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Territorial Governance: Local Development, Rural Areas and Agrofood Systems

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Abstract

This work aims to present the most recent developments regarding territorial governance, placing particular emphasis on rural and periurban areas. The reader will find information on the processes of development of European regions, as well as on the behaviours and strategies adopted by the different actors who live in these territories and contribute to the latter's livelihood. The first part of the book analyses the structural changes in the modes of production that have affected these territories. The second part addresses the questions of methodology and of the structures of governance of local development in rural areas. The last section makes an assessment of the geographical indications as tools of governance of local agrifood chains. The book was written by economists, geographers, land use planners and specialists of the questions of governance and management of rural and periurban areas.

Chapters (9)

This study evaluates rural self-employment in the EU countries, while comparing them with rural self-employment in Turkey. The study focuses on self-employment trends in the agricultural sector on the basis of changing motivations and participations of males and females. The data used for comparison and evaluation are based on Eurostat and Turkstat data. The results show that agricultural employment and self-employment exhibit a slight decrease over time and that the impact of this decrease in male and female employment differs among countries. The results also show that the motivation of Turkish women towards self-employment is higher than that of European women and of Turkish men.
What is the future for industrial companies in rural areas? In order to contribute to the thinking on this subject we decided to focus attention on rural SMI in good health in order to identify some potential avenues for business development opportunities in such areas. Two kinds of recommendation are usually advanced to support industrialisation in a rural setting: recourse to exogenous factors; and promoting the value of endogenous factors, providing the incentive to set up local production systems. Our observations of SMI in a non peri-urban rural setting outline a new way forward. The SMI studied rely on local factors, but are not limited by them – it is the linkage of the local and global scales that gives them their strength. They define the contours of a distinctive type of SMI, characterised by: an entrepreneur profile specific to urban executives; operating centred on specialisation; flexible working and membership of networks both local and national/international.
The article aims to analyse the modalities followed by French cooperative groups seeking to implement a territorial embeddedness process. It attempts to clarify issues relating to the significance of this territorial dimension along with cooperative groups’ strategies and behaviour. The text starts with a brief literature review elucidating the notion of territorial embeddedness and distinguishing it from the territorial circumscription, while presenting the specificities of this concept for cooperatives. It then processes national statistics databases and comes up with a spatial topology of French cooperative groups. The second section offers a set of indicators that can be used to measure and test territorial embeddedness, validated by a survey of 15 of France’s leading agricultural cooperative groups. We demonstrate that, along with geographic location and statutory perimeter of action, territorial embeddedness also reflects three other main criteria, to wit: where the agricultural cooperative runs its operations; where its members are located; and where they receive the outputs and services that they are offered. There is no doubt that cooperative groups construct territorial embeddedness on the basis of a joint activation of relationships with their members – but it is just as clear that this construction varies depending on the extent of a group’s integration into particular branches and markets.
The question that is addressed in this chapter is how processes can be stimulated in rural–urban areas which contribute to sustainable development? How can capacity to act be realized? Our hypothesis is: Specific informal networks in the form of vital coalitions between private and public actors can contribute to innovation and sustainability in rural–urban regions. We focus on the role of bottom-up initiatives like associations, interest groups, business communities, the coalitions they form with public actors and the strategies they follow towards sustainability, based on eight Dutch cases. The theoretical framework is derived from the Urban Regime Theory. The chapter offers insight in the conditions for creating capacity to act and stimulating vital coalitions in regional development processes.
As exponents of the “post-industrial” and “post-productivist” economy, it is accepted that many of the economic activities in line with the contemporary rural development agenda (as supported by the EU LEADER programme, for example) do not have a mainstream agriculture “tag”. It is envisaged that the governance approach to rural development, by providing a mechanism for the participation of a variety of local sectoral stakeholders, gives rise to an increased capacity to appraise and tap into nuanced local development resources. Particular forms of economic activity, which concentrate to a large extent on high value-added food production, tourism activities and the valorisation of natural resources have emerged in line with the contemporary rural development agenda and arguably represent a new status quo in the rural economy. In the bureaucratic and academic literatures, the “newness” of what is described as the knowledge-based culture economy continues to be emphasised, as if in reflection of the persisting challenges that arise in the transition from “labour and material value to design value”. This paper presents an Irish case-study to explore the socio-cultural factors that frame “conventional” farmers’ engagement in “alternative” local food movements, which have gained prominence within the context of the contemporary rural development agenda.
The scope of this paper is twofold: addressing a specific problem concerning the effectiveness of the CAP, it develops an extensive empirical and methodological framework able to serve as a model-policy lesson for the rural/agricultural European future. The paper aims to contribute to the understanding of structural land use changes that are occurring in rural environments, by using novel methodologies related to Geographic Information Systems (GIS). The land use change analysis developed in this study is associated with a pre-selected set of policy issues and supplies a retrospective view of the application of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) for the Portuguese case. The evaluation of the respective impacts from a spatial perspective raises questions such as: 1) What are the trade-offs of rural activity in different sectors and regions? 2) How do such trade-offs cope with urban proximity? and 3) Which activities or strategies are best able to balance the needs of rural and urban communities? The application of our model shows the extent of land use change in the country and, in particular, when related to the irrigated surface and vineyards. It also demonstrates a reallocation of agricultural production to town proximity, reducing energy costs. But, the major conclusion of the work is that the use of the CAP financial support has accentuated the asymmetric distribution of crops in Portugal.
This chapter presents a review of the principal examples of GIs approved or under negotiation in Brazil. It discusses how the emerging profile of GIs in Brazil has been influenced both by the specific State and Federal legislation adopted in Brazil for GIs and by the institutional structures put into place for GI promotion and recognition. It also situates initiatives around GIs in the context of broader strategies for territorially-based development. Through a comparative analysis of the GIs already approved and those in process of negotiation the paper draws preliminary conclusions with respect to the forms of justification emerging in the Brazilian case, the profile of beneficiaries and initial implications for territorial development strategies. The analysis is conducted within an evolutionary perspective on the institutionalization of GIs in Brazil understood as a collective learning experience, which permits readjustments and even new directions.
In this chapter we present some of the main figures of the governance process in the wine industry. We define the governance as the voluntarily actions for a private or/and public regulation of the markets. Both parts of local and national entities involved in the governance, public and private, are interconnected in embedded social and economic networks, with multiple enforcement mechanisms to form the base of the concrete transaction framework. This presentation illustrates part of these complexities in the agrofood sector. For our demonstration we firstly remind the mainspring of the collective governance process in the agricultural sector. The contract analysis of the bilateral relations is able to represent a limited part of the governance and unable to represent the complexity of the monetary and non monetary exchange between the different agents involved in the development of the multiple regional, national and international commodity chains. Based on a New Institutional Economics approach, we develop a framework of the governance of these spatially and socially root based industry. KeywordsAgricultural economics-Geographical indications-Institutions-Territorial governance
This chapter questions the contribution of geographical indications for sustainable development of territories from the development of an analytical framework based on a redefinition of the concept of public good. After outlining the boundaries of the traditional approach of public property as it is conveyed by the neoclassical economic literature, we propose an alternative view from the work of Kaul (Public goods: Taking the concept to the twenty-first century. In Drache D (ed.) The Market of the Public Domain. London and New York: Routledge, pp 255–273, 2001; Kaul I, Mendoza RU (2004) Advancing the concept of public goods. In: Providing Global Public Good – Managing Globalization, UNDP, Oxford, 2004) whose hypothesis is that public goods are socially constructed linking the decision, consumption and distribution issues. We then propose to strengthen the operational dimension of this grid by introducing the question of the definition and allocation of rights and the notion of public service principles. Applied to the issue of protection devices and product management in GI, this grid provides ultimately a tool for understanding how GIs contribute to sustainable development of territories through the production of environmental goods, social, economic and cultural goods. KeywordsGeographical indications-Principles of public service-Property rights-Public goods-Sustainable development
... El interés de la investigación ha sido comprender cómo se ha avanzado en dichos procesos de gobernanza desde la perspectiva policéntrica, que es más multidisciplinaria; por esto, se sostiene que la gobernanza es un pro ceso que envuelve el estado, la sociedad Civil y el sector privado, en el cual los roles de cada uno de estos actores es diferente (Putnam et al., 1993;Dasgupta y Serageldin , 2000;Castells y Himanen, 2002;Torre y Traversac, 2011). Conscientes de lo anterior, se ha decidido dar importancia al análisis de la gobernanza con los grupos de interés con quienes se había tenido experiencia de desarrollo de acciones colectivas en el pasado. ...
... • i) Una gobernanza sectorial, en la que se relacionan únicamente los actores vinculados a un sector específico particular, o un sistema productivo; o • ii) Una gobernanza territorial, entendida como un proceso alternativo para la participación individual y colectiva de actores en la gestión y planificación multinivel de sus territorios (Torre y Traversac, 2011). ...
... El análisis de la gobernanza distinguen desde la literatura especializada diversas perspectivas, siendo de destacar: i) la centrada en el estado, donde es definida como: el arte de liderazgo público, en el cual el actor principal es el estado, siendo el régimen político, la gerencia pública, y la capacidad del gobierno identificados como algunos de los elementos críticos para la buena gobernanza, dado que para su buen funcionamiento se requiere el proveer una dirección coherente a la sociedad orientada desde el estado, independientemente de los cambios en las estructuras de gobierno promovidas por la descentralización y democratización; siendo el papel de los gobiernos central dominante, en cuanto a definir las formas de gobernanza (Peters 2000); y ii) desde la perspectiva policéntrica, que resulta ser más multidisciplinaria, en la que se interpreta como a un proceso que envuelve el estado, la sociedad Civil y el sector privado; en la cual los roles de cada uno de estos actores es diferente (Putnam et al, 1993;Dasgupta y Serageldin , 2000;Castells y Himanen, 2002;Torre y Traversac, 2011 ). ...
... El interés de la investigación ha sido comprender cómo se ha avanzado en dichos procesos de gobernanza desde la perspectiva policéntrica, que es más multidisciplinaria; por esto, se sostiene que la gobernanza es un pro ceso que envuelve el estado, la sociedad Civil y el sector privado, en el cual los roles de cada uno de estos actores es diferente (Putnam et al., 1993;Dasgupta y Serageldin , 2000;Castells y Himanen, 2002;Torre y Traversac, 2011). Conscientes de lo anterior, se ha decidido dar importancia al análisis de la gobernanza con los grupos de interés con quienes se había tenido experiencia de desarrollo de acciones colectivas en el pasado. ...
... • i) Una gobernanza sectorial, en la que se relacionan únicamente los actores vinculados a un sector específico particular, o un sistema productivo; o • ii) Una gobernanza territorial, entendida como un proceso alternativo para la participación individual y colectiva de actores en la gestión y planificación multinivel de sus territorios (Torre y Traversac, 2011). ...
... El análisis de la gobernanza distinguen desde la literatura especializada diversas perspectivas, siendo de destacar: i) la centrada en el estado, donde es definida como: el arte de liderazgo público, en el cual el actor principal es el estado, siendo el régimen político, la gerencia pública, y la capacidad del gobierno identificados como algunos de los elementos críticos para la buena gobernanza, dado que para su buen funcionamiento se requiere el proveer una dirección coherente a la sociedad orientada desde el estado, independientemente de los cambios en las estructuras de gobierno promovidas por la descentralización y democratización; siendo el papel de los gobiernos central dominante, en cuanto a definir las formas de gobernanza (Peters 2000); y ii) desde la perspectiva policéntrica, que resulta ser más multidisciplinaria, en la que se interpreta como a un proceso que envuelve el estado, la sociedad Civil y el sector privado; en la cual los roles de cada uno de estos actores es diferente (Putnam et al, 1993;Dasgupta y Serageldin , 2000;Castells y Himanen, 2002;Torre y Traversac, 2011 ). ...
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El Plan Maestro de Abastecimiento y seguridad Alimentaria de Bogotá –PMASAB fue creado con el fin de garantizar la disponibilidad suficiente y estable del suministro de alimentos, con calidad, con criterio nutricional y con acceso de manera oportuna y permanente, reduciendo el precio y fortaleciendo los circuitos económicos urbanos y rurales. La estrategia principal de esta política ha sido la de integrar los actores de la cadena de abastecimiento de alimentos, desde el agricultor hasta el consumidor final. Esta coordinación entre agentes se da a través de la organización de la demanda y la oferta, en Nutriredes y Agroredes respectivamente, apoyadas por un sistema de información de acceso público y plataformas logísticas que permitan recibir y distribuir el producto de una manera adecuada (Alcaldía de Bogotá, 2006). La entidad encargada de la ejecución del Plan ha sido la Secretaría Distrital de Desarrollo Económico (SDDE) a través de la Dirección de Economía Rural y Abastecimiento Alimentario, la cual a su vez ha realizado diversos convenios con entidades como universidades, ONG, cajas de compensación familiar, entre otras, para ejecutar la política. En este capítulo se presenta un análisis de los factores que explicaron la conformación y a su vez la consolidación o fracaso de organizaciones de productores agropecuarios vinculadas a la implementación de esta política, en particular se analizó el caso de cinco organizaciones de productores de la Provincia del Tequendama de Cundinamarca que hicieron parte de la estrategia denominada Agroredes en el PMASAB.
... El interés de la investigación ha sido comprender cómo se ha avanzado en dichos procesos de gobernanza desde la perspectiva policéntrica, que es más multidisciplinaria; por esto, se sostiene que la gobernanza es un pro ceso que envuelve el estado, la sociedad Civil y el sector privado, en el cual los roles de cada uno de estos actores es diferente (Putnam et al., 1993;Dasgupta y Serageldin , 2000;Castells y Himanen, 2002;Torre y Traversac, 2011). Conscientes de lo anterior, se ha decidido dar importancia al análisis de la gobernanza con los grupos de interés con quienes se había tenido experiencia de desarrollo de acciones colectivas en el pasado. ...
... • i) Una gobernanza sectorial, en la que se relacionan únicamente los actores vinculados a un sector específico particular, o un sistema productivo; o • ii) Una gobernanza territorial, entendida como un proceso alternativo para la participación individual y colectiva de actores en la gestión y planificación multinivel de sus territorios (Torre y Traversac, 2011). ...
... El análisis de la gobernanza distinguen desde la literatura especializada diversas perspectivas, siendo de destacar: i) la centrada en el estado, donde es definida como: el arte de liderazgo público, en el cual el actor principal es el estado, siendo el régimen político, la gerencia pública, y la capacidad del gobierno identificados como algunos de los elementos críticos para la buena gobernanza, dado que para su buen funcionamiento se requiere el proveer una dirección coherente a la sociedad orientada desde el estado, independientemente de los cambios en las estructuras de gobierno promovidas por la descentralización y democratización; siendo el papel de los gobiernos central dominante, en cuanto a definir las formas de gobernanza (Peters 2000); y ii) desde la perspectiva policéntrica, que resulta ser más multidisciplinaria, en la que se interpreta como a un proceso que envuelve el estado, la sociedad Civil y el sector privado; en la cual los roles de cada uno de estos actores es diferente (Putnam et al, 1993;Dasgupta y Serageldin , 2000;Castells y Himanen, 2002;Torre y Traversac, 2011 ). ...
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Esta obra examina la experiencia de unas propuestas novedosas de desarrollo rural con enfoque territorial, implementadas entre los años 2006 y 2010 en la provincia del Tequendama en la región central de Colombia. El estudio de las implicaciones sobre los procesos de gobernanza territorial es un aporte sustantivo de estas iniciativas, las cuales se llevaron a cabo con la participación de actores locales, tanto de la sociedad civil como del Estado, junto con el acompañamiento de Grupo de Investigación en Gestión y Desarrollo -GIGDR- y de profesores y estudiantes de diversas facultades de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia – sede Bogotá, en alianza con el Instituto Interamericano de Cooperación para la Agricultura -IICA. En ocho capítulos se sistematiza y analiza la experiencia a la luz de su situación actual. En la ejecución del proyecto Procesos de Gobernanza Territorial: Laboratorio de la Provincia del Tequendama - Cundinamarca, participaron estudiantes del semillero de investigación del GIGDR y se realizaron tesis de maestría y trabajos de grado. Las investigaciones examinaron el avance de la gobernanza en el territorio, desde una perspectiva policéntrica y multinivel. Entre los diversos sectores de la producción y de los servicios estudiados se incluyeron organizaciones de productores de mango y de actividades turísticas, así como el de la educación. Las sinergias intersectoriales, la configuración de la gobernanza en el territorio y las articulaciones que en algunos casos se dieron con el Plan Maestro y Seguridad Alimentaria de Bogotá -PMASAB-, son motivo de discusión. En la gobernanza territorial, el Estado, la sociedad Civil y el sector privado desempeñan roles específicos que ameritan ser comprendidos. Por ello, y en consonancia con los principios del GIGDR, las reflexiones que aquí se presentan se nutren del trabajo directo de los investigadores con comunidades locales, grupos de interés y demás actores territoriales involucrados en estos procesos. Se busca aportar propuestas no solo pertinentes a los desafíos de la provincia del Tequendama, sino también a otros contextos territoriales del país que requieren de renovado impulso de su desarrollo rural.
... The method used in this study is based on the structures of the aforementioned systems (general and water-based methods), but adapted to the particularities of systems that define agrifood systems. To adapt their indicators to the specifics of MTASs, different studies concerning the evaluation of landscapes were consulted [18,30,[55][56][57][58][59][60][61][62], and specifically those linked to the values of agrarian and agrifood systems [11,29,[63][64][65][66]. UNESCO criteria for inclusion in the World Heritage List were also analyzed [67], as well as those considered by the FAO to select the GIAHSs [68]. ...
... In the context of territorial food systems, value is placed on governance related to their management based on associationism, which helps foster means of social, solidarity-based economics, particularly cooperatives and associations. Furthermore, territorial governance implies developing collective organization in a network, with interaction between local stakeholders such as companies and institutions [66]. In this vein, consideration is given to agrarian producers, service companies, distributors and institutions that generate synergies resulting from their geographic and organizational proximity [65]. ...
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Multifunctional agrifood systems with noteworthy roots in a territory are the result of a historical yet dynamic specialization. They are present in the place’s knowledge, social connections, collective action, the organization of institutions, innovation and capital. These systems are seen in the landscape, which becomes a resource as well as cultural and environmental heritage. In this regard, it is necessary to study the significance of the many aspects of heritage and landscape in agrifood systems to suitably manage and appreciate them as a territorial resource. This study develops and applies a quantitative method with various criteria to enable the landscape values of multifunctional, territorialized agrifood systems (MTAS in Spanish) to be evaluated, paying attention to essential matters such as the process of heritage recognition and the quality of their landscapes. To do so, a method designed by the authors for evaluating landscapes has been adapted to the peculiarities that define such systems, made up of criteria such as representativeness, authenticity, ecological integrity, vulnerability, accessibility and historical, social and symbolic values. The method has been applied to an exemplary Mediterranean landscape, the agricultural gardens of Valencia, which combine features of MTAS in metropolitan and coastal flatland contexts.
... Por otra parte, hay que decir que la mayoría de trabajos que han abordado en profundidad la noción de GT provienen del ámbito de la planificación territorial y la geografía (Davoudi et al., 2008;Farinós, 2008Farinós, , 2009Farinós, , 2015Janin Rivolin, 2010;Torre, 2011;Stein, 2010;Faludi, 2012;Stead, 2013;Van Well et al., 2015. Menos atención ha recibido desde la ciencia política, la sociología o la economía, donde destacan algunos estudios centrados en el análisis de los procesos de planificación estratégica de ciudades (Martín y Merinero, 2010;González, 2013). ...
... Dicho alcance variará en función de la extensión e intensidad de las relaciones entre el eje global/local, en el público/privado y entre los sectores de política implicados (sectorial/multisectorial). Esta lógica de actuaciones concretas ha llevado a que se utilice la expresión de "gobernar por proyectos 9 " (Pinson, 2011;Torre y Traversac, 2011), respondiendo, en parte, a "la necesidad de una territorialización de la norma y la inadaptación de los territorios administrativos" (Torre, 2016: 10). ...
Chapter
La mayoría de trabajos que han abordado en profundidad la noción de "gobernanza territorial" (GT) provienen del ámbito de la planificación territorial y la geografía. Menos atención ha recibido desde la ciencia política, la sociología o la economía, donde destacan algunos estudios centrados en el análisis de los procesos de planificación estratégica de ciudades. Este hecho podría hacer pensar que la GT no es más que una aplicación de la noción de gobernanza al contexto de la planificación territorial. STEAD, por ejemplo, considera que “territorial governance is distinct from regular governance because of its specific focus on spatial development (and its management)” (2013b: 1373). Para él hay tres características de la GT que constituyen “core values or fundamental principles of planning” (2013b: 1380), que son: a) la gestión de dinámicas de desarrollo y cohesión territorial; b) el seguimiento y evaluación de los impactos territoriales y c) la delimitación espacial a la hora de afrontar los distintos problemas o asuntos de política pública. A partir de estas consideraciones, el presente capítulo analiza el origen del término, las principales dimensiones que lo componen y los instrumentos que la promueven, con el fin de evidenciar el carácter singular de la GT respecto del concepto de gobernanza “a secas” o de otras modalidades de gobernanza afines.
... Governance signifies a concept of coordinating various social systems with a special emphasis on the role of state in brokering this processes, as well as formal and informal types of public-private interaction (Pierre, 2000). It can relate to a specific set of rules and styles which enable the act of performing a public action in a context of an increasingly differentiated society with an increasing number of increasingly independent actors (Faure, 2009;Torre & Traversac, 2011). Therefore, governance as an approach usually includes a degree of autonomy and independence of non-state organizational actors in their relationship to the state, as well as their capability to form interdependencies with other public and private organizational actors, exchange resources and create governing and self-governing rules (Rhodes, 1997). ...
... Tourism governance is usually defined primarily through public participation and consensus orientation; but also strategic vision; responsiveness, effectiveness and efficiency; accountability and transparency; equity and the rule of law (Buteau-Duitschaever et al., 2010;Presenza et al., 2013); as well as representativeness, harmony, trust and decision power among tourist actors (Conceição et al., 2019). Having in mind a clear orientation towards a specific, clearly defined territory and the modes of participation of various stakeholders, the concept of destination governance is very similar to the concept of territorial governance (Torre & Traversac, 2011). In this sense, previous research identified distinct types of participation in territorial and destination governance: communication, information, consultation, dialogue, discussion meetings, as well as negotiation (Beuret, 2006). ...
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Based on the WEF Travel & Tourism Report data, this study deploys k-means cluster analysis to build a global typology of national destination governance. Previous studies have focused on case studies, while this chapter focuses on classification of different destination types, by deploying indicators a set of following relevant indicators: wastewater treatment, fixed broadband internet subscriptions, ground transport efficiency, quality of roads, quality of railroad infrastructure, reliability of police services, ease of finding skilled employees. The results present a four-cluster solution of national destination governance types, as well as their major characteristics. The chapter than provides and discusses important implication for theory and practice of destination governance.
... From this same point of view, Basly (2007, p. 2) advanced that "the awareness of its (the family SME) economic importance in terms of participation in the national production of the countries and in terms of employment and economic and financial performance constitutes an imperative reason explaining the renewed interest for the questions which are relative for him". More particularly, innovative networks of SMEs seem to play a significant role in local, regional, and territorial development (Leducq & Lusso, 2011;Torre & Traversac, 2011;Campagne & Pecqueur, 2014). ...
... The concept of territorial governance is emerging to ensure the relative autonomy of local development processes, to consolidate democracy and the role of civic society in decision-making, to grant another image to the public action, to encourage the participation of citizens and the civic society, and to develop partnerships between different actors of specific politics (Wilson, 2000;Truda, 2007;Torre & Traversac, 2011). ...
... Territorial governance, namely governance of rural territories, has been highlighted by recent studies (Goodwin, Jones, & Jones, 2006;Marsden, 2004;Torre & Traversac, 2011;Winter, 2006). Socio-economic changes (e.g., decrease of agricultural activities and economic restructure involving new players and multi-level decision contexts) are among the reasons that justify research on governance of rural territories (Torre & Traversac, 2011). ...
... Territorial governance, namely governance of rural territories, has been highlighted by recent studies (Goodwin, Jones, & Jones, 2006;Marsden, 2004;Torre & Traversac, 2011;Winter, 2006). Socio-economic changes (e.g., decrease of agricultural activities and economic restructure involving new players and multi-level decision contexts) are among the reasons that justify research on governance of rural territories (Torre & Traversac, 2011). Moreover, Europe 2020 and the European Policy of Territorial Cohesion draw attention to the importance of innovation in rural territories and to its role in promoting Europe's inclusiveness and sustainability. ...
Article
The paper presents the results of a research on governance and innovation dynamics involved in a Portuguese rural territory—Coruche, the so‐called capital of cork. By presenting research on innovation dynamics using a particular raw material and a particular rural territory (Coruche), the research fulfils two objectives: (i) contribute to the extant literature, by addressing an empirical context that has been neglected by most innovation scholars, that is, rural territories and traditional sectors, namely agro‐forest industry; and (ii) highlight different novelties and territorial dynamics related with cork production and transformation and governance aspects of this particular system of innovation. The use of a network analysis allows the characterization of this system, the different types of actors (multi‐actor), their interactions framed by institutions, and operating at different territorial scales (multi‐scale). The governance of cork‐based activities in this territory includes important transformation companies, forest producers, professional and development associations, and public administration entities with competences in regulation and the development of the territory, including the management of European Funds. The local presence of a multinational enterprise introduces interesting issues related with its attachment to the territory including the creation of employment and the collaboration with local entities in activities and events related with cork production and transformation.
... First, it should be pointed out that, according to Torre and Traversac [11], territorial governance consists of applying processes of networked collective organisation in which multi-level management takes place among stakeholders, enterprises and local institutions; multi-level coordination, inherent to the scale of territorial work, represents a necessary condition for attaining territorial governance. Within the scope of this type of coordination relationship, there is a need to highlight the central role taken on by the local networks that disseminate knowledge and information. ...
... For the same author, these contexts, together with collective action and management of the institutions, leads to analysis at different scales in which local systems constitute a part of nested subsystems, which together define a social-ecological system, which is characterised, from the research point of view, by a whole series of variables defining collective action at different levels [26]. Another remarkable contribution is the book edited by Torre and Traversac [11] on the mechanisms and tools of territorial governance, such as multi-level coordination of laws and regulations, as well as the instruments of informative, deliberative and decisive encounters. Interpreting agreements and conventions as axes of institutional construction on a local scale and according to resource availability, a general framework of territorial governance and LAFS can be built upon the neo-institutionalist contributions, the social movements' alternative approaches and Ostrom's social-ecological system. ...
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The article attempts to provide a theoretical discussion on territorial governance by presenting both the neo-institutionalist position and the De Sousa Santos’ alternative models, with a view of highlighting the dimensions that can be relevant to understanding the territorial dynamics of Local Agro-food Systems (LAFS). The paper aims to build up a system of indicators, structured in four dimensions, concerning the territorial governance of LAFS: (i) multi-level coordination; (ii) democratic participation and accountability; (iii) cooperation among producers and other stakeholders and (iv) relationships with the environment. We verify, as a hypothesis, that the typology of markets to which the identity-based products are directed plays a decisive role in the way that processes of territorial governance of LAFS are constructed. The results of an empirical research, developed in four LAFS in Mexico, are presented: prickly pear cactus in Morelos, blackberry in Michoacán, cuitlacoche (corn smut) in Tlaxcala and coffee in Veracruz. Two types of territorial governance of LAFS may be distinguished: those that can be strengthened by the geographical and organisational proximity of the markets and the action of local stakeholders and governments—prickly pear cactus and cuitlacoche—versus those which are devoted to export and are conducted by large companies in which marketing networks involve certification mechanisms and a large number of institutions—coffee and blackberry. Keywords: territorial governance; Local Agro-food Systems (LAFS); Mexico; multi-level coordination; accountability; cooperation; environment
... The Yellow Vests' revolt has highlighted the need for a more participative democracy; rethinking the territorial governance of economic development projects is a key issue. As Torre and Traversac (2011) pointed out, the main resource of a territory is the intensity of the links between all the stakeholders, both public and private, including those beyond their immediate environment. Consequently, the question of territorial governance is becoming increasingly central. ...
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The rise of a geography of discontent highlighted in recent studies points to a strong association between voting for populist parties and territories with socioeconomic difficulties. While discontent has primarily been addressed through the analysis of populist votes, we provide additional elements of analysis by comparing these populist votes to the Yellow Vest movement, and we distinguish the populist votes coming from the far-left party from those coming from the far-right party. Our results show that the Yellow Vest movement cannot be confused with French populist supporters and that their sensitivity to territorial dimensions also differs from that of the latter, especially in terms of access to public services. Their behavior highlights that the geography of protest takes multiple shapes and cannot be reduced to a simple opposition between urban and mostly rural or peripheral areas. This raises serious concerns about the dynamics of territories and the deleterious effects of metropolization and the closure of public services in peri-urban and rural territories that are not specific to France.
... The future of the rural territories of the European Union is conditioned by rapid changes in social and economic developments, and also by larger urbanized areas [69]. The occupation of land use is part of agriculture; however, making shorter value chains or local food productions are practical practices that began a while ago [79] and tend to continue with the creation of new innovative and circular business models in the agro environment. Despite barriers of entry of large companies into the food market, the sector is considered emerging, and new business opportunities for small entrepreneurs may arise [69]. ...
Article
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The global agribusiness context faces at the same time challenges of feeding a growing global population that is used to safe and nutritious food, opportunities based on innovation, high technology and efficiency in the agri-food production systems from field to table. Given the context, this article aims to present the main key aspects of the circular economy to agro-industrial cooperatives. These contributions were named key aspects, such as circular and symbiotic practices, competitive advantages, innovation, cooperation and barriers and opportunities. The field presents a problem that few literature in fact discusses circular economy approaches in the context of agro-industrial cooperatives. As a methodological procedure, a literature review was carried out in three databases to obtain relevant documents and thus analyse and discuss some characteristics based on circular economy practices applied in agro-industrial cooperatives. As a result, a diagnosis of the current scenario that agro sector organizations are facing in terms of the main rural activities and sustainable practices that relate to the circular economy; measures taken to generate competitive advantage; innovation behaviour; and how linear and circular business models are being applied in the agroindustry. A framework is presented to show potential routes strategies for closing the cycle in an agro-industrial cooperative. The opportunities are based on the implementation of high technology in the field, the use of bioenergy and the development of new circular business models throughout the agro-value chain. The study has contributions to rural properties and managers of cooperatives in terms of waste reduction, innovation generation and increases in activities and processes based on circular economy.
... It is interesting to evaluate the effectiveness of this mechanism in terms of territorial governance and to highlight the measures by which actors of different natures (producers, associations, individuals, representatives of public authorities or local communities, etc.) contribute to the elaboration, sometimes concerted, sometimes conflicting, of common territorial development projects (Torre and Traversac, 2011). Recently mobilized in the example of AD in Cavigny (Niang et al., 2021), the social network tool is here coupled with an analysis of proximities (geographical and organized) to provide a better understanding of the governance associated with the structuring of productive and social interactions. ...
Article
Anaerobic digestion has recently gained interest in contributing to territorial strategy regarding the deployment of the circular economy and energy transition. Most projects bring together multiple actors from a wide variety of backgrounds. The article analyzes the evolution of synergies and cooperative behaviors between local stakeholders over the period 2010–2020 in an anaerobic digestion cluster in France. The study draws on social network analysis and proximity theory, which have recently been used for analyzing regional innovation systems, local clusters, territorial governance, and rural development. We reveal that local stakeholders develop dense relational networks that vary and evolve throughout the project. Different groups exist and behave in a semi-autonomous manner. All the actors are located in close geographical proximity. Still, their links in terms of organized proximities are related to various types of relations, resulting from cognitive resemblances or common origins. This explains the persistence and resilience of local relationships and how they maintain a collaborative dynamic over time.
... De fait, l'attraction et l'attrait peuvent-ils justifier des politiques publiques différentes mais complémentaires. Nous retrouvons ici le résultat d'études ayant déjà mis l'accent sur la nécessaire coopération entre les territoires, en s'appuyant sur leurs complémentarités en termes de ressources et d'attractivité (Torre et Traversac, 2011), dès lors que la réflexion porte sur les politiques publiques de développement régional. ...
Article
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Le concept d'attractivité est devenu un thème important des politiques locales, en particulier dans les territoires de faible densité qui semblent, a priori, dans ce domaine, en position de faiblesse par rapport aux territoires métropolitains en raison de l'accroissement de la compétition interterritoriale pour accueillir de nouveaux habitants ou de nouvelles activités. L'étude de l'attractivité des territoires dans la littérature scientifique a largement privilégié une définition qui part de l'objet attiré (différents types de population, différents types d'activités). Or, depuis quelques années déjà un certain nombre d'études et/ou rapports ont montré que cette approche était insuffisante pour définir les politiques publiques. C'est pourquoi, dans le cadre du programme de recherche-action PSDR4 intitulé AttractInnov, nous avons choisi de travailler sur l'approche qualitative de l'attractivité avec pour objectifs principaux d'aborder la dynamique des territoires sous un angle social et culturel, en tenant compte des perceptions individuelles et collectives, et d'en permettre la mesure par la mise en place d'un tableau de bord.
... We also recommend the need to reduce asymmetry of power and guarantee attainable employment opportunities. Such ground level rules are necessary for the setting of good governance processes at the territorial level and safeguard the least possible requirements of the local population (Torre & Traversac, 2011). ...
Article
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In this research two cases of infrastructure development (Chotiari and Diamer Bhasha Dams) from Pakistan were studied in terms of a superposition of land uses and their consequences. For this purpose, we obtained qualitative information from both primary as well as secondary sources. Primary data were collected through a partially developed questionnaire from pre-selected experts of various professional backgrounds. National and regional dailies along with other published literature were used as a secondary source of information. The findings have identified the key groups of stakeholders and their relative social power at different levels of governance. The results further highlight that unfair land acquisition, improper displacement, mismanagement in compensation, etc., have caused negative impacts on local people and the surrounded environment. The article further emphasizes governance issues and conflicts among different actors due to the project. Finally, we recommend several actions to prevent strong opposition and conflicts in the infrastructural project in developing countries, like the enhancement of the capacities and the capabilities of the local population, the diffusion of information and the involvement of stakeholders, and the application of technical tools and devices.
... We also recommend the need to reduce asymmetry of power and guarantee attainable employment opportunities. Such ground level rules are necessary for the setting of good governance processes at the territorial level and safeguard the least possible requirements of the local population (Torre & Traversac, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this research two cases of infrastructure development (Chotiari and Diamer Bhasha Dams) from Pakistan were studied in terms of a superposition of land uses and their consequences. For this purpose, we obtained qualitative information from both primary as well as secondary sources. Primary data were collected through a partially developed questionnaire from pre-selected experts of various professional backgrounds. National and regional dailies along with other published literature were used as a secondary source of information. The findings have identified the key groups of stakeholders and their relative social power at different levels of governance. The results further highlight that unfair land acquisition, improper displacement, mismanagement in compensation, etc., have caused negative impacts on local people and the surrounded environment. The article further emphasizes governance issues and conflicts among different actors due to the project. Finally, we recommend several actions to prevent strong opposition and conflicts in the infrastructural project in developing countries, like the enhancement of the capacities and the capabilities of the local population, the diffusion of information and the involvement of stakeholders, and the application of technical tools and devices.
... The contribution of the present paper relies upon the discernment of governance, especially territorial governance (Torre and Traversac, 2011) not only from its role in territorial resource management processes but also, by considering the socio-economic characteristics, local knowledge, and context of the stakeholders of a territory, and the role of these elements in the construction of formal and informal arrangements. In this sense, we propose that territorial governance needs to be understood as those collective agreements built, formally or informally, among stakeholders of a system, aimed to building capabilities, as well as the formation of institutions, and the coordination of socio-economic processes that allows the sustainable use of tangible and intangible territory resources. ...
Article
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La colaboración entre stakeholders (actores relevantes), a través de acuerdos de gobernanza, puede fomentar la innovación en un territorio.Estos acuerdos de gobernanza territorial (AGT) podrían celebrarse entre Unidades Productivas (UP) y actores de las estructuras científicotecnológica(CyT), industrial-productiva (IyP) y gobierno-institucional (GyI). Teniendo esto en cuenta, el objetivo principal de este trabajo fue analizar los efectos de los AGT en el nivel de innovación de las UP en el sistema agroalimentario de amaranto en la Ciudad de México. En este sentido, se utilizó una metodología mixta basada en estudio de casos, la aplicación de entrevistas semi-estructuradas y encuestas a los dueños de las UP. La información se analizó mediante métodos estadísticos y se realizó un análisis cualitativo considerando el tipo de innovaciones de cada UP. Se concluye que, si aumenta el nivel de AGT entre stakeholders el nivel de innovación en las UP del sistema agroalimentario del amaranto también presenta un incremento.
... Localized Agri-Food Systems (LAFS) are understood as localized networks of farms, firms, services to the production companies, and institutions (whether local or sectoral) who specialize in the production and marketing of food products linked to territorial identities [99]. The success of LAFS has been linked to the concept of "territorial governance", as "the process of dynamic articulation of the set of practices and institutional devices existing between actors in close geographic proximity, intended to address a production -or consumption-related issue or to implement a territorial development project" [100:701, cited in 101], through multi-level coordination processes between economic and social actors [102]. The role of institutions is key in the provision of regulatory frameworks, cooperation and control of the quality of products, as well as the legitimacy they give to the actions of local actors [101]. ...
Article
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In recent years, the transition to sustainability at a food systems’ scale has drawn major attention both from the scientific and political arenas. Agroecology has become central to such discussions, while impressive efforts have been made to conceptualize the agroecology scaling process. It has thus become necessary to apply the concept of agroecology transitions to the scale of food systems and in different “real-world” contexts. Scaling local agroecology experiences of production, distribution, and consumption, which are often disconnected and/or disorganized, also reveals emergent research gaps. A critical review was performed in order to establish a transdisciplinary dialogue between both political agroecology and the literature on sustainable food systems. The objective was to build insights into how to advance towards Agroecology-based Local Agri-food Systems (ALAS). Our review unveils emergent questions such as: how to overcome the metabolic rift related to segregated activities along the food chain, how to feed cities sustainably, and how they should relate to the surrounding territories, which social subjects should drive such transitions, and which governance arrangements would be needed. The paper argues in favor of the re-construction of food metabolisms, territorial flows, plural subjects and (bottom-up) governance assemblages, placing life at the center of the food system and going beyond the rural–urban divide.
... It can be defined as a process involving constructing common frameworks to coordinate the representations and strategies (individual and collective) present in a territory. Throughout the process, actors interact in a conflictual and/or cooperative manner (Torre and Traversac, 2011) and make choices to implement a territorial development project. The implementation of territorial governance is a key issue for implementing structural changes. ...
Technical Report
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This ESPON report has been written by Sebastien BOURDIN. Europe is facing two major challenges: population decline and climate change. However, not all cities and regions are affected in the same way. Concerning the demographic issue, if we consider the double effect of longer schooling and an ageing population, this will result in a significant reduction in the working-age population with economic and social consequences that could be disastrous for certain territories. Concerning the climate problem, heat waves, marine submersions, forest fires, and other droughts are already very noticeable in certain regions and at certain times. Still, if nothing is done, they are likely to spread geographically, increasing in frequency and intensity. Moreover, the COVID-19 crisis has highlighted, and sometimes accentuated, socio-economic and territorial inequalities. It has also revealed the differences in the institutional, financial and anticipatory capacity of cities and regions. In this context, more than ever before, there is a need for structural changes in regional economies.
... La gobernanza se construye para generar un consenso entre organizaciones, grupos sociales e intereses territoriales en torno a procesos de toma de decisiones colectivas y para definir objetivos, así como para la celebración de acuerdos de contribución de sus diversas partes y la construcción de una visión conjunta de futuro para el territorio. La importancia de esta gobernanza territorial descansa en gran medida en la necesidad que estos espacios tienen de disminuir la fragmentación local e impulsar la cohesión social para hace frente a dificultades que la gestión pública y económica generan en territorios naturales, productivos, periurbanos y rurales (Torre y Traversac, 2011). ...
Article
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El objetivo de este artículo es analizar, desde la gobernanza territorial, los efectos de las declaratorias de Denominación de Origen (DO) sobre actores sociales de los Sistemas Agroalimentarios Localizados (SIAL). Para ello se consideran los casos del SIAL quinoa Real de Bolivia (DO otorgada en 2014) y el SIAL del cacao de Grijalva de Tabasco, en México (DO otorgada en 2016). El estudio de caso se complementa con entrevistas semiestructuradas a los actores de los SIAL. Es posible concluir que estas figuras de protección institucional constituyen un primer paso en el reconocimiento del valor sociocultural, agronómico y productivo de estos cultivos, aunque los efectos de las DO en los SIAL son diferentes, debido al grado de formalización de la figura. Para el caso de la quinoa en Bolivia encontramos una DO instaurada pero perfectible, que requiere de una mayor integración del sistema; en el caso del cacao en México, se presenta una DO de conformación incipiente. Tales casos proporcionan puntos de convergencia y divergencia, así como lecciones en materia de gobernanza territorial para el aprovechamiento de las figuras de protección institucional.
... Ainsi les modalités d'échanges participent à l'acquisition des connaissances des acteurs de leur territoire et à leur implication dans l'action, tout du moins dans une réflexion sur les orientations à donner au territoire et au projet qui le concerne. Tout concourt alors à la mise en place de conditions d'un apprentissage collectif à l'échelle du territoire de projet, propre à maintenir, voire renforcer les logiques d'appartenance et de similitude qui sont au coeur du développement territorial (Torre, 2011 ;Torre et Traversac, 2011). ...
... TF also has some overlaps with the territorial governance approach, which has evolved with the growing involvement of different population groups in decision-making. Territorial governance involves networktype, participatory, often multi-actor (Torre and Traversac, 2011) and multi-level (Koopmans et al., 2018) decision processes regarding local and rural development pathways. However, while territorial governance is a collective participatory process in the management of shared places, TF is farm-centred and focuses on the agency of a farmer and farm-household in managing various territorial assets and connections. ...
... In this respect, rather than government, we should talk about territorial governance. Governance understood as the set of processes and mechanisms through which the various stakeholders contribute to the elaboration, sometimes concerted, sometimes conflictual, of common projects for the future development of the territories (Torre and Traversac, 2011). Numerous collective initiatives such as local charters, think tanks, governance mechanisms, land resource management methodologies, cooperative initiatives, etc. are being developed, not to mention the rise in conflicts due to the voices of the populations and their opposition to certain projects promoted from above, whether by large companies or public authorities (Torre and Wallet, 2014). ...
Article
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After a new and ambitious reform, referred to as the ‘Territorial Big Bang’, France was confronted, from the end of 2018, with the revolt of the yellow vests, often originating from the country’s most peripheral or troubled territories. These oppositions and contestations from the territories may seem all the more astonishing since the ambitious territorial reform initiated in 2015 and which took shape with the NOTRE and MAPTAM laws aimed precisely at repositioning the role of the territories at each scale. How and why have we arrived at the current result, which seems to revive the historical territorial divide between Paris and the provinces, transforming it into an opposition between the major cities and the rest of France? In this article, we show how the territorial reform of 2015 was a failure and we take stock of the fact that far from affirming a new stage of decentralization, it has consisted above all in favouring large structures and the search for economies of scale, and has left behind territories that don’t matter anymore for the public policies.
... Dans le cas des fromages, nous considérons l'effet du régime à travers la pression des normes sanitaires (absence de bactéries pathogènes dans le lait, le caillé et le produit affiné) et les procédés de pasteurisation comme solution générique pour y échapper. La résolution de ces tensions dépend en grande partie des modes de gouvernance et des rapports de force en présence (Turnheim et al., 2015;Torre and Traversac, 2011;Lamine et al., 2012). Les travaux de Belmin et al (2018) montrent que la gestion stratégique de cette niche complexe et en tension repose sur deux axes complémentaires. ...
Article
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This article examines the contentious issue of the coexistence of cheese made from raw milk and cheese made from pasteurised milk in areas of protected designation of origin (PDOs). The French PDO system is held to be the benchmark of the international system of geographical indications (GIs). Drawing on the multi-level perspective framework of socio-technical transitions, we conceptualise PDO cheeses as a “niche” nested within a dominant regime that promotes pasteurisation as the standard technology to control pathogens in milk. Careful examination of statistical data and the specifications for PDO cheeses shows that raw milk is experiencing an upturn in domestic production, which we relate to the reinforcement of the regulatory frameworks governing protection of GIs. We investigate more fully the steady increase in raw milk use by studying two contrasting cases of PDO cheeses (Saint-Nectaire and Ossau-Iraty), in which the confrontation between technologies is internalised. Analysis of local innovation pathways highlights a series of key decisions that strengthen the position of raw milk from the farm to the marketplace, namely grass-feeding, limiting herd productivity, technology-specific identification marks, and redistribution of decision-making power among stakeholders. Regulatory mechanisms that counterbalance the pressures of the regime by strategic management of the “terroir” niche are identified and discussed. We argue that shifting the focus from niche/regime interaction towards the internal dynamics of niches sheds light on the conditions of a coexistence of apparently antagonistic models of production in agri-food networks.
... Networking activities happen on a territorial scale, through joining organizational and territorial proximities (Torre, Traversac, 2011). Territorial localization is relevant in this context, in order to define entrepreneurial processes: consequently, spatial contexts are also to be investigated. ...
Article
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Gender differences in rural enterprise are a relevant field of analysis which calls for a deeper investiga-tion concerning key variables affecting farm’s performance and on the basis of gender. This paper tries to explore eventual gender gaps in the farms of Italy. Two variables are investigated: “Who” variable discriminate farm’s manager on the basis of gender under a constituent perspective of female entrepre-neurship. “Where” context is articulated in business, social and spatial context, with the aim of excavat-ing the multiple dimensions of farm entrepreneurship. In order to bring out the differences between male and female condominium farms in Italy, an econometric model was applied, with the aim of identifying context-related differences. The results confirm gender gaps related to farm performance, networking, diversification strategies and access to rural policies, by enlightening diverse paths of development in rural enterprises on the basis of explanatory variables. Therefore, adopted methodology reveals its utility in explaining gender gaps and addressing targeted policy implication at the beginning of a new program-ming era for the Common Agricultural Policy of the EU. ,, , Vecchio
... Initially, only members meeting the terroir characteristics defined in the local code of practice Codex Wachau could use the label. This was non-compliant with the EU idea of PDOs (Torre and Traversac, 2013) and was subsequently subject to a lawsuit (Vinea Wachau, 2010). As a result, the PDO has become accessible for all producers from the delineated geographical area who followed the code of practice. ...
... The residents of area create different problems in handing over the allotted land to executing agency and usually demand unnecessary benefits before handing over the land. The issues resulted due to land disputes during development interventions can be prevented through good governance ( Torre and Traversac, 2011). The availability of land for smooth execution of a project is very much important. ...
Article
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Purpose – The complexity of projects has become a serious issue and obstacle in their successful completion. In order to overcome these complexities, it has become imperative to identify the relevant management competencies of project managers. The purpose of this paper is to address the problem of cost, time and scope in engineering infrastructure projects due to their complexities through management competencies. Design/methodology/approach – In the first phase of the study, 32 experts were interviewed through semi-structured pre-tested questionnaire. In this phase, essential elements of complexities were identified initially. This was followed by finding required dimensions of competencies to counter these complexities and to acquire improved performance. In the final stage, required levels of competencies for specific elements of complexity were identified. In the second phase, 85 “project managers” were also approached to get feedback about their recently completed public sector engineering infrastructure projects in Pakistan. Findings – The study identified additional dimensions, i.e. honesty, enthusiasm and dedication, in the case of competencies and adverse law and order situation, political instability, land issues, energy crisis and weak authorization of project managers in the case of complexities. Leadership, management skill, communication skill, effectiveness and result orientation were identified as top quality traits required. The study concluded that there is a significant impact of management competencies and complexities on project performance. Originality/value – The study contributes to a better understanding of how to improve performance in complex engineering infrastructure projects through adopting management competencies. It also empirically illustrates the relations among project management competencies, complexities and project performance. Although the research is grounded on public sector infrastructure projects, its findings may also be helpful for practices in project management of other sectors. Keywords: Project Management Competencies, Project Complexities, Project Performance, Public Sector Infrastructure Projects, Pakistan Paper type: Research paper
... Finally, a key characteristic refers to "territorial governance", in the sense defined by Gilly and Wallet (2005: 701), as "the process of dynamic articulation of the set of practices and institutional devices existing between actors in close geographic proximity, intended to address a production-or consumption-related issue or to implement a territorial development project". In a predominant context of globalised mass food markets presenting asymmetry in information and numerous decision makers, the existence of successful territorial governance processes currently involves, from the decision-making perspective, conducting networked processes of collective organisation in which processes of multi-level coordination among the economic and social agents take place (Torre and Traversac 2011). ...
Article
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The article aims to characterise the organisational model and the discourse of the food consumer groups located in Lavapiés, a district in central Madrid (Spain), in order to test whether these groups can be conceptualised as forms of political and social innovation based on the principle of cooperation between producers and consumers. The methodology consists of an empirical study based upon semi-structured interviews with a prominent member of each of Lavapiés’ consumer groups. An inductive coding and an analysis of co-occurrences were conducted in order to process the qualitative information. We verify the hypothesis that these groups constitute an example of construction of self-organised alternative social networks based upon the concept that food consumption can be considered to constitute a political choice, contributing to creating agro-ecological alternative models of food production and consumption. Territorial governance of consumer groups involves the existence of close links with a dense social network embedded in the neighbourhood of Lavapiés, and with Madrid’s agro-ecological movement. Keywords: consumer groups, agro-ecology, politics, territorial governance, Lavapiés.
... Ainsi, l'objectif de cet article est d'analyser les jeux d'acteurs qui façonnent la dynamique portuaire en les considérants comme des enjeux de développement du territoire élargi (dépassant le périmètre du port). Nous porterons une attention particulière au processus de gouvernance envisagé comme un moteur essentiel de développement territorial (Torre, 2018) : « la gouvernance des territoires ne se réduit pas aux formes de coopération et de constructions communes (Torre et Traversac, 2011). Il s'agit plutôt d'une interaction entre des forces qui poussent à la coopération et d'autres au conflit... » (Torre, 2018). ...
Conference Paper
Les travaux traitant de la gouvernance portuaire ou de la gouvernance ville-port sont nombreux. L’objectif de ce papier n’est pas de produire une énième analyse des modèles ou des modalités de cette gouvernance mais de la considérer comme un enjeu de développement du territoire. Les ports européens sont dominés par le modèle du port foncier, englobant aussi bien le modèle hanséatique que des ports d’état. Notre approche vise en premier lieu à donner la parole aux acteurs de cette relation ville-port afin de l’analyser et d’en dégager les enjeux ce qui la place au niveau de la place portuaire voire de la communauté. De plus, il nous semble pertinent, dans un premier temps, de privilégier l’échelle intermédiaire que nous qualifierons ici de villes portuaires moyennes en raison de leur distribution sur leur territoire européen et de leur rôle dans son maillage, et son organisation.
... Ainsi, nous questionnons directement à travers la gestion du foncier le caractère potentiellement conflictuel de la gouvernance qu'aborde régulièrement André Torre dans ses travaux. « La gouvernance des territoires ne se limite donc pas à une vision idyllique des relations économiques et sociales, i.e. aux formes de coopération et de constructions communes » (Torre et Traversac, 2011). « Il s'agit également d'une interaction entre des forces poussant à la coopération et d'autres forces qui poussent au conflit » (Torre, 2011). ...
Article
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The pastoral land associations are tools of land restructuring created by the pastoral law of 1972 to propose a solution to the specific problems of the land in mountain (division, joint possessions, absentee owners). It is a very standardized statutory instrument, which nevertheless allows to implement original forms of governance thanks to three major elements: the (statutory) procedure which obliges, the object (the land) which involves and the scale (the municipality) which facilitates. Thus social and geographical closeness appears as the central ingredient which allows to explain the success of AFP.
... The future of EU rural territories are conditioned by the rapid changes in social and economic worldwide evolutions and also by the economic policies based on regional smart specialization or, in other words, in favor of the largest urbanized areas in terms of food provision, among others. As rural areas farming remains the main source of land use occupation, the development of agriculture is widely imposed nearby the city accompanied by the diffusion of new models such as short value chains or local food productions ( Torre and Traversac, 2011). Europe has the socio-economic conditions to achieve a Bioeconomy model that gets innovation through the application of agro-ecological knowledge. ...
Article
This paper examines the role of public subsidies on farming efficiency for Spain by using a Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) approach followed by a nonparametric regression of efficiency to farm specific factors (economic size, environmentally friendly behavior and regional aspects). The empirical analysis suggest that although a higher degree of direct payments negatively affects farm efficiency, these subsidies become an incentive for environmental friendly behavior by farmers in order to improve the productive efficiency. In turn, this proposition leads to a careful attention for the roots of agricultural productions in line to the EU aim of more market-oriented agriculture. Then, a conceptual framework was elaborated in order to propose a multi-layered model for supporting the design of a green business plan based on functional foods. This study also explores the process of generation-production-consumption of functional foods, involving not only the knowledge transfer of the healthy properties of these products but also the multiple role of rural women as producers, educators/advisors and buyers of these foods. The positioning of rural women in the whole process of functional foods results relevant to build their competitive advantage as local entrepreneurs. The leverage points of the strategic formulation of green business models were reinforced following the roadmapping methodology from a dynamic perspective: alliances with suppliers of knowledge (researchers), identification with their reference groups (investors, clients) and management of intellectual capital (structural, human, relational). Finally, findings reveal that rural women are better positioned than others to create businesses based on functional foods from a niche formulation.
... La mise en place de dispositifs de gouvernance territoriale s'est assez largement développée ces dernières années dans un certain nombre de pays (Pasquier, Simoulin, & Weisbien 2013 ;Torre & Traversac 2011). Elle vise à améliorer les modalités de mise en oeuvre des politiques publiques en favorisant leur territorialisation. ...
Article
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De nombreux États promeuvent des politiques publiques territoriales où les dispositifs de gouvernance sont centraux. Cependant, la plus-value et l'efficacité de ces dispositifs dépendent grandement de la capacité des acteurs à interagir à différents niveaux d’organisation. Au Brésil, afin de dépasser les blocages identifiés dans les communes, la création de dispositifs de gouvernance à l'échelle intercommunale, les Collèges de dé-veloppement territorial (Codeter), a été encouragée dans le cadre d’un programme na-tional de développement territorial (Pronat). Cependant, dans de vastes régions à faible densité de population comme l’Amazonie, le renforcement des coordinations lo-cales entre acteurs s’avère particulièrement ardu. Afin de les consolider, les Codeter de l’État fédéré du Pará ont favorisé l’émergence d’Arrangements Productifs Locaux (APL). L’analyse des interactions dans les deux catégories de dispositif (local et territo-rial) dans une phase active et dans une phase d’arrêt du programme, a mis en relief les différentes postures adoptées par les représentants qui contrôlent les liens entre les groupes d'acteurs, que nous appelons représentants clés. Nous en déduisons des stra-tégies susceptibles de faciliter la gouvernance interne des territoires.
... Bajo este esquema, la gobernanza territorial de los sistemas agroalimentarios es un enfoque de la Administración Pública que tiene un fuerte contenido sociológico al remitir a la confianza mediante el impulso a los esquemas de consulta en las zonas rurales (Torre y Traversac, 2011). No obstante, dichos mecanismos de consulta tienen características específicas que pueden ser explicadas por las ideas de la economía sustantiva y del arraigo expuestas anteriormente, pues es necesario reconocer que los alimentos anclados en el territorio suponen un valor intrínseco social y cultural, así como una importancia en la vida económica y en los ecosistemas que no puede ser compensada por los supuestos beneficios económicos que aportarían las actividades y las políticas dirigidas a la transformación de uso de suelo, de sustracción de agua para el consumo de las ciudades o el otorgamiento de concesiones para industrias extractivas (como la minería o la pesca industrial), ya que ponen en peligro a los sistemas alimentarios, la cultura y el patrimonio. ...
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