In a state, where located in a specific land with defined borders, the distinctive measures such as historical circumstances, geographical factors and sociology necessitate the share of the sovereignty for its administration and continuation of existence. The state is called " unitary state " if the sovereignty is not shared, centralized and " federation " if the sovereignty is shared among more ... [Show full abstract] than one authorities. Federation, federalism or federal state is one of the state regime. It can be said that " the states within the state " exists within the federal state understanding. This structure's center is called " federal state " and the states that linked to this structure by their own independent will are called " memberstates ". In the public administration literature, it is called " symmetric federalism " when the memberstates are in equal rights/responsibilities and " asymmetric federalism " when they don't possess equal rights. The aim of the paper is to understand and explain the concept of asymmetric federalism from the stand point of public administration, which is observed in the federal structures that are decentralized and fragmented in terms of political power. The research method is the assessment and the comparison of the country examples through literature review. According to findings, if the magnitude of asymmetry is over needed, it can be seen as a threat to the federal structure. When the countries' historical circumstances in the establishment phase is considered, federalism is classified in two categories that are holding together and coming together federalism. The possibilities of asymmetry instances increases in the latter. De jure and de facto asymmetries can be observed both separately and together in the countries' practices. If the de jure structure is insufficient to address de facto conditions, then it can be claimed that the risks of asymmetry might accelerate. In the international literature, the asymmetry concept is used independent of related countries' state regimes namely unitary or federal system. The reason for that is that the meaning of asymmetry differs in various disciplines such as public administration, public finance and sociology.