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Nowadays, it has been an increasing demand for health-oriented products such as high fiber and low calories products. The aim of this work is to try to substitute these additives with a natural extract from Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm. which is a good source of dietary fibre and mineral compounds. Physicochemical and functional properties of seeds and cladodes powders were investigated and indicated the possibility of incorporating them into the manufacture of cakes. The study demonstrated that cakes having good sensory qualities can be produced by the replacement of wheat flour with 15% of cladodes and 5% of seeds powder. The consumption of a cake enriched with O. macrorhiza cladodes and seeds is also proposed for health reasons. Thus, the flour obtained from O. macrorhiza cladodes and seeds can be suggested as an ingredient in food products.
Keywords: Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm.; mixing plan; cake; physical characteristics; sensory evaluation.
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... To increase the fiber content in cakes, various raw materials were used such as pomegranate peel powder (Topkaya & Isik, 2019), carrot pomace powder (Majzoobi, Poor, Jamalian, & Farahnaky, 2016;Majzoobi, Vosooghi Poor, Mesbahi, Jamalian, & Farahnaky, 2017), cladodes of Opuntia ficus indica (Ayadi, Abdelmaksoud, Ennouri, & Attia, 2009), wheat bran, oat bran, microcrystalline cellulose (Gómez, Moraleja, Oliete, Ruiz, & Caballero, 2010), Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm (Chahdoura et al., 2018), coffee silverskin (Ateş & Elmacı, 2018), green banana flour (Segundo et al., 2017), and inulin (Majzoobi, de Almeida, 2011). The obtained products, in general, presented adequate functional and sensory properties. ...
... The same comportment was reported by Singh, Kaur, and Singh (2016) in gluten-free cakes added of up to 40% of sweet potato flour and black carrot pomace fiber (3, 6, and 9%) and xanthan gum (0.5%). On the other hand, Gularte, De La Hera, Gómez, and Rosell (2012) and Chahdoura et al. (2018) observed an increase in the hardness of the cake incorporated of inulin, guar gum, and oat fiber (up to 20%), and cladodes (15%) and seeds (5%) powder of Opuntia macrorhiza Engelm., respectively. However, this modification in texture did not alter the sensory acceptance of the product. ...
... In some cases, in addition to starch gelatinization and protein denaturation, coalescence is observed which, when complete, provides the cake structure (Chahdoura et al., 2018;Yang & Foegeding, 2010). ...
The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of sugarcane bagasse (SB) addition on chemical, physical and sensory properties of the oat flour and banana cakes. The SB was added in the amount of 3 g and 6 g/100 g solids (BC3 and BC6) to obtain cakes considered “source of fiber” and “high in fiber content”, respectively. The addition of SB did not alter the chemical composition of the cakes except the dietary fiber which was higher in the BC6. The firmness of the cake increased with SB concentration, but this fact did not interfere in the sensorial acceptance of the product. The production of oat flour and banana cakes containing “high fiber content” with good sensorial acceptance was possible and demonstrated the reuse of an agro‐industrial residue widely available the sugar and alcohol industry. In this work it was demonstrated the capacity of reusing sugarcane bagasse, an abundant agroindustrial by‐product, in the oat flour and banana cake formulation. The addition of sugarcane bagasse increased the dietary fiber amount, and according Brazilian legislation, the obtained cake was consider as “high in fiber content”. In addition, the oat flour and banana cakes showed the same sensory acceptance, regardless sugarcane bagasse concentration. The using of sugarcane bagasse in cakes could be a good alternative for increasing the dietary fiber, and may be considered as a potential functional ingredient in other food products.
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... (2019) and Sawaya et al. (1983a) Results were given on a dry weight basis Botanical parts from Opuntia have been studied for many different purposes. Due to their health-beneficial effects (Aragona et al., 2018;Ammar et al., 2018), techno-functional properties (Arias-Rico et al., 2020), and potential role in improving the nutritional profile of other matrices (Aruwa et al., 2018;Chahdoura et al., 2018;Du Toit et al., 2019;Diboune et al., 2019), flours (or extracts) of cactus fruits, cladodes, and seeds can be exploited in various food systems (Table 46.2). With this purpose, alternative methods have been established in different industries such as bakery, pasta, snack, and extrusion (Sarkar et al., 2011;Guevara-Arauza et al., 2015;Rayan et al., 2018;Liguori et al., 2020;Oniszczuk et al., 2020). ...
... Incorporating Opuntia cladodes (such as O. robusta, O. ficus indica, and O. humifusa) up to certain levels into cake formulations was beneficial to technological and sensorial attributes. In general; as the substitution level increased, ash content, fibre content, swelling ability, specific gravity, the yield of dough, energy, and hardness increased, while elasticity, calorie level, carbohydrate, protein, and fat contents decreased (Ayadi et al., 2009;Kim et al., 2012;El-Safy, 2013;Chahdoura et al., 2018). It is expected that fortification of cakes with the highly nutritive, low calorie, and the bioactive cactus plant will promote health benefits. ...
... However, the substitution concentration is the primary factor to be optimized as the addition of cladode flours at high ratios may result in undesired textural and sensorial attributes. Mostly, a partial substitution of (wheat) cake flour up to 10-15% levels provided a pleasant texture and well-accepted sensorial properties without detrimental effects to quality (Ayadi et al., 2009;El-Safy, 2013;Chahdoura et al., 2018). The stiffer, sticky, and less elastic texture obtained at high substitution ratios (more than 15%-25%) resulted in cakes of low volume and a more compact body. ...
Opuntia spp. has widespread species which are well-adapted to arid lands and climates over the world. This cactus plant was originated in America and then spread to other regions such as Europe, Africa, and Mediterranean countries. It is mainly cultivated for its seed, edible fruit (prickly pear), and cladodes. The nutritional and health benefits of the Opuntia genus are provided by various compounds such as phenolic compounds, pigments, polysaccharides, mucilage, dietary fibre, vitamins (B1, B2, A, and C), and minerals including magnesium, iron, calcium, potassium, and phosphorus. Owing to several health benefits, including prevention of diabetes, cancer, cardiovascular disease, and inhibition of inflammation, the number of studies focusing on developing novel foods and bioactive compounds by using different parts of this plant has increased recently. Several attempts have been made to integrate this plant into other foods, including bread, cake, pasta, gluten-free products, extrudates, cereal bars, juices, and meat products to improve their nutritional quality. In particular, Opuntia has gained importance as an excellent food source as desertification areas have increased and water resources have decreased globally. This chapter will discuss the recent studies dealing with the use of Opuntia spp. for edible purposes and the development of appropriate processing techniques to incorporate various parts of this valuable plant into other food matrices.
... target groups and vulnerable sections of the populations who are undernourished.  The cake is a sweet dessert that attracts consumers through its smell, taste, and appearance. It is food for all age groups ranging from children to elderly people. ...
... Even though it is a native plant to the Americas, it is widely found in the African, Asian, European and Oceanic continents, with a wide variety of purposes (Nharingo and Moyo, 2016). Cactus species, cultivated worldwide, were primarily for forage production, but in the last decades it has intensified research on the use of this plant in several areas, such as in the production of pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, food, production of alcoholic beverages, soil conservation and recovery of degraded areas, as raw material in the production of biofuels, in the treatment of residual water (e.g., greywater), among other uses (Andrade-Montemayor et al., 2011;Volpe et al., 2018;Aruwa et al., 2018;Chahdoura et al., 2018). ...
The Brazilian semi-arid is an area that has a strong influence on climatic factors and agricultural vulnerability, which govern the availability and supply of fodder. The understanding of the limitations and the alternatives to be adopted, aid in the improvement of the systems of production of fodder and an increase in the benefits of the system. In this review, we sought to address agrometeorological aspects and agronomic techniques aimed at improving resilience in forage cactus production systems under different cropping systems in arid and semi-arid environments through information on the stability of the plant population contributing to reducing the risk environmental degradation and production losses.
There has been a growing tendency towards the development of healthier and more nutritious foods in this day and age. Correspondingly, these foods, frequently designated “functional,” contain bioactive ingredients, and interestingly, some agricultural and industrial residues have proven to be prominent choices for the production of bioactive compounds, labeled as potentially safe natural sources of functional agents for the food sector. Bioactive ingredients are required for healthy living and are capable of treating/preventing diseases or disorders; moreover, they can impose some techno-functional and sensorial properties on the food matrix and can be applied to enhance the shelf life of food products in food packaging systems. Nonetheless, bioactive ingredients may not always endow beneficial properties in food networks and could sometimes lead to detrimental effects considering health issues and functional properties of the food networks, reducing the desirability of the final food product. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to choose the right set of bioactive ingredients concerning the formulation of the intended food product. Accordingly, this revision enlarges upon the advantages of using bioactive ingredients within food systems and glances over the side of the argument as well.
Bread, basic food in many parts of the world, is usually prepared by mixing wheat flour, water, salt, and yeast in varying proportions. Apart from these primary components, incorporating functional ingredients that provide health benefits into bakery products has overgrown due to the increasing demands of consumers for functional food. Several studies have shown that bread, which contains functional ingredients, particularly dietary fiber, and antioxidants are associated with maintaining health and decreased risk of some chronic and degenerative diseases, obesity, inflammatory and aging. Many functional ingredients are derived from natural raw materials, cereal-milling by-products, fruit and vegetables, and their processing by-products, pseudocereals (buckwheat, quinoa, and amaranth), legume flours, and oilseeds can be introduced in bread. Opuntia spp. derivatives are an attractive alternative to meet the actual trend for new sources used as a functional ingredient. Some research demonstrates that many parts of Opuntia spp. such as cactus pear fruits, stems (cladodes), and fresh mucilage have a vast potential to be used in bread making. Opuntia species include high values of dietary fiber, protein, minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants. These nutrients have a protective ability against cancer, cardiovascular disorders, hypercholesterolemia, inflammatory, obesity, and allergic diseases. Using Opuntia spp. derivatives can provide healthy bread with higher nutritional quality such as more protein content, ash, dietary fiber, phenolics, antioxidants, and oxidative stability than the wheat bread. However, the inclusion of fiber-rich ingredients, up to a certain level, impair dough rheology and bread quality, including sticky dough, reduced loaf volume, increased crumb hardness, and coarse texture dark-colored crumbs, and taste alterations. This chapter evaluates the impact of Opuntia spp. derivatives on the dough rheological properties as well as the physical, nutritional, technological, textural, and sensory aspects of bread.
Cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica) cladodes are a source of dietary fiber, vitamins and antioxidants that could be utilized by the food industry for both their nutritional and technological properties. In the present study, cladodes were dried at 45 °C for 24 h, followed by a 18 h vacuum drying at 45 °C or 60 °C. The dried cladodes were then ground in a grain mill, resulting in two coarse cladode flours (C45 and C60, respectively). A portion of the two flours was further ground with jet mill, yielding two fine flours, J45 and J60, respectively. Color, bulk density, water and oil holding capacities, solubility and dietary fiber content were determined. In addition, rheological properties and sedimentation kinetic of aqueous cladode flour suspensions were evaluated. An increase of insoluble fiber was observed with micro-grinding. All samples exhibited shear thinning behavior, while jet milling led to substantial decrease in apparent viscosity values. Coarse fractions sedimented quickly, achieving almost maximum sedimentation within 10 min, while the micro ground samples sedimented half as fast. In conclusion, particle size significantly alters the technological properties of cladode flour, broadening the range of applications cladodes could be used for.
Aiming at increasing the nutritional value and sensory quality of bread, we assessed the enrichment of white flour with different levels of powdered cinnamon and pomegranate peel, through rheological, nutritional, aromatic, textural and sensory analyses. These extra ingredients were chosen for their richness in bioactive compounds and they differently affected bread quality. In relation to raw flour, introduced ingredients slightly decreased moisture and protein content, while increasing ash, fibre, and radical scavenging activity, which can be attributed to the sharing of aromatic compounds by cinnamon & pomegranate peel during the bread making process. When cinnamon was incorporated at 1%, the content of all furan derivatives was reduced up to 1/4 of initial value, 2-pentyl furan totally disappeared, and furfuryl alcohol was reduced to 2.1%. Despite enriched bread’s texture was slightly worse, it was still acceptable in sensory tests, as 150 interviewed naive consumers preferred the new product over the control.
keywords: enriched bread, nutritional value, safety, furan compounds, bioactive compounds, aroma, sensorial proprieties
In this study, the effect of acidic, neutral and alkaline medium extraction of polysaccharides from Opuntia macrorhiza fruit peels was evaluated. The extraction yields ranged from 6.8 to 13.7%, and the highest content in uronic acid was observed in the acidic extract (50.5%). Likewise, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy showed the presence of uronic acids in the methyl ester and free forms, with a degree of esterification of 46.9, 39.3 and 48.3% for the acidic, neutral and alkaline extracts. Monosaccharide composition showed that the extracted polysaccharides were principally composed of arabinose, rhamnose, galactose and glucose, with an average molecular weight of 208,000, 1460,000 and 1380,000 g/mol, respectively. Therefore, this finding indicates that extracts are a low methoxyl pectic polysaccharides. Finally, all polysaccharides exhibited good antioxidant activity, especially acid extract significantly inhibits lipid peroxidation and in vitro protein glycation in BSA-glucose glycation model and alkaline extract inhibits α-amylase with a competitive type.
The aim of this study was to produce concentrated orange juice (OJ) powders by the application of two new techniques, namely micro-wet milling (MWM) and vacuum spray drying (VSD) process. MWM produced OJ with smaller particle sizes (55.0 ± 1.05 μm) than conventional methods and increased the nutritional and antioxidant properties of the concentrated juice over the commercial OJ. VSD process was conducted at low temperature (40–60 °C) using superheated steam (200 °C) as a heating medium and maltodextrin (13DE) as a carrier. The effects of VSD on physicochemical and antioxidant properties of MWM OJ powders produced with four different weight ratios of juice solids to maltodextrin solids; 60:40, 50:50, 40:60 and 30:70 were investigated. The obtained powders were analyzed for moisture content, water activity, bulk density, tapped density, particle density, porosity, and particle size and distributions and microstructure of the particles. The quality in respect to the physical properties of OJ powders was improved except color parameter with increases of maltodextrin solids. The VSD powders retained a higher amount of ascorbic acid, total phenolic content (TPC) and total flavonoid content (TFC) than spray drying. MWM orange powder with overall good quality in terms of color, yield, ascorbic acid, TFC, TPC and DPPH activity was successfully produced by VSD.
Opuntia spp. flowers have been traditionally used for medical purposes, mostly because of their diversity in bioactive molecules with health promoting properties. The proximate, mineral and volatile compound profiles, together with the cytotoxic and antimicrobial properties were characterized in O. microdasys flowers at different maturity stages, revealing several statistically significant differences. O. microdasys stood out mainly for its high contents of dietary fiber, potassium and camphor, and its high activities against HCT15 cells, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus versicolor and Penicillium funiculosum. The vegetative stage showed the highest cytotoxic and antifungal activities, whilst the full flowering stage was particularly active against bacterial species. The complete dataset has been classified by principal component analysis, achieving clearly identifiable groups for each flowering stage, elucidating also the most distinctive features, and comprehensively profiling each of the assayed stages. The results might be useful to define the best flowering stage considering practical application purposes.
The phenolic compounds of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extracted by two methods (solvent and ultrasound-assisted) with five solvents (acetone, methanol, ethanol, water and ethyl acetate) were compared with supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). The total phenolic compounds were determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu reagent using tannic acid as standard. The overall results showed that acetone with sonication produced the maximum amount of phenolic compounds from pomegranate peel extracts (PPE). Furthermore, the effect of the acetone extract of pomegranate peel (0.010-0.050 %) on the stability of soybean oil during heating at 60 o C (oven test method) was determined by measuring peroxide and thiobarbitoric acid values. At a 0.050 % level of pomegranate peel extract, its antioxidant activity was greater than 0.02 % of the two synthetic antioxidants butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). The pomegranate peel extract possessed a relatively high antioxidant activity and might be considered as a rich source of natural antioxidant.
The stems of Opuntia ficus-indica known as cladodes are rich source of bioactive and functional substances, which make them important candidate for the production of health-promoting food. Cladodes powder was incorporated at different levels of substitution (2.5%, 5% and 7.5%) in cookies (butter/wheat flour: 55/100 m/m). Substitution of wheat flour by cladodes powder improved dietary fiber, ash, potassium, magnesium and calcium contents of enriched cookies. The results also revealed that cladodes supplementation increased hardness; however, it decreased a* and b* values and reduced exudate loss of cookies during storage. Moreover, rising levels of cladodes powder contribute to the increase of antioxidant activity of cookies and decreased their oxidative degradation. Sensory evaluation showed that cladodes supplementation at 5% level remained acceptable at 5-point hedonic scale. The present study suggested that cladodes supplementation in high-fat cookies not only added nutritional value to food, but also improved its functional characteristics.
Physicochemical and functional properties of Opuntia cladodes were investigated to evaluate the effect of drying temperatures and the possibility for its application in formulation of rolled cake of cladode flour. The three powders obtained by three drying temperatures showed a significant difference on the physiochemical and functional properties studied exception for reducing sugars and luminosity. These values were directly influenced by the heat of treatment. Sensory evaluation of rolled cake supplemented with cladodes flours at different levels revealed that the 30% cake had the highest score. The results suggest that 60 °C Opuntia cladodes flours could be used as potential functional and technological supplement. It might be possible to manufacture functional bakery products.
Utilization of potato processing residues to produce a low caloric cupcake in present study was targeted. The functional properties of wheat flour (WF 72%) and dried potato peel varieties [Hermus (PPH) and Russet (PPR)] were carried out. Consequently, WF was partially substituted by both potato peels (PP) at 5% - 20% to prepare mixtures for cupcake making. Approximate chemical composition and physical characteristics were determined. Rheological parameters of prepared formulas were assayed using Mixolab. Moreover, total phenolic compounds (TPC) and relative antioxidant activity (AOA) were evaluated. Quality parameters such as thiobarbituric acid (TBA), staling and microbiological attributes during storage were determined. In addition, a sensory evaluation of different substituted cupcake was performed as well. Results indicated that PPR had the highest water absorption capacity (WAC), oil absorption capacity (OAC) and swelling capacity (SC) followed by PPH then WF flours. Indeed, substituted WF with both PP at 5% and 10% didn’t influence the thermo-mechanical properties including dough time development, stability, viscosity, gluten and starch characteristics drastically. Likewise, this substitution levels didn’t affect the organoleptic properties which were confirmed by panelists, cupcake external and cross sections. Substituted WF by 5% - 10% PP recorded sensory scores aftermost WF. Mildly, WF cupcake was higher in protein and fat contents than WF-PP cupcakes while lower in crude fiber. The WF-PP cupcakes at different substituted levels recorded lower energy value than WF cupcakes. Arguably, increasing both PP levels increased the TPC and AOA especially for WF-PPR cupcakes. Afterwards, WF-PPR 15% and 20% recorded the highest TPC and AOA contents to be 2.32 mg GAE g-1 dw and 3.44 μmol TE g-1 dw, respectively. No significant difference (p > 0.05) was found between WF-PP at 5% and WF cupcakes in physical and staling properties. WF-PPR cupcakes at different concentrations were lower TBA than WF cupcakes and mostly stable during storage period. It was revealed that substitution levels of 5% and 10% with PPH and PPR produced acceptable cupcakes which did not significantly differ from WF cupcakes.
Objective: to assess studentsácceptability and preference for cakes prepared with orange-fleshed sweet potato flour (Ipomoea batatas L.). Materials and methods: the cakes were prepared with wheat flour (sample A) and a mixture where 40% of the wheat flour was replaced by orange-fleshed sweet potato flour (sample B). Questionnaires were applied to 100 students between 10 and 12 years old from a public school in the city of Rio de Janeiro; sensory acceptance and preference tests were also applied. Results: participants were on average 11,7 years old, 80% were 6th graders, 50% were female and 97% of the students reported liking the cakes. In this group, 14% reported consuming cakes less than once a month; 27%, 1-3 times per month; 37%, 1-4 times per week; 19%, 1-2 times a day; and only 2% reported never consuming them. Both cakes had high acceptability; with an average score of 9,27 (A) and 9,26 (B) out of a maximum of 10, without any significant differences in preference. Cake consumption was part of the children's eating habits. Conclusions: cakes prepared with 40% sweet potato flour were as well accepted as conventional cakes. Further, a portion of this cake (60 g) can contribute up to 22% of daily vitamin A needs.
14 The effect of different fibers, added individually or in combination, to improve the 15 functional properties of gluten free layer cakes was examined. Soluble (inulin and guar 16 gum), and insoluble (oat fiber) fibers were used to replace up to 20% of rice flour in gluten 17 free layer cakes formulation. The incorporation of fibers increased the batter viscosity, with 18 the exception of inulin. Fiber enriched gluten free cakes containing blends of oat fiber-inulin 19 resulted in improved specific volume. Significantly brighter crust and crumb was obtained in 20 the presence of fibers, excepting the crumb of oat-guar gum containing cake. Fibers and its 21 blends increased the crumb hardness; but the smallest effect was observed with the addition 22 of oat, individually or combined with inulin. Enriched cakes increased significantly their 23 dietary fiber content, which was connected to the nature of the fibers added. Fibers 24 significantly affected the in vitro hydrolysis of starch fractions, being the most pronounced 25 2 effect the decrease in the slowly digestible starch. Overall combination of oat fiber-inulin 26 resulted in better gluten-free cakes.
The rheological properties of wheat flour dough and qualities of bread prepared with 0, 10, and 20% of dietary fiber slurry extracted and purified from ascidian (Halocynthia roretzi) tunic were investigated. Water absorption of the dough increased with the increase of dietary fiber slurry. Both arrival and development time of the dough with 10 and 20% dietary fiber slurry added were shorter than those of the control. An increase in the added amount of the dietary fiber slurry resulted in an increase of weakness. The dough's extensibility and resistance to extension were decreased, and the ratio of resistance to extensibility (R/E) decreased with the increase in the dietary fiber slurry. The maximum viscosity gradually decreased with the increase in the amount of dietary fiber slurry, while the temperature of gelatinization was not changed. Both loaf and specific volume of bread were slightly decreased with an increase in the amount of dietary fiber slurry. Overall preference scores by sensory evaluation and the quality characteristics of the bread with up to 20% dietary fiber slurry added was not significantly different from those of the control(p
Three streams of corn dry-milled products (corn grits, corn cones, and corn flour) from three different commercial corn dry-millers were further separated by particle size according to the major portion of each stream. They were separated into corn grits (1.190 and 0.841 mm), corn cones (0.595, 0.420, and 0.297 mm), and corn flour (0.297 and 0.210 mm). Besides separation, corn grits were also ground and then separated into ground corn grits (0.297 and 0.210 mm). The original streams, streams with additional separation, and streams with additional grinding were analyzed for protein content, ash content, crude fat content, and color properties. Duncan's significant difference tests (P < 0.01) showed that additional separation and grinding of the commercial corn grits, corn cones, and corn flour affected protein, crude fat content, and color parameter (L, a, and b) distribution of the products. The tristimulus parameters (L, a, and b) were good indicators of the protein content of the corn dry-milled streams studied.
Opuntia ficus indica seeds harvested in three different years were investigated for total phenols, protein, total lipid content and fatty acids composition. Seeds were found to be rich in phenolic compounds (268.4 mg/100 g). Seeds contained also 6.0% of protein and 5.5% of oil. Unsaturated fatty acids accounted for the majority of the fatty acids (83.2%). Linoleic acid with 56.6% was the main fatty acid followed by oleic acid (20.1%). Significant differences were observed between total phenols, protein and total lipid content of seeds collected in three different harvested years, whereas no differences in fatty acid (FA) compositions were detected. The use of this plant species as a source of seed oil for dietary, industrial and pharmaceutical applications is discussed.
Demand for health oriented products such as sugar-free, low calorie and high fibre products is increasing. One such recent trend is to increase the fibre content in food products to overcome health problems such as hypertension, diabetes, and colon cancer, among others. Consumption of high fibre products consisting of indigestible cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and gums have several health benefits. Apart from these benefits, β-glucan-rich fibres have the benefit of reducing the absorption of glucose. Fibre sources from wheat, rice, oat and barley were used to study their influence on rheological characteristics of wheat flour dough and biscuit making quality. Ash, total protein and dietary fibre content of bran samples ranged between 4% and 10%, 12% and 14% and 20.4% and 49.5%, respectively. Farinograph characteristics of the wheat flour-bran blends showed increase in water absorption from 60.3% to 76.3% with increase in the level of bran from 0% to 40%. The resistance to extension values as well as extensibility of the dough decreased with increase in the bran level. The spread ratio of the biscuits prepared from wheat, rice and oat bran blends decreased from 8.38 to 7.52, whereas the same increased to 9.3 for biscuits prepared from barley bran blends. The breaking strength values of biscuits ranged between 1.34 and 3.83 kg. Highly acceptable biscuits could be obtained by incorporating 30% of oat bran or 20% of barley bran in the formulation.
Apple pomace, a by-product of apple juice industry, is a rich source of fibre and polyphenols. Also in view of the antioxidant property of pomace, it would play an important role in prevention of diseases. Apple pomace procured from fruit juice industry, contained 10.8% moisture, 0.5% ash and 51.1% of dietary fibre. Finely ground apple pomace was incorporated in wheat flour at 5%, 10% and 15% levels and studied for rheological characteristics. Water absorption increased significantly from 60.1% to 70.6% with increase in pomace from 0% to 15%. Dough stability decreased and mixing tolerance index increased, indicating weakening of the dough. Resistance to extension values significantly increased from 336 to 742 BU whereas extensibility values decreased from 127 to 51 mm. Amylograph studies showed decrease in peak viscosity and cold paste viscosity from 950 to 730 BU and 1760 to 970 BU respectively. Cakes were prepared from blends of wheat flour containing 0–30% apple pomace. The volume of cakes decreased from 850 to 620 cc with increase in pomace content from 0% to 30%. Cakes prepared from 25% of apple pomace had a dietary fibre content of 14.2% The total phenol content in wheat flour and apple pomace was 1.19 and 7.16 mg/g respectively where as cakes prepared from 0% and 25% apple pomace blends had 2.07 and 3.15 mg/g indicating that apple pomace can serve as a good source of both polyphenols and dietary fibre.
It is common to fall back on the use of gluten-free flour from cereal, or from other grains, such as legumes or pseudocereals for gluten-free products development. Traditionally, the industry has approached the use of native flours, without modification, whose properties depend on grain characteristics and composition as well as the milling system used. Nevertheless, flours obtained from traditional methods can be subjected to different physical treatments, which range from a simple sieving to complex hy-drothermal treatments which can modify flour functionality and their adequacy to the different gluten-free elaborations. In this review, the different physical modifications can be submitted to flours and the way they change flour functionality have been analysed. Thereby, the influence of flour particle size, fine grinding and air classification processes, and the different modalities of dry and wet thermal treatments on flour properties have been discussed. The review concludes by explaining the utility and the potential uses of these physical treatments on gluten-free products.
Cereal Chem. 72(2):209-212 Thirty-two flour samples were used to evaluate three methods for deter- used for the comparison. When data for soft wheats were excluded, the mining starch damage: an iodometric method presented by the Tripette/ Chopin method also had r 2 values of greater than 0.90. In a separate Renaud (Chopin) Company using their SD4 instrument; an enzymatic study, damaged starch values were determined on 187 flour samples method marketed by the MegaZyme Company; and a rapid colorimetric (covering two crop years) by the approved AACC and Farrand methods, method. These methods were compared to the approved AACC method giving a coefficient of determination of 0.95. The regression equation 76-30A and the Farrand method as to their ease of use, precision, and generated was used to evaluate near-infrared spectroscopy as another accuracy. For all except the Chopin method, comparative coefficients method for starch damage determination, and resulted in a coefficient of determinations (r 2 ) greater than 0.90 were obtained. For the Chopin of determination of 0.90 between the laboratory value and the near- method, the r 2 value ranged from 0.78 to 0.82, depending on the method infrared predicted values.
To develop new type of sponge cake, the effects of partial (0~40%) replacement with Rubus coreanus powder (RCP) on the quality characteristics of sponge cakes were investigated. The pH level and moisture content ranged from 4.05~8.23 and 28.49~36.59, respectively, and significantly decreased upon addition of RCP (P<0.05). Baking loss rate and cake firmness significantly increased with higher RCP content in the formulation, whereas morphological characteristics of cakes such as height, volume, and symmetry indices significantly decreased (P<0.05). For crumb color values, L*- and b*-values significantly decreased while a*-value significantly increased as a result of RCP substitution (P<0.05). Hedonic sensory results indicated that sponge cakes supplemented with 30~40% RCP showed the most favorable acceptance scores for most of the sensory attributes evaluated. Overall, Rubus coreanus sponge cake could be developed with comparable physicochemical qualities without sacrificing consumer acceptability.
In this study we investigated the physical and sensory characteristics of sponge cakes prepared with different levels(0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10%) of freeze-dried steamed garlic and Yuza(Citrus junos Sieb ex Tanaka) powder, combined at the same ratio. The cake height and specific loaf volume were highest in the 4% steamed garlic and Yuza powder group. Moisture contents were significantly higher in the 2 and 4% steamed garlic and Yuza powder groups than in the other groups. With increasing steamed garlic and Yuza powder content, the L- and b-values of the crust decreased, but the a-value increased, when compared to the control group. The L-value of the crumb was insignificant within each group. Compared to the a-value of the added groups, the a-value of the added groups, increased with increasing steamed garlic and Yuza powder contents. However the b-value decreased in the 8 and 10% steamed garlic and Yuza powder groups. The hardness and chewiness of the added groups, and the gumminess of the 10% addition group, were significantly higher than in the control group. The results of the sensory evaluation showed there were not significant differences amoung the groups, except for moistness. Therefore, we suggest that the recommended optimal level of steamed garlic and Yuza powder in sponge cake is a 4% addition.
Dietary fiber contents in brans of the two representative Korean rice varieties, Chucheong and Sucheon were measured by the AOAC method, and the composition of total dietary fiber (TDF) was analyzed with the acid detergent fiber (ADF) procedure. Rice bran contained more than 25% of TDF, most of which was insoluble dietary fiber. Hemicellulose was shown to be the major constituent and rice bran dietary fiber contained distinctive amounts of cellulose and uronic acid. Consecutive acidalkaline treatment of rice bran considerably increased soluble dietary fiber (SDF) content and water-holding capacity (WHC). WHC of wheat flour-rice bran dietary fiber mixture increased with the proportion of rice bran dietary fiber. Analysis of the differential scanning calorimetry thermograms revealed that rice bran dietary fiber effectively retarded retrogradation of wheat starch.
In the study, we determined the optimal ingredient mixing ratio for the preparation of sponge cake containing bamboo (Pseudosasa japonica Makino) leaves. This experiment was designed in according with the D-optimal design of mixture design, which involved 14 experimental points including 4 replicates for three independent variables (sugar 110129%, bamboo leaves 38%, oil 1025%). The results the F-test, specific gravity, volume and color values (L, a, b) decided a linear model, while the viscosity, hardness and sensory characteristics (color, smell, taste, texture and overall acceptance) decided a quadratic model. The results of our fitness analysis demonstrated that in all characteristic, the probabilities were significant within 0.05%; thus, the models were accepted as appropriate. The response surface and trace plot results demonstrated that increasing amounts of added bamboo leaves induced a reduction in brightness, and increasing redness and yellowness. In addition, increasing amounts of bamboo leaves caused increases in hardness, and thus the softness of the cake decreased. And as the level of added oil increased, softness increased. Cake samples received low sensory evaluation scores when sugar, bamboo leaves, and oil were added above their optimal levels. In the numeric optimization, the optimal ingredient amounts were 121.36% sugar, 4.96% bamboo leaves, and 15.69% oil. The above results demonstrate the feasibility of adding bamboo leaves to sponge cake, and therefore, a bamboo leaves as a functional food.
Cheonnyuncho (Opuntia humifusa) has multiple functional properties and is a good source of dietary fibre. The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality characteristics of sponge cakes made with cheonnyuncho powder. The moisture, ash, and dietary fibre levels in the sponge cakes increased linearly with the addition of 0–9 g of cheonnyuncho powder/100 g of wheat flour, and the carbohydrate and calorie contents of the samples decreased. The specific gravity and yield of dough increased with the addition of cheonnyuncho powder. For the crumb colour values, L and a decreased with the addition of cheonnyuncho powder whereas the b and ΔE values increased. In the texture analysis, hardness and gumminess were reduced, but cohesiveness and springiness were increased by the addition of cheonnyuncho powder. When the sensory characteristics were evaluated, the addition of 9 g of cheonnyuncho powder/100 g of wheat flour showed the best sensory properties. Overall, the addition of 9 g of cheonnyuncho powder/100 g of wheat flour improved the physical quality and taste of the sponge cake.
Abstract Fibre-enriched materials (FEMs) obtained from preharvest dropped apple peels were utilised as a source of dietary fibre in baked cakes and their effects on the textural/nutritional qualities and starch digestibility (glucose release behaviour, starch digestion fraction, predicted glycaemic index) of the cakes were evaluated. When FEMs were incorporated into the cake formulation (3 g and 6 g of dietary fibre per serving (100 g)), the volume of the cakes seemed to be reduced and their texture become harder. However, 3 g of FEMs did not degrade the cake qualities. The use of FEMs in cakes significantly reduced the levels of rapidly digestible starch and slowly digestible starch, while the levels of resistant starch increased. Additionally, the cake samples prepared with FEMs exhibited a lower predicted glycaemic index. This study may give rise to multi-functional bakery products with acceptable quality and low glycaemic index.
Proteins for foods, in addition to providing nutrition, should also possess specific functional properties that facilitate processing and serve as the basis of product performance. Functional properties of proteins for foods connote the physicochemical properties which govern the behavior of protein in foods. This general article collates the published information concerning the major functional properties of food proteins, e.g., solubility, binding properties, surfactant properties, viscogenic texturizing characteristics, etc. The effects of extraction and processing on functional properties and possible correlations between structure and function are discussed, in relation to practical performance in food systems. Modification of proteins to improve functional characteristics is briefly mentioned.
The applications of rheology to the main processes encountered during breadmaking (mixing, sheeting, fermentation and baking) are reviewed. The most commonly used rheological test methods and their relationships to product functionality are reviewed.It is shown that the most commonly used method for rheological testing of doughs, shear oscillation dynamic rheology, is generally used under deformation conditions inappropriate for breadmaking and shows little relationship with end-use performance. The frequency range used in conventional shear oscillation tests is limited to the plateau region, which is insensitive to changes in the HMW glutenin polymers thought to be responsible for variations in baking quality. The appropriate deformation conditions can be accessed either by long-time creep or relaxation measurements, or by large deformation extensional measurements at low strain rates and elevated temperatures.Molecular size and structure of the gluten polymers that make up the major structural components of wheat are related to their rheological properties via modern polymer rheology concepts. Interactions between polymer chain entanglements and branching are seen to be the key mechanisms determining the rheology of HMW polymers. Recent work confirms the observation that the dynamic shear plateau modulus is essentially independent of variations in MW of glutens amongst wheat varieties of varying baking performance and also that it is not the size of the soluble glutenin polymers, but the secondary structural and rheological properties of the insoluble polymer fraction that are mainly responsible for variations in baking performance. Extensional strain hardening has been shown to be a sensitive indicator of entanglements and long-chain branching in HMW polymers, and is well related to baking performance of bread doughs. The Considere failure criterion for instability in extension of polymers defines a region below which bubble walls become unstable, and predicts that when strain hardening falls below a value of around 1, bubble walls are no longer stable and coalesce rapidly, resulting in loss of gas retention and lower volume and texture. Strain hardening in doughs has been shown to reach this value at increasingly higher temperatures for better breadmaking varieties and is directly related to bubble stability and baking performance.
Cereal products (soft and hard wheat) are a basic staple food in the Moroccan diet. A total of 60 samples of two types of wheat flours used for human consumption were collected; 30 samples among this collection were obtained from various households using Moroccan varieties of wheat produced in traditional flour mills. The rest of the samples were purchased from retail wheat flour sources in the Rabat and Sale city markets. Standard plate counts (SPC), total and faecal coliforms, Clostridium, Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, yeast, lactic acid bacteria, and molds, were carried out to assess the microbiological quality of wheat flour. Microbiological interpretation of the criteria was performed according to standards implemented by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Most frequent counts, in traditional and industrial wheat flour, were total aerobic mesophilic bacteria with an average 4 × 104 and 2.5 × 104 cfu/g, respectively. The results showed higher coliform and fungi counts in house than in commercial samples. Pathogenic flora as Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., S. aureus, L. monocytogenes, and Clostridium were not detected in all investigated samples. Bacterial strains isolated from both flours belong to the following genera: Enterobacter spp., Serratia spp., Klebsiella spp., Pantoea spp., Leclercia spp., Proteus spp. The most frequent genus of the investigated isolates was Aspergillus (81 %). Microbial counts were lower than the limit laid down in the Codex Alimentarius, attributing to these flours a satisfactory microbiological quality.
Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (Naga Red) red leaves is an ingredient used in rice and beans that is known as "waakye" in the Hausa language in some African countries. Little is known about its benefits aside from its colourant properties. We studied its bioactive, nutritive compounds and the effectiveness of four organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, acetone and diethyl ether) in isolation of these compounds to gain information regarding its health benefits to consumers. Of the compounds evaluated, the leaves consisted primarily of carotenoids, flavonoids and phenolic acids with small amounts of chlorophyll (a and b), lycopene and beta-carotene. The fatty acid profiles of the leaves revealed palmitic, stearic, oleic and linoleic acid as predominant with each having greater than 5% of the total fatty acid identified. The nutritional implication of these findings is that the consumption of diets prepared with the leaves provides natural antioxidant and essential fatty acids that could fight cardiovascular related diseases.
Certain functional properties including water absorption, fat absorption, emulsification, whippability and foam stability were determined on the sunflower flour, protein concentrates and isolate. The results were also compared to those obtained on soy products. Data on water and fat absorption studies suggest that soy products are more hydrophilic in nature while sunflower material exhibited greater lipophilic properties than the soy products. Emulsification tests showed that sunflower flour was superior to all other soy and sunflower products. In general, whipping properties of soy and sunflower isolates were similar, while less whippability was observed for the soy flour and protein concentrates. Whipped foams produced by soy and sunflower protein isolates and sunflower flour were more stable than soy flour, soy and sunflower protein concentrates.
Various amounts of apple fiber and cellulose were added to wheat gluten and water-holding capacities (WHC) of the different mixtures were determined. A linear relationship between concentrations of two kinds of fiber and WHC was not observed, indicating a possible interaction between fiber and gluten which reduced the WHC of mixtures. Mixograph studies of wheat flour and fiber mixtures demonstrated that the dilution of gluten by fiber could not account for all of the observed changes in mixing properties of the wheat flour/fiber blends. This is further evidence for a possible interaction of fiber and gluten which may explain the poor baking properties of apple fiber bread.
The genus Opuntia embraces different species of cactus, and many of them produce acid fruits known as xoconostle, which are considered valuable vegetable foods in Latin America. Xoconostle fruit contains an ed-ible thick-acid-freshly mesocarp, and seeds that are considered as by-products. Given the high potential of its use and consumption, and the lack of information about its detailed chemical composition and bioactive com-pounds, the aim of this study was to evaluate the nutritional and antioxidant properties of pulp and seeds of two highly consumed commercial cultivars of xoconostle fruits (Opuntia joconostle F.A.C. Weber ex Diguet, cv. Cuaresmeño, and Opuntia matudae Scheinvar, cv. Rosa). This investigation shows that the pulp of the studied xoconostle cultivars had an appreciable amount of sol-uble ber and antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, while the seeds are a source of ber, phenolics, avonoids, PUFAs and tocopherols (specially γ-tocopherol), which provide a good antioxidant capacity. In the light of these results, xoconostle fruits should be considered of great interest for either promoting the conventional consumption, and also as sources of bioactive compounds for the addition to other food prod-ucts, so that all the nutrients present are fully used, instead of being discarded.
Chemical composition and physical properties of Mediterranean (Tunisian) spiny (Opuntia ficus indica f. amylocea) and spineless cladodes (O. ficus indica f. inermis) were studied. Chemical characterization of the two cladodes varieties showed a high fiber, minerals, especially potassium and calcium, and phenols contents. Powders obtained from spiny and spineless cladodes showed a great technological potentiality as water binding capacity (WBC) and fat absorption capacity (FAC). Cladodes powders were incorporated in wheat flours at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% levels. Obtained results showed that cladodes flours had a significant effect in wheat dough properties (P < 0.05). In deed, with the increase of cladodes flours levels, an increase of tenacity, energy, adhesion, stickiness, and hardness of dough was observed whereas dough elasticity decreased. A significant difference in physical characteristic between cakes fortified with cladodes flours and control was showed (P < 0.05). With the increase of cladodes flours levels in formulation, cakes hardness increased whereas L* and a* crust and crumb color values decreased. Increasing levels of cladodes flours caused decreases in total sensory scores. The overall acceptability rate showed that a maximum of 5% cladodes flours can be incorporated to prepare acceptable quality cakes.
The effect of different hydrocolloids (sodium alginate, κ-carrageenan, xanthan gum and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose) on the rheological properties of the wheat flour dough and the final quality of breads was investigated. A complete study of the rheological behaviour of the dough containing hydrocolloids was performed by using the following instruments: farinograph, extensograph, alveograph and rheofermentometer. The baking response was also determined by using an oven rise recorder. Xanthan and alginate had the most pronounced effect on dough properties yielding strengthened doughs. A great improvement in dough stability during fermentation was achieved by adding hydrocolloids. Regarding their effect on bread properties, the hydrocolloids increased the specific volume, with the exception of alginate, as well as both moisture retention and water activity. In addition, textural studies revealed that addition of κ-carrageenan or hydroxypropylmethylcellulose reduced the firmness of bread crumb. In conclusion, k-carrageenan and hydroxypropylmethylcellulose could be used as improvers in the bread-making performance.
The effects of fibre type (wheat bran, oat bran, cellulose microcrystalline), size (50, 80, 250 μm) and percentage of substitution (0%, 12%, 24%, 36%) on batter and layer cake characteristics were determined. Batter density, and the rheological parameters (G′ and G″) increased with fibre size, but the flow index decreased. Especially with 20% wheat bran, large-sized fibre gave the most firm, chewy and yellow cakes, while providing the most significant sensory differences with the control. Cakes with microcrystalline cellulose were the most similar to the control. All cakes obtained high sensory scores, indicating that they were not disagreeable for consumers. It is possible to obtain high quality cakes when adding up to 20% of fibre, but selection of an adequate fibre is necessary.
Legume flours, due to their amino acid composition and fibre content are ideal ingredients for improving the nutritional value of bread and bakery products. In this study, the influence of the total or partial replacement of wheat flour by chickpea flour on the quality characteristics of two kinds of cake was analyzed. The effects of the chickpea variety and the kind of flour used (white or whole) were also considered. Volume, symmetry, chroma, and crust and crumb L* diminished when increasing the amount of chickpea flour. The replacement of wheat flour by chickpea flour also induced an increase in the initial firmness but cohesiveness and resilience diminished, increasing the tendency to hardening. Among the studied varieties, Pedrosillano and Sinaloa produced cakes with the highest volume. Those varieties also gave layer cakes with the lowest firmness, gumminess and chewiness. White flours produced sponge cakes with higher volume and symmetry than whole flours. No significant differences, however, were observed in layer cakes between white and whole flours. In both layer and sponge cakes, white flour produced cakes with lower firmness, gumminess and chewiness than whole flours.
The proximate composition of pulp, skin and seeds of prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) was investigated and is reported on a dry weight basis. The most abundant component of the pulp and skin was ethanol-soluble carbohydrates. Pulp contained glucose (35%) and fructose (29%) while the skin contained essentially glucose (21%). Protein content was 5.1% (pulp), 8.3% (skin) and 11.8% (seeds). Starch was found in each of the three parts of the fruit. Pulp fibers were rich in pectin (14.4%), skin and seeds were rich in cellulose (29.1 and 45.1%, respectively). Skin was remarkable for its content of calcium (2.09%) and potassium (3.4%). Prickly pear is a neglected nutritional source which should be more widely used because of its potential nutrient contribution.
The effects of fruiting body maturity on antioxidant activity and antioxidants production of the wild mushroom, Lactarius piperatus, were evaluated. Several biochemical assays were used to screen the antioxidant properties: reducing power, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging capacity, inhibition of erythrocytes hemolysis mediated by peroxyl radicals and inhibition of lipid peroxidation using the beta-carotene linoleate model system. The amounts of phenols, flavonoids, ascorbic acid, beta-carotene and lycopene present in the immature, mature and degraded fruiting bodies were also determined. The highest antioxidant contents and the lowest EC(50) values for antioxidant activity were obtained in the mature stage with immature spores.
Mieux connaitre la farine. Spécial Analyses
R Del Frate
Del Frate, R. (2005). Mieux connaitre la farine. Spécial Analyses. Supplément technique,
INBP, Vol. 85, Rouen, France: Laboratoire d'Essais des Matériels et Produits
Determination of wet gluten quantity and quality (gluten index Ac. To Perten) of whole wheat meal and wheat flour
ICC (1994). Determination of wet gluten quantity and quality (gluten index Ac. To Perten) of
whole wheat meal and wheat flour (Triticum aestivum).
Physico-chemical, organolyptical and microbiological characteristics of substituted cupcake by potato processing residues