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Spices and herbs have played a dramatic role in civilization and in the history of nations. Spices, seasonings and condiments are mostly used to enhance taste, improve nutritional content, and improve colour, texture or shelf life of foods and beverages. In addition, they are reputed to possess several medicinal and pharmacological properties and hence find position in the preparation of a number of medicines. Cardamoms are used as flavorings and cooking spices in both food and drink, and as a medicine. Cardamom seeds whole or in powdered form are regarded as one of the most valuable spices, often employed in the preparation of curry powder, pickles, sausages, cakes and confectionery. Ginger produces a hot, fragrant kitchen spice. Ginger has been shown to be effective for pregnancy-induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting. This review presents some information about the most common and most-used two spices like cardamom and gingers processing, pharmacological and medicinal properties, and describes their isolation of antioxidant properties.
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Processing and Medicinal Uses of Cardamom and
Ginger – A Review
A.Angeline Rajathi1, A.Allwyn Sundarraj2*, Shilu Leslie3 and M.M. PragalyaaShree4
Assistant Professor1,
Department of Instrumentation and Control Engineering,
P.S.G. College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Research Scholar2* and Assistant Professor3& 4,
Department of Food Processing and Engineering, School of Agriculture and Biosciences, Karunya University,
Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.
Spices and herbs have played a dramatic role in civilization and in the history of nations. Spices, seasonings and condiments
are mostly used to enhance taste, improve nutritional content, and improve colour, texture or shelf life of foods and beverages.
In addition, they are reputed to possess several medicinal and pharmacological properties and hence find position in the
preparation of a number of medicines. Cardamoms are used as flavorings and cooking spices in both food and drink, and as a
medicine. Cardamom seeds whole or in powdered form are regarded as one of the most valuable spices, often employed in the
preparation of curry powder, pickles, sausages, cakes and confectionery. Ginger produces a hot, fragrant kitchen spice. Ginger
has been shown to be effective for pregnancy-induced and postoperative nausea and vomiting. This review presents some
information about the most common and most-used two spices like cardamom and gingers processing, pharmacological and
medicinal properties, and describes their isolation of antioxidant properties.
Keywords: Spices, Processing, Cardamom, Ginger, Antioxidants, Medicinal Properties.
Food is one of the essential fundamental elements needed
for human survival1. Food comprises edible plant parts
(such as fruit, nuts, corms, leaves) and animal tissues which
may be cooked or eaten raw depending on the cultural
orientation of the population. Whether eaten raw or
prepared into delicious delicacies, food provides: energy
and nutrients for proper nourishment of the body, maintains
the body, repairs worn-out tissues and promotes growth of
the body1,2. Food is not only consumed for its nutritional
benefits, but individuals’ preference for a given food is
mainly inspired by their cultural values, sensory qualities
such as taste, texture, palatability, mouth feel and even
physical appearance. Food service professionals therefore
use seasonings, flavourings and flavour enhancers to help
enhance the flavour of natural foods3.
Spices are used for flavour, colour, aroma and preservation
of food or beverages. Spices may be derived from many
parts of the plant: bark, buds, flowers, fruits, leaves,
rhizomes, roots, seeds, stigmas and styles or the entire plant
tops is shown in figure 1. The term ‘herb’ is used as a
subset of spice and refers to plants with aromatic leaves.
Spices and food herbs are only slightly different, and for
the purposes of this chapter no distinction will be made.
Spices serve as one of the major ingredients in food
preparation and processing throughout the world4.
Seasoning is a comprehensive term applied to aromatic
ingredients that improve the flavour of food products5.
They are compounds, containing one or more spices, or
spice extractives, which when added to a food during its
manufacturing, preparation or before it is served, enhance
the natural flavour of the food and increase its acceptance
by consumers5. Seasonings include spices and other
substances of vegetable origin that are added during the
cooking process6. Condiments are prepared food
compounds7. They are a mixture composed of one or more
spices or spice extracts that are added to food when food is
being consumed.
Figure 1: Commercial Spices
A food herb is generally defined as the leaf of a plant when
used in cooking, but any other part of the plant, often dried,
can be a spice. Spices can be the buds (cloves), bark
(cinnamon), roots (ginger), berries (peppercorns), aromatic
seeds (cumin) and even the stigma of a flower (saffron).
Many of the aromatic seeds known as spices are actually
gathered from plants when they have finished flowering. A
familiar example would be coriander, with the leaves being
referred to as an herb, and the dried seeds as a spice.
Spices, seasonings and condiments are mostly used to
enhance taste, improve nutritional content, and improve
colour, texture or shelf life of foods and beverages4. Some
also perform antioxidant, antimicrobial, nutritional and
medicinal functions and are traditionally credited with a
A.Angeline Rajathi et al /J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol. 9(10), 2017, 2117-2122
wide range of pharmacological and preservative
properties8,9. Plants used as spices, seasonings and
condiments are usually aromatic and pungent10.
Cardamom is a valuable spice that is obtained from the
seeds of a perennial plant (Elettaria cardamomum).
Cardamom originates from the coastal area of India. It is
now grown in Guatemala, Tanzania, Sri Lanka, El
Salvador, Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia. India is the main
exporter of dried cardamom. Cardamom is known as the
“Queen of Spices”. It is one of the most highly priced and
exotic spices in the world. It is a perennial tropical herb
plant belonging to the ginger family (Zingibaraceae) and
grows from a thick rootstalk up to around 6-10 feet is
shown in figure 2. It is indigenously grown in the evergreen
forests of the Western Ghats in South India.
Figure 2: Cardamom
Types of cardamom
There are two main types of cardamom:
Small green cardamom (Eletteria cardamomum)
Large red/black cardamom (Amomumsubulatum Roxb)
The most common type is the small green cardamom while
large cardamom is mainly grown in India, with some in
Nepal and Bhutan is shown in figure 3. They both come
from the Zingiberaceae family of plants.
Figure 3: Small and Large Cardamom
Global Scenario - Demand and Supply
Cardamom is generally produced in the tropical regions of
the world. Gautemala is the largest cardamom producing
country followed by India. The total world production of
this spice is around 35,000 MT per annum11. Consumption
of cardamom has sharply increased throughout the world
during the last two decades. The major consuming
countries of cardamom are the Middle Eastern countries,
India, Pakistan, European countries, the US, and Japan.
Middle Eastern countries such as Saudi Arabia and the
United Arab Emirates, and South-East Asian countries such
as India, etc., account for more than 60% of the world's
India is the largest producer of large cardamom(Amomum
subulatum Roxburgh), with an annual production of 4000
MT, followed by Nepal (2500 MT) and Bhutan (1000
MT)12. More than 85% of the production within India is
from Sikkim. An estimated 4000 t of large cardamom,
valued at about Rs. 1.60 billion, is produced annually in
Sikkim alone, which constitutes nearly 80% of total
production from India. It is also called greater Indian or
Nepal cardamom, which is a native of the Eastern
Himalayan region12. Large cardamom is the most important
perennial cash crop of the region and is widely cultivated
with Himalayan alder (Alnusne palensis) as a shade tree13.
Large cardamom is also known as ‘black cardamom’. The
pods are used as a spice, in a manner similar to the green
Indian cardamom pods, but it has a drastically different
flavour, so it cannot be substituted in the same recipes,
unless a different flavor is acceptable. Unlike green
cardamom, this spice is used rarely in sweet dishes. Its
strong, smoky flavour and aroma are derived from the
traditional drying procedure, which involves drying over
open flames13.
Indian Scenario - Demand and Supply
Till 2000, India used to be the largest producer of
Cardamom, and thereafter, Guatemala pushed her to the
second position. Cardamom cultivation is concentrated on
the Western Ghats in the country; and the Western Ghats
are also known as “Cardamom Hills”. In 2012-13, as per
provisional trade estimates, India's production is around
12,000 MT. Following states are the major producers of
cardamom in India:
Kerala – 70%
Karnataka – 20%
Tamil Nadu – 10%
Idukki district in Kerala is the major cardamom-producing
area and places such as Udumbancholataluka,
Peermedetaluka and Devikulamtaluka are important centres
in Idukki district.
Cardamom is traded as a bulk and graded produce. The 7
mm and above grade with fancy green colour commands a
premium over other grades. Cardamom finds its place in
every kitchen in the world. Cardamom goes into tea, coffee,
snacks, sweet dishes, rice preparations, soft drinks - almost
all favorite food items of the world. Guatemala produces
around 25,000 MT yearly; the largest in the world,
accounting for almost 66% of the total global production.
Harvesting - Cardamom
Harvesting at the correct stage of maturity is essential to
produce high quality cardamom capsules. The fruits should
only be harvested once they are fully ripe and mature. A
ripe capsule has black seeds inside. An immature capsule
has white seeds. When a cardamom capsule is ripe it can be
easily removed from the stem of the plant without too much
force. The harvester should start harvesting at the base of
each stem and move up the stem, taking off any capsules
that easily fall off without pulling. The capsules that do not
fall off easily should be left on the plant to ripen.
The crop should be cleaned before processing. The first
stage is to remove dust and dirt using a winnowing basket.
This can be made locally from bamboo, palm or other
leaves. A worker who is used to doing this can clean up to
100kg of cardamom in an eight hour day. Small machines
are available for cleaning, but they are often not cost
A.Angeline Rajathi et al /J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol. 9(10), 2017, 2117-2122
After winnowing the capsules are washed in clean water.
Two or three large plastic buckets (15 litre capacity) are
sufficient for small amounts but for large quantities, it may
be better to use a sink with a drainage hole. Only water that
is safe to drink should be used. It should be changed
regularly to prevent contamination. After washing, the
stalks are removed from the cardamom capsules by hand.
The capsules can be soaked in a solution of sodium
bicarbonate (2-5%) for ten minutes to help retain the green
colour. This is an optional step. A 2% solution of sodium
bicarbonate is prepared by dissolving 20g (about 4 tea
spoons) of sodium bicarbonate in 1 litre of water.
This is the most important part of the process as it affects
the quality of the final product. It is important to dry the
cardamom capsules as soon after harvest as possible to
prevent the loss of flavour. It is also important that the
drying process is as short as possible so that mould does
not grow on the capsules and the bright green colour is
retained. The drying temperature should not be above 50°C
as this affects the colour and delicate flavour of the final
product. In most places, cardamom capsules with a good
green colour can be sold for a premium price.
The moisture content of a fresh cardamom capsule is
about 85%. This needs to be reduced to 10% in the dried
product so the cardamom capsules can be stored. There are
several options available to the small scale processor,
depending upon the size of the business and the local
weather conditions at the time of processing. Each method
has different advantages and disadvantages:
Sun drying
Traditionally, cardamom capsules are spread on a
concrete floor to dry using the natural heat from the
sun. The capsules should be placed away from direct
sunlight to preserve the green colour (strong sunlight
will make the colour fade). This is the simplest and
cheapest method, but does not produce the highest
quality product. It is only successful in places where
the climate is dry and hot. During drying, the capsules
may be contaminated by dirt and dust from their
Solar drying
The use of a solar dryer should improve the quality of
the dried capsules as it is a cleaner, more controlled
environment. The solar dryer is really only useful in
dry hot sunny climates. The capsules should be placed
in the dryer, out of direct sunlight, and dried until they
have a final moisture content of 10%. In places with
high humidity the solar dryer can only be used together
with an extractor fan to remove the humid air.
Wood-fired dryer
In India, cardamom capsules are traditionally dried in
curing houses, using wood to provide the heat. This
method puts a huge demand on firewood. The smoke
from the fire can give the capsules an unpleasant
smoked flavour. The processor must ensure that the
capsules closest to the heat source are not burnt or
scorched. Cardamom capsules dried by this method are
not of the highest quality.
Humidity-controlled drying
The cardamom capsules are placed in the drying
chamber, which is at a temperature of 50°C. During the
first two hours of drying, the humidity builds up within
the chamber. This allows the cardamoms to ‘cook’ and
at the same time destroys the enzymes that break down
the chlorophyll (chlorophyll gives the pods their green
colour). No light is allowed into the drying chamber.
After two hours the humid air is blown out of the
chamber and the humidity reduced. The capsules are
left in the chamber to dry until they have a final
moisture content of 10%.
Cardamom is graded by colour and size. The deeper the
green colour and the larger the capsule size, the higher the
Cardamom capsules are usually sold whole. Grinding can
be a method of adding value to a product. After grinding,
spices are more vulnerable to spoilage. The flavour and
aroma compounds are not stable and will quickly disappear
from ground products. The storage life of ground spices is
much less than for the whole spices. It is very difficult for
the consumer to judge the quality of a ground spice.
Therefore most consumers, from wholesalers to individual
customers, prefer to buy whole spices.
Cardamom capsules can be packaged in polythene bags of
various sizes according to the market demand. The bags
should be sealed to prevent moisture entering. Attractive
labels should be applied to the products. The label needs to
contain all relevant product and legal information – the
name of the product, brand name (if appropriate), details of
the manufacturer (name and address), date of manufacture,
expiry date, weight of the contents, added ingredients (if
relevant) plus any other information that the country of
origin and of import may require (a barcode, producer code
and packer code are all extra information that is required in
some countries to help trace the product back to its origin).
Dried cardamom capsules must be stored in moisture-proof
containers away from direct sunlight. For long term bulk
storage, polythene-lined gunny bags inside wooden boxes
are used. The polythene bags help to preserve the green
colour of the pods. It is essential that the capsules are fully
dry before they are placed in the gunny bags for storage.
Any moisture within the bags will cause the capsules to rot.
The stored cardamoms should be inspected regularly for
signs of spoilage or moisture. If they have absorbed
moisture, they should be re-dried to a moisture content of
10%. The storage room should be clean, dry, cool and free
from pests.
A.Angeline Rajathi et al /J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol. 9(10), 2017, 2117-2122
Indian Scenario – Production & Consumption
India consumes almost 90% of the domestic production
with almost 45% of the demand coming from the western
part of the country followed by the northern India with
35%. As India's production is capable of satisfying the
domestic consumption demand, it does not import any
cardamom from outside countries. However, cheaper
Guatemalan cardamom finds its way into the country and is
preferred for low value uses like pan masala. The leftover
cardamom produce is exported every year. India exports 5-
8% of its total production, mostly the premium grade. India
also exports by-products of cardamom such as cardamom
oil and oleoresins to European countries.
Medicinal and Pharmacological Uses
Cardamom possesses the following medicinal properties:
antiseptic (pulmonary), antispasmodic (neuromuscular),
aphrodisiac, expectorant, anthelminthic, antibacterial
(variable), cephalic, cardiotonic, diuretic, emmenagogue,
sialogogue and stomachic.
In India, the spice is used broadly to treat infections in
teeth and gums, to prevent and treat throat troubles,
congestion of the lungs and pulmonary tuberculosis,
inflammation of eyelids and also digestive disorders.
Species in the genus Amomumare also used in
traditional Indian medicine.
Antidote to snake venom
Reportedly, the spice is also used as an antidote for
both snake and scorpion venom.
The components in the volatile oil, e.g. 1,8-
cineole,terpinene, terpiniol, sabinine, α-pinene and
limonene, act as a tonic for the heart and liver, an
appetizer, promote the elimination of bile and help
reduce congestion of the liver.
Large cardamom fruit, commonly known as ‘Heel
kalan’ or ‘Bari Ilaichi’, is used in the Unani system of
medicine to treat gastrointestinal disorders. A crude
methanolic extract and its different fractions, e.g.
essential oil, petroleum ether (60–80°C), ethyl acetate
and methanol fractions, were studied in rats for their
ability to inhibit gastric lesions induced by aspirin,
ethanol and pylorus ligature. A direct protective effect
of ethyl acetate fraction on the gastric mucosal barrier
was seen. The decrease observed in gastric motility
brought about by essential oil and petroleum ether
fractions suggests the gastroprotective action of the
spice. These investigations validate the use of large
cardamom in gastrointestinal disorders by Unani
Other Uses
Cardamom is the dried fruit of a perennial herbaceous
plant. Its quality characteristics are different from those of
small cardamom. It is valued for its acceptable taste,
flavour and aroma. Large cardamom has a fresh and spicy
aroma. By virtue of the traditional drying procedure over
open flames, the spice also acquires a smoky flavour. Large
cardamom also possesses curative properties in the
Ayurvedic and Unani systems of medicine15,16,17. It is also
used to flavour cardamom cola, prepared by blending
caramer acid and carbonating mixture.
Large cardamom can also be put to a variety of industrial
uses18. The globous fruit stalks, usually discarded by
farmers, can be used as a base of agarbathis19,20.
Ginger is one of the earliest known oriental spices and is
being cultivated in India for both as fresh vegetable and as
a dried spice. Ginger is obtained from the rhizomes of
Zingiber officinale, is shown in figure 3.
Figure 3: Ginger - Zingiber officinale
Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe, one of
the most widely used species of the family Zingiberaceae,
is a common condiment for various foods and beverages.
The ginger family is a tropical group, especially abundant
in Indo-Malaysian region, consisting of more than 1200
plant species in 53 genera. The area under cultivation in
India is 107.54 thousand ha and the total production of the
country is 385.33 thousand tons21.
Ginger has been used traditionally for varied human
ailments, to aid digestion and to treat stomach upset,
diarrhoea and nausea. The ginger plant has a perennial,
tuberous root or rhizome: the stems are erect, oblique,
round, annual and invested by smooth sheaths of leaves,
approximately 1 m in height. In many countries, especially
in India and China, fresh ginger is used to prepare
vegetable and meat dishes and as a flavouring agent in
beverages and many other food preparations22. Ginger is a
natural dietary component which has antioxidant and
anticarcinogenic properties23.
Global Scenario
India and Indonesia have the largest area under cultivation
and also leading ginger producing countries is shown in
figure 4.
Figure 4: Leading Ginger Producing Countries in 2010
A.Angeline Rajathi et al /J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol. 9(10), 2017, 2117-2122
Indian Scenario – Production
There is only marginal increase in acreage from 108.64
thousand ha in 2008-09 to 149.10 thousand ha in 2010-
1124.The production, however has increased from 380.10
thousand tons in 2008-09 to 702.00 thousand tons in 2010-
Harvesting - Ginger
Ginger attains full maturity in 210-240 days after planting.
Harvesting of ginger for vegetable purpose starts after 180
days based on the demand. However, for making dry
ginger, the matured rhizomes are harvested at full maturity
i.e. when the leaves turn yellow and start drying. Irrigation
is stopped one month before harvest and the rhizome
clumps are lifted carefully with a spade or digging fork.
Processing of ginger
Processing of ginger to produce dry ginger basically
involves two stages- peeling of the ginger rhizomes to
remove the outer skin and sun drying to a safe moisture
Peeling serves to remove the scaly epidermis and facilitate
drying. Peeling of fully matured rhizomes is done by
scrapping the outer skin with bamboo splits having pointed
ends and this accelerates the drying process. Deep scraping
with knifes should be avoided to prevent the damage of oil
bearing cells which are present just below the outer skin.
The peeled rhizomes are washed before drying.
The moisture content of fresh ginger at harvest is about 80-
82 per cent which is brought down up to 10 per cent for its
safe storage. Generally ginger is sun dried in a single layer
in open yard which takes about 8 to 10 days for complete
drying. The sun dried ginger is brown in colour with
irregular wrinkled surface.
Polishing, cleaning and grading
Polishing of dried ginger is done to remove the dry skin
and the wrinkles developed on the surface during drying
process. It is generally done by rubbing against hard
surface. Cleaning of dry ginger is done manually to remove
the extraneous matter and the light pieces.
Dry ginger, packaged in gunny bags are highly susceptible
to infestation by insects like Lasioderma serricone
(cigarette beetle) during storage. Fully dried rhizomes can
be stored in airtight containers such as high density
polyethylene or similar packaging materials. Long term
storage for more than two years would result in
deterioration of its aroma, flavour and pungency.
Medicinal and Pharmacological Properties
Anticancer properties
Ginger, a natural dietary component, has been known
to have antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties.
23demonstrated the chemopreventive efficacy of ginger
in colon cancer. They had investigated the effect of
ginger on the initiation and post-initiation stages of
1,2- dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced colon
carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. The number of
tumours, as well as the incidence of cancer, was
decreased significantly on treatment with ginger.
22attributed the anticancer properties to the presence of
pungent vallinoids, e.g. [6]-gingerol and [6]-paradol,
shogaols, zingerone, etc.
Anti-inflammatory effect
Ginger contains pungent phenolic substances with
pronounced antioxidative and anti-inflammatory
activities. The antitumour - promoting activity of [6]-
gingerol, a major pungent principle, was investigated
using a two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis model25.
Antiplatelet effect
26Antiplatelet effect of gingerol isolated from Z.
officinale. Gingerol (0.5–20 μM) concentration
dependently inhibited the aggregation and release
reaction of arachidonic acid and collagen-induced
rabbit platelets, but not those induced by platelet-
activating factorU46619 and thrombin.
Antioxidant effect
Antioxidant activity of ginger extract. Total phenols of
the alcoholic ginger extract are about 870.1 mg/g dry
extract. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picril hydrazyl radical (DPPH)
scavenging reached 90.1% and exceeded that of
butylated hydroxyl toluene (BHT). The antioxidant
activity in a linoleic acid/water emulsion system
determined by means of thiobarbituric acid-reactive
substances (TBARS) was highest at 37°C – 73.2 and
71.6% when the formation of conjugated dienes was
inhibited. Ginger extract inhibited hydroxyl radicals by
79.6% at 37°C and 74.8% at 80°C, which showed a
higher antioxidant activity than quercetin27.
28demonstrated the antioxidant property of Gingerol-
related compounds and diarylheptanoids from common
Anti-ulcer principles
Gastrointestinal motility-enhancing effect of ginger
and its active constituents. Powdered rhizome of
ginger was extracted with acetone and the extract was
evaporated to dryness at < 40°C to give a residue
(yield 3.4%), which included volatile oils and bitter
substances29. 30elucidated structures of antifungal
diarylheptenones, gingerenones A, B, C and
isogingerenone B, which were isolated from the
Anticonvulsive and analgesic effect
Ginger is known to warm the body, curing chills
caused by the common cold. An acetone extract of
ginger rhizomes inhibited serotonin-induced
hypothermia and serotonin-induced diarrhea
Cardiovascular effect
Gingerols, the pungent constituents of ginger, were
assessed as agonists of the capsaicin-activated
vanilloid receptor (VR1). [6]-Gingerol and [8]-
gingerol evoked capsaicin-like intracellular Ca2+
transients and ion currents in cultured dorsal root
ganglion neurons. These effects of gingerols were
blocked by capsazepine, the VR1 receptor antagonist.
The potency of gingerols increased with the increasing
size of the side-chain and with the overall
hydrophobicity in the series. It is concluded that
gingerols represent a novel class of naturally occurring
A.Angeline Rajathi et al /J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol. 9(10), 2017, 2117-2122
VR1 receptor agonists that may contribute to the
medicinal properties of ginger, which have been
known for centuries32.
Other Uses
Dried ginger traditionally has been traded internationally in
the whole or split forms and is ground in the consuming
centres. The major use of ground dried ginger on a
worldwide basis is for domestic culinary purposes, while in
the industrialized Western countries it also finds extensive
use in the flavouring of processed foods33.
Ginger oil, obtained by steam distillation of the rhizome of
Z. officinale Roscoe, is used in the beverage and fragrance
industries34. This product possesses the aroma and flavour
of the spice but lacks the pungency. It finds its main
application in the flavouring of beverages and it is also
used in confectionery and perfumery. The efficacy of
ginger oil as a repellent to Bemisia argentifolii (Homoptera:
Aleyrodidae) on tomato35.
Spices produce a vast and diverse assortment of organic
compounds, the great majority of which do not appear to
participate directly in growth and development. The present
review sought to document and comment on the
publications that have appeared on ginger and cardamom
processing and some of the properties like pharmacological
and medicinal properties. Ginger and many of its chemical
constituents have strong anti-oxidant actions. The spice has
diversified uses in the fields of medicine and industry.
Development of high-yielding superior varieties, combined
with sustainable production, will definitely enhance the
export value of the spice. However, the natural quality
degrades during the extraction process, storage and
postharvest handling.
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A.Angeline Rajathi et al /J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol. 9(10), 2017, 2117-2122
... Ripened capsule has black seeds inside. An immature capsule has white seeds (Rajathi et al., 2017) [30] . Harvesting should be done from the base of each stem and then move up the stem, taking off any capsules that easily fall off without pulling. ...
... Ripened capsule has black seeds inside. An immature capsule has white seeds (Rajathi et al., 2017) [30] . Harvesting should be done from the base of each stem and then move up the stem, taking off any capsules that easily fall off without pulling. ...
... The drying temperature should not exceed 50°C as this affects the colour and delicate flavour of the final product. Moisture content of fresh cardamom capsule is about 85% and has to be reduced to 10% so the cardamom capsules can be stored (Rajathi et al., 2017) [30] . Ajit et al. (2021); Hamzaa & Osman (2012) [32,33] reported that the presence of essential oil and bioactive compounds in cardamom are responsible for the aroma and utilization as a nutraceutical, pharmacological and functional food. ...
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Spices are the prime source of flavor, aroma, taste and play a major role in culinary applications. Major spices such as black pepper, cardamom, turmeric and ginger, tree spices including nutmeg, cinnamon, clove and seed spices such as fenugreek, fennel, cumin, coriander are the important spices used in South Indian cuisines. Along with this, leafy spices such as curry leaves and bay leaves are also used in the same. Fresh spice has to be processed after harvesting so that shelf life of the same can be improved without affecting the quality. Aroma of a spice is contributed by the essential oil, which is purely volatile in nature and oleoresins are the non-volatile counterpart that adds to the pungency. This review paper deals with the post-harvest processing, chemical composition and culinary application of major spices used in South Indian cuisine.
... This spice can be found in almost every kitchen around the world. Furthermore, it fits perfectly with various foods or drinks, such as tea, coffee, snacks, rice, sweet dishes, and more (Rajathi et al., 2017). Cardamom fruit is round, curved, and white. ...
... The plant is productive in immunoglobulin, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, anti-bacterial, cardiotonic, and carminative. Finally, the benefits include aiding digestion and treating flatulence, sore throat, bronchitis, colds, and fever (Chironi et al., 2021;Palai et al., 2020;Rajathi et al., 2017;Ulung, 2020). Java Cardamom (Amomum compactum) which is widely developed in Indonesia is used for making wedang uwuh. ...
his article aims to provide knowledge related to the history, uniqueness, composition, processing, health benefits, development, and innovation of wedang uwuh. The research uses a qualitative approach. The data were collected through in-depth interviews with the courtiers (abdi dalem), the owners of wedang uwuh SMEs, consumers, and the government. The research location, Yogyakarta Province, is the origin of wedang uwuh. The supporting data were gathered through literature studies. Wedang uwuh is an ethnic traditional drink from Yogyakarta, Java, Indonesia. It is made from cloves, nutmeg leaves, sappan, cinnamon, ginger, cardamom, and rock sugar. This drink is unique in terms of name, history, culture, properties, color, and taste. It is beneficial for improving health, fitness, and body immunity. Wedang uwuh is part of the cultural journey in Yogyakarta. This drink is now not only consumed by the royal family but also produced and consumed by the wider community and becomes a superior product with a high economic value. As an innovation, wedang uwuh is now available in concoction, instant, syrup, klisikan, and dip bag forms. Wedang uwuh can adapt to the times through product innovation but still maintain its main characteristics as an ethnic and healthy traditional drink.
... Indonesia is one of the countries with biodiversity wealth in the plants such as cardamom, known as the "Queen of Spices" (Rajathi et al., 2017). Cardamom comes from Elettaria, Amomum, and Aframomum, which are included in the Zingiberaceae family (Silalahi, 2017;Hartady et al., 2020). ...
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Java cardamom (Amomum compactum Soland ex. Maton) is an herbal medicinal plant that used for a long time and one of the country's export commodities with the third-highest economic value after saffron and vanilla. The results showed no interaction between shade treatment and nitrogen fertilizer dose on the agromorphological characters and productivity of Java cardamom. The 75% shade gave the highest value to the variables of plant height, number of leaves, also stems and leaves productivity of Java cardamom. In comparison, 50% shade gave the highest value in terms of tillers and rhizome productivity.
... [2] The presence of a wide range of bioactive compounds in the cardamom such as terpinene, cineol, limonene, sabinene etc. are known to play an important role for the pharmacological action. Traditionally, the volatile oil present in the seed containing myrcene, D-Iimonene, methyl heptenone, β-pinene, linalool acetate, terpinyl acetate etc. is commonly used as an anti-bacterial, anti-oxidant, antiinflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic agent [2], [3] Considering the multipurpose use of cardamom for numerous therapeutic applications, this review aims to consolidate the bioactive compounds profile of its seed and leaf extracts in light of traditional and modern pharmaceutical outlooks. ...
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The extensive convenience and approval of synthetic compounds for addressing human health have quite a few side effects in addition to higher prices. Exploring natural bioactive compounds is of utmost interest and demand. Cardamom has been used traditionally for numerous therapeutic benefits and are relevant in the light of modern pharmaceutical perspective. This review inspects and presents consolidated information on the the phytochemical profile of cardamom seed and leaf extracts and superficially addresses the common extraction methods adapted in literature. An online survey was conducted on the traditional uses, phytochemical composition, and bioactive components of cardamom seed and leaf extract. Pertinent data were obtained from several electronic scientific databases (Science Direct, Elsevier, Web of Science, PubMed, Springer, ACS publications, Taylor and Francis, Wiley On-line Library and Google Scholar), and additional information was obtained from textbooks and local prints and scripts. Studies on the chemical composition and physico-chemical properties of the seed and leaf extracts of cardamomum depict a higher yield extract value from seeds than their leaves. Both seed and leaf extracts are known to have numerous therapeutic benefits as anti-bacterial, anti-microbial, anti-carcinogenic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-ulcerogenic and gastro-protectory agents. Modern pharmacology researchers have made attempts in establishing many traditional uses of Cardamom. However, systemic studies on the phytocompounds which may possess new biological activities are lacking. Thus, more studies on the pharmacological mechanisms of its main active compounds need to be conducted keeping in mind therapeutic aspects, toxicity and adverse effects.
... (Zingiberaceae) is anti-inflammatory, antidote to snakebite, hepato-protective and anti-ulcerogenic. Ginger, the rhizome of Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Zingiberaceae) is anti-cancerous, anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet, antioxidant, anti-ulcer, anticonvulsive and analgesic (Rajathi et al., 2017). Cinnamon, the inner bark of Cinnamomum verum J. Presl (Lauraceae) is one of the oldest herbal medicines known, having been mentioned in Chinese texts as old as 4,000 years ago. ...
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Indian cuisine is though the most diversified has uniformity in use of ingredients, i.e. rice, wheat, finger millet, pigeon pea, red gram, black gram, chickpea, jaggery, black pepper, turmeric, cardamom (big), clove, ginger, coconut, tamarind, amala, dry fruits, different vegetables and ghee. Use of these ingredients in a variety of combinations is the specialty of Indian traditional food and food habits. Along with traditional food, Indians are using turmeric, betel leaf and coconut in different customs and fallowing yoga practices from time immemorial which is perhaps the secret of retaining immunity in native Indians. The Corona virus disease (COVID-19) is a viral cascade event. It started from Wuhan in December 2019 and within no time it became a public health emergency of global interest with the intervention of WHO. The preventive strategies recommended by WHO and AYUSH include isolation of suspected and confirmed cases with personal hygiene and immunity enhancing measures. Wholesome diet is essential for good health and to combat all kinds of contagious diseases, especially COVID-19. During the COVID-19 crises, what we all can do is to keep our immunity strong by eating traditional food, following traditional food habits and customs which emphasis on sound mind and healthy body. Sri Swami Vivekanand has once said that “Your body is a weapon and consider it very strong. Consider your mind to be very strong; only with strong mind and body you will be able to cross the ocean of life”. Taking advantage of this power of wholesome diet and yoga,we better face the biological calamity.
... The term 'herb' is used as a subset of spice and refers to plants with aromatic leaves. Spices and food herbs are only slightly different, and for the purposes of this chapter no distinction will be made [4]. Spices serve as one of the major ingredients in food preparation and processing throughout the world [5]. ...
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The present study highlighted some chemical, nutritional, microbiological and essential oil characteristics of the Egyptian traditional cultivars for seeds of cumin (Cuminum cyminum) and coriander (Coriandum sativum) spices as well as for basil whole herb (Ocimum basilicum) collected from different Egyptian export centers as being ready for export. Spices of cumin and coriander seeds were already prepared into dry seed form in the same aforementioned purchasing place, as usually practiced in Egypt for the preparation of dry spices for export abroad. The found values for humidity in dry seeds of cumin (7.4%) and coriander (6.4%) as well as total ash and ash insoluble in acid (in cumin 7.7% and 0.74%, but in coriander 5.3% and 0.55%, respectively) were lower than the maximum limits indicated by the Egyptian Specification Standards (ES) and by International Standards Organization (ISO) for cumin and coriander seeds. Analysis of essential minerals in seed spices and herbs indicated that they were are rich in K, Ca, Na, Fe and Zn. Total bacterial count was low content in seeds of cumin and coriander as well as fresh whole basil herb. The microbiological load in all tested seed spices and herbs was found lower than those indicated by the ES and ISO for cumin and coriander seeds. Yields in hydro-distilled essential oils (EOs) were the highest in cumin seeds (3.762%), while both coriander and basil herb had lower amounts (0.285% and 0.686%, respectively). EOs contents were found higher than the maximum limits for cumin (1.5%-2.5% on dry weight basis), but the within the limits for coriander (0.1%-0.5% on dry weight basis) as indicated by the ES and ISO for cumin and coriander seed oils. Gas chromatography of extracted EOs from seeds of cumin and coriander as well as basil herbs indicated the presence of 41, 35 and 47 compounds, respectively, where cuminaldehyde was the major component in cumin volatiles, but was linalool in volatiles of both coriander seeds and basil herbs. Results indicated that major compounds in EOs in seeds of cumin grown in Egypt are in accordance with the findings on various investigators from different parts of the world. Volatile oil components in EOs of the three tested Egyptian spices and herbs were classified into groups, based on the relative area (%). The proportion of the major and the other main components in EOs from seeds of cumin and coriander cultivars were within the ranges indicated by both the ES and ISO for cumin seed oils (cuminaldehyde between 15%-46%) and for coriander seed oils (linalool between 65%-78%). No Egyptian Specification Standards are established yet for fresh basil herbs and for basil oil of Linalool chemotype, but only present for basil oil of methylchavicol-chemotype.
The “Queen of Spices” cardamom (Elettaria cardamomum Maton) originated in the Western Ghats of South India. It is one of the rarest and most expensive spices in the world. Global production of this spice is approximately 35,000 metric tons per year, with Guatemala being the leading producer, followed by India. Other nations cultivating cardamom include Tanzania, Sri Lanka, El Salvador, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, and Papua New Guinea. Cardamom is used to flavor numerous foods, confections, and alcoholic beverages. In addition, the Allopathy and Ayurveda medical systems employ it for medicinal purposes. Middle Eastern nations, India, Pakistan, European nations, the United States, and Japan, are the leading cardamom consumers. Middle Eastern nations such as Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates, as well as South-East Asian nations like India, account for over 60% of the world’s consumption. This chapter discusses the necessary processes for plant growth, major cultivation techniques and post-harvest treatments. Cardamom infections are one of the factors that affect the quality and profitability of products. This chapter also discussed the most prevalent agricultural diseases and their management.KeywordsProductionPostharvestQueen of SpicesAgricultural diseasesCultivation techniques
This chapter describes the plant morphological traits of Elettaria cardamomum to construct the foundation for developing a brick-by-brick model review that forms the basis of this high-value botanical species for its broad worldwide spectrum uses and applications not only today but also has to its credit a golden history of the current and past sequence of events. The chain of its uses and applications initiates with its entry into a large number of dishes prepared in kitchens all over the globe despite it being one of the most expensive spices due to its aesthetic fragrance and aroma. It is also used in traditional medical applications such as cures for many diseases of the lungs, e.g., asthma, teeth and gum infections, and others, including cataracts, nausea, diarrhea, and cardiac, digestive and kidney disorders. The simplest form of its use is chewing its naturally built capsules under the teeth to enjoy its aroma and fragrance and exert its physiological effects on the human mind to keep the aesthetic mood intact. The versatile use of cardamom powder capsules has many beneficial health effects that fortify the above points. Considering these highlights, an attempt has been made to illustrate the plant traits of Elettaria cardamomum, addressing its nomenclature and classification, occurrence, general structure and morphology of roots and stem, branches and leaves, and the characteristics of fruit, extracts, oil, etc. The chapter closes with conclusions from the study and recommendations for further inquiry.KeywordsCardamomModel reviewClassificationNomenclatureMorphologyTraitsStructure
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Background: Each year, digestive diseases impact a significant portion of the world’s population. The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, often known as the digestive system, is affected by many disorders. Conditions such as dyspepsia, abdominal pain, stomach cramps, bloating, heartburn, and flatulence are examples of digestive diseases. The epigastric pain or discomfort that is characteristic of dyspepsia is thought to have its genesis in the upper GI tract. There is still a lot of mystery around the origin of functional dyspepsia. However, the outcomes of therapy have not been very striking in most cases, and this is true irrespective of the nature of the underlying cause (gastric acid, gastrointestinal dysmotility, or Helicobacter pylori). Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate how doctors perceive about a digestive syrup available in the market and to evaluate its efficacy and safety. Methods: The research method was a cross-sectional questionnaire-based observational study. A total of 26 doctors were asked to fill out a questionnaire regarding the efficacy and safety of the digestive syrup in treating digestive diseases, and the results were recorded. The questionnaire used a structured version of the semantic differential scale. The questionnaire had a total of fourteen questions, five of which were open-ended, while the other questions were closed-ended. The study was initiated only after clearance from Institutional Ethics Committee (IEC).
In the present research work, medium-chain triglyceride (MCT) is used in the preparation of puran poli. Effect of MCT on various attributes likes textural, microbiological, sensory and oxidative stability of puran poli was studied. Use of MCT showed a positive effect on the texture of puran poli without use of hydrocolloids. Texture of puran poli became soft after storage of 15 and 25 days at 25 ± 2 °C and 4 ± 2 °C respectively. Puran poli showed no bacterial growth at both the storage conditions, however, there was yeast and mould growth on Puran poli stored at 25 ± 2 °C after 25 days i.e., 3 × 101 CFU/gm sample, which was safe for consumption as per WHO guidelines. pH showed a marginal change from 6.56 to 6.11 for puran poli stored at 25 ± 2 °C and from 6.62 to 6.33 for puran poli stored at 4 ± 2 °C. Sensory attributes like colour, taste, texture was not affected by the use of medium-chain triglyceride. Overall acceptability of puran Poli was satisfactory for the storage period of 30 days at 4 ± 2 °C.
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Energy efficiency of agroforestry systems of large cardamom grown under N2-fixing Himalayan alder (alder-cardamom) and natural forest (forest-cardamom) was studied in the Sikkim Himalaya. Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum), the most important perennial cash crop of the region, is widely cultivated with Himalayan alder (Alnus nepalensis) as shade tree. Energy fixation, storage, net allocation in agronomic yield, and heat release and exit from the system were respectively 1.57, 1.44, 2.24 and 2.22 times higher in the alder-cardamom compared to the forest-cardamom system. Energy conversion efficiency and net ecosystem energy increment were also higher in the alder-cardamom than the forest-cardamom system. Energy fixation efficiency and energy conversion efficiency of large cardamom increased under the influence of Himalayan alder. Energy efficiency in N2-fixation of Himalayan alder was also high (67.5 g N2 fixed 104 kJ-1 energy). Quantum and flux of energy increased in the alder-cardamom compared to the forest-cardamom system that optimized the production potential of the cash crop under the influence of the Himalayan alder. Climatic sympatry of the large cardamom and Himalayan alder, and their synergetic energy efficiency makes this association ecologically and economically viable for the mountain regions.
Spices and herbs have been used from prehistoric times not only for flavoring foods but also for their antioxidant, preservative and medicinal properties. We therefore searched for active antioxidant and antimicrobial constituents of spices and herbs. New antioxidative compounds were isolated and their structures were determined by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Examples of new antioxidants included phenolic diterpenes from rosemary and sage, which were remarkably effective, compounds such as phenolic carboxylic acids and glycosides from oregano and marjoram, gingerol-related compounds and diarylheptanoids from common ginger, biphenyls and flavonoids from thyme, and phenolic amides from pepper and chili pepper. Structurally different types of polyphenols were obtained from allspice, and carbazoles from curry leaves (Murraya koenigii). Some of the antioxidants were effective in suppressing inflammation and tumor formation in mice. Antimicrobials included monoterpenes in nutmeg and clove, lignans in papuamace, and polymethoxylated phenols in Alpinia species. Spices and herbs therefore play an important role in human life and health.
Ginger is one of the most frequently used ingredients in Chinese folk medicine and cooking. Ginger rhizome is used in treating/relieving appetite loss and motion sickness in western world. 6-Gingerol has been used as a marker substance of ginger. An HPLC analytical procedure of 6-gingerol was described. The correlation coefficients were greater than 0.999. The described HPLC procedure in this report has been validated and can be used to check 6-gingerol stability. It is also suitable for the preformulation study of ginger. The stabilities of ginger solution at different pHs were studied. The 6-gingerol contents in different preparations were evaluated.
Large cardamom (fruit of Amomum subulatum Roxb, N.O. Zingiberaceae) commonly known as ‘Heel kalan’ or ‘Bari Ilaichi’ is used in Unani system of medicine in gastrointestinal disorders. A crude methanolic extract and its different fractions, viz. essential oil, petroleum ether (60–80°), ethyl acetate and methanolic fractions, were studied in rats for their ability to inhibit the gastric lesions induced by aspirin, ethanol and pylorus ligature. In addition their effects on wall mucus, output of gastric acid and pepsin concentration were recorded. The crude methanolic extract of A. subulatum and its fractions, viz. essential oil, petroleum ether and ethyl acetate, inhibited gastric lesions induced by ethanol significantly, but not those which were induced by pylorus ligation and aspirin. However, ethyl acetate fraction increased the wall mucus in pylorus ligated rats. The results suggest a direct protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction on gastric mucosal barrier. While the observation of decrease in gastric motility by essential oil and petroleum ether fractions suggests the gastroprotective action of the test drug. These investigations validate the use of ‘Heel kalan’ in gastrointestinal disorders by Unani physicians.
Four new diarylheptenones, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hept-4-en-3-one (gingerenone A), 7-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl) hept-4-en-3-one(gingerenone B), 1-(3,5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)hept-4-en-3-one (isogingerenone B) and 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-7-(4-hydroxyphenyl)hept-4-en-3-one (gingerenone C) have been isolated from the rhizomes of Zingiber officinale, and their structures established by spectral methods and some chemical transformations. The results indicate the similarity in the metabolic fates of the curcuminoid constituents to those of the arylalkanoids (dehydrogingerdione → gingerol → shogaol) of zingiberaceous plants. Gingerenone A exhibited a moderate anticoccidium activity in vitro and a strong antifungal effect to Pyricularia oryzae.
The antioxidant effect and the total phenols of ginger extract were studied. The total phenols of the alcohol extract were found to be 870.1 mg/g dry extract. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picril hydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging reached 90.1% and exceeded that of butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), the IC50 concentration for inhibition of DPPH was 0.64 μg/ml. The antioxidant activity in a linoleic acid/water emulsion system determined by means of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) was highest at 37 °C – 73.2%, and 71.6% when the formation of conjugated dienes was inhibited. At 80 °C the antioxidant activity at the highest concentration of a ginger extract was less efficient: 65.7% for conjugated dienes formation and 68.2% for TBARS. The ginger extract inhibited the hydroxyl radicals 79.6% at 37 °C and 74.8% at 80 °C, which showed a higher antioxidant activity than quercetin. The IC50 concentration for inhibiting OH at 37 °C was slower than that at 80 °C – 1.90 and 2.78 μg/ml, respectively. The ginger extract chelated Fe3+ in the solution.
Spices, Condiments, and Seasonings has been written for use as a text in food technology and as a general reference book for anyone associated with the food industry who has a desire to know more about these fabled, fragrant, pungent plant substances and how they are utilized in the formulation of condiments and seasonings. Dietitians concerned with low sodium diets will find the spice substitute information and the nutritional data on spices useful. Section I introduces the reader to the significance of spices through out history in a concise, chronological sequence of events. Section II defines spice and describes 58 of the more prominent spices and five popular spice blends. The description of each spice includes the following: common name, botanical name, family, histor icaVlegendary backgrounds, indigenous and cultivated sources of sup ply, physical and sensory characteristics, extractives obtained therefrom with their chemical and sensory attributes, specifications, proximate composition and nutritional data, and household and commercial uses. Photographs of each spice and sketches of each spice plant are included. Recipes for home cooking with spices and herbs have been omitted purposely as there are many good spice cookbooks available. Suggested spice substitutes for salt in sodium-restricted diets are listed together with the natural antioxidant activity of each spice. The microbiological aspects of spices are covered and the means for sterilizing them de scribed. The American Spice Trade Association's Standards for Spice Cleanliness are provided."
Contenido: Especias y hierbas: conceptos básicos; Calidad y especificaciones de las especias; Cocinar con especias; Teoría de patrones en el uso de especias; Efectos fisiológicos de las especias; Propiedades antimicrobiales y antioxidantes de las especias; Efectos fisiológicos del sabor/aroma.
One of the important medicinal properties of ginger is known to remove chills caused by common cold and to warm body. In the present study, acetone extract of ginger at 100 mg/kg p.o. significantly inhibited serotonin (5-HT) induced hypothermia. Therefore, the active constituents of ginger were further examined. The acetone extract was functioned into 4 fractions by column chromatography. Fractions 1 and 2 showed significant activity. Fraction 2 was further purified and [6]-shogaol which was obtained from fraction 2-2, at 10 mg/kg p.o. was shown to inhibit 5-HT induced hypothermia. Anticathartic activity is known to be one of the medicinal effects of ginger. In the present study, acetone extract of ginger at 75 mg/kg p.o., significantly inhibited 5-HT induced diarrhea. In order to clarify the active constituents, the acetone extract was fractionated into 4 fractions by silica gel chromatography. Fractions 2 and 3, which was especially effective, were further purified and [6]-shogoal, [6]-dehydrogingerdione, [8]- and [10]-gingerol were found to have an anticathartic action. [6]-Shogaol was more potent than [6]-dehydrogingerdione, [8]- and [10]-gingerol.