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Some people are attracted sexually to intelligence: A psychometric evaluation of sapiosexuality

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Abstract

The emergence of the popular culture notion of a sapiosexual, an individual who finds high levels of intelligence (IQ) the most sexually attractive characteristic in a person, suggests that a high IQ may be a genuinely sexually attractive trait, at least for some people. Consequently, mean desirability ratings of IQ on a percentile continuum were estimated, across sexual attraction specifically and long-term partner interest conditions (N = 383). Furthermore, we evaluated the psychometric properties of a newly developed measure, the Sapiosexuality Questionnaire (SapioQ). Finally, we estimated the correlation between objective intelligence and the SapioQ. On average, the 90th percentile of intelligence (IQ ≈ 120) was rated to be the most sexually attractive and the most desirable in a long-term partner. However, 8.1% and 1.3% of the sample scored above 4.0 and 4.5, respectively, on the SapioQ (theoretical range: 1 to 5), which had respectable psychometric properties. The desirability ratings across the IQ percentile continuum interacted with the two conditions (i.e., sexual attraction specifically versus partner interest), such that the rater desirability of IQ increased more substantially for partner interest than sexual attraction specifically across the 25th to 75th IQ percentiles. Finally, objective intelligence correlated negatively with rated sexual attraction specifically and partner interest for a hypothetical person at 25th and 50th percentiles of IQ (r ≈ − 0.25). By contrast, objective intelligence failed to correlate with sapiosexuality (r = − 0.02, p = 0.765; BF01 = 12.84). The results were interpreted to suggest that, for most people, a very high IQ in a partner (IQ 135 +) is not the most attractive level of intelligence, which may be considered supportive of a version of the threshold hypothesis of intelligence. Finally, although sapiosexuality may be a genuine psychological construct, it appears to be influenced by non-intellective factors.

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... Nesses estudos, os participantes ordenam diversos critérios de atratividade, previamente indicados, em um ranking. Inteligência sempre é posicionada entre as primeiras características da lista (Gignac et al. 2018). Em um estudo, homens foram filmados executando diversas tarefas associadas à inteligência (leitura de manchetes em sites de notícias e fornecendo respostas a questões complexas) e, depois, seus vídeos foram assistidos por mulheres ...
... Apesar desses estudos, o impacto positivo da inteligência na atratividade não é unânime. Por exemplo, em outra pesquisa as mulheres conseguiram distinguir os homens mais inteligentes dos menos inteligentes, mas a inteligência impactou de forma negativa na atratividade (Driebe et al. 2021).Mais recentemente, foi elaborada uma escala de sapiossexualidade para mensurar o quanto as pessoas consideravam inteligência excitante e atraente em parceiros(Gignac et al. 2018). Segundo os resultados obtidos por meio dessa escala, mulheres são mais sapiossexuais do que homens(Gignac et al. 2018). ...
... Por exemplo, em outra pesquisa as mulheres conseguiram distinguir os homens mais inteligentes dos menos inteligentes, mas a inteligência impactou de forma negativa na atratividade (Driebe et al. 2021).Mais recentemente, foi elaborada uma escala de sapiossexualidade para mensurar o quanto as pessoas consideravam inteligência excitante e atraente em parceiros(Gignac et al. 2018). Segundo os resultados obtidos por meio dessa escala, mulheres são mais sapiossexuais do que homens(Gignac et al. 2018). Homens costumam ser mais lenientes do que mulheres quanto a estar com um parceiro menos inteligente(Kenrick et al. 1990). ...
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Este livro foi pensado para ser um primeiro texto introdutório às bases ecológicas e evolutivas do comportamento humano, voltado para o ensino ao nível de graduação. Embora cada capítulo possa ser lido em qualquer ordem, organizamos de modo que a sequência sugerida permita ao aprofundamento paulatino dos diferentes conceitos e disciplinas dedi- cadas aos estudos do comportamento humano.
... As an example, both sexes might prioritize goodpartner and good-parent qualities (e.g., intelligence and emotional stability) in a long-term partner, whereas particularly men might lower their standards and put more emphasis on physical attractiveness (in the following "attractiveness") in the short-term context (Buss & Schmitt, 2019). as one of the most relevant traits (e.g., Buss et al., 1990Buss et al., , 2001Gignac et al., 2018;Goodwin & Tinker, 2002). Moreover, people desire at least average-and often higher-levels of intelligence in their partners, with higher demands for more serious relationships (Kenrick et al., 1990;Regan et al., 2000). ...
... Women prioritized high intelligence in their partners, even if that meant that they had to lower their demands regarding other characteristics. But the desire for high intelligence is not without limits: Recents studies (Gignac & Callis, 2020;Gignac, Darbyshire, & Ooi, 2018) have found intelligence only to be increasingly appealing up to a certain threshold-according to their estimate around the 90th percentile or an IQ of about 120. ...
... SD = 16.18). Moreover, our analyses focused on linear effects of abilities on mate appeal, not considering the recently proposed potential for nonlinear relations (Gignac et al., 2018). While this could be a promising future research direction, it likely requires an intellectually more diverse sample. ...
Article
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Are intelligent, creative, and emotionally competent people more desirable? Evolution-based theories and studies on the ideal partner suggest that they are. We aimed to assess whether verbal, numerical, and spatial intelligence, creativity, and intra- and interpersonal emotional competence are associated with higher real-life mate appeal. In speed dates, 87 women and 88 men met up to 14 members of the opposite sex (2188 observations). While only one measured ability—women’s creativity—was significantly associated with mate appeal, ability perceptions by speed-dating partners could broadly predict mate appeal. Effects of perceived and measured abilities were substantially reduced after controlling for physical attractiveness. These results suggest that the investigated abilities play a lesser role in initial attraction than proposed in the past.
... Cognitive intelligence (IQ) is one of the most attractive traits in a potential romantic partner (Buss et al., 1990;Gignac, Darbyshire, & Ooi, 2018;Goodwin & Tinker, 2002). From a strict biological perspective, the desirability of a prospective partner should increase linearly with the prospective partner's level of IQ, as intelligence is associated with incrementally beneficial biological characteristics (Hagenaars et al., 2016). ...
... From a strict biological perspective, the desirability of a prospective partner should increase linearly with the prospective partner's level of IQ, as intelligence is associated with incrementally beneficial biological characteristics (Hagenaars et al., 2016). However, exceptional levels of IQ (IQ = 140+; 99th percentile) have been found to be rated, on average, less attractive than high levels of IQ (i.e., IQ = 120; 90th percentile; Gignac et al., 2018;Gignac & Starbuck, 2019). Gignac et al. (2018) suggested two possibilities for why people, on average, rate exceptional intelligence as less attractive: (1) compatibility concerns; and (2) concerns that highly intelligent people are more likely to have interpersonal skill deficits. ...
... However, exceptional levels of IQ (IQ = 140+; 99th percentile) have been found to be rated, on average, less attractive than high levels of IQ (i.e., IQ = 120; 90th percentile; Gignac et al., 2018;Gignac & Starbuck, 2019). Gignac et al. (2018) suggested two possibilities for why people, on average, rate exceptional intelligence as less attractive: (1) compatibility concerns; and (2) concerns that highly intelligent people are more likely to have interpersonal skill deficits. The first purpose of this investigation was to investigate these two possibilities. ...
Article
People tend to rate exceptional levels of IQ (99th percentile) as less attractive than high levels of IQ (90th percentile), and it remains to be determined why. Furthermore, the desirability of emotional intelligence (EI) in a prospective partner has yet to be investigated. Finally, we sought to determine whether individual differences in self-assessed and objectively measured IQ/EI correlated with desirability ratings of IQ/EI in a prospective partner. Based on a general community sample (N = 236) and an undergraduate sample (N = 220), we found that the association between rated desirability and the IQ/EI level of a prospective partner exhibited a threshold effect at the 90th IQ/EI percentile. Furthermore, a statistically significant decrease in rated desirability between the 90th to the 99th percentiles was observed for IQ, but not for EI. We found that participants who reduced their ratings of desirability between the 90th and 99th IQ percentiles did so due to compatibility concerns (≈60%) and social skill concerns (≈40%). We also found that self-assessed IQ and objectively measured IQ correlated positively with desirability ratings at the 90th IQ percentile, and self-assessed EI (but not objectively measured EI) with desirability ratings at the 90th EI percentile. Finally, we found that, on average, people ranked/rated EI to be somewhat more desirable than IQ. We interpreted the results as consistent with compatibility theory, active assortative mating for intelligence, and the possibility that many people subscribe to the stereotype that exceptionally intelligent people suffer from interpersonal skill difficulties.
... Recently, Gignac, Darbyshire, and Ooi (2018) noted that much of the research in the area of attraction/desirability and prospective mate characteristics relied upon rank-based and/or conventional Likert-based measurement approaches (e.g., Partner Preference Scale, Buss & Barnes, 1986). Although much has been learned from such research, Gignac et al. (2018) contended that such measurement approaches preclude the clear evaluation of what level of any particular characteristic, including intelligence, is the most attractive. ...
... Recently, Gignac, Darbyshire, and Ooi (2018) noted that much of the research in the area of attraction/desirability and prospective mate characteristics relied upon rank-based and/or conventional Likert-based measurement approaches (e.g., Partner Preference Scale, Buss & Barnes, 1986). Although much has been learned from such research, Gignac et al. (2018) contended that such measurement approaches preclude the clear evaluation of what level of any particular characteristic, including intelligence, is the most attractive. In addition, on the basis of their review of previous research in the area, Gignac et al. (2018) noted that there was a non-negligible amount of variance associated with the desirability of IQ in a prospective partner: Thus, not everyone was attracted to intelligence as a mate characteristic to the same degree. ...
... Although much has been learned from such research, Gignac et al. (2018) contended that such measurement approaches preclude the clear evaluation of what level of any particular characteristic, including intelligence, is the most attractive. In addition, on the basis of their review of previous research in the area, Gignac et al. (2018) noted that there was a non-negligible amount of variance associated with the desirability of IQ in a prospective partner: Thus, not everyone was attracted to intelligence as a mate characteristic to the same degree. However, little research had been conducted to identify predictors of such variability. ...
Article
Prospective mate characteristics such as kindness, intelligence, easygoingness, and physical attraction are ranked consistently highly by both men and women. However, rank measurement does not allow for determinations of what level of a mate characteristic is rated most desirable. Based on a more informative percentile scale measurement approach, it was reported recently that mean desirability ratings of IQ in a prospective partner peaked at the 90th percentile, with a statistically significant reduction from the 90th to the 99th percentiles. The purpose of this investigation was to replicate the recently reported non‐linear desirability effect associated with IQ, in addition to the evaluation of three other valued mate characteristics: easygoing, kindness, and physical attraction. Based on a sample of 214 young adults, it was found that all four mate characteristics peaked at the 90th percentile. However, the IQ and easygoing mean desirability ratings evidenced statistically significant mean reductions across the 90th to the 99th percentiles, whereas kindness and physical attraction did not. Finally, the objectively and subjectively assessed intelligence of the participants was not found to be associated with the participants’ desirability ratings of IQ. We interpreted the results to be consistent with a broadly conceptualized threshold hypothesis, which states that the perceived benefits of valued mate characteristics may not extend beyond a certain point. However, mate characteristics such as intelligence and easygoing become somewhat less attractive at very elevated levels, at least based on preference ratings, for reasons that may be biological and/or psycho‐social in nature.
... • discussed as proxy for intelligence (e.g., Watkins, 2017) among highest ranked attributes in prospective mates (Buss et al., 1990; see also Gignac, Darbyshire, & Ooi, 2018) RESEARCH QUESTIONS Social relations modelling (SRM, see Kenny, Kashy, & Cook, 2006) using multilevel modelling based on the tutorial for IBM SPSS (Ackerman, Kashy, and Corretti, 2015) Basic principle: ...
... How are abilities associated with actual mate-choice?▪ g possibly might be more important than single subfactors?▪ Appeal of intelligence dependent on its level → Threshold hypothesis of intelligence (seeGignac, Darbyshire, & Ooi, 2018) ...
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An increasing body of research suggests that a person's intelligence affects his/her desirability as a partner, particularly for long-term (LT) relationships. Some studies report that women place more weight on intelligence than men do. There is also indication that creativity can predict a person's ST and LT mate appeal independently from intelligence. Intelligence facets might differ in their relationship to mate appeal, given that they seem to be differently observable. However, scientific investigation into this question is still lacking. Equally little is known about the desirability of social-emotional competence in a potential partner. The present study aimed to close these gaps by investigating the effects of verbal, numerical, and spatial intelligence, creativity, and intra- and interpersonal emotional competence on mate appeal. 177 heterosexual individuals (88 female) aged between 18 and 30 (M = 22.5, SD = 2.8) participated in one of seven speed-dating events. After each meeting, individuals rated each other on the aforementioned ability domains and their desire to have a ST and LT relationship with each other. Psychometric measures for all performance domains were completed in a separate session. Social relations modelling within a multilevel modelling framework will be used to examine target effects for ST and LT mate appeal, which will then be predicted from objectively measured and subjectively estimated abilities. Externally rated physical attractiveness will be included as control variable and gender as moderator. This study allows for an ecologically valid investigation of both subjectively rated and objectively measured abilities as determinants of mate appeal.
... To the degree that one sex's ideal preference is not maximal on a trait dimension, mate value will be nonlinear with respect to that trait dimension. For example, people most strongly express a preference for mates in the 90 th percentile of intelligence, rather than the 99th (Gignac, Darbyshire, & Ooi, 2018). This preference makes mate value a non-linear function of intelligence: all else equal, high mate value people will be relatively high on intelligence, whereas moderate mate value people could be close to either the 99 th or the 75th percentile on intelligence. ...
... Consistent with prior research (e.g. Gignac et al., 2018), participants on average expressed high but not maximal preferences on each of the five dimensions; the average preference value across traits and across participants was M = 5.85 (SD = 1.12) out of a maximum of 7. Accordingly, trait-level desirabilities were strongly but imperfectly correlated with absolute trait values; Supplementary Table 3 presents the correlations between absolute trait values and desirabilities for both males and females across countries. ...
Article
Mate choice lies close to differential reproduction, the engine of evolution. Patterns of mate choice consequently have power to direct the course of evolution. Here we provide evidence suggesting one pattern of human mate choice—the tendency for mates to be similar in overall desirability—caused the evolution of a structure of correlations that we call the d factor. We use agent-based models to demonstrate that assortative mating causes the evolution of a positive manifold of desirability, d, such that an individual who is desirable as a mate along any one dimension tends to be desirable across all other dimensions. Further, we use a large cross-cultural sample with n = 14,478 from 45 countries around the world to show that this d-factor emerges in human samples, is a cross-cultural universal, and is patterned in a way consistent with an evolutionary history of assortative mating. Our results suggest that assortative mating can explain the evolution of a broad structure of human trait covariation.
... Although the research is to some degree mixed, and the effect may be largely mediated or moderated by other variables (e.g., relationship type; male earning power; Penke, Arslan, & Stopfer, 2015), intelligence has also been found to rank consistently as one of the most highly sought after characteristics in a partner by women (e.g., Buss et al., 1990;Gignac, Darbyshire, & Ooi, 2018;Goodwin & Tinker, 2002). Consequently, in conjunction with the males-compete/females-choose model of sexual selection (Darwin, 1871;Stewart-Williams & Thomas, 2013), women should not only be able to estimate the IQ of a man, they should be able to do so better than a man's capacity to estimate the IQ of a woman. ...
... At this stage, it would be useful to determine whether there is active assortment for intelligence (i.e., consciously and actively preferring prospective mates who are similar in intelligence to oneself; not just ratings). Based on a battery of four objective intelligence tests and a sample of undergraduates, Gignac et al. (2018) failed to find a statistically significant association between degree of intelligence (objectively and subjectively measured) and degree of attraction to various levels of intelligence in a hypothetical partner. Thus, perplexingly, 'intelligent' is rated consistently as the second or third most valuable trait in a prospective partner, and, yet, there does not appear to be evidence for active assortment for intelligence, at least based on ratings. ...
Article
People can estimate their own and their romantic partner's intelligence (IQ) with some level of accuracy, which may facilitate the observation of assortative mating for IQ. However, the degree to which people may overestimate their own (IQ), as well as overestimate their romantic partner's IQ, is less well established. In the current study, we investigated four outstanding issues in this area. First, in a sample of 218 couples, we examined the degree to which people overestimate their own and their partner's IQ, on the basis of comparisons between self-estimated intelligence (SEI) and objectively measured IQ (Advanced Progressive Matrices). Secondly, we evaluated whether assortative mating for intelligence was driven principally by women (the males-compete/females choose model of sexual selection) or both women and men (the mutual mate model of sexual selection). Thirdly, we tested the hypothesis that assortative mating for intelligence may occur for both SEI and objective IQ. Finally, the possibility that degree of intellectual compatibility may relate positively to relationship satisfaction was examined. We found that people overestimated their own IQ (women and men ≈ 30 IQ points) and their partner's IQ (women = 38 IQ points; men = 36 IQ points). Furthermore, both women and men predicted their partner's IQ with some degree of accuracy (women: r = 0.30; men: r = 0.19). However, the numerical difference in the correlations was not found to be significant statistically. Finally, the degree of intellectual compatibility (objectively and subjectively assessed) failed to correlate significantly with relationship satisfaction for both sexes. It would appear that women and men participate in the process of mate selection, with respect to evaluating IQ, consistent with the mutual mate model of sexual selection. However, the personal benefits of intellectual compatibility seem less obvious.
... Beyond Darwinian concerns, intelligence has implications for success with the ordinary demands of modern life like banking, using maps, and interpreting news stories (Gottfredson, 1997;Lam & Kirby, 2002) all of which may serve as important features of modern life that are relevant to mate choice. Therefore, we build on a recent surge of work on this topic (e.g., Gignac, Darbyshire, & Ooi, 2018;Park, Young, & Eastwick, 1.1. Are brains "sexy"? ...
... In the present study, we focused on the issue of mate preferences in partner's relative (as opposed to absolute) intelligence in men and women, across mating context, and considered participant's mate value (Study 1) and target's physical attractiveness as well (Study 2). In so doing, we have added to the literature in the area that tends to adopt natural groups designs (Townsend, 1989;Townsend & Roberts, 1993), be correlational (DiPrete & Buchmann, 2006;Stone et al., 2012), and, is potentially, methodologically and conceptually flawed (Gignac et al., 2018;Park et al., 2015). ...
Article
There has been a recent surge of research on the role of intelligence in mate preferences. To advance this area of research, in two online studies (N = 743), we manipulated relative, as opposed to absolute, intelligence and examined desirability in long-term and short-term relationships. In Study 1, we also examined the role of mate value towards understanding differences in desirability and, in Study 2, we also manipulated target's level of physical attractiveness. The sexes found less intelligent partners less desirable, a more intelligent partner was no more desirable than partner who was equal in intelligence, and intelligence was particularly valued as a long-term mate. In addition, mate value was correlated with rejecting less intelligent mates and desiring more intelligent ones in women only. And, last, we found that once men and women found sufficient rates of attractiveness for their short-term partners, they care about the intelligence of their partner.
... Two further factors were identified, "education-intelligence" and "religiosity-chastity." Intelligence has been increasingly supported in the literature as a distinct dimension and as an important partner selection criterion (Csajbók & Berkics, 2017;Gignac et al., 2018). Shared values like religion and chastity have similar support but are usually only distinct in cultures where such values are strong aspects of individuals' lives (Bejanyan et al., 2014;Hynie et al., 2006). ...
Article
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Research regarding how people choose their long-term romantic partners is extensive, but the understanding of the psychological processes behind these choices, and predicting who people choose, is elusive. This review attempts to examine potential reasons for this elusive nature by first outlining the current state of the literature and then highlighting issues within the current paradigm. First among these issues is a focus on singular perspectives and little attempt to integrate these perspectives with others. Second, many studies focus on increasingly complex designs to explore the predictive utility of trait preferences, attempts which have had only limited success. Third, novel findings appear to be unintegrated with established findings, leaving the potential combination of these ideas unrealized. Finally, long-term romantic partner selection is a complex psychological phenomenon, but current theory and research methodologies are not sufficiently addressing this complexity. This review concludes with suggestions for future research direction, including a focus on the psychology behind the partner selection process and the potential of qualitative enquiry to reveal novel pathways behind these psychological processes. There is a need for an integrative framework that permits the coexistence of established and novel ideas, and multiple perspectives, from both current and future research paradigms.
... Despite the substantial body of research on mate preferences and choice, some persistent problems with this research warrant addressing. Researchers often rely on "cold" judgments wherein participants report their hypothetical interest in romantic partners (DiPrete & Buchmann, 2006;Gignac et al., 2018). This reveals what people think they want, but not necessarily who they choose, so-called hot judgments. ...
Article
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How humans choose their mates is a central feature of adult life and an area of considerable disagreement among relationship researchers. However, few studies have examined mate choice (instead of mate preferences) around the world, and fewer still have considered data from online dating services. Using data from more than 1.8 million online daters from 24 countries, we examined the role of sex and resource-acquisition ability (as indicated by level of education and income) in mate choice using multilevel modeling. We then attempted to understand country-level variance by examining factors such as gender equality and the operational sex ratio. In every nation, a person’s resource-acquisition ability was positively associated with the amount of attention they received from other site members. There was a marked sex difference in this effect; resource-acquisition ability improved the attention received by men almost 2.5 times that of women. This sex difference was in every country, admittedly with some variance between nations. Several country-level traits moderated the effects of resource-acquisition ability, and in the case of unemployment this moderating role differed by sex. Overall, country-level effects were more consistent with evolutionary explanations than sociocultural ones. The results suggest a robust effect of resource-acquisition ability on real-life mate choice that transcends international boundaries and is reliably stronger for men than women. Cross-cultural variance in the role of resource-acquisition ability appears sensitive to local competition and gender equality at the country level.
... The speed-dating design enables naturalistic interactions between perceivers and targets (Finkel et al., 2007) and has mostly been used to study interpersonal attraction (e.g., Asendorpf et al., 2011;Jauk et al., 2016;Wu et al., 2019) but also to investigate the accuracy of first impressions (e.g., Kerr et al., 2020). Intelligence, creativity, and socialemotional competence are among the highest-ranked attributes in prospective mates (Buss et al., 1990;Gignac et al., 2018). Thus, speed dating might be a context, in which accurate perceptions of an interaction partner's abilities are especially relevant. ...
Article
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Who is the best judge of a person’s abilities—the person, a knowledgeable informant, or strangers just met in a 3-min speed date? To test this, we collected ability measures as well as self-, informant- and stranger-estimates of verbal, numerical and spatial intelligence, creativity, and intra- and interpersonal emotional competence from 175 young adults. While people themselves were the most accurate about the majority of their abilities, their verbal and spatial intelligence were only estimable by informants or strangers, respectively. These differences in accuracy were not accompanied by differences in the domains’ relevance to people’s self-worth or strangers’ judgment certainty. These results indicate self-other knowledge asymmetries in abilities but raise questions about the reasons behind these asymmetries.
... The speed-dating design enables naturalistic interactions between perceivers and targets (Finkel et al., 2007) and has been used mostly to study interpersonal attraction (e.g., Asendorpf et al., 2011;Jauk et al., 2016;Wu et al., 2019) but also to investigate the accuracy of first impressions (e.g., Kerr et al., 2020). Intelligence, creativity, and social-emotional competence are among the highest ranked attributes in prospective mates (Buss et al., 1990;Gignac et al., 2018). Thus, speed dating might be a context, in which accurate perceptions of an interaction partner's abilities are especially relevant. ...
Preprint
Who is the best judge of a person’s abilities—the person, a knowledgeable informant or strangers just met in a 3-min speed date? To test this, we collected ability measures as well as self-, informant- and stranger-estimates of verbal, numerical and spatial intelligence, creativity, and intra- and interpersonal emotional competence from 175 young adults. While people themselves were the most accurate about the majority of their abilities, their verbal and spatial intelligence were only estimable by informants or strangers, respectively. These differences in accuracy were not accompanied by differences in the domains’ relevance to people’s self-worth or observability to strangers. These results indicate self-other knowledge asymmetries for abilities but raise questions about the reasons behind these asymmetries.
... For example, Stavrova and Ehlebracht (2019) observed that individuals perceived that highly cynical people have greater cognitive ability despite finding a consistently negative relationship when directly measuring these characteristics. Other researchers have found that individuals often consider slightly above average intelligence (and not extremely high intelligence) as the most ideal level for themselves (Hornsey et al., 2018) and most attractive in a potential mate (e.g., the 90th percentile is preferred to the 99th percentile; Gignac et al., 2018;Gignac & Starbuck, 2019). Moreover, teachers have also been reported to implicitly assume that highly gifted students experience more emotional maladjustment (Preckel et al., 2015). ...
Article
Despite a long-standing expert consensus about the importance of cognitive ability for life outcomes, contrary views continue to proliferate in scholarly and popular literature. This divergence of beliefs presents an obstacle for evidence-based policymaking and decision-making in a variety of settings. One commonly held idea is that greater cognitive ability does not matter or is actually harmful beyond a certain point (sometimes stated as > 100 or 120 IQ points). We empirically tested these notions using data from four longitudinal, representative cohort studies comprising 48,558 participants in the United States and United Kingdom from 1957 to the present. We found that ability measured in youth has a positive association with most occupational, educational, health, and social outcomes later in life. Most effects were characterized by a moderate to strong linear trend or a practically null effect (mean R ² range = .002–.256). Nearly all nonlinear effects were practically insignificant in magnitude (mean incremental R ² = .001) or were not replicated across cohorts or survey waves. We found no support for any downside to higher ability and no evidence for a threshold beyond which greater scores cease to be beneficial. Thus, greater cognitive ability is generally advantageous—and virtually never detrimental.
... Additionally, according to some theories of sexual selection, men compete for the attention of women by displaying socially valuable characteristics (Stewart-Williams & Thomas, 2013). Thus, because women rank intelligence, on average, somewhat more highly in a prospective partner than men (e.g., Gignac et al., 2018), it is possible that, on average, women are able to discern the intelligence of men better than men are able to estimate the intelligence of women. ...
Article
The compatibility between partners in romantic relationships has been found for various characteristics, including intelligence. Theoretically, this phenomenon implies that people are able to discern the intelligence of themselves and others. In practice, however, the accuracy of such estimations is influenced by various factors, such as personality traits. Grandiose narcissism has been found to be the strongest personality predictor of self-overestimated intelligence, however, it remains to be determined whether the self-perceived bias generalises to people close to the narcissist, such as their romantic partners. In the current study, in a sample of 150 heterosexual couples, we examined whether grandiose narcissism was associated with self and partner's estimation of intelligence. Additionally, we measured participants' objective intelligence (Raven's test) and relationship satisfaction. First, we found that narcissism was associated with the overestimation of intelligence. Second, narcissistic women overestimated the intelligence of their partners. Furthermore, narcissistic women were perceived as highly intelligent by their partners, even after controlling for objective intelligence. Finally, we found support for assortative mating for narcissism. Thus, intelligence seems to be an important attribute in the way how narcissistic women perceive their partners, as well as how partners view the intelligence of narcissistic women.
... Regardless of the specific measure used or task employed, several common factors emerge from this work. Unsurprisingly, for short-term or purely sexual interest (i.e. a one-night-stand or 'fling'), most survey work has found that, with rare exception (Gignac et al., 2018), women tend to report physical attractiveness (hereafter known as "Looks" in this paper) as being of primary importance (Emond & Eduljee, 2014;Goetz, 2013;Li & Kenrick, 2006). On the other hand, with regard to long-term interest, looks tend to be downplayed in importance, with women indicating that nonphysical characteristics such as warmth, socioeconomic status, kindness, or intelligence may play a greater role in determining mate selection (Buss & Barnes, 1986;Emond & Eduljee, 2014;Goetz, 2013;Li & Kenrick, 2006;Regan et al., 2000;Simpson & Gangestad, 1992). ...
Article
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Female participants (N = 70) were exposed to a series of simulated online dating profiles and asked to indicate their likelihood of entering into either a short-term or long-term relationship with each. Sets of 16 profiles were constructed to orthogonally vary the physical attractiveness, income, warmth, and intelligence. Results were generally supportive of other work in finding that women tended to be most influenced by the physical appearance of the model. However, the non-physical features were also predictive of short-term mate choices, albeit in a somewhat weaker fashion. For long-term selection, physical attractiveness still appeared to have the greatest impact on choice, and tended to serve as a preliminary filter for mate selection such that the other three factors were taken into consideration primarily for profiles whose models received high ratings in physical appearance, but did not significantly vary otherwise.
... To facilitate interpretation of the results, the regression-based factor z-scores were converted into IQ scaled scores (i.e., (z * 15) + 100). Finally, we note that the battery of intelligence tests administered in this investigation was used in previous investigations that found theoretically expected results (e.g., Gignac, 2018;Gignac, Darbyshire, & Ooi, 2018) with similar levels of internal consistency reliability (i.e., ≈ 0.65 to 0.70). ...
Article
The linear association between intelligence and openness has been estimated at r ≈ 0.20 to 0.30. However, little research has examined the possibility of a nonlinear effect between the two dimensions. Consequently, task-based intelligence and self-reported openness data were collected from 371 participants (UK community sample). We found that the association was nonlinear, i.e., the positive effect was no longer observed beyond an IQ of ≈ 105. Furthermore, across the 10 openness items, four evidenced positive, linear effects with intelligence, all of which were epistemic openness items. By comparison, several experiential openness items showed inverted U-shaped effects. It is concluded that, beyond relatively low to moderate levels of intelligence, general intelligence may be unrelated to global openness, especially if need for cognition is considered distinct from openness.
... For example, Stavrova and Ehlebracht (2019) observed that individuals perceived that highly cynical people have greater cognitive ability despite finding a consistently negative relationship when directly measuring these characteristics. Other researchers have found that individuals often consider slightly above average intelligence (and not extremely high intelligence) as the most ideal level for themselves (Hornsey et al., 2018) and most attractive in a potential mate (e.g., the 90th percentile is preferred to the 99th percentile; Gignac et al., 2018;Gignac & Starbuck, 2019). Moreover, teachers have also been reported to implicitly assume that highly gifted students experience more emotional maladjustment (Preckel et al., 2015). ...
Preprint
Despite a longstanding expert consensus about the importance of cognitive ability for life outcomes, contrary views continue to proliferate in scholarly and popular literature. This divergence of beliefs among researchers, practitioners, and the general public presents an obstacle for evidence-based policy and decision-making in a variety of settings. One commonly held idea is that greater cognitive ability does not matter or is actually harmful beyond a certain point (sometimes stated as either 100 or 120 IQ points). We empirically test these notions using data from four longitudinal, representative cohort studies comprising a total of 48,558 participants in the U.S. and U.K. from 1957 to the present. We find that cognitive ability measured in youth has a positive association with most occupational, educational, health, and social outcomes later in life. Most effects were characterized by a moderate-to-strong linear trend or a practically null effect (mean R2 = .002 to .256). Although we detected several nonlinear effects, they were small in magnitude (mean incremental R2= .001). We found no support for any detrimental effects of cognitive ability and no evidence for a threshold beyond which greater scores cease to be beneficial. Thus, greater cognitive ability is generally advantageous—and virtually never detrimental.
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The increasing complexity of the modern financial landscape presents significant challenges for individuals' financial well-being. In this study, we aim to investigate the relationship between cognitive ability and financial well-being by utilizing data from the British Cohort Study, which follows a sample of 13,000 individuals from birth in 1970 to the present day. Our objective is to examine the functional form of this relationship while controlling for factors such as childhood socio-economic status and adult income. Previous research has established a correlation between cognitive ability and financial well-being, but has implicitly assumed a linear relationship. Our analyses indicate that the majority of the relationships between cognitive ability and financial variables are monotonic. However, we also observe non-monotonic relationships, particularly for credit usage, suggesting a curvilinear relationship where both lower and higher levels of cognitive ability are associated with lower levels of debt. These findings have important implications for understanding the role of cognitive ability in financial well-being and for financial education and policy, as the complexity of the modern financial landscape poses significant challenges for individuals' financial well-being. As financial complexity is increasing and cognitive ability is a key predictor of knowledge acquisition, misspecifying the true relationship between cognitive ability and financial outcomes leads to an undervaluation of the role of cognitive ability for financial well-being.
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Jedna z najczęściej pojawiających się w literaturze definicji inteligencji opisuje ją jako zdolność, która ułatwia człowiekowi przystosowanie do środowiska. Badania psychologiczne prowadzone już od drugiej połowy XIX w. (m.in. przez Francisa Galtona) zdają się potwierdzać adaptacyjny charakter inteligencji. Od samego początku badacze łączyli sprawność intelektualną z funkcjonowaniem szkolnym. W kontekście badania uczniów szkoły średniej zrodziła się koncepcja czynnika inteligencji ogólnej zaproponowana przez Charlesa Spearmana. Nowo powstałe testy inteligencji u progu XX w., początkowo stworzone dla celów edukacyjnych przez Alfreda Bineta, szybko wzbudziły zainteresowanie pracodawców, ponieważ stanowiły efektywne narzędzie wyboru najlepszych kandydatów do pracy. Proces rozpowszechniania się testów inteligencji przyspieszyła I wojna światowa i potrzeba szybkiej selekcji kandydatów do służby wojskowej na różnych stanowiskach. Szkoła i praca, niewątpliwie ważne obszary aktywności człowieka, nie wyczerpują jednak dziedzin, w których inteligencja okazała się ważna. Późniejsze badania, prowadzone m.in. przez zespół szkockiego badacza Iana Deary’ego, pokazały znaczenie inteligencji dla zdrowia i długości życia. Inteligencja jest ogólną zdolnością, która przesądza o sprawności funkcjonowania poznawczego człowieka. Praktycznie każda aktywność ludzka angażuje w jakimś stopniu procesy poznawcze. Nie dziwi zatem fakt, że inteligencja ma znaczenie w niemal każdej sferze życia, od samoregulacji, osobowości, przekonań o świecie, kontroli niepożądanych zachowań i emocji, po aktywność fizyczną, preferencje dobowe i funkcjonowanie w związkach. W niniejszym zbiorze przyglądamy się niektórym z tych obszarów, wskazując na różnorodność wątków związanych z inteligencją. (...) W pierwszej części książki znalazły się rozdziały odwołujące się bezpośrednio do adaptacyjnego charakteru inteligencji oraz związanymi z nią funkcjami poznawczymi. Pierwszy rozdział autorstwa Marcina Zajenkowskiego stanowi wprowadzenie do całego zbioru i przedstawia rys historyczny dociekań nad inteligencją, jej definicję oraz przegląd badań nad znaczeniem inteligencji dla osiągnięć szkolnych, funkcjonowania w pracy oraz zdrowia i długości życia. Następne trzy rozdziały opisują rolę zdolności poznawczych dla adaptacyjnego zachowania w zakresie samoregulacji (Jan Jędrzejczyk), agresywnego zachowania (Marta Bodecka) oraz uzależnień (Iwona Nowakowska, Karolina Lewandowska, Karol Lewczuk). Druga część zbioru obejmuje teksty, w których przedyskutowano związki inteligencji i zdolności poznawczych z przekonaniami i emocjami. Marcin Zajenkowski i Oliwia Maciantowicz wskazują na wagę przekonań o własnej inteligencji dla różnych obszarów życia. Kinga Szymaniak przedstawia badania nad związkami gniew–poznanie, wskazując na najnowsze teorie z zakresu psychologii emocji. Paweł Łowicki omawia powiązania inteligencji i zdolności emocjonalno-społecznych z przekonaniami religijnymi. Maria Ledzińska prezentuje obszerny przegląd badań nad metapoznaniem, a więc wiedzą na temat własnych procesów poznawczych, jej związkami z inteligencją i codziennym funkcjonowaniem. W trzeciej części zbioru przedstawiono rozdziały opisujące rolę inteligencji w specyficznych obszarach życia. Wojciech Waleriańczyk i Maciej Stolarski zebrali informacje na temat roli inteligencji w sporcie. Konrad Jankowski przedstawia badania nad związkami zdolności poznawczych z chronotypem, cechą opisującą preferencje pory dnia dla aktywności człowieka. W ostatnim rozdziale Maria Leniarska i Marcin Zajenkowski dokonują przeglądu badań nad inteligencją ogólną oraz inteligencją emocjonalną i funkcjonowaniem osób w bliskich związkach.
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Relatively little research has examined the association between subjectively measured IQ and subjectively measured EI. Furthermore, the possibility of a nonlinear association between subjectively measured IQ and EI has not been examined, which could have implications for evaluating the pervasiveness of the stereotype that very intelligent people tend to struggle with intra−/inter-personal skills. Finally, single-item (percentile) versus multi-item (Likert) approaches to the measurement of subjective IQ and EI have not been compared. On the basis of a community sample (N = 484), the single-item IQ/EI measures and the multi-item IQ/EI measures correlated at r = 0.44 and r = 0.57, respectively. Furthermore, there was no evidence to suggest the associations were nonlinear. The results were interpreted as convergent validity evidence for subjectively measured IQ and EI. Furthermore, the results failed to support the cognitively gifted but intra-/inter-personally challenged stereotype, at least via self-perceptions of intelligence. Finally, researchers are recommended to use multi-item measures of subjectively measured IQ and EI.
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A central debate in bioethics is whether parents should try to influence the genetic basis of their children’s traits. We argue that the case for using mate selection, embryo selection, and other interventions to enhance heritable traits like intelligence is strengthened by the fact that they seem to have positive network effects. These network effects include increased cooperation in collective action problems, which contributes to social trust and prosperity. We begin with an overview of evidence for these claims, and then argue that if individual welfare is largely a function of group traits, parents should try to preserve or enhance cognitive traits that have positive network effects.
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The main goal of this article is the analysis of sex/gender and its roles in terms of Charles Darwin’s and his successors’ theories. The problem of ‘nature vs. culture’ in this discourse is fundamental and I refer to it. I also present the critical arguments against evolutionary theories raised by feminists. It is also presented how this criticism influenced rethinking sex/gender from anevolutionary perspective: from Darwin himself through zoopsychology, ethology, sociobiology to evolutionary psychology. The arguments illustrating whether it is possible to combine the views presented by feminists and evolutionary science about sex/gender are presented. Finally, I wonder if it is possible to put a sign of equality between nature and culture in the context of human sexuality. KEYWORDS: Darwin, evolutionism, ethology, sociobiology, evolutionary psychology, gender.
Chapter
We argue that it is highly doubtful that humans, especially given their current limitations, could devise an artificial selection regime able to promote the subtle and complex array of desirable traits most auspicious for traditional civilization, and so critique eugenics. We further argue that transhumanism presents grave dangers, in that it could deface all of humankind in an irrevocable way insofar as it may amplify the effects of pathological human qualities that modernity has engendered. Absent the guidance of what has typically been called virtue (i.e. group-selected moral values and behavioral dispositions), the outcomes of transhuman “augmentation” could be highly undesirable. We then conclude the book on a pessimistic note regarding the prospects of human life in particular and, more generally, intelligent life in the universe.
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A inteligência tem se mostrado uma característica pessoal considerada atraente tanto para homens, quanto para mulheres. Contudo, os resultados têm sido contraditórios entre as culturas, umas considerando-a como critério de atratividade, outras não. Ainda, não se tem clareza da relação da atração pela inteligência com diferentes estratégias sexuais. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar diferenças em sociossexualidade entre quem considera inteligência um critério de atratividade em um parceiro ideal e quem não considera. Participaram 1.404 heterossexuais, 64,7% mulheres, média de idade de 29,4 anos. Utilizou-se uma pergunta aberta para os participantes descreverem características que consideravam atraentes em um parceiro amoroso ideal. Depois de categorizadas as respostas, os participantes foram classificados em dois grupos: citaram categorias que sinalizam inteligência como critério de atratividade (n = 392), e os que não citaram (n = 1.012). Entre as mulheres, as que citaram a inteligência como critério de atratividade mostraram-se mais sociossexualmente irrestritas nas dimensões atitude e desejo; enquanto os homens que citaram apresentaram maior irrestrição na dimensão atitude. De maneira geral, aqueles que citaram inteligência mostraram-se mais irrestritos do que os que não citaram. Os resultados sugerem que inteligência é um critério de atratividade relacionado à irrestrição sociossexual.
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Evolutionary and sociocultural models of mate preferences suggest that education might be an important consideration for men and women, but this research is characterized by several limitations warranting more research. In this experiment (N = 1306), we focused on the impact of relative levels of education on the desirability of potential long-term and short-term mates, while holding physical attractiveness constant, and also examining the potential moderating influence of interpersonal warmth. Both sexes preferred mates of equal education (compared to less or more), for both relationship durations, but particularly for long-term mates. Men found less educated and interpersonally cold targets more appealing in the short-term context. Overall, men found targets more appealing than women did across both mating contexts. Our results replicate and extend research on the role of partner's education in people's mate preferences.
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The article addressed the problem of the links between the intellectual giftedness (General Intelligence), on the one hand, and social development, on the other. Analysis of experimental data gives a very contradictory picture. While some studies indicate a certain integrity of mental and social development of a gifted child and his/her well-being in social terms, the other part of researchers numerates facts of significant difficulties for gifted children and adults in situations of social contacts. The article discusses the reasons for such conflicts, and the main one is the existence of two different variants (types) of age-related development of intellectually gifted children. If in one case we observe "over full-fledged" children with a very harmonious type of development (from the point of view of social skills) in another case we confront with problematic children, who display a distinct asynchrony of development, manifesting the dramatic lag of their emotional and social development from mental one
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Cognitive capitalism theory argues that the positive effects of cognitive ability on economic productivity should increase nonlinearly, with increases in ability amplifying increases in productivity. The theory was tested using country level indicators of cognitive ability and productivity. Cognitive ability was based on international student assessments (e.g., Programme for International Student Assessment), and productivity was based on economic inputs (e.g., scientific achievements and competitiveness) and outputs (e.g., gross domestic product). As predicted, the effects of cognitive ability on all productivity measures increased nonlinearly at higher levels of ability, suggesting that higher ability levels disproportionately boost a nation’s productivity. The findings suggest that interventions that boost cognitive ability can have large, amplifying effects on economic productivity. This research was supported by a grant from the National Science Foundation’s Interdisciplinary Behavioral and Social Science Research competition (Award: 1620457).
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The disharmony hypothesis (DH) states that high intelligence comes at a cost to the gifted, resulting in adjustment problems. We investigated whether there is a gifted stereotype that falls in line with the DH and affects attitudes toward gifted students. Preservice teachers (N = 182) worked on single-target association tests and affective priming tasks. High intelligence was more strongly associated with gifted than with average-ability students. Adjustment problems were more strongly associated with gifted than with average-ability students for males only. Attitudes toward gifted students were neutral when no component of the DH was activated but were negative toward gifted males when adjustment difficulties were activated. Implicit associations and attitudes were in line with the DH—but only for male students.
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Expressed mate preferences provide unique windows into evolved mating psychology. The current study used two research instruments—one ranking and one rating procedure—to examine mate preferences in India. We compared modern Indians (n = 536) with a more modest Indian sample studied a quarter of a century earlier (n = 105) to test the hypothesis that sex-specific mate preferences—as hypothesized by parental investment theory—would persist during this time period. Mate preferences for mutual attraction and love remained important and invariant over time, despite India’s history of arranged marriages. Sex differences in mate preferences for cues to fertility (youth, physical attractiveness) and resources (good financial prospects, social status) remained relatively invariant over time. Several changes in mate preferences emerged, including a greater preference for mates who are “creative and artistic,” “ambitious and industrious,” and “a good cook and housekeeper” for both sexes. Despite cultural changes in India over the past 25 years, evolved mate preferences have persisted during this time period. Discussion highlights limitations of this research.
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We examined the effectiveness of reverse worded items as a means of reducing or preventing response bias. We first distinguished between several types of response bias that are often confused in literature. We next developed arguments why reversing items is probably never a good way to address response bias. We proposed testing whether reverse wording affects response bias with item-level data from the Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20), an instrument that contains reversed worded items. With data from 700 respondents, we compared scores on items that were similar with respect either to content or to direction of wording. Psychometric properties of sets of these items worded in the same direction were compared with sets consisting of both straightforward and reversed worded items. We did not find evidence that ten reverse-worded items prevented response bias. Instead, the data suggest scores were contaminated by respondent inattention and confusion. Using twenty items, balanced for scoring direction, to assess fatigue did not prevent respondents from inattentive or acquiescent answering. Rather, fewer mistakes are made with a 10-item instrument with items posed in the same direction. Such a format is preferable for both epidemiological and clinical studies.
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The current investigation extends recent studies that have examined the degree to which various traits are preferred in a short-term sexual relationship versus a long-term romantic relationship. College students (N = 561) expressed their preferences for 23 traits or characteristics in a “short-term sexual” or a “long-term romantic” relationship partner (randomly assigned). Across relationship types, participants preferred internal qualities (e.g., personality, intelligence) to a greater degree than external qualities (e.g., wealth, physical attractiveness). In addition, two sex differences were found. As expected, men emphasized attributes related to sexual desirability more than did women, and women valued characteristics pertaining to social status more than did men. Finally, both men and women focused upon sexual desirability (e.g., attractiveness, health, sex drive, athleticism) when evaluating a short-term sexual partner, and placed more importance on similarity and on socially appealing personality characteristics (e.g., intelligence, honesty, warmth) when considering a long-term romantic relationship.
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The present study explored minimum mate selection standards (i.e., the lowest levels of various characteristics that an individual must possess in order to be considered a potential partner) and the extent to which gender, self-perceived mate value, and relationship context moderate minimum standards. Men and women were more selective (expressed higher minimum standards) as the mating context shifted from short- to long-term, for a number of partner attributes. As expected, gender moderated these effects; women were more selective than men when considering a potential short-term (but not long-term) mate. Men's self-perceived mate value largely was unassociated with their selection standards; however, women's mate value correlated positively with their minimum criteria, across a variety of characteristics and for a short-term sex and a long-term romantic partner. As expected, gender differences in the strength of these correlations were greater in the short-term than in the long-term mating context.
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Standardized measures of intelligence, ability, or achievement are all measures of acquired knowledge and skill and have consistent relationships with multiple facets of success in life, including academic and job performance. Five persistent beliefs about ability tests have developed, including: (a) that there is no relationship with important outcomes like creativity or leadership, (b) that there is predictive bias, (c) that there is a lack of predictive independence from socioeconomic status, (d) that there are thresholds beyond which scores cease to matter, and (e) that other characteristics, like personality, matter as well. We present the evidence and conclude that of these five beliefs, only the importance of personality is a fact; the other four are fiction.
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Past studies that have examined the relationship between Openness and crystallized ability have failed to account statistically for the fact that subtests commonly regarded as measures of crystallized intelligence (e.g., Vocabulary) are contaminated substantially by general intelligence. A method using residuals derived from a regression is proposed as a means to estimate crystallized ability. Further, self-reported intelligence was hypothesized to moderate or mediate the correlation between Openness and crystallized intelligence. It was found that two factors (General and Objective) could be derived from a principal components analysis (PCA) of the six Openness facets and that only Objective Openness correlated with intelligence. Using the residual approach to estimating crystallized ability, it was found that Objective Openness correlated with only g and not crystallized ability. The self-report intelligence measure correlated only with the General Openness factor. Based on the results of this study and a review of the empirical literature, it is argued that Openness should be correlated with g and that this correlation should exist based on theory. It is recommended that future research use the residual approach to estimating crystallized ability, and that a new emphasis on understanding the relationship between Openness and g is required.
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Many researchers have elucidated large, well-established, and reliable gender differences in sexuality, but relatively few have empirically examined conditions under which these differences can be eliminated. This article investigates some established sexuality gender differences in greater depth. We demonstrate how creative theoretical and empirical approaches may shed light on prevalent misconceptions concerning sex-related gender differences.
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This article looks at the evolution of sex differences in sexuality in human beings, and asks whether evolutionary psychology sometimes exaggerates these differences. According to a common understanding of sexual selection theory, females in most species invest more than males in their offspring and, as a result, males compete for as many mates as possible, whereas females choose from among the competing males. The males-compete/females-choose (MCFC) model applies to many species, but is misleading when applied to human beings. This is because males in our species commonly contribute to the rearing of the young, which reduces the sex difference in parental investment. Consequently, sex differences in our species are relatively modest. Rather than males competing and female choosing, humans have a system of mutual courtship: Both sexes are choosy about long-term mates and both sexes compete for desirable mates. We call this the mutual mate choice (MMC) model. Although much of the evolutionary psychology literature is consistent with the MMC model, the traditional MCFC model exerts a strong influence on the field, distorting the emerging picture of the evolved sexual psychology of Homo sapiens. Specifically, it has led to the exaggeration of the magnitude of human sex differences, an overemphasis on men’s short-term mating inclinations, and a relative neglect of male mate choice and female mate competition. We advocate a stronger focus on the MMC model.
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The implicit theories teachers hold about the gifted influence their perception of and behavior toward highly able students, thus impacting the latter's educational opportunities. Two persistent stereotypes about the gifted can be distinguished: the harmony hypothesis (gifted students are superior in almost all domains) and the disharmony hypothesis (giftedness implies maladaptive social behavior and emotional problems). The present study investigated whether teachers' implicit personality theories about the gifted are in line with the harmony or the disharmony hypothesis. Using an experimental vignette approach, we examined 321 prospective and practicing teachers' implicit personality theories (based on the big five personality framework) about students described along three dimensions (ability level, gender, and age, resulting in 8 different vignettes), controlling for teachers' age, gender, experience with gifted students, and knowledge about giftedness. Ability level had the strongest effect on teachers' ratings (partial η2 = .60). Students described as gifted were perceived as more open to new experiences, more introverted, less emotionally stable, and less agreeable (all ps < .001). No differences were found for conscientiousness. Gender and its interaction with ability level had a small effect (partial η2s = .04 and .03). Thus, teachers' implicit personality theories about the gifted were in line with the disharmony hypothesis. Possible consequences for gifted identification and education are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
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The mating mind' revives and extends Darwin's suggestion that sexual selection through mate choice was important in human mental evolution - especially the more 'self-expressive' aspects of human behavior, such as art, morality, language, and creativity. Their 'survival value' has proven elusive, but their adaptive design features suggest they evolved through mutual mate choice, in both sexes, to advertise intelligence, creativity, moral character, and heritable fitness. The supporting evidence includes human mate preferences, courtship behavior, behavior genetics, psychometrics, and life history patterns. The theory makes many testable predictions, and sheds new light on human cognition, motivation, communication, sexuality, and culture.
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A questionnaire used in student evaluations of interdisciplinary courses during six semesters contained two Likert items stated in a direct negative mode which were embedded in a questionnaire (14–18 items) in which the remaining items were phrased in a direct positive mode. In the seventh semester and thereafter, the two negative items were restated as direct positive stems. Item‐analysis demonstrated that in the direct negative mode, the two items had low item‐to‐total correlations and that the internal consistency reliability of the sum score could be improved by eliminating the two negatively phrased items. Also, the two negatively worded items defined a separate factor. After they were reworded into a direct positive mode, these two items showed markedly improved item‐to‐total correlations. Moreover, the unique factor disappeared, which suggests that it was a methodological artefact probably attributable to respondent carelessness. Including a few negative items in an otherwise positively stated questionnaire leads to ambiguity of results rather than controlling for response sets. We therefore recommend against the practice.
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There is evidence to support two contrasting views about the psychological well‐being of gifted children; that giftedness enhances resiliency in individuals and that giftedness increases vulnerability. There is empirical and theoretical evidence to support both views. It is clear that giftedness influences the psychological well‐being of individuals. Whether the psychological outcomes for gifted children, adolescents, and adults are positive or negative seems to depend on at least three factors that interact synergistically: the type of giftedness, the educational fit, and one's personal characteristics.
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Reviews studies that relate to the norms, reliability, and validity of the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES). Appropriate clinical and research use of the scale are discussed together with factor analytic studies and fruitful statistical analysis methods. Research reported for 1989–1992 with the DES is described, and promising new research questions are highlighted. Suggestions are made for translating and using the DES in other cultures. A 2nd version of the DES, which is easier to score, is included as an appendix. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Examined the consequences of mate preferences for the processes of assortative mating and sexual selection. In Study 1, 92 married couples (aged 18–40 yrs) completed measures such as the California Psychological Inventory, Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and Personal Attributes Questionnaire. Data were used to identify (a) the mate characteristics that were consensually more and less desired, (b) the mate characteristics that showed strong sex differences in their preferred value, (c) the degree to which married couples were correlated in selection preferences, and (d) the relations between expressed preferences and the personality and background characteristics of obtained spouses. Marital preference factors included Religious, Kind/Considerate, Artistic/Intelligent, and Easygoing/Adaptable. Study 2, with 100 unmarried undergraduates, replicated the sex differences and consensual ordering of mate preferences found in Study 1, using a different methodology. Alternative hypotheses are presented to account for the replicated sex differences in preferences for attractiveness and earning potential. (31 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study tests the hypothesis presented by Penke, Denissen, and Miller (2007a) that condition-dependent traits, including intelligence, attractiveness, and health, are universally and uniformly preferred as characteristics in a mate relative to traits that are less indicative of condition, including personality traits. We analyzed between-culture mean standard deviations of preference ratings and rankings provided by nearly 10,000 people in 37 cultures for 18 characteristics in a potential mate. Contrary to the hypothesis, preferences for traits indicating agreeableness and conscientiousness were not more variable than preferences for intelligence, and preferences for traits indicating low neuroticism were more uniform than preferences for intelligence. Discussion addresses implications of these results for hypotheses about the evolutionary genetics of intelligence and personality.Highlights► Condition-dependent traits may be universally, uniformly preferred in a mate. ► We analyzed preferences provided by people in 37 cultures for 18 characteristics. ► Condition-dependent traits were not universally, uniformly preferred. ► Discussion addresses the evolutionary genetics of intelligence and personality.
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Studies investigating the life satisfaction of intellectually gifted and non-gifted students are scarce and often suffer from methodological shortcomings. We examined the life satisfaction of gifted and non-gifted adolescents using a rather unselected sample of N = 655 German high-school students (n = 75 gifted), adequate comparison groups of non-gifted students, and a clear definition of giftedness (general intelligence g > 2 SD above the mean). There was no difference in life satisfaction between gifted and non-gifted adolescents (d < |0.1|). Girls reported somewhat lower life satisfaction scores than boys (d = 0.24). However, this result was not specific to giftedness but was instead found across the entire sample. Thus, gifted girls were not found to be especially unsatisfied with their lives. Our findings support previous research showing that giftedness is not a risk factor for impaired psycho-social well-being of boys or girls.
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The expansion in our understanding of the structure of differential cognitive abilities afforded by the Cattell–Horn–Carroll (CHC) model has brought with it the need to provide practitioners with efficient and effective methods for screening which abilities most critically require assessment. A Self-Report Measure of Cognitive Abilities could assist practitioners with this process. This article outlines the development and initial validation of the Self-Report Measure of Cognitive Abilities (SRMCA), a multi-item measure designed to indicate cognitive functioning in the CHC ability areas of Fluid reasoning (Gf), Comprehension-knowledge (Gc), and Visual processing (Gv). Validity was initially investigated and supported using exploratory factor analysis, and then cross-validated on a second sample using structural equation modelling (SEM). Subsequently, SEM based multitrait–multimethod analysis of the second sample confirmed convergent validity for the Gc and Gv subscales, but not the Gf subscale. The extent of method variance influence on the SRMCA was found to be non-existent, a markedly different result to that found for the single-item self-estimates of cognitive abilities. Results thus indicate that the use of multiple and specific items allows for self-ratings of distinct cognitive ability areas to be independent of one another. Suggestions for future research aimed at extending the current study are provided.
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The assertion that ability differences no longer matter beyond a certain threshold is inaccurate. Among young adolescents in the top 1% of quantitative reasoning ability, individual differences in general cognitive ability level and in specific cognitive ability pattern (that is, the relationships among an individual’s math, verbal, and spatial abilities) lead to differences in educational, occupational, and creative outcomes decades later. Whereas ability level predicts the level of achievement, ability pattern predicts the realm of achievement. Adding information on vocational interests refines prediction of educational and career choices. Finally, lifestyle preferences relevant to career choice, performance, and persistence often change between ages 25 and 35. This change results in sex differences in preferences, which likely have relevance for understanding the underrepresentation of women in careers that demand more than full-time (40 hours per week) commitment.
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Standard errors of estimators that are functions of correlation coefficients are shown to be quite dif ferent in magnitude than standard errors of the ini tial correlations. A general large-sample methodo logy, based upon Taylor series expansions and asymptotic correlational results, is developed for the computation of such standard errors. Three ex emplary analyses are conducted on a correction for attenuation, a correction for range restriction, and an indirect effect in path analysis. Derived for mulae are consistent with several previously pro posed estimators and provide excellent approxima tions to the standard errors obtained in computer simulations, even for moderate sample size (n = 100). It is shown that functions of correlations can be considerably more variable than product-mo ment correlations. Additionally, appropriate hy pothesis tests are derived for these corrected coeffi cients and the indirect effect. It is shown that in the range restriction situation, the appropriate hypothe sis test based on the corrected coefficient is asymp totically more powerful than the test utilizing the uncorrected coefficient. Bias is also discussed as a by-product of the methodology.
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A Monte Carlo study was conducted to compare the accuracy of different estimates of the standard error of correlations corrected for restriction in range. It was found that the procedure suggested by P. Bobko and A. Rieck, also derived by N. S. Raju and colleagues, generated the most accurate estimates of the standard error compared to other existing procedures. The study also repeated previous findings that Pearson correlations corrected for restriction in range resulted in more accurate estimates of the population rho than did the restricted correlations, but the accuracy of the approximation of population rho decreased as the selection criterion became higher. Another finding of the study was that the standard error of correlations under range restriction tended to increase as the selection ratios decreased.
Article
Item wording effects were investigated using scenarios depicting a fictitious leader's behavior, 496 respondents, and a questionnaire containing regular, polar opposite, negated polar opposite, and negated regular item versions. Oblique-rotated exploratory factor-analytic results showed clear item wording factors; confirmatory factor-analytic results showed the item formats to yield separate wording factors but that the regular items had substantially more trait variance than did the other item formats. Implications for future research are discussed.
Article
A substantial body of work demonstrates that women's mate preferences change across the ovulatory cycle. When fertile in their cycles, women are especially attracted to masculine features (e.g., faces, voices, bodies), socially dominant behavior, and male scents associated with body symmetry and social dominance. Women may also find intelligent men particularly attractive when fertile, though findings are mixed. Related research shows that, on average, romantically-involved women report stronger sexual attraction to men other than their pair-bond partners, but not partners, when fertile, and especially when their partners lack features fertile women prefer (e.g., symmetry). In the current study, we examined whether women's patterns of sexual interests across the cycle are similarly moderated by partners' facial masculinity, facial attractiveness, and intelligence. Results revealed predicted effects of male partners’ facial masculinity but none for partners’ intelligence. Facial attractiveness may have effects, but we find no evidence that it does so independently of facial masculinity.
Article
This study examined a representative sample of academically gifted (N=374) and non-gifted (N=428) Israeli high-school students in order to compare these different student populations on the Big-Five and adaptive outcomes. Consistent with prior research, gifted students scored higher than non-gifted peers on Openness to Experience but scored lower on Neuroticism. In addition, gifted students scored lower on state anxiety facets and were not reliably different from their nongifted counterparts on mental distress or subjective well being. Overall, the empirical data are consistent with recent research suggesting that when gifted students are compared with nongifted students on various socio-emotional and personality characteristics, the results are not unfavorable to gifted students.
Article
A previous study examined the performance of a standard rule from Exploratory Data Analysis, which uses the sample fourths, FL and FU, and labels as “outside” any observations below FL – k(FU – FL) or above FU + k(FU – FL), customarily with k = 1.5. In terms of the order statistics X(1) ≤ X(2) ≤ X(n) the standard definition of the fourths is FL = X(f) and FU = X(n + 1 − f), where f = ½[(n + 3)/2] and [·] denotes the greatest-integer function. The results of that study suggest that finer interpolation for the fourths might yield smoother behavior in the face of varying sample size. In this article we show that using fi = n/4 + (5/12) to define the fourths produces the desired smoothness. Corresponding to a common definition of quartiles, fQ = n/4 + (1/4) leads to similar results. Instead of allowing the some-outside rate per sample (the probability that a sample contains one or more outside observations, analogous to the experimentwise error rate in simultaneous inference) to vary, some users may prefer to maintain it at .10 or .05 for Gaussian data and vary k accordingly. We obtain such values of k at selected sample sizes n ≤ 300.
Article
This study tracks intellectually precocious youths (top 1%) over 20 years. Phase 1 (N = 1,243 boys, 732 girls) examines the significance of age 13 ability differences within the top 1% for predicting doctorates, income, patents, and tenure at U.S. universities ranked within the top 50. Phase 2 (N = 323 men, 188 women) evaluates the robustness of discriminant functions developed earlier, based on age-13 ability and preference assessments and calibrated with age-23 educational criteria but extended here to predict occupational group membership at age 33. Positive findings on above-level assessment with the Scholastic Aptitude Test and conventional preference inventories in educational settings generalize to occupational settings. Precocious manifestations of abilities foreshadow the emergence of exceptional achievement and creativity in the world of work; when paired with preferences, they also predict the qualitative nature of these accomplishments. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article examined evidence for dimensional and typological models of dissociation. The authors reviewed previous research with the Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES; E. B. Bernstein-Carlson & F. W. Putnam; see record 1987-14407-001) and note that this scale, like other dissociation questionnaires, was developed to measure that so called dissociative continuum. Next, recently developed taxometric methods for distinguishing typological from dimensional constructs are described and applied to DES item-response data from 228 adults with diagnosed multiple personality disorder and 228 normal controls. The taxometric findings empirically justify the distinction between two types of dissociative experiences. Nonpathological dissociative experiences are manifestations of a dissociative trait, whereas pathological dissociative experiences are manifestations of a latent class variable. The taxometric findings also indicate that there are two types of dissociators. Individuals in the pathological dissociative class (taxon) can be identified with a brief, 8-item questionnaire called the DES-T. Scores on the DES-T and DES are compared in 11 clinical and nonclinical samples. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The traditional concepts of validity and reliability of test construction are discussed from the viewpoint of factor theory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Pairwise multiple comparison procedures (MCPs) are appropriate when the behavioral researcher is interested in comparing all possible pairwise mean differences. An exposition of the various simultaneous MCPs is presented that classifies those procedures as either (a) nonrobust to combinations of variance heterogeneity and unequal sample sizes because a pooled within-cell estimate of error variability is used to obtain the standard error of the contrast; or (b) robust to the homogeneity assumption because the standard error of the contrast is obtained via the Behrens-Fisher solution, and various approximate and/or conservative critical values that maintain the overall level of Type I error at "alpha" are used. A numerical example illustrating the latter MCPs is given. A choice among P. A. Games and J. F. Howell's (1976), C. W. Dunnett's (1980), and W. G. Cochran's (1964) procedures is recommended. (27 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes 3 changes and 1 new development for the 2nd generation Little Jiffy method of exploratory factor analysis. A computer algorithm based on the addition and revision is presented. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
ABSTRACT Individual differences are explicitly connected to social interaction in Darwin's notion of sexual selection Traits that increase the probability of successful reproduction will tend to increase in frequency This process operates partly through differential choice, by one sex, of certain traits in the other According to the parental investment model, females frequently have more stringent criteria for the traits they will accept in a mate because they have a relatively larger investment in each offspring Because human mating arrangements often involve a substantial commitment of resources by the male, it is necessary to invoke a distinction between the selectivity involved during casual mating opportunities and the selectivity exercised when choosing a long-term partner Ninety-three undergraduate men and women rated their minimum criteria on 24 partner characteristics at four levels of commitment In line with an unqualified parental investment model, females were more selective overall, particularly on status-linked variables In line with a qualified parental investment model, males' trait preferences depended upon the anticipated investment in the relationship Males had lower requirements for a sexual partner than did females, but were nearly as selective as females when considenng requirements for a long-term partner
Article
a b s t r a c t The Mini-IPIP personality scale is a recently developed short measure of the five-factor model personality traits, derived from items in the International Personality Item Pool (Goldberg, 1999). The aim in this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Mini-IPIP using factor analysis. 415 male and 1066 female participants completed the Mini-IPIP via the Internet. A five-factor confirmatory model of the measure showed only poor to moderate model fit, while alternative four and two factor confirmatory models of the data showed poor model fit. Despite this, a subsequent exploratory factor analysis of the measure indicated support for a five-factor structure and showed that nearly all items had minimal cross-loadings on non-target factors. The potential use of the Mini-IPIP in personality research is briefly discussed.
Article
Amazon's Mechanical Turk (MTurk) is a relatively new website that contains the major elements required to conduct research: an integrated participant compensation system; a large participant pool; and a streamlined process of study design, participant recruitment, and data collection. In this article, we describe and evaluate the potential contributions of MTurk to psychology and other social sciences. Findings indicate that (a) MTurk participants are slightly more demographically diverse than are standard Internet samples and are significantly more diverse than typical American college samples; (b) participation is affected by compensation rate and task length, but participants can still be recruited rapidly and inexpensively; (c) realistic compensation rates do not affect data quality; and (d) the data obtained are at least as reliable as those obtained via traditional methods. Overall, MTurk can be used to obtain high-quality data inexpensively and rapidly. © The Author(s) 2011.