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Using an “Escape Room” toolbox approach to enhance pharmacology education

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Using an “Escape Room” toolbox approach to enhance pharmacology education

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Abstract

Background: Faculty are encouraged to use a variety of teaching/learning strategies to engage nursing students. While simulation and games are now common, there were no reports in the nursing literature using an “escape room” concept. Escape rooms use an entertainment approach as teams engage in critical thinking to solve puzzles and find clues to escape a room. In the classroom setting, this concept is modified to solve a mystery by finding various objects through a series of puzzles to locate clues. Some of these games involve finding numerical clues to open locks on a box, such as a toolbox. The purpose of this study was to describe the use of a toolbox gaming strategy based on an escape room concept to help students learn about cardiovascular medications in a pharmacology course.Methods: This pilot study employed a descriptive qualitative method to investigate an approach to pharmacology education. The sample consisted of first semester nursing students.Results: Student responses to criteria-based questions resulted in three themes: engaging, teamwork, and frustration, related to using a toolbox scenario strategy as a pathway to learning.Conclusions: This descriptive study yielded mixed results from the students who were frustrated by time constraints but engaged in the learning experience. Lessons are offered for future improvements.

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... These escape rooms, known as ''educational escape rooms'', include part of the course materials within their puzzles in such a way that students are required to master these materials in order to solve the puzzles and succeed in the escape room. Prior works have provided firm experimental evidence that educational escape rooms can produce positive impacts on student engagement [6], [9], [12]- [36] and learning [9], [24], [29], [30], [33], [34]. This potential, coupled with the fact that they can be applied in a wide variety of knowledge areas, has made them an increasingly popular learning activity at all stages of education. ...
... Different researchers have reported on using educational escape rooms in a wide variety of fields such as nursing [13], [14], [17], medicine [8], [15], [18], [19], [22], physiotherapy [6], pharmacy [9], [12], [16], [23]- [25], [43], physics [10], chemistry [20], [21], [26], [27], [31], [42], biology [28], [29], cryptography [44], mathematics [35], [36], programming, [32], [33], software modeling [34] and computer networks [7]. These studies have provided firm experimental evidence that educational escape rooms can produce positive impacts on student engagement [6], [9], [12]- [36] and learning [9], [24], [29], [30], [33], [34]. ...
... Different researchers have reported on using educational escape rooms in a wide variety of fields such as nursing [13], [14], [17], medicine [8], [15], [18], [19], [22], physiotherapy [6], pharmacy [9], [12], [16], [23]- [25], [43], physics [10], chemistry [20], [21], [26], [27], [31], [42], biology [28], [29], cryptography [44], mathematics [35], [36], programming, [32], [33], software modeling [34] and computer networks [7]. These studies have provided firm experimental evidence that educational escape rooms can produce positive impacts on student engagement [6], [9], [12]- [36] and learning [9], [24], [29], [30], [33], [34]. ...
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Existing literature has provided strong evidence that educational escape rooms are engaging and effective learning activities when they are properly conducted in the classroom. However, no prior research has determined whether the positive effects of these novel educational activities on students' perceptions and learning persist when conducted remotely. This article performs, for the first time, a comparative study of the effectiveness of face-to-face and remote educational escape rooms. For this purpose, two versions of the same educational escape room were conducted: one in-class and one remotely. Both experiences were evaluated by means of three different instruments: (1) a pre-test and a post-test for measuring learning gains, (2) a questionnaire for assessing students' perceptions, and (3) a web platform for recording student interaction data during the activities. The results obtained suggest that, although remote educational escape rooms for learning programming can be as engaging as their face-to-face counterparts, their learning effectiveness is somewhat lower.
... Educational Escape rooms should take into account some important points such as encouraging active learning, communication, creativity, collaboration and critical thinking, and at the same time be effective on the applied the knowledge related to the area for which the escape room is being designed [31]. It is also essential to start planning the activity well in advance and choose the appropriate location [19] and make sure you are considering the age group and level of difficulty of your audience, to create an enjoyable experience that meets the users' expectations [27]. ...
... After understanding the participants' needs, it is necessary to think carefully about the objective of the experience and how the game can be designed [27]. It is necessary to ensure positivity among the participants, notably using specifying short and specific objectives [19]. As in any other lesson plan, it is important to set tangible learning and competence development objectives and how these objectives will be achieved [26]. ...
... When designing the puzzle one must take into consideration if it is integrated into the story if the clues are logical if it adds value and is consistent with the atmosphere of the escape room [31]. The challenges must be compatible with what is wanted to be taught and the skills aiming at developing [19]. Also, the puzzle must be integrated with the proposed narrative, the clues must be logical and all challenges must be solved with information from inside the escape room [5]. ...
... The EER successes are also found in the areas of medicine and health ( [12], [13], [14]), nursing ( [15], [16]), pharmacy ( [17], [18], [19], [20]) and dental medicine ( [21]). The students reported that they identified through the EER specific contents that needs to be improved. ...
... However, a game environment with time incoherent with the proposed activities and a high complexity, developed in the form of competition with other groups, can also lead to frustration of the participants, who become more and more anxious and distressed to solve the enigmas and escape the room [18]. ...
... • First identify the target audience for the tool and the learning needs [31] and organise activities in anticipation [18]. ...
... Creative thinking is crucial in this process, as they encounter different challenges that need to be solved in new ways [19]. Resilience and self-regulation are also encouraged, as several studies report that students feel frustrated during the activity [20]. 3 In both our experiments the EEGs were designed by a teacher. ...
... There have been several implementations of EEG in HE with promising results. In a study developed with pharmacology students [20], 72.2% of the participants recognized they learned the concepts covered during the game and stated that the activity allowed them to think outside the box. In an experience based in healthy nutrition [24], the authors found an increase after the participation with statistical significance, not only in the number of correct answers to a post-questionnaire (in all questions but one) but also in the students' self-motivation. ...
... Secondly, there were time limitations from teachers. Finally, it is also reported that the role of the teaching staff in the activity can be confusing at first -on the one hand, it is necessary to give clear and sufficient instructions so that students know what to do, minimizing frustration [20] and helping students when they are stranded and cannot progress [30]; on the other hand, giving too many instructions can reduce the difficulty of the game to a point where it is a source of boredom. In educational settings, both situations should be avoided [34], as level of challenge represents an important factor of the playfulness of a game [35]. ...
... Firstly, the puzzles need to align with the curriculum. Secondly, puzzles need to prevent boredom and frustration, that both of which may lead to dropping out of the game (Hermanns et al., 2018). Thirdly, the puzzles' outcomes need to be numerical or alphabetical codes due to the locks involved, which limits how questions are posed. ...
... An ER is usually designed for one team with a limited number of players (on average 3-7) (Nicholson, 2015). In education, teachers need to organize an ER activity for a whole class or course, up to hundreds of students (Cain, 2019;Hermanns et al., 2018). ...
... However, in none of the studies we found that students felt less immersed when staff was physically in the same room. Students did feel frustration and less ownership when staff gave guidance too early (e.g., Giang et al., 2018;Järveläinen & Paavilainen-Mäntymäki, 2019), or gave no guidance when needed (Hermanns et al., 2018). ...
Article
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The global increase in recreational escape rooms has inspired teachers around the world to implement escape rooms in educational settings. As escape rooms are increasingly popular in education, there is a need to evaluate their use, and a need for guidelines to develop and implement escape rooms in the classroom. This systematic review synthesizes current practices and experiences, focussing on important educational and game design aspects. Subsequently, relations between the game design aspects and the educational aspects are studied. Finally, student outcomes are related to the intended goals. Educators in different disciplines appear to have different motives for using the game’s time constraints and teamwork. These educators make different choices for related game aspects such as the structuring of the puzzles. Unlike recreational escape rooms, in educational escape rooms players need to reach the game goal by achieving the educational goals. More alignment in game mechanics and pedagogical approaches is recommended. There is a discrepancy in perceived and actual learning of content knowledge in recreational escape rooms. Recommendations in the article for developing and implementing escape rooms in education will help educators in creating these new learning environments, and eventually help students to foster knowledge and skills more effectively.
... The monitoring process usually took place within the same game room, in contrast to in recreational ERs [45]. In four studies, faculty usually monitored players in the game room [20,66,80,86], and in four studies players were monitored from an adjacent room [19,37,59,77]. The reason for monitoring from an adjacent room is to keep players immersed during the game process, an important factor in game theories for engaging players. ...
... However, no study was found in which participants were shown to have felt less immersed when instructors were physically present in the same room. Students admitted frustrating feelings in case of early guidance [80] or due to time pressure or not properly understanding the given instructions [86]. ...
... In educational settings, reaching the expected learning goals in time is deemed as a vital factor for the success of a digital game in order to prevent feelings of frustration and dropping out. In two studies, where none of the groups completed their mission, participants admitted feeling frustrated and doubted whether or not they had achieved the learning objectives [77,86]. The abovementioned studies suggest testing the puzzles to determine the time involved. ...
Article
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This paper aims to present a systematic literature review on state-of-the-art Educational Escape Rooms (EERs) with the use of digital technologies. More specifically, the focus of the study is to present the current developments and trends concerning Digital Educational Escape Rooms (DEERs) and investigate how they foster learning outcomes for online learners. Additionally, the present study provides insights into the design process of such technology enhanced EERs. This review is attributed to identifying and covering research gaps since the current literature has focused on the pedagogical aspects of Escape Rooms (ERs) in education, but no studies seem to have been conducted in regard to the pedagogical implications of Digital Escape Rooms (DERs) in educational environments. Based on the exhaustive literature review, an agenda for future research is promised and the implications for designing innovative ER approaches have been highlighted. The anatomy of the fundamental components of conducting systematic literature reviews was followed. The results of the review could be addressed to multidisciplinary teams related to education, game researchers, educational researchers, faculty members, scholars, instructors, and protagonists of educational systems to encourage them to thoroughly study the core elements of DEERs and how they can be applied in virtual educational contexts to facilitate students’ learning achievements.
... The increasing attention to educational escape rooms has been kindled by a growing body of research, which has analyzed the use of educational escape rooms in a variety of fields, including nursing [11][12][13], medicine [14][15][16][17][18], physiotherapy [19], pharmacy [20][21][22][23][24][25][26], science [27], physics [28], chemistry [29][30][31][32][33][34], biology [35,36], mathematics [37,38], cryptography [39], and computer networks [40]. Existing literature has provided empirical evidence that educational escape rooms can produce positive impacts on student engagement [11-17, 19-25, 27-30, 32-38] and learning outcomes [23,24,27,36]. ...
... Similarly, educational escape rooms in the area of pharmacy have been reported in the literature, covering topics such as pharmacy management [20], dose calculation [21,22], identification of 18 CHAPTER 2. STATE OF THE ART medication errors [22], non-sterile compounding [23], as well as knowledge of diabetes [24,26] and infectious diseases [25]. In the area of chemistry, prior research reported on the use of educational escape rooms for teaching concepts such as pH [31], chemical bonds [32], heat transfer [33], analytical chemistry [30] and the Leblanc process [29,34]. ...
... The existing literature contains a wide variety of different scenarios in which the educational escape rooms were contextualized, such as a zombie apocalypse [15] or a crime scene [30]. There are also many different roles that students enact in educational escape rooms, such as superheros [21,32] and secret agents [39]. In ludic escape rooms, the most common reported overarching goal to be accomplished is simply escaping from a certain unpleasant place (a dungeon, a prison, etc.) or an apparently regular room [43], which is also a popular trend in educational escape rooms [19,23,31,36,40]. ...
Thesis
In addition to being a well-liked form of recreation, escape rooms have drawn the attention of educators due to their ability to foster teamwork, leadership, creative thinking, and communication in a way that is engaging for students. As a consequence, educational escape rooms are emerging as a new type of learning activity under the promise of enhancing students’ learning through highly engaging experiences. These activities, which combine some of the key principles of game design with sound learning approaches, consist of escape rooms that require students to master field-specific knowledge and skills in order to solve their puzzles and succeed in the activity. Although several studies have reported on the use of educational escape rooms in a wide range of disciplines, prior research falls short of addressing whether these novel activities can be effective for learning computer science topics. This thesis examines the use of several educational escape rooms for teaching computer science topics in different scenarios, including computer science courses covering programming and software engineering fundamentals as well as face-to-face and remote settings. This thesis also encompasses the design, implementation and evaluation of Escapp, a software platform for aiding educators in the cumbersome task of conducting engaging and effective face-to-face and remote educational escape rooms, contributing this way to overcome some of the main barriers hampering the adoption of educational escape rooms. The results reported in this thesis contribute to the understanding of educational escape rooms by showing that these activities can be engaging and effective when used for teaching computer science topics, both when they are conducted face-to-face as well as when they are conducted remotely. In this regard, the results also suggest that, although remote educational escape rooms can be as engaging as their face-to-face counterparts, their learning e_ectiveness is somewhat lower. Finally, this thesis provides evidence that the proposed Escapp platform is a well-suited solution for conducting e_ective face-to-face and remote educational escape rooms.
... Further, one can distinguish between breakout boxes and rooms. While in the first case players must unlock a box with the help of puzzles (Cain, 2019;Hermanns et al., 2017), in the latter case participants are actually locked within a room (Kinio et al., 2019). There are also examples of escape games that are spread across a university building (Gordon et al., 2019) or even an entire campus (Mac Gregor, 2018). ...
... Also, there are various ways to provide these clues (e.g. vocally, or by cue cards) (Hermanns et al., 2017;Wiemker et al., 2015). Hints can be provided by the moderators remotely from a separate room, (Clarke et al., 2017;Shakeri et al., 2017) or automatically by a computer (Ross & Bell, 2019). ...
... A very common recommendation in the literature is piloting the EER activity to identify and address deficiencies that might revolve around the design and execution of escape games. The design can then be optimized for the next iterations (Cain, 2019;Friedrich et al., 2020;Hermanns et al., 2017). When testing the escape game, it is recommended to consider the experience level of the playtesters. ...
... Several benefits are associated with educational escape rooms, including improving knowledge and skills and increasing motivation and engagement, as well as facilitating problemsolving, critical thinking, and collaboration. 8,[13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24] There are also several challenges to designing and implementing educational escape rooms. First, creating an educational escape room is time-consuming. ...
... First, creating an educational escape room is time-consuming. 13,17,[20][21][22]25 It takes time to choose the appropriate learning objectives to be incorporated into the educational escape room, design the puzzles, devise clues, and run a pilot test. However, once the activity has been created and tested, it can be used repeatedly with less preparation time. ...
... However, overly difficult puzzles can be frustrating and stressful. 21 Constraints such as classroom size, number of students, time frame, and budget are other factors that must be considered to successfully implement an escape room. ...
Article
Context The educational escape room is an innovative teaching strategy, and the use of this technique is gaining popularity in some health care disciplines. It is believed to promote acquisition of knowledge and skills, increase motivation, and encourage engagement, critical thinking, collaboration, and problem-solving. Objective To describe the use of an innovative educational escape room in a master's-level athletic training course and to examine learning effectiveness and students' perceptions. Design Quasi-experimental. Setting A Commission on Accreditation of Athletic Training Education–accredited master's-level athletic training program. Patients or Other Participants A convenience sample of 14 students enrolled in a master's-level professional athletic training program participated. Intervention(s) Educational escape room. Main Outcome Measures(s) A paired-samples t test was used to determine differences between preactivity and postactivity knowledge-assessment scores. Measures of central tendency were used for survey questions related to student perceptions of the activity. Student perceptions were assessed after the intervention. Results All participants completed the preactivity and postactivity knowledge assessments. The difference in scores was found to be statistically significant (t13 = −4.502, P = .001), with a large effect size (Cohen d = 1.32). Participants thought the escape room was an effective way to improve their knowledge of course materials (mean ± SD = 5.0 ± 0.0) and encouraged them to apply course material in a new way (mean ± SD = 4.9 ± 0.27). Participants reported that they had fun (mean ± SD = 5.0 ± 0.0) and felt that the activity was immersive (mean ± SD = 5.0 ± 0.00). Qualitative elements from the postactivity survey corroborated the data. Conclusions The education escape room described in this study promoted learning while providing a fun and engaging learning experience with positive perceived value.
... The emerging themes, engagement and teamwork, correspond with those found in a study on escape rooms in medical education: engagement, frustration and teamwork (Hermanns et al., 2017). Our data showed subcategories of engagement; cognitive, behavioral and emotional. ...
... Our data showed subcategories of engagement; cognitive, behavioral and emotional. Affective engagement relates to the emerging theme of "frustration" in the study of Hermanns et al. (2017). However, in our study, frustration was only one of a range of observed emotions, and strong affective engagement was shown during gameplay. ...
Article
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Case studies report enthusiastically on the implementation of escape rooms in science education. This mixed-method study explores beyond the early adopting teacher, as the perceptions of 50 teachers and 270 students were investigated. Escape rooms are time restricted games where participants work together and accomplish a specific goal. The escape rooms’ usability for education in terms of goals, experiences during gameplay, outcomes, and boundary conditions are studied, using multiple data sources: online questionnaires, interviews, classroom observations and movie clips made by students about their experiences. The use of mixed methods and large samples on this topic is a novelty. Results show that teachers of different ages, gender and teaching experience were appealed in particular to the diversity of activities offered that call for multiple skills and teamwork. Students experienced the need to think hard using multiple thinking skills and enjoyed the feeling of autonomy and mastery during gameplay. This is interesting, as an escape room setup is very strict, with few degrees of freedom. According to teachers and students, escape rooms are suitable for processing, rehearsing and formative assessment of science knowledge and skills. However, the time restriction during gameplay appears to be an ambiguous factor in student learning.
... El escape room (a veces traducido como "sala de escape") ha sido definido como un juego en vivo basado en equipos (live-action team-based game) o un juego de lógica (Ferreiro-González et al. 2019) donde los participantes tienen que descubrir pistas, buscar objetos perdidos, resolver puzles y adivinanzas, desvelar misterios, prestar atención a los detalles o llevar a cabo tareas en una o más habitaciones con el fin de conseguir un objetivo específico (normalmente escapar de la habitación en un límite de tiempo) (Hermanns et al. 2017). Suelen realizarse en grupos pequeños de no más de seis personas. ...
... Así, una opción que puede ser muy interesante es que los participantes puedan elegir qué tipo de juego quieren, si competitivo o no competitivo, para ayudar a establecer características que se adapten a sus deseos y necesidades con el fin de contribuir a una experiencia más personalizada (Nicholson 2015). Otro modo de prevenir estos puntos es planificar con suficiente tiempo la actividad, comprobar cuánto se tardará en resolver cada tarea, revisar y redefinir instrucciones, crear un escenario con el ambiente adecuado, asegurar los objetivos, avisar a los alumnos de que pueden encontrarse retos de mayor dificultad entre las pruebas y crear una atmósfera de actitud positiva (Hermanns et al. 2017). ...
Article
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Resumen: Tras introducir la gamificación como recurso didáctico, se comentan las características de una herramienta particular de ese tipo, el escape room, y se recoge información de un caso, preparado como actividad de repaso para la asignatura de Física y Química de 3º de ESO. Se le dotó de un carácter multidisciplinar, con una temática de concienciación medioambiental y con pruebas que incluían conceptos de otras asignaturas con el fin de desarrollar competencias clave. Los estudiantes, que participaron en equipo, mostraron gran implicación y se divirtieron al mismo tiempo, manifestando que les gustaría que este tipo de actividades se realizaran más a menudo. Abstract: After introducing the gamification as a didactic resource, the characteristics of a particular tool, the escape room, are discussed and information about a specific case is explained. The case was prepared as a review activity for the subject Physics and Chemistry of the 3rd course of the Compulsory Secondary Education. It was endowed with a multidisciplinary character, including environmental awareness as guiding theme, exercises that included concepts from different subjects and taking into consideration skills, attitudes and knowledge contained in key competences. Students who participated by teamwork showed great involvement and had fun at the same time. They mentioned that they would like these type of activities to be more often implemented.
... In particular, evidence on their applicability to tertiary healthcare education remains limited. At commencement of our project, the literature available on health themed escape rooms was mostly from the United States of America [13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25] with two studies from Spain [26,27] and two from Canada [28,29]. The literature showed significant heterogeneity in purpose, room design and evaluation methods making direct comparison difficult. ...
... Our result of lower enjoyment ratings from participants who failed to 'escape' also aligns with the literature. Hermanns et al. [16], who had no participants 'escaping the room', reported high participant dissatisfaction, with 25.2% of participants responding negatively or neutrally to whether they felt the escape room was a valuable learning. ...
Article
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Background Interprofessional practice (IPP) has been shown to contribute to quality service provision and improved health outcomes. This knowledge has led to the integration of interprofessional education into course curricula for many health-care disciplines. Offering interprofessional education in rural areas to students undertaking work integrated learning placements is challenging particularly because of the diversity of students and placement dates combined with the student focus on the assessable placement curriculum. This research investigated and evaluated the utility of an escape room as an educational modality that facilitates learning whilst providing a supportive and motivating learning environment. Our project focused on the acquisition of interprofessional practice knowledge and experience by a health professional student cohort. Methods This study used the novel intervention of an escape room combined with an interactive teaching session to test student engagement and learning about interprofessional practice and teamwork. The research used a mixed methods single group pre-post design. Results Fifty students (78% female) from seventeen universities and seven professions participated in teams of three to six members. Most participants (66%) had not previously completed an escape room. The results showed that the intervention provided effective and engaging learning and was intrinsically appealing to students despite its non-assessable nature. Individual student reflection on their participation showed developing insight into the critical importance of clear communication and intentional team member collaboration in the provision of effective interprofessional practice. Conclusions The escape room intervention added value to the placement curriculum and proved flexible for a heterogeneous student cohort.
... Furthermore, the two types of ERs differ in the number of participants that can play simultaneously. While recreational ERs average 3-7 players [22], teachers must organize EERs to accommodate an entire class or course of up to hundreds of students [40,41]. Another difference is space. ...
... When designing an EER, care should be taken to ensure that students have positive learning experiences while solving the puzzles and that as many students as possible can "escape" the EER. Therefore, the puzzles need to be challenging in order to prevent boredom; at the same time, they also must not be too difficult in order to prevent frustration [23,39,41]. Additionally, EER breakout activities can be created in the classroom. ...
Article
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Game-based learning is becoming increasingly popular in education. The playful experience especially promises a high degree of students’ motivation. In this research, we examine the influence of sequential scaffolding within a digital educational escape room game. Escape rooms are usually games where players have to escape from a room within a given time limit by completing different tasks and quests. Therefore, we developed an educational virtual escape room for biology classes, focusing on the topic of sex education. In an experiment, we modified this learning environment and developed two different conditions: in one escape room, scaffolding was implemented using sequential learning aids; in the other escape room, which was assigned to the control group, no additional learner support was provided. The main objective of this quantitative research is to measure the escape room’s impact on learning and cognitive load. In addition, motivation, flow experience and experience of immersion are analyzed. A comparison between the two escape rooms shows that additional scaffolding does not significantly increase cognitive load or have any effect on learning. Results show that motivation and knowledge acquisition can be successfully supported by using game-based learning with escape rooms.
... Escape rooms consist of being locked in a room, solving a series of puzzles, unlocking locks, and finding hidden clues to escape from that room. Using a variety of settings and challenges, escape rooms create an experience that manages to be both motivating and educational for participants [10]. ...
... In contrast, it has been proven how the narrative of the story and immersion in the activity encourage the re-elaboration of value judgments that alter the beliefs and attitudes of people with SMI. Escape rooms have already been tested as active methodological tools that promote motivation and student commitment toward learning [10,29], obtaining good results when they have been applied. Similar studies [30][31][32] have found that it is possible to reduce stigma through other methodologies, and the interesting aspect of this study is that it is able to raise awareness through a playful activity that is easy to implement and replicate. ...
Article
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Background: People with severe mental illness (SMI) face discriminatory situations because of prejudice toward them, even among health care personnel. Escape rooms can be a novel educational strategy for learning about and empathizing with SMI, thus reducing stigma among health care students. Objective: This study aimed to examine the effect of the Without Memories escape room on nursing students’ stigma against SMI. Methods: A pre- and postintervention study was conducted with a control group and an experimental group. A total of 306 students from 2 Andalusian universities participated in the study. Data were collected through a pre-post study questionnaire, consisting of an adapted version of the Attributional Style Questionnaire and a questionnaire on motivation for cooperative playful learning strategies. The control group carried out an escape room scenario without sensitizing content, whereas the experimental group carried out an escape room scenario on SMI, with both escape rooms being carried out in a 1-hour session of subjects related to mental health. To answer the research questions, a 2-way analysis of variance with repeated measures, a linear regression, and a 2-way analysis of variance were performed. Results: After the intervention, a significant reduction (P<.001) was observed in the experimental group in stigmatizing attitudes compared with the control group, in which no statistically significant changes (P>.05) were observed. In contrast, the linear regression (t195=−22.15; P<.001) showed that there was an inverse relationship between flow and the level of reduced stigma. When controlling for having or not having a close relative, the intervention was also shown to be effective (P<.001) in reducing the stigma displayed, both for people with affected and unaffected relatives. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that the Without Memories escape room can be used as an effective tool to educate and raise awareness about stigmatizing attitudes toward SMI in university students studying health care. Future testing of the effectiveness of educational escape rooms should be designed with new programs through playful strategies of longer duration to evaluate whether they can achieve a greater impact on motivation, acquisition of knowledge, and awareness. In addition, the feasibility of implementing the Without Memories escape room in other careers related to health and community should be investigated.
... Escape rooms consist of being locked in a room, solving a series of puzzles, unlocking locks, and finding hidden clues to escape from that room. Using a variety of settings and challenges, escape rooms create an experience that manages to be both motivating and educational for participants [10]. ...
... In contrast, it has been proven how the narrative of the story and immersion in the activity encourage the re-elaboration of value judgments that alter the beliefs and attitudes of people with SMI. Escape rooms have already been tested as active methodological tools that promote motivation and student commitment toward learning [10,29], obtaining good results when they have been applied. Similar studies [30][31][32] have found that it is possible to reduce stigma through other methodologies, and the interesting aspect of this study is that it is able to raise awareness through a playful activity that is easy to implement and replicate. ...
Preprint
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BACKGROUND Serious Mental Disorder is still associated with limiting stereotypes both for the person who suffers from the disorder and in society. OBJECTIVE The main objective of the present study is to test the usefulness of an online escape room to raise awareness about the stigma towards people with serious mental disorder in university nursing students and if the degree of immersion and motivation achieved during the escape room influences in raising awareness. METHODS The sample consisted of a total of 306 students from two Andalusian universities. It is a quasi-experimental longitudinal study with pre- and post-treatment measures and a control group. The experimental group carried out an online educational escape room with elements to raise awareness of stigma in mental health. The control group performed the same escape room without sensitization elements. To measure stigma in mental health, the Attributional Questionnaire, an adapted version of AQ27, was used and the Motivation Questionnaire for Cooperative Playful Learning Strategies was used to assess motivation. RESULTS Statistical tests show that the experimental group has statistically significantly reduced stigma in post-test measures (p <.000). In addition, the variable "Having a relative with SMI" was considered, these students were compared with the experimental group after the escape room without finding statistical differences (p > .005) between them, while these differences were found in the control group. CONCLUSIONS The relevance of these results and the importance of including this type of awareness-raising activities in the educational field are discussed.
... 19 For instance, escape rooms have been found to create opportunities to practice non-technical skills, 20,21 improve confidence among medical students, 22 as well as enhance communication and patient safety awareness among interprofessional healthcare teams. 23 Escape rooms have also been effectively utilized to advance learning among pharmacy students 24,25 and radiology residents, 26 and to educate healthcare learners about sepsis assessment 27 and event reporting. 28 Although there is evidence to suggest the utility of escape rooms for enhancing teamwork, team outcomes, and learning outcomes, there is limited literature investigating the use of escape rooms for improving cohesion among healthcare teams. ...
Article
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Objective An escape room was used to study teamwork and its determinants, which have been found to relate to the quality and safety of patient care delivery. This pilot study aimed to explore the value of an escape room as a mechanism for improving cohesion among interdisciplinary healthcare teams. Methods This research was conducted at a nonprofit medical center in Southern California. All participants who work on a team were invited to participate. Authors employed an interrupted within-subjects design, with two pre- and post-escape room questionnaires related to two facets of group cohesion: (belonging – (PGC-B) and morale (PGC-M)). Participants rated their perceptions of group cohesion before, after, and one-month after the escape room. The main outcome measures included PGC-B/M. Results Sixty-two teams participated (n = 280 participants) of which 31 teams (50%) successfully “escaped” in the allotted 45 minutes. There was a statistically significant difference in PGC between the three time periods, F(4, 254) = 24.10, p < .001; Wilks’ Λ = .725; partial η2 = .275. Results indicated significantly higher scores for PGC immediately after the escape room and at the one-month follow-up compared to baseline. Conclusions This work offers insights into the utility of using an escape room as a team building intervention in interprofessional healthcare teams. Considering the modifiability of escape rooms, they may function as valuable team building mechanisms in healthcare. More work is needed to determine how escape rooms compare to more traditional team building curriculums.
... In dieser Forschungsarbeit soll untersucht werden, ob der von (Kapur, 2008(Kapur, , 2010(Kapur, , 2011(Kapur, , 2014(Kapur, , 2016 Weitere Beispiele für EduBreakouts finden sich unter anderem bei Hermanns et al. (2017), (Bakhsheshi, 2019), (Duncan, 2020) und (Araceli Queiruga-Dios et al., 2020. Hinweise zur Konzeption von EduBreakouts finden sich beispielsweise bei (Nicholson, 2016). ...
Thesis
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The aim of this research is to find out which learning setting »direct instruction« or »pro-ductive failure« is more effective in Problem-based Learning (PBL). To answer this re-search question, an online experiment was conducted and analysed by using statistical methods. A digital escape game on the topic of »Copyright & OER« was used as a prob-lem-based task. Effectiveness was determined by cognitive load, self-efficacy and a final test. The data analysis indicates that the classic learning method »direct instruction«, in which an instruction phase is followed by a problem-solving phase, is more effective.
... Las ventajas del uso de escape rooms en entornos educativos son varias: flexibilidad en cuanto al contenido, área o materia con que pueden utilizarse (Johnson, 2017); mejora en la retención de contenidos y destrezas puestas en práctica, así como en la motivación (Gómez Urquiza et al., 2018); un mayor grado de satisfacción por parte de quienes participan (Kinio et al., 2019); protagonismo del estudiante dentro del proceso de enseñanza-aprendizaje (Johnson, 2017); la mejora de la decodificación de información de quienes participan (Hermanns et al., 2017;Ndulue et al., 2012); aumento de la curiosidad (István et al., 2017), así como del uso de procesos cognitivos complejos (Wiemker et al., 2015). ...
Article
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Escape room digital para el desarrollo del aprendizaje colaborativo en educación superior Integrating new game-based learning environments, such as Digital escape rooms, can improve cognitive, motivational, emotional, and social processes. In this study, we developed a model to investigate the influence of motivational factors on the intention to use escape rooms in higher education and their influence on collaborative learning. 238 Infant, Primary, and Social Education Students participated in the experience. An ex post facto research design based on the survey method was used, and descriptive, correlational, and regression analyses were carried out. The results indicate that enjoyment and perceived usefulness are the factors most related to the escape room being perceived as a collaborative work and learning facilitator. However, the ease of use of the escape room is not a variable that influences teamwork, nor the level of acceptance of the escape room. It is concluded that the pleasure and enjoyment produced by the digital escape room increase the intention to use it and thus the engagement to work and learn in a group. La integración de nuevos escenarios de aprendizaje basado en juego, como el caso de los escape rooms digitales, pueden mejorar los procesos cognitivos, la motivación, el plano emocional y el ámbito social. En este estudio se ha desarrollado un modelo para investigar la influencia de los factores motivacionales en la intención de utilizar los escapes room en educación superior y su influencia sobre el aprendizaje colaborativo. 238 estudiantes de los Grados de Educación Infan-til, Primaria y Social participaron en la experiencia. Se utilizó un diseño de investigación ex post facto basado en el método de encuesta y se realizaron análisis descriptivos, correlacionales y de regresión. Los resultados señalan que el disfrute y la utilidad percibida son los factores que más se relacionan con que el escape room se perciba como facilitador del trabajo y aprendizaje cola-borativo. Sin embargo, la facilidad de uso del escape no es una variable que influye en el trabajo en equipo, ni en el grado de aceptación del escape. Se concluye que el placer y el disfrute que produce el escape room digital aumenta la intención de uso y con ello el compromiso para trabajar y aprender en grupo. Palabras clave Escape room; Aprendizaje colaborativo; Educación Superior; TAM; Gamificación.
... Some educational escape rooms design guidelines are available in literature [36,37], lacking, in some cases, scientific references supporting such guidelines. The literature has plenty of "false" escape rooms [38,39]: Players are accompanied by the teacher or the escape room experience is reduced to an "opening a box" in a conventional lecture. Indeed, in such kind of approaches, players do not have to escape from any room. ...
Article
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In the particular case of Spain, student and teacher difficulties associated with the mathematical discipline have been evidenced in PISA and TEDS-M reports. As we consider that the teachers’ difficulties are connected to the students’ performance, we propose a multi-disciplinary approach to deliver specific didactic/mathematical knowledge to the trainee teachers. Such additional instruction shall be meaningfully connected to the real needs of the schools, so a service-learning approach is proposed here. In the present manuscript, the trainee teachers have co-designed educational escape rooms (in coordination with local schools) with the aim of mobilizing curricular knowledge. The goal of the educational escape rooms is to foster the mathematic-related competencies by establishing meaningful connections to other curricular disciplines (music-related knowledge, in the case of this study). This paper reports on the particular experience developed with a group of students (trainee teachers) while designing their educational escape rooms, focusing on the particular case of a specific student to evidence the formative potential of the procedure. The didactic suitability of the proposed escape room has been analyzed and professional development has also been discussed, showing the mobilization of relevant professional skills and fostering the related music and mathematical didactic competencies by shifting the teaching perspective from an algorithmic point of view to a more “reasoning and designing” strategy. This constitutes an evidence of the formative potential on the co-design of educational escape rooms, when designed in the frame of a service learning approach.
... This challenge is much more difficult in academic puzzles, where this adjustment has to be made, taking into account both the difficulty of learning the complexities of the puzzle and the complexity of learning the course materials. Complexity plays a crucial role in the success of the educational escape room game, as relatively simple puzzles can sometimes bore participants, whereas they can contribute to stress or even anxiety if the degree of deficiency is set too high [20]. ...
Preprint
It’s always a challenge for a teacher to get their students to be more engaged or active in the classroom. Engagement happens when students are interested in the subject, have fun, and feel welcome in the classroom. But how do we make students more engaged? To make this happen, Educational escape rooms were introduced into studies. In this paper, we will discuss about the creation and evaluation of educational escape rooms within an engineering learning context. As part of our research project, four educational escape rooms were created for students and surveys were conducted among them to evaluate the success of our project. Our findings indicate that the escape room learning model is well accepted by the students. As a result of the activity, high levels of dedication and enthusiasm are recorded and students shows the eagerness to do more escape room activities.
... In the case of escape rooms, they are strategies that foster a deeper understanding of didactic content through playful challenges. When escape rooms are implemented in the university context, students are interested in the curricular content, and it proved to be effective in promoting teamwork and collaboration to achieve a common goal [21]. ...
Article
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Playful learning strategies, such as educational gamification, game-based learning, and escape rooms are increasingly being incorporated into the university education system. In this study, it aims to develop and validate an instrument to analyze motivation regarding the use of playful learning strategies in university students. A total of 450 university students aged between 18 and 55 (Mean = 22.72; Standard Deviation = 5.01) were part of the sample, with whom playful strategies were implemented during the 2019/2020 school year. The results obtained in the confirmatory factor analysis indicate that the questionnaire on motivation for playful learning strategies has adequate psychometric properties to assess the motivation and perception of student learning in the implementation of ludic strategies in the classroom in the Spanish university context.
... Though INACSL (2016) describes simulation as a non-competitive learning environment, little is known about how a competitive escape room game in the simulation lab would affect student anxiety or enjoyment of the experience. More research on escape-rooms in nursing education has emerged in the past few years, showing escape rooms can actively engage students, resulting in higher motivation levels and knowledge (Gómez-Urquiza et al., 2019;Hermanns et al., 2017;Morrell & Eukel, 2020). Higher levels of critical thinking and prioritization skills have been associated with escape-room games in simulation (Adams et al., 2018;Brown et al., 2019;Edwards et al., 2019). ...
Article
Background Anxiety accompanying educational simulations is a complex issue impacting nursing students and their learning. Research has provided evidence that some pre-simulation activities can increase student comfort with the simulation environment and may also reduce anxiety. Studies have also provided evidence of promising outcomes for gaming use in nursing education. Purpose This pilot study explored a medical-surgical escape room game as an introductory simulation experience for nursing students, particularly focused on determining student anxiety levels, and both faculty and student perception of the experience. Methods A quasi-experimental one group pretest-posttest design was used with a convenience sample to explore student anxiety levels and perceived enjoyment of the game. Results Student anxiety levels significantly decreased (p=.013); however, anxiety levels remained high at posttest. Students reported high enjoyment of the game and provided positive comments. Conclusion Escape rooms can provide an engaging, interactive way to teach nursing concepts in the simulation environment.
... Most published studies are informal or case-based [5]. For example, an EER activity in Higher Education has been presented in [6], where the authors study the use of a toolbox gaming strategy based on ER concepts to help students learn about cardiovascular medications in a Pharmacology course. The results of a test with the course participants encourage further research about non-traditional learning activities such as escape games. ...
Article
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Escape games have become popular nowadays. Groups of people are locked inside riddles-filled rooms and have to work their way out finding clues and solving puzzles. While being fun for groups or team building, escape games have a great educational potential, which can be capitalized if teachers integrate them in their professional activities. In this paper we introduce the Star Model, a tool for teachers to design and play their own educational escape rooms, which was built on top of previous literature and experiences. We present and discuss its validation through a pre/post survey involving 50 primary secondary school teachers who participated in a course about educational escape rooms. The model validation suggests that the Star Model can be proposed as a valid tool for educational escape rooms design.
... Not many works in the literature have reported success rates for educational escape rooms, and the few that did so, reported very different values for this rate. Concretely, works can be found reporting a success rate of 0% (i.e., not a single team was capable of escaping) [24], 8% [22], 50% [19], [29], 67% [11], 75% [27] or 100% (i.e., all teams succeed) [32]. In the experience reported in this article, students could earn points for attending the remote educational escape room, but continuing with it after the time limit was not necessary at all. ...
Article
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With the rise of distance learning, new challenges have emerged for educators. Among these challenges, developing effective and motivating group activities for students in the remote classroom is one of the top priorities to be addressed. According to existing literature, educational escape rooms have proven to be engaging and effective learning activities when conducted face-to-face. However, no prior research has analyzed the instructional effectiveness of these activities when they are conducted remotely. Furthermore, none of the educational escape rooms reported in the literature has been designed for teaching software modeling. This article analyzes an educational escape room conducted remotely in a software engineering fundamentals course for teaching software modeling. A total of three evaluation instruments were used: a pre-test and a post-test to measure students’ learning gains, a questionnaire to collect students’ perceptions, and a web platform for automatically gathering data on students’ interactions. The contribution of this article is two-fold. On the one hand, it provides, for the first time, evidence that remote educational escape rooms can be effective learning activities. On the other hand, it provides, also for the first time, proof that educational escape rooms are effective and engaging activities for teaching software modeling.
... Por el contrario, los estudiantes valoran negativamente la experiencia del escape room debido a la dificultad de las actividades, la generación de frustración derivada de ello y el trabajo bajo la presión derivado de la temporización de la actividad. Por su parte,Hermanns et al. (2018), desarrollan un escape room para la asignatura de farmacología de los estudios de enfermería. Los alumnos participantes, mayoritariamente, consideraron la propuesta didáctica como valiosa y divertida, y que les permitió llevar a cabo un aprendizaje adecuado. ...
Article
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INTRODUCCIÓN. Los escape rooms son actualmente un entretenimiento muy popular y se ha demostrado, además, que ofrecen numerosos beneficios en otros campos como la enseñanza de lenguas extranjeras. Dentro del ámbito de la gamificación, los juegos de escape se comprenden como adecuados para paliar actitudes negativas y promover la comunicación, el trabajo en equipo, la cooperación y el desarrollo de un aprendizaje significativo acorde a las necesidades e intereses del alumnado. MÉTODO Y OBJETIVOS. Este estudio, de carácter exploratorio, tiene como objetivos conocer qué valoración hacen los alumnos sobre un escape room educativo tras participar en él y qué elementos les han suscitado más aprendizaje en el marco de la enseñanza de español como lengua extranjera (ELE), y además pretende poner de manifiesto el valor de los escape rooms como estrategia metodológica adecuada para la enseñanza-aprendizaje de ELE. RESULTADOS. El análisis de los cuestionarios de percepción demuestra que los alumnos valoran positivamente el escape room educativo como herramienta y como propuesta didáctica para la enseñanza-aprendizaje de ELE. CONCLUSIÓN. Los alumnos valoran positivamente la participación en la experiencia didáctica y consideran que han aprendido significativamente, sobre todo en relación con el desarrollo de la comprensión y los contenidos tratados sobre la cultura hispanoamericana.
... However, not all educational escape rooms required teacher intervention during the activity. For instance, in [18], a pre-set hint card was elaborated for each puzzle, allowing students to get the help they needed without communicating with the teacher. For the purpose of automatically keeping track of students' progress, the authors of [43] used Moodle questionnaires to represent each of the challenges in the escape room, requiring students to provide the right answer to each one of them before unlocking the next one. ...
Article
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Educational escape rooms are emerging as a new type of learning activity with the potential to enhance students’ learning through highly engaging experiences. However, conducting educational escape rooms effectively is very complex and there are no software tools available for this purpose. This lack of support is hindering the widespread use and adoption of these activities. This article presents Escapp, a web platform that allows teachers to conduct effective and highly engaging educational escape rooms. The platform has been used for conducting three different educational escape rooms (one face-to-face and two remotely) in three higher education settings. Three case studies were conducted to empirically evaluate the usefulness of Escapp for conducting these activities, which involved more than 400 students. On the one hand, a questionnaire was administered to students to gather their opinions on the Escapp platform, obtaining very positive results in terms of overall usefulness, usability and engagement. On the other hand, data automatically recorded by Escapp during the three educational escape rooms are presented as evidence of the high number of student interactions that take place during activities of this kind and the need of using a software system for conducting them in an effective way. The results of this article show that Escapp is a well-suited solution for conducting effective face-to-face and remote educational escape rooms.
... The participants of the educational escape game condition reported to having enjoyed the game and generally perceived the game as beneficial and of value for them. This coincides with all descriptive studies on escape games, which report tremendously positive feedback for enjoyment and their perceived potential to facilitate learning and motivation (27,29,(33)(34)(35)(36)(37)(38). It is theorized that the increased intrinsic motivation with gaming stems from immersion, high concentration, challenges and accomplishments throughout the gameplay experience (17,22), which are quintessential qualities of escape games. ...
Article
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Objective: As a pilot trial under the Games of Food consortium, this study assessed the effectiveness of an educational escape game alongside a self-study method as a nutrition knowledge intervention. Furthermore, this study explored the use of an escape game as an educational tool for young adolescents. Materials and Methods: Altogether three schools participated, one from Finland and two from the UK. Baseline questionnaires assessing knowledge were administered before intervention day. Participants from each class were randomly allocated by the researchers into either the escape game condition, where participants played a nutrition education escape game with a focus on plant-based protein sources, or the self-study condition, where participants received an educational leaflet with identical content. In addition to the knowledge post-assessment, the educational escape game condition answered an enjoyment and intrinsic motivation questionnaire to evaluate the game experience. Paired t -tests were used to determine significant changes within intervention conditions and ANCOVA was used to estimate the differences in knowledge. Results: The participants were 130 children (11–14 years), divided into educational escape game ( n = 68) and self-study ( n = 62) conditions. Both the educational escape game (20.7 vs. 23, p < 0.001) and self-study (21.1 vs. 23.1, p = 0.002) had improved overall knowledge scores. No significant differences in gained knowledge existed between groups. Of the educational escape game participants, 60% reported the game as mostly enjoyable and 46% reported added use and value for learning. Conclusion: The educational escape game condition was comparable to the self-study method for nutrition education in adolescents. However, since the educational escape game provides an enjoyable experience that may enhance intrinsic motivation to promote learning and possible behavior change, the use of escape games for nutrition education warrant further investigation.
... Λόγω της καινοτομίας της έννοιας του δωματίου διαφυγής, υπάρχει μια σχετικά περιορισμένη αρθρογραφία αναφορικά με τη χρήση τους στην εκπαίδευση. Η αρθρογραφία αφθονεί αναφορικά με την αξιοποίησή τους στον χώρο της ιατρικής (Monaghan & Nicholson, 2018;Boysen-Osborn et al., 2018), της φαρμακευτικής (Cain, 2019;Eukel et al., 2018;Cotner et al., 2018;Hermanns et al., 2018) της φυσικοθεραπείας (Jimenez et al., 2017 και της νοσηλευτικής στην τριτοβάθμια εκπαίδευση αλλά και σε άλλες θετικές επιστήμες, όπως η πληροφορική (Borrego et al, 2017), η χημεία (Dietrich, 2018) και τα μαθηματικά (Ho, 2018;Glavas & Stascik, 2017). Επιπλέον, αναφέρονται πρωτοβουλίες που απευθύνονται σε φοιτητές με σκοπό την προώθηση άτυπης μάθησης, όπως η προετοιμασία σεισμού (Novak et al., 2018) ή η γνωριμία των φοιτητών με τις υπηρεσίες ενός campus (Wise et al., 2018;Walsh & Spence, 2018). ...
Conference Paper
Στην παρούσα εργασία διερευνάται η συνεισφορά της αποτελεσματικής διδασκαλίας των μεγάλων επιστημονικών θεωριών στην ανάπτυξη της κριτικής και δημιουργικής σκέψης των μαθητών στην εκπαίδευση. Στο πρώτο μέρος της εργασίας ορίζονται οι έννοιες επιστημονικές θεωρίες, κριτική σκέψη, δημιουργική σκέψη και αποτελεσματική διδασκαλία στις Φυσικές Επιστήμες, με βάση την επιστημονική βιβλιογραφία. Ακολούθως, αναλύονται επιμέρους παράγοντες που, δυνητικά, συνεισφέρουν στην αποτελεσματική διδασκαλία/ μάθηση των μεγάλων επιστημονικών θεωριών με στόχο την ανάπτυξη της κριτικής και δημιουργικής σκέψης των μανθανόντων. Στο δεύτερο μέρος της εργασίας, γίνεται αναφορά στη διδασκαλία των μεγάλων επιστημονικών θεωριών στο κυπριακό εκπαιδευτικό σύστημα, με στόχο την προώθηση της κριτικής και δημιουργικής σκέψης, αξιοποιώντας παραδείγματα από τη διδασκαλία και μάθηση των Βιολογικών Επιστημών στη Μέση Εκπαίδευση της Κύπρου. Συγκεκριμένα, συζητείται ο ρόλος των Αναλυτικών Προγραμμάτων, των Δεικτών Επιτυχίας και Επάρκειας, ο ρόλος του εκπαιδευτικού,των μαθησιακών περιβαλλόντων, των στοχευμένων δραστηριοτήτων για την οικοδόμηση της γνώσης και την ανάπτυξη της κριτικής και δημιουργικής σκέψης. Επιπρόσθετα, δίνονται συγκεκριμένα παραδείγματα δραστηριοτήτων από την ενότητα της θεωρίας της εξέλιξης των οργανισμών, που στοχεύουν στην αποτελεσματική διδασκαλία της εν λόγω θεωρίας και στην ανάπτυξη της κριτικής και δημιουργικής σκέψης. Στο τέλος της εργασίας γίνονται εκπαιδευτικές προτάσεις που αφορούν στην αποτελεσματική διδασκαλία των επιστημονικών θεωριών για την ανάπτυξη της κριτικής και δημιουργικής σκέψης.
... The students identified that this learning and teaching approach was engaging and provided opportunities for teamwork. However, time constraints on running the activity were frustrating for students, and the level of puzzles was considered complicated despite faculty believing they were easy (23). Problem-solving and skills proficiency is also an essential aspect of surgical training; therefore, one institution implemented an escape room teaching methodology to gauge students' interest, fulfilment, and engagement in the learning opportunity (24). ...
Article
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Introduction Even with paramedicine's evolution, clinical decision-making will always be a crucial learning and teaching requirement. As part of their learning, paramedic students need to develop critical thinking and collaborative approaches with others. The aim was to review the literature around escape room activity as a pedagogical approach for paramedic education. The intent is to contribute to the discussion around authentic and engaging approaches to teaching clinical thinking and decision making in paramedicine. Methods A systematic review was undertaken to review existing literature on using this approach in higher education. EBSCO, Medline, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, ProQuest and PubMed were used to review paramedic and health education strategies using a list of keywords. Results There were 23 scholarly papers examining the use of escape rooms in an educational context found. There was no reference to using this teaching methodology in paramedicine, but some health contexts were identified for nursing, pharmacy, radiology and medicine. Conclusion With an instructional design that addresses logistical requirements, educational escape rooms can be used effectively in paramedic higher education. This review highlights a longitudinal study is needed to assess an educational escape room's implementation into the paramedic higher education curriculum. A longitudinal, multi-university study can further explore the feasibility of using a blended online/offline escape room activity in large enrolment paramedic programs.
... As an educational resource, the impact of escape rooms remains under-researched. Initial scholarship documents how the impetus of "escape" has facilitated motivation in computer science education (Borrego et al., 2017) and enhanced learning across the health sciences (Gómez-Urquiza et al. 2019;Hermanns et al., 2017). The simulated constraints and tensions of escape provide students with real-time opportunities to demonstrate knowledge through interactive skill-building and teamwork. ...
Article
Building a more comprehensive understanding of gaming literacies, this article explores the kinds of literacy practices that emerge through participation and play within escape rooms. Based on a dataset of video recordings of participant interactions within an escape room, we perform side-by-side analyses of play based on two theoretical perspectives. In so doing, we propose alternative apparatuses for analyzing the gaming literacy practices and indeed the hidden and intended curriculum of escape rooms. This polyphonic rendering and reading are done not to argue that these are discrete phenomena within the flurry of the activity space of an escape room. Instead, it illustrates how these practices are interwoven with one another as well as with the tacit and collaborative knowledge of team-based cooperation, personal histories, and felt resources of play. Not simply noting how literacies mediate interaction in these gaming spaces, findings emphasize how learning, affect, interaction, and analog play are purposefully designed, entangled, felt, and understood.
... Además, los EERs fomentan el constructivismo social, es decir, los alumnos participan activamente en tareas que implican el trabajo en equipo y la colaboración por parte de los mismos para construir conjuntamente conocimiento. También fomentan las habilidades comunicativas (Hermanns et al., 2017;Veldkamp et al., 2020) proporcionando un contexto idóneo para el aprendizaje de idiomas (Figueroa, 2015;Gómez, 2019;Santamaría y Alcalde, 2019). ...
Article
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Este artículo presenta una propuesta de enseñanza interdisciplinar e innovadora mediante el diseño de Escape Room educativos realizados por los estudiantes del primer curso del Grado en Educación Infantil, de ISEN Centro Universitario, facultad adscrita a la Universidad de Murcia. La finalidad que se persigue con este estudio es desarrollar en el alumnado del primer curso de esta titulación las competencias necesarias que atiendan a la diversidad del alumnado del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil, además de promover la competencia comunicativa en la lengua española e inglesa en un contexto bilingüe. Todo ello se ha llevado a cabo mediante la aplicación de la metodología de la Gamificación de aprendizajes. Los resultados muestran un incremento significativo por parte del alumnado en su motivación e interés por recibir formación en materia de diversidad, así como una mayor receptividad hacia la lengua inglesa.
... Learning through a game like Escape Room contains many elements of gamification and it encourages students to collaborate, develop critical thinking skills that allow for elements of discovery and exploration in the search for a solution like treasure. Each time students move to the next "room" or higher level, they receive feedback when they have successfully overcome obstacles [31]. ...
... Le jeu peut être considéré comme une situation présentant un certain intérêt du point de vue de l'apprentissage. Néanmoins, les objectifs d'apprentissage sont dissimulés aux joueurs (Hermanns et al., 2017), afin de « préserver 2l'authenticité" de l'expérience ludique en revoyant le sérieux au débriefing, à l'après-coup » (Brougères, 2012, p.129). Dans Geome, cette expérience passe par l'utilisation d'une métaphore qui permet au joueur de se concentrer sur la situation de jeu. ...
Conference Paper
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Cet article décrit la conception d’un guide de débriefing dans un contexte d’apprentissage par le jeu au musée. L’objectif de la recherche vise à comprendre comment une visite scolaire ludique au musée permet aux élèves de s’engager dans la résolution de problèmes complexes et de développer leur rapport au savoir. Dès lors, la problématique consiste à intégrer dans le débriefing les dimensions de l’épistémologie personnelle. Nous décrivons les cadres théoriques et méthodologiques ayant conduit à la conception du guide. Les résultats correspondent aux questions du guide et aux indicateurs permettant de catégoriser les réponses des élèves.
... In educational escape rooms, students are cognitively, behaviourally and affectively engaged (Hermanns et al., 2017;Veldkamp, Knippels, et al., 2021). A meta-study on engagement in education showed that engagement positively influences academic achievement. ...
Article
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This study investigates the influence of the educational game design elements immersion, collaboration and debriefing, on fostering learning with educational escape rooms. We based the design of the escape room on an educational game design framework that aligns the learning goal and the game goal, that is, escaping from the room. One‐hundred‐and‐twenty‐six students, aged between 16 and 20 played the escape room. Measures for learning were pre‐and post‐tests. The game experience was measured through questionnaires, classroom observations and interviews with students and teachers. The results show a knowledge gain between pre‐and post‐test. Correlational analysis showed that all three design elements contributed to students' appreciation of the escape room, whereas only immersion had a direct contribution to knowledge gain. Based on the qualitative data it appeared that the used escape boxes contributed most to perceived immersion. Immersion helps students focus on each other and the tasks. Also, a narrative with distinct roles for each student helped to evoke immersion. Unexpectedly, these roles also scaffolded collaboration except for students in the school that engaged in a collaborative learning pedagogy. The study confirms the usability of the framework for game designs, based on theories for the design of physical and hybrid educational games. Practitioner notes What is already known about this topic The escape room as a learning environment appeals to teachers of different disciplines, ages, gender and teaching experiences. Teachers implement escape rooms to create active (hybrid) learning spaces, where learners need a combination of knowledge and skills to solve the subject‐based activities. Students and teachers perceive that while participating in escape rooms, students are more engaged, active and learn more compared to regular classes. The assumption is that escape rooms support collaboration and automatically collaborative learning. Review studies on educational escape rooms show that a systematic evaluation is usually absent, disputable or indicates no knowledge gain. Teachers design their educational escape rooms based on digital escape games and/or their experience as players of escape rooms. For digital educational games, important game design aspects are researched. Three main challenges in designing educational games are (1) the participants' transition from the real world to the game world, (2) the alignment of game design aspects and educational aspects and (3) the transfer from attained experiences and knowledge back into the real world. What this paper adds This paper evaluates an educational game design framework for escape rooms, focussing on the above‐mentioned main challenges in designing educational games. It investigates the influence of the educational game design elements immersion, collaboration and debriefing, on fostering learning with a hybrid educational escape room. It informs that all three design elements contributed to students' appreciation of the escape room, whereas only immersion had a direct contribution to knowledge gain. The used hybrid escape boxes contributed most to the immersion; scaffolding students to focus on each other and the tasks. Students' collaboration was successfully fostered. However, it scarcely led to collaborative learning during gameplay, due to lack of discussion and reflection needed for deeper understanding. Implications for practice and/or policy The educational escape game framework would help educators creating immersive games, which not only confront learners with meaningful contexts but also give learning gains. The educational escape game framework would help researchers focussing on important and difficult aspects of designing and implementing educational escape rooms to develop and research more effective escape rooms. In guidelines on creating immersion in educational escape games, the notion of physical objects is lacking. In this hybrid escape room, the physical objects such as escape boxes were the most powerful in creating immersion. In addition, the use of sound design in escape games in classrooms seems overrated. Debriefing after the gameplay is perceived necessary to discuss common misunderstandings, to make connections between the topics in various puzzles and to add more content to interest high‐achieving students. What is already known about this topic The escape room as a learning environment appeals to teachers of different disciplines, ages, gender and teaching experiences. Teachers implement escape rooms to create active (hybrid) learning spaces, where learners need a combination of knowledge and skills to solve the subject‐based activities. Students and teachers perceive that while participating in escape rooms, students are more engaged, active and learn more compared to regular classes. The assumption is that escape rooms support collaboration and automatically collaborative learning. Review studies on educational escape rooms show that a systematic evaluation is usually absent, disputable or indicates no knowledge gain. Teachers design their educational escape rooms based on digital escape games and/or their experience as players of escape rooms. For digital educational games, important game design aspects are researched. Three main challenges in designing educational games are (1) the participants' transition from the real world to the game world, (2) the alignment of game design aspects and educational aspects and (3) the transfer from attained experiences and knowledge back into the real world. What this paper adds This paper evaluates an educational game design framework for escape rooms, focussing on the above‐mentioned main challenges in designing educational games. It investigates the influence of the educational game design elements immersion, collaboration and debriefing, on fostering learning with a hybrid educational escape room. It informs that all three design elements contributed to students' appreciation of the escape room, whereas only immersion had a direct contribution to knowledge gain. The used hybrid escape boxes contributed most to the immersion; scaffolding students to focus on each other and the tasks. Students' collaboration was successfully fostered. However, it scarcely led to collaborative learning during gameplay, due to lack of discussion and reflection needed for deeper understanding. Implications for practice and/or policy The educational escape game framework would help educators creating immersive games, which not only confront learners with meaningful contexts but also give learning gains. The educational escape game framework would help researchers focussing on important and difficult aspects of designing and implementing educational escape rooms to develop and research more effective escape rooms. In guidelines on creating immersion in educational escape games, the notion of physical objects is lacking. In this hybrid escape room, the physical objects such as escape boxes were the most powerful in creating immersion. In addition, the use of sound design in escape games in classrooms seems overrated. Debriefing after the gameplay is perceived necessary to discuss common misunderstandings, to make connections between the topics in various puzzles and to add more content to interest high‐achieving students.
Article
Full-text available
Learning analytics methods have proven useful in providing insights from the increasingly available digital data about students in a variety of learning environments, including serious games. However, such methods have not been applied to the specific context of educational escape rooms and therefore little is known about students' behavior while playing. The present work aims to fill the gap in the existing literature by showcasing the power of learning analytics methods to reveal and represent students' behavior when participating in a computer-supported educational escape room. Specifically, we make use of sequence mining methods to analyze the temporal and sequential aspects of the activities carried out by students during these novel educational games. We further use clustering to identify different player profiles according to the sequential unfolding of students' actions and analyze how these profiles relate to knowledge acquisition. Our results show that students' behavior differed significantly in their use of hints in the escape room and resulted in differences in their knowledge acquisition levels. ARTICLE HISTORY
Article
Background: Innovative teaching strategies that incorporate active learning could be beneficial to the nursing student's performance not only in the classroom but also in the clinical setting. The article provides implementation steps for integrating escape room tasks into a baccalaureate nursing program. Method: Thirteen escape room tasks were developed by faculty and a dean to facilitate Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) competencies. The tasks challenged seven senior students to think critically outside of the normal classroom and clinical setting. Results: Students reported the tasks empowered them to think critically, collaborate, and ultimately enhanced their knowledge. They enjoyed the group work and hands-on challenges. Conclusion: Escape room tasks can be active learning teaching strategies that facilitate learning QSEN competencies. Nurse educators can easily implement the 13 escape room tasks outlined in this article. The positive outcome of this activity revealed future opportunities for nurse educators to design easy escape room tasks centered around curriculum learning objectives. [J Nurs Educ. 2020;59(11):655-657.].
Article
Background: Immersive learning activities, such as escape room educational gaming in nursing simulation laboratories, have proven to be effective teaching strategies that promote communication and teamwork. These activities also provide educators with opportunities to assess clinical skills competencies, as well as providing them with a means for evaluating the transfer of didactic knowledge to clinical practice. Method: An obstetrical skills relay race with an escape room element was created as a formative evaluation method to determine if nursing students were able to demonstrate competency related to the identified learning needs. Results: The competitive aspects of this learning activity were perceived as exciting and motivating by the educators and students. Conclusion: An escape room-themed relay race incorporated into an obstetric skills laboratory is considered an innovative and formative evaluation method, as well as an engaging and motivating learning activity for nursing students. [J Nurs. Educ. 2020;59(11):646-650.].
Article
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Várias experiências com jogos estão sendo implementadas no ensino superior, como as Escape room (ER). Sendo caracterizada como um gênero dos com o uso de elementos como enigmas, desafios, ambientação e narrativa, na possibilidade de promover a motivação, colaboração e cooperação. Nesse sentido, essa Revisão Sistemática de Literatura tem o objetivo de identificar os processos de planejamento, desenvolvimento e avaliação de Escape room educacional no ensino superior. Para executar a RSL foram utilizados softwares de análise. 520 estudos foram extraídos de diversas bases de dados de conhecimento. Após os processos de identificação, triagem, seleção e qualidade, foi delimitado o número de 29 estudos. As experiências relatadas têm predominância para a área da saúde, engenharia, arquitetura e pedagogia, mas não se indica um caminho metodológico de planejamento e avaliação. Encontramos que 86% realizaram ER físicas. Há necessidade de estudos sobre as competências docentes e a ER para avaliação da aprendizagem. Palavras-chave: Revisão sistemática. Escape room. Jogos digitais. Aprendizagem. Abstract: Several experiences with games are being implemented in higher education, such as the Escape room (ER). Being characterized as a genre of games with the use of elements such as puzzles, challenges, setting and narrative, in the possibility of promoting motivation, collaboration and cooperation. In this sense, this Systematic Literature Review aims to identify the processes of planning, development and evaluation of Escape room in higher education. To perform the SLR analysis software was used. 520 studies were extracted from various knowledge databases. After the processes of identification, screening, selection and quality, the number of 29 studies was delimited. The experiences reported have a predominance for the area of health, engineering, architecture and pedagogy, but 1 Doutor em Educação pela Universidade Federal de Alagoas (UFAL). Professor e Coordenador do Grupo de Pesquisas Comunidades Virtuais.
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In this study, we investigated whether playing an escape room game after explicit instruction (instruction-first group, N = 20) is more effective to learn about copyright and media law than playing the game before explicit instruction (problem-solving-first group, N = 21). This is an important question as escape room games are complex, problem-based learning environments that can overwhelm learners and thus hinder the acquisition of knowledge and skills. According to cognitive load theory, preparing learners with explicit instruction before problem-solving activities can overcome this problem leading to better learning. However, in the productive failure paradigm problem-solving before explicit instruction is seen as more effective, especially when it comes to the application of newly acquired knowledge to solve novel problems. Based on these two theories, we conducted an experiment and found that playing the developed digital escape room game after explicit instruction was more effective for knowledge retention and domain-specific self-efficacy with at the same time lower cognitive load. However, we found no differences regarding the application of knowledge as both groups scored equally high on transfer tasks. The result is discussed considering previous productive failure studies mostly conducted in the science and engineering domain. In sum, the instruction first approach proved to be effective for both knowledge acquisition and knowledge application, leading to higher domain-specific self-efficacy and lower cognitive load. Therefore, we conclude that the implementation of escape room games after instruction is an effective instructional approach and better suited to promote learning than playing escape room games before instruction. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1186/s41039-022-00187-x.
Article
An escape room is a strategy that engages learners and allows them to participate actively in a lesson. This article describes the implementation of an escape box as an escape room lesson and teaching method during an inpatient nursing skills day with a multidisciplinary team. Participants totaled 75 and included nurses, respiratory therapists, and advanced practice nurses. Learning goals included the promotion of knowledge, teamwork, and collaboration to develop a teamwork approach in an emergency situation. The outcomes demonstrated that an escape box as an escape room format is an effective teaching methodology to increase learner engagement and enhance learning in continuing education with a multidisciplinary team. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2021;52(2):85-89.].
Poster
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Introduction: Educational institution, medical education, current generation Z student with diversity demands innovative teaching strategies. Concept of simulation & game became bit older. Concept of gaming simulation & escape room in medical education & in undergraduate nursing program becoming popular since last two decades. A form entertaining learning in classroom settings through collaborative live action game creating medical/nursing scenario which engage team participants in critical thinking & domain specific learning to solve puzzles & search for clues to escape locked rooms. This changing shift of teaching learning strategy is suitable for current pandemic situation. Keywords: Escape room, gaming simulation, generation z student, nursing classroom
Preprint
Full-text available
Learning analytics methods have proven useful in providing insights from the increasingly available digital data about students in a variety of learning environments , including serious games. However, such methods have not been applied to the specific context of educational escape rooms and therefore little is known about students' behavior while playing. The present work aims to fill the gap in the existing literature by showcasing the power of learning analytics methods to reveal and represent students' behavior when participating in a computer-supported educational escape room. Specifically, we make use of sequence mining methods to analyze the temporal and sequential aspects of the activities carried out by students during these novel educational games. We further use clustering to identify different player profiles according to the sequential unfolding of students' actions and analyze how these profiles relate to knowledge acquisition. Our results show that students' behavior differed significantly in their use of hints in the escape room and resulted in differences in their knowledge acquisition levels.
Chapter
Game-based learning (GBL) has been gaining ground and notoriety in formal education environments. However, the educational escape room (EER) is still a relatively new approach, and in some countries, their utilization finds more barriers among the higher education setting. In this sense, to spread and facilitate their adoption, it is important to identify which are the competences and attitudes necessary for educators to facilitate EERs. Starting from this knowledge, it becomes easier proposing actions for the development, the dissemination, and the sustainable practice of these activities. This study applied questionnaires applied to Brazilian higher education teacher users of EER in the classroom. The results highlight the importance of the institutional support, as they will feel more confident so that the implementation of this methodology occurs in a gradual way and with purpose in educational institutions. The conclusions are valuable to both educators and decision makers in education in order to give more information to the best practices and implementation of EER.
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This article addresses the issue of collaborative design of learning games based on the analysis of a game jam that led to the design of Mission Télomère, an escape game dedicated to smoking prevention for secondary school students. We examine the question of collaboration based on the analysis of interviews conducted with four of the game jam participants. The results obtained show that the methodological approach we implemented allowed the different designers to evolve and share their praxeologies, i.e. managed to develop common practices and discourse on how to design the game. This article is therefore a contribution to the reflection on what an escape game is and on how to design this type of game as a complex techno-pedagogical device requiring a multi-expertise approach.
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Mobile app escape games are excellent tools to create an experiential learning process in online contexts. Through the act of solving puzzles to escape the rooms, students experience a process in which they need to discover new information and clues, adjust their strategies repeatedly, and become more aware of the way they learn. Their emotional and behavioral reactions when they encounter difficulties can shed light on their learning identity and learning flexibility. The experiential learning cycle is complete with the addition of after-game reflection, debrief, and discussion. Escape games are versatile and can be used to teach a variety of topics, such as problem-solving, creative thinking, teamwork, and leadership, in any kind of classroom, with any population of students. This article provides an overview of mobile app escape games, how instructors could use them in class, and examples of topics, games, and debrief questions to use.
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Educational escape room activities provide an opportunity for nursing students to learn in a fun, creative, and safe learning environment. Participants problem-solve through a series of cues in hopes of exiting a locked room within a predetermined timeframe. A pediatric “escape room” was created to focus on the topic of dehydration for junior-level nursing students. This teaching-learning activity requires careful planning and implementation to successfully enhance teamwork collaboration and high-level thinking amongst the students.
Presentation
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Augmented Reality technology provides immersive learning environments that support an intensive engagement of learners with instructional material. However, the role of immersion for students’ learning is still under discussion as previous studies provide contradictory results. On the one hand, immersion can be related to higher learning outcomes and emotional engagement. On the other hand, immersion can be counterproductive to learning as it can distract and overwhelm learners. Several strategies to guide students’ learning in highly immersive learning environments have been investigated in recent years, such as generative learning activities (e.g., summarizing). In this research, we argue that collaboration might serve as a helpful strategy to support students learning with immersive technologies like AR. In a randomized controlled field trial, students either played an AR escape room game on learning about fake news individually (n = 28) or collaboratively (n = 32). In the collaborative condition learners outperformed the individual learners significantly on a post knowledge test, but no differences were found on a transfer test. Collaborative learners reported significantly lower degrees of engrossment and total immersion, which are the higher levels of immersion used in this study. A linear regression model showed that the highest level of immersion (“total immersion”) negatively predicted knowledge acquisition. Results are discussed considering the immersion principle in multimedia learning.
Chapter
In the last years, knowledge transfer has played a more and more important role, especially between the academic field and society. But to offer a low-threshold access to scientific topics, new procedures have to be examined. Based on Game-Based Learning, Escape Rooms are a contemporary format of knowledge transfer, due to their possibility of easy and playful approaches towards different topics. To investigate if this format is accepted by the targeted group, a self-concepted and designed Escape Room was tested twice through observations, talks and an evaluation. The results show that this concept is perceived as an interesting and approved method for the intended purpose.
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There are a variety of teaching strategies that instructors can use to improve student learning. It is of great importance to select appropriate teaching strategies in nurse education to make the training more appealing and more effective. In this article, ten teaching strategies will be introduced to help instructors learn how to involve the teaching strategy in the nurse education.
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There is a strong need to increase the number of undergraduate students who pursue careers in science to provide the “fuel” that will power a science and technology–driven U.S. economy. Prior research suggests that both evidence-based teaching methods and early undergraduate research experiences may help to increase retention rates in the sciences. In this study, we examined the effect of a program that included 1) a Summer enrichment 2-wk minicourse and 2) an authentic Fall research course, both of which were designed specifically to support students’ science motivation. Undergraduates who participated in the pharmacology-based enrichment program significantly improved their knowledge of basic biology and chemistry concepts; reported high levels of science motivation; and were likely to major in a biological, chemical, or biomedical field. Additionally, program participants who decided to major in biology or chemistry were significantly more likely to choose a pharmacology concentration than those majoring in biology or chemistry who did not participate in the enrichment program. Thus, by supporting students’ science motivation, we can increase the number of students who are interested in science and science careers.
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The area of simulation within education is fast developing, with many educational providers striving to keep up with current advances in technology. Evaluation of simulation learning appears overwhelmingly positive (Moule et al, 2008; McCaughey and Traynor, 2010; Hope et al, 2011). However, when looking to generate financial support to develop simulation practices within education,little evidence exists regarding its impact within clinical practice.This paper details the findings of a scoping exercise undertaken to ascertain current simulation practice within nursing curricula,in order to identity good practices and a clear evidence-base for embedding and using simulation to enhance education and practice.The project found overwhelming support for simulated learning from students and facilitators. However, it was highlighted that no clear guidance or strategies were universally used to effectively incorporate simulation within curricula, nor to evaluate or audit its effect upon student competency within clinical practice. Further evidence to support the implementation of simulation within nurse education is therefore required to ensure effective implementation and transferability of learning into clinical care settings.
Conference Paper
There is a rapid growing interest and demand globally, for developing and participating in live, interactive gaming experiences otherwise known as Escape Rooms. Traditionally designed to provide entertainment, Escape Rooms require its players to solve puzzles, complete tasks and work together efficiently to complete an overall goal such as solving a mystery or escaping a room. The structure of Escape Rooms and their overall growing popularity, indicates that the premise of interactive, live-action gaming may be adapted to develop engaging scenarios for game-based learning. The authors present; EscapED, as a work in progress, case study and paradigm for creating educational Escape Rooms and Interactive Gaming Experiences. A focus is drawn to designing and developing on-site experiences, to provide engaging alternatives for learning and soft skills development amongst higher education staff and students. A review of a prototype trial, developed to support a Coventry University staff training event is given, alongside participant's general feedback and reactions to the experience and the perceived educational value of EscapED. The work in progress EscapED framework is presented as a tool to help foster a best practice approach to develop Interactive Game-Based Learning Experiences.
Article
Regulators have been discussing the issue of allowing simulation to replace clinical time for years and are looking for evidence to guide their decision making. In anticipation of the National Council of State Boards of Nursing National Simulation Study results, a descriptive survey was conducted to document the current regulatory environment on simulation and serve as a benchmark for future regulatory comparisons. This article reports the results of the survey.
Article
Background: Use of simulation has been identified as an integrative strategy to bridge theory to practice and has been identified as a need in educating nurses in the future. Use of simulation provides an opportunity for nursing students to deliberately practice skills needed to be an expert nurse. The purpose of this study was to explore the use of virtual simulations to improve knowledge transfer of nursing students in one Midwest University. Methods: This study used a quasi-experimental design with 115 nursing students in one University. All students received education on topics related to conflict management, priority-setting, and patient safety. The intervention group also participated in three virtual simulations. To evaluate knowledge transfer, performance on an individual simulation was evaluated using the Capacity to Rescue Instrument (CRI). Comparisons were made among the two groups using ANOVA. Results: Total CRI score for the intervention group (m=21.98, SD 4.29) was significantly higher than the score for the control group (m=20.09, SD 4.05). Therefore, students participating in virtual simulations were able to transfer the knowledge learned in the classroom better than those not participating in the virtual simulations. Conclusions: Efforts for providing more opportunities for deliberate practice of critical skills (e.g. communication, conflict management, priority setting) must be provided. The addition of virtual simulations focused on the deliberate practice of specified skills improved the students’ performance. Use of a virtual environment may provide greater access to practice opportunities at a much lower cost than high fidelity simulators.
Article
Simulation techniques are being used today in a variety of programs designed to enhance the skills of healthcare providers. The aim of this article is to describe simulation techniques currently being used in healthcare education and identify future directions for the use of simulation in healthcare. The author will describe various types of simulators and simulated experiences, including role playing, standardized patients, partial task trainers, complex task trainers, integrated simulators, and full mission simulation. Next, the use of simulation in undergraduate nursing programs, continuing education programs, interdisciplinary team training, and competency assessment will be presented. Resources for simulation faculty and costs associated with simulation will be discussed. The author will conclude by noting that next steps in using simulation to strengthen the provision of healthcare include providing healthcare educators with the motivation and competencies needed to create and use meaningful simulation learning experiences and initiating more research regarding the benefits of simulation in healthcare education.
Understanding the Millennial generation
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Millennials outnumber Baby Boomers and are far more diverse
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