvantages of ICT technology applied to transportation in the field of safety improvement, environmental sustainability, road redesign and traveler behavioral change. These topics become significant for the study of the key elements associated to the issues with automated vehicles, when “Smart cities” will have new urban settings or mixed traffic. Discussion: This paper leads to redefining the mobility paradigm. Moreover, thanks to the innovation by traffic flow facilities and road equipment, it has been possible to conduct some case studies describing driver behavior towards land-use environment, unfamiliar routes and sharing mobility. Conclusion: The current technology applied to the transportation system already represents the outlook of a new kind of mobility. Many features deal with technical details and others face ethic or legal restrictions. A review of the entire transportation network program should be considered by 2020, worldwide, to make the necessary effort to reach a realistic smart mobility.

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... During 2017 the transportation research group at UNIKORE (Giuffrè & Di Dio, 2017) as a part of the project "TrafficO2 -social network for communities' urban mobility" funded by PON R&C 2007PON R&C -2013, designed the survey with the aim to understand which kind of behavioural change is needed to implement smart and innovative solutions. ...
... Recent studies (Giuffrè & Di Dio, 2017;Begg, 2014;Casley, et al. 2013;Howard & Dai, 2014;Payre et al. 2014) display a positive picture of the public opinion on fully automated driving. Nevertheless, a non-negligible level of the reluctance of the potential users is also partly present. ...
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Sustainable management of urban areas is becoming during the last decades, one of the most important challenges of the 21st century that resulted in the concept of “smart city“. The city can be defined as "smart" when social capital, traditional and modern (ICT) communication infrastructure encourage sustainable economic development and high quality of life. Smart Mobility is often highlighted as a key system without which the Smart City could not be sustainable. A number of smart solutions have been analyzed and implemented in the context of smart mobility/movement in the cities and beyond. Many of these solutions are based on IT and they include a vehicle navigation system, e-parking, e-ticket, info-mobility signalization, demand-responsive transport, car sharing, bike sharing, public transport live tracking but also some innovative solutions are not necessarily related to IT (walking bus). Smart Mobility Survey has been conducted in Croatia and Italy during 2017 with the aim to establish users’ opinion on a number of the above-mentioned solutions that have been lately used in the cities worldwide. The survey has examined the familiarity with such solutions, their current use, and future expectations of using smart solutions in everyday life. The results showed, among Croatian responders, more limitations in accepting new technological solutions for mobility in the future. This points to the need to have a more public debate about future mobility solutions and their benefits in order to bring them closer to the wider population.
... It becomes significant to study the key road safety issues when AVs with different settings are mixed in traffic. Hence, there is a need to study the coexistence of Conventional Vehicles (CV) and AVs in the same road link at the same time, and to rethink the road infrastructure standards in a way that can suit both types of vehicles [8,9]. Traffic micro-simulation is a valuable approach to investigate how safety and operational traffic characteristics will change when AVs circulate in the streets, and to consider new Crash Modification Factors (CMFs) [10,11]. ...
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Driving experiences provided by the introduction of new vehicle technologies are directly impacting the criteria for road network design. New criteria should be taken into consideration by designers, researchers and car owners in order to assure traffic safety in changed conditions that will appear with, for example, introduction of Autonomous Vehicles (AVs) in everyday traffic. In this paper, roundabout safety level is analysed on the originally developed microsimulation model in circumstances where different numbers of AVs vehicles are mixed with Conventional Vehicles (CVs). Field data about speed and traffic volumes from existing roundabouts in Croatia were used for development of the model. The simulations done with the Surrogate Safety Assessment Model (SSAM) give some relevant highlights on how the introduction of AVs could change both operational and safety parameters at roundabouts. To further explore the effects on safety of roundabouts with the introduction of different shares of AVs, hypothetical safety treatments could be tested to explore whether their effects may change, leading to the estimation of a new set of Crash Modification Factors.
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