Book

Ethics and Neuromarketing: Implications for Market Research and Business Practice

Authors:
  • Buyer Brain
  • Centre for Advanced Research in Management and Applied Ethics

Abstract

This book addresses the emerging field of neuromarketing, which, at its core, aims to better understand the impact of marketing stimuli by observing and interpreting human emotions. It includes contributions from leading researchers and practitioners, venturing beyond the tactics and strategies of neuromarketing to consider the ethical implications of applying powerful tools for data collection. The rationale behind neuromarketing is that human decision-making is not primarily a conscious process. Instead, there is increasing evidence that the willingness to buy products and services is an emotional process where the brain uses short cuts to accelerate the decision-making process. At the intersection of economics, neuroscience, consumer behavior, and cognitive psychology, neuromarketing focuses on which emotions are relevant in human decision-making, and uses this knowledge to make marketing more effective. The knowledge is applied in product design; enhancing promotions and advertising, pricing, professional services, and store design; and improving the consumer experience as a whole. The foundation for all of this activity is data gathering and analysis. Like many new processes and innovations, much of neuromarketing is operating far ahead of current governmental compliance and regulation and thus current practices are raising ethical issues. For example, facial recognition software, used to monitor and detect a wide range of micro-expressions, has been tested at several airports—under the guise of security and counterterrorism. To what extent is it acceptable to screen the entire population using these powerful and intrusive techniques without getting passengers’ consent? Citing numerous examples from the public and private sectors, the editors and contributing authors argue that while the United States has catalyzed technological advancements, European companies and governments are more progressive when it comes to defining ethical parameters and developing policies. This book details many of those efforts, and offers rational, constructive approaches to laying an ethical foundation for neuromarketing efforts.

Chapters (12)

The use of neuroscientific research methods can provide marketers with the means to better analyze and understand consumer behavior. These technologies and methods have helped usher in a renaissance for marketing research known as neuromarketing. Scholars and industry practitioners alike have begun to embrace neuromarketing based on (a) a growing appreciation for scientific and objective measurement, which is preferable to more subjective research methods (e.g., surveys, focus groups), and (b) the recognition that both diagnostic and evaluative behavioral research can provide marketers with the opportunity to reduce uncertainty. However, the full potential of neuromarketing has yet to be unlocked. Therefore, in this chapter we provide a practitioner-oriented explanation of common neuromarketing techniques and present a contextual framework for understanding associated marketing research outcomes. Opportunities for future research and the implications for marketing are discussed.
Neuromarketing is one of those emerging fields that promise a lot, but are also surrounded in controversy. It promises to offer a privileged access to the most intimate emotions and unconscious thoughts, which should serve as an undisputed background for effective marketing practices. It promises to be successful where traditional market research techniques and tools failed. But this does not come cheap: a lot of public figures, philosophers and neuroscientists expressed multiple concerns regarding the ethical and legal implications of the neuromarketing research and applications. The aim of this study is to map these ethical concerns and provide a series of elements which can help both researchers and practitioners clarify the ethical limits of their work. The paper contains two major sections and some brief closing remarks. The first one contains two major distinctions which will serve as basis for the entire ethical discussion in the next section: neuromarketing as both a field of research and applications; neuromarketing ethics as research ethics and as ethics of brain research. The second section is dedicated to a quasi-comprehensive presentation of the ethical challenges of neuromarketing. These topoi are divided in three categories: ethics of neuromarketing research (overclaiming; research conduct – informed consent, protection of vulnerable research participants, paying participants; data practices – research design and scientific validity, confidentiality, research dual use; publication practices – authorship, cherry-picking and salami-slicing, research transparency); ethics of neuromarketing technologies (no harm; privacy; incidental findings); and ethics of neuromarketing applications (manipulative and deceptive marketing practices; exacerbating the emotional factor).
The application of neuroscience in the field of marketing is attracting companies with the prospect of an extensive understanding of consumer behavior. Recent technological developments in hard- and software solutions to measure brain and body reactions have led to promising opportunities for practitioners and academics in the field of marketing. Besides the developments’ potential advantages, the commercial perspective of neuromarketing raises several ethical questions. Marketing practitioners need to be aware of the ethical aspects that the different tools, like eye tracking, EEG, and fMRI, imply when they conduct a neuromarketing study. Since recent guidelines deliver rather general instructions and are limited in their tool-specific perspective, the development of a comprehensive guideline for conducting ethically correct neuromarketing is imperative. In past years some codes have emerged, but to date no substantial ethical framework meeting academic and business standards as well as questions related to different tools has been developed. The aim of this chapter is to shed light on existing ethical guidelines with respect to tool-based distinctions in order to provide reliable answers for both academics and marketing practitioners.
In the age of the knowledge and information society, marketing is becoming more complex. Market research is facing new challenges with the introduction of new forms of approach to consumer behavior. The new field that emerged as neuromarketing might become a linchpin in leading innovation in this field. The pure rational consumer is being questioned and emotions are playing a central role in any marketing strategy. Traditional market research methods have demonstrated some inconvenience to gather reliable data and neuromarketing is opening new possibilities to marketing professionals using new methods to delve into personal emotions, stronger than the classical ones. In this sense and although some of the neuroimaging techniques are used in other disciplines, the application to market research is growing rapidly and providing a new perspective and contributing to better understand and predict consumer behavior. Nowadays, consumers have more information than ever before. Consumer’s mind is uncontrollable. From marketing perspective, neuromarketing is becoming mainstream but can’t be done at the expense of privacy, neither consumer’s free will. Over the last decade, neuroethics arose as a way to draw the attention concerning the use of techniques involving brain research. Academia and companies need to comply ethical procedures and legal protocols while conducting neuromarketing research. This chapter wants to shed some light on important topics such as ethical issues involving participants in neuromarketing research, consumers that experience the outcomes of such studies, and also researchers that conduct them. Neuromarketing, as a new discipline, is expected to face exciting challenges in the near future. Improving neuroethics, privacy, and confidentiality inherent to research subjects while conducting research are no doubt some of them.
In this chapter, we discuss about the transparency and reliability issues in the practice of the application of neuroscience-based methodologies on relevant marketing stimuli (e.g., neuromarketing). It is hypothesized that one of the reasons of the misperception and overestimation by the public opinion and mass media of the actual capabilities of the neuromarketing to inform marketing researcher is due to the lack of the transparency about the methodologies employed by the neuromarketing companies. In fact, different companies offer services that are based on proprietary computational methods and approaches that are not fully validated or disclosed through scientific publications to the scientific community. This opacity in the methodologies employed by some companies makes it difficult for the scientists to separate supported and unsupported claims of validity of the services offered by those companies. Such confusion is reflected in an often misplaced communication toward the public opinion and the final users of these methodologies about the effective capability of such approach to capture the generation of the decision making of the persons in front of marketing stimuli.
Neuromarketing research ethos is to increase reliability and validity of market research by applying high technologies and objective measures and at the same time maintaining the highest ethical standards. It is achieved by increasing the robustness of obtained results in order to anticipate consumers’ behavior more effectively than using solely traditional questioning methods. To deliver the highest quality results, neuromarketing utilizes tools enabling us to handle situations when reliability and validity of traditional methods could be questioned, e.g., when respondents don’t want to criticize, they try to be politically correct, they simply do not know the answer or they just do not want to provide the true answer due to their own reasons. Handling such situations became possible thanks to understanding that declarative opinions do not determine behavior with 100 % accuracy and that most decisions derive from unconscious processes (How Customers Think: Essential Insights into the Mind of the Markets. Harvard Business School Press, Boston, 2003). Russell Fazio has been studying the impact of attitudes on human behavior and proposed a model in which this attitude can be explained by two factors: (1) explicit declared opinion (measured, e.g., with surveys) and (2) implicit accessibility, thus the strength of the attitude (measured with reaction time needed to provide an answer, that reflects respondents’ confidence). Fazio has shown that correlations between attitudes and behavior are much higher among people with fast reaction time (high CERTAINTY) when expressing their opinions, which means highly accessible attitudes have a stronger influence on consumer behavior. Applying these theories in neuromarketing enhanced the accuracy of predictions in comparison to the results based solely on declarations. We believe that such a work ethos, based on a two-factor model of attitudes, will become the most popular model in survey research. This will have a positive impact not only on the neuromarketing field, but also on surveys in general.
The main challenges arising from the business environment nowadays are related to customers’ polyvalent behavior, to their continuously changing wishes and diversifying needs, and to the increasing number of stimuli to which they are exposed and which are meant to capture their attention. The truth is that it has become increasingly difficult to approach targeted consumers by means of specific advertising messages and by emphasizing a company’s performance. Given the current context, we discussed two issues: first, the usage of neuromarketing techniques in order to better understand and influence consumers, second, the question of whether this approach is ethical or not. In order to identify ways in which various stakeholders, activating in the field of neuromarketing research, apply a code of ethics while developing research, the authors implemented three qualitative studies, using the interview as a primary data collection technique. Thus we tested the degree of interest and involvement of the NMSBA member companies regarding this issue and the ethical challenges posed by their work (study 1), the extent to which international advertising agencies design, develop, and/or implement ethical advertising campaigns using neuromarketing techniques (study 2), and thirdly, the perspective of the Romanian beneficiary companies on the impact of ethical principles applied in neuromarketing research (study 3). The highlighted results present a number of remarkable scientific conclusions, but mostly enlightening from a practical and applicative standpoint. Furthermore, these three studies reflect a unique set of findings due to the added comparative dimension which includes an international perspective, as well as a national, Romanian one.
The acceptance of neuromarketing in the modern brander’s research toolbox has proliferated in the past 10 years. With a growing understanding of the predictive utility afforded by neuromarketing’s nonverbal brain and body derived measures, a more diverse set of clients have come to the table with unprecedented interest. While the majority of research in the field thus far has been for the purpose of manifesting optimal user experiences, other’s questions if answered through the lense of neuromarketing may have the potential to jeopardize consumer’s well-being. The question then must be put forth to its field’s practitioners: When it comes to working for potentially dubious initiatives or questionable client agendas, when and how will the ethical lines be drawn? The primary aim of this chapter is to delve into this question by considering it through a number of different perspectives. First, the historical underpinnings of ethics in branding and advertising will be discussed in order to parse out the fundamental factors that have been cause for concern in the the consumer insights industry. It is with these historic factors in mind that subsequent suggestions for neuromarketer’s best practices related to research initiatives are next considered. Lastly, for those who integrate the tools of neuroscience in broader consumer research toolboxes, considerations are made for participation in research on the behalf of typically controversial causes, such as alcohol, tobacco, or in the realm of politics or socially-oriented political agendas which may have questionable benefit to the public. A relevant case study from the Neuromarketing Science and Business Association is highlighted.
An ethics of neuroscience is inexorably linked to the discovery of prediction limits and to the influence these sciences could have on us. Almost following in Kant’s footsteps, we could say that once we know how much we can learn, we will also know how far we can take our action. And once we know how far we can take our action, we will be able to make some ethical guidelines that can regulate the fundamentals of human existence. The necessity of setting rigorous standards for consumer profiling in the neuromarketing field is due not only to the future potential threats and the present potential of technology, but also to the tendency of neuromarketing to rapidly extend further to insufficiently mapped ethical areas. We are basically confronted with a situation of cultural lag and it is not clear how this can be ameliorated. Due to the fact that it is not an academic field, even though it sometimes converges with it, neuromarketing is not subject to a restrictive ethics. It is rather difficult to develop a proper and rigorous ethics both because of the fast pace of change and of the misunderstanding of the neuroscience potential in general and that of neuromarketing in particular. It is possible that in the near future computers will execute complex automated profiling operations the criteria and mode of operation of which may remain unknown to the human mind. This will lead to an increase in the complexity of the profiling/process, thus requiring accurate ethical solutions.
The rapid advancement of technology raises ethical issues that need to be addressed in the near future. According to Kurzweil law, technology progresses at an exponential rate. Ethics, on the other hand, advances much slower and doesn’t keep pace with the number and complexity of issues brought by technology. Considering that technology’s speed of evolution won’t slow down because ethics can’t keep pace with it, we argue that all those ethical issues that are already present in the public space should be discussed and sorted out as soon. Otherwise, they will become deeper and generate even more problems. The chapter discusses at length about the cognitive and body enhancements, achieved through either medical or bionic implants, and the changes that these enhancements induce in our behavior. Computers and the internet are some of the greatest enhancers ever and they managed to change the attitude of the millennials and Generation Z towards ownership and work. Our goal was to raise questions regarding the challenge of ethical and moral principles and values by the rapid development of technology. We then argued that the future of research lies in the realm of technology and that neuromarketing, unlike traditional research, has predictive power thanks to the brain scans. It was not our intention to solve or find answers to any of those issues that we raised. For some of them, it might be too soon to draw a conclusion. And for the others, there are competent bodies that can enforce suitable measures.
The global sports industry, currently valued at USD1.5 trillion, is both sizeable and unique as one of the last in-the-moment branded experiences. Perhaps the most highly impassioned and engaged brand evangelists, sports fans spend disproportionately large sums of money on branded merchandise to reinforce identity-based affiliation as well as tribal connection to team. While classical economists would suggest that sports fans are rational actors relying on sophisticated mental accounting to evaluate all branded experiences through the lens of acquisition utility, the relationship that binds sports fans and sports brands is decidedly irrational, aspirational, and emotionally driven. Recognizing that traditional approaches to consumer research remain flawed by a host of biases that inhibit consumers’ ability to tell you how they feel, sports brands are increasingly utilizing neuroscience technology to analyze (1) how sports fans process sensory-rich stimuli and (2) the various emotional triggers of sport consumption and brand choice. Sports brands are investing in sensory-rich, next generation stadiums that are meant to serve as mixed-use spaces and community data-hubs anchoring urban development and community revitalization initiatives. Utilizing customer data platforms (CDPs), sports brands and marketers therein will aggregate and analyze both fan-specific and resident data to inform more personalized targeted offerings that better appeal to the emotional, behavioral, identity, and social drivers of choice. While there is little evidence that neuroscience technology is currently capable of informing marketers seeking to manipulate consumer choice through the identification of a “buy button” in the brain, data collected in CDPs represents a real a profound ethical concern for sports fans and all residents of communities built with sacred sports stadiums as a centerpiece.
... Daha beyaz dişler kişileri daha iyi hissettirerek, tüketicilerin özgüvenlerinin artmasını sağlamaktadır (Calvert, 2011). Nöropazarlama araştırmalarının çoğu etkili pazarlama stratejileri ve reklam kampanyaları için bilgi sağlamak gibi pratik amaçlara yönelik yapılır (Ducu, 2017). ...
... Whiter teeth make people feel better and increase the self-confidence of consumers (Calvert, 2011). Most of the neuromarketing researches are done for practical purposes such as providing information for effective marketing strategies and advertising campaigns (Ducu, 2017). ...
Article
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The aim of this study is making descriptive analysis of postgraduate neuromarketing theses and thus, observing the institution performances with the change in the field of neuromarketing over the years. In this study, neuromarketing theses was profiled with the descriptive analysis technique from qualitative research methods. The study is thought to be important in terms of providing a brief summary to the studies made in complex field such as neuromarketing. As a result of the study, it’s seen that applied neuromarketing studies at the postgraduate theses level in Turkey are extremely few. It is seen that most of the applied theses were mostly prepared in universities with neuromarketing laboratory. As a result of the analysis it was determined that the institution where the studies was made was effective in the research methodology, the studies are mainly about consumer behaviour and usually benefited from EEG and eye tracking technique. Bu araştırmanın amacı; Nöropazarlama ile ilgili Türkiye’de gerçekleştirilen lisansüstü tezlerin betimsel analizinin yapılması ve böylelikle yıllar içerisinde nöropazarlama alanındaki değişimle beraber kurum performansları da incelenmeye çalışılmıştır. Çalışmada nitel araştırma yöntemlerinden betimsel analiz tekniği kullanılarak, Türkiye’de yapılmış nöropazarlama alanı ile ilgili tezlerin profili çıkartılmaya çalışılmıştır. Araştırmanın nöropazarlama gibi kompleks bir alanda yapılmış çalışmalara özet bir bakış açısı sunması bakımından da önemli olduğu düşünülmektedir. Araştırma sonucunda Türkiye’de yapılmış lisansüstü tez seviyesinde uygulamalı nöropazarlama çalışmalarının son derece az olduğu görülmüştür. Yapılan uygulamalı tezlerin çoğunlukla nöropazarlama laboratuvarı olan üniversitelerde gerçekleştirildiği görülmüştür. Yapılan analiz sonucunda araştırmanın yapıldığı kurumun araştırma metodolojisinde etkili olduğu, çalışmaların ağırlıklı olarak tüketici davranışı üzerine yapıldığı ve genellikle EEG ve Göz İzleme tekniğinden yararlanıldığı tespit edilmiştir.
... Daha beyaz dişler kişileri daha iyi hissettirerek, tüketicilerin özgüvenlerinin artmasını sağlamaktadır (Calvert, 2011). Nöropazarlama araştırmalarının çoğu etkili pazarlama stratejileri ve reklam kampanyaları için bilgi sağlamak gibi pratik amaçlara yönelik yapılır (Ducu, 2017). ...
... Whiter teeth make people feel better and increase the self-confidence of consumers (Calvert, 2011). Most of the neuromarketing researches are done for practical purposes such as providing information for effective marketing strategies and advertising campaigns (Ducu, 2017). ...
... In recent years, due to sensational journalism, concerns related to subliminal advertising as a form of external purchase manipulations have emerged (for an insightful discussion on "Consumer Surveillance and Ethical Concerns" see Nemorin and Gandy, 2017). These misconceptions (i.e., scientifically unsupported controversial anecdotes) influence the academic efficacy and practical utility of neuroscientific measurement techniques in understanding the human decisionmaking processes (Pop et al., 2014;Thomas et al., 2016;Lim, 2018). Although Pop et al. (2014) clearly stated that "One of the most important challenges for companies who offer neuromarketing services is to stick to ethical principles when performing the investigations. ...
Book
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Experimental setups that probe consumers’ underlying feelings, purchase intentions, and choices. The Topic Editors are honoured to present 14 multidisciplinary contributions that focus on successful implementations of physiological and neuroscientific measures in the field of cognitive psychology, marketing, design, and psychiatry. Keywords: preference formation, neuroscience, physiology, evaluative processing, consumer behavior
... The breadth of neuroethics must now comprise both academically oriented philosophical questions as well as application-centered considerations. Indeed, some academic institutions, practitioners, and client-side adopters have begun to understand this and put into place rules and language concerning the commercial use of applied measures of neuroscience (Al Pop, Dabija, & Iorga, 2014;Thomas, Pop, Iorga, & Ducu, 2016). In general, these rules speak to the need for the ethical treatment of human participants, focusing on informed consent and assurances of personal data protection to maintain participant privacy following their participation in neuromarketing research. ...
Chapter
Over close to 2 decades, neuromarketing has grown into a widely accepted discipline in brand research. Harnessing theoretical principles from consumer neuroscience as well as applied measures from the decision and affective neurosciences, the field of neuromarketing is well equipped to explain and predict consumption behaviors. In this way, neuromarketing is a unique field that draws from niche neuroscience-oriented disciplines by focusing on the consumer and the innumerable factors that affect individual preferences and consumption behavior. That said, as these theories and methodologies from neuroscience, psychology, and behavioral studies continue to be applied to client-oriented business solutions, novel ethical concerns have arisen regarding the implications of their use. Among these concerns are (a) citizen privacy rights when stand-off crowd sourced data are collected, (b) development and adherence to protocols concerning incidental findings encountered during data collection, (c) ramifications of unintended inferences being made at the level of the individual when data are derived from triangulated information sources, (d) determination of genetics based consumption preferences and (e) establish intellectual property rights when academically-oriented research tools from neuroscience are involved. As a “pracademic,” that is, an individual with both an academic and a commercial role, I will focus discussion on case-oriented examples related to application-based ethical questions derived from the emerging field of neuromarketing, using examples from government, academia and industry.
... Consequently, such security papers were included in the general objectives section and there was no separate category created for security. As an example, Thomas et al. (2016) states about facial recognition software used at airports as well as Jupe and Keatley (2019) mention how artificial intelligence can be used for coping with security issues at airports, and Möller et al. (2018) talk about intelligent system application with the Internet of Things. Then, some studies like Wong et al. (2006) and Boussadia (2009) addressed the historical development of security technologies used at the airport, where privatization was one of the major driving forces (Bowyer & Chapman, 2014;Sinha & Jha, 2019). ...
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... In recent years, due to sensational journalism, concerns related to subliminal advertising as a form of external purchase manipulations have emerged (for an insightful discussion on "Consumer Surveillance and Ethical Concerns" see Nemorin and Gandy, 2017). These misconceptions (i.e., scientifically unsupported controversial anecdotes) influence the academic efficacy and practical utility of neuroscientific measurement techniques in understanding the human decisionmaking processes (Pop et al., 2014;Thomas et al., 2016;Lim, 2018). Although Pop et al. (2014) clearly stated that "One of the most important challenges for companies who offer neuromarketing services is to stick to ethical principles when performing the investigations. ...
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Full-text available
In the field of psychology, the merge of decision-theory and neuroscientific methods produces an array of scientifically recognized paradigms. For example, by exploring consumer’s eye-movement behavior, researchers aim to deepen the understanding of how patterns of retinal activation are being meaningfully transformed into visual experiences and connected with specific reactions (e.g., purchase). Notably, eye-movements provide knowledge of one’s homeostatic balance and gatekeep information that shape decisions. Hence, vision science investigates the quality of observed environments determined under various experimental conditions. Moreover, it answers questions on how human process visual stimuli and use gained information for a successful strategy to achieve certain goals. While capturing cognitive states with the support of the eye-trackers progresses at a relatively fast pace in decision-making research, measuring the visual performance of real-life tasks, which require complex cognitive skills, is tentatively translated into clinical experiments. Nevertheless, the potential of the human eye as a highly valuable source of biomarkers has been underlined. In this article, we aim to draw readers attention to decision-making experimental paradigms supported with eye-tracking technology among clinical populations. Such interdisciplinary approach may become an important component that will (i) help in objectively illustrating patient’s models of beliefs and values, (ii) support clinical interventions, and (iii) contribute to health services. It is possible that shortly, eye-movement data from decision-making experiments will grant the scientific community a greater understanding of mechanisms underlining mental states and consumption practices that medical professionals consider as obsessions, disorders or addiction.
... Other authors describe neuromarketing as a science that requires the use of the principle, methodology and applications of the significant achievements of the neuroscience, with a view to a better understanding of neurological and psychological base of consumers' behaviour (Thomas et al., 2017). It is believed that practitioners in the field of neuromarketing should have an adequate knowledge in the area of the nervous system in general as well as how the human brain functions in order to reach efficient conclusions. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Ethical Aspects in Neuromarketing Research ABSTRACT We have explored the ethics of neuromarketing research techniques, manipulation of sales of products and services through neuromarketing knowledge, unauthorized sharing of neuromarketing results to third parties and the potential side effects of using neuroscientific instruments during the research process. This paper enhances the understanding of neuromarketing research in the context of general ethical principles. The main focus of the quantitative research conducted on 107 respondents in the Republic of Serbia (comprising neurologists, academic community and professionals) was the ethical aspect of grasping and controlling the neurobiological consumer sensations. Neuromarketing has been confirmed as a contemporary research method that helps us understand the buying behaviour and abides by the general principles of ethics. The respect of ethical codes by the initiator of neuromarketing research, regardless of whether it is a for-profit or non-profit institution, would additionally ensure full responsibility and professionalism towards all subjects in the neuromarketing research process. This study contributes to our understanding of the ethics of neuromarketing research techniques and it extends the neuromarketing literature on ethics, ethical principles, and ethical codes in neuromarketing research. Key words: neuromarketing, neuromarketing research, consumer behaviour, neuroscience, neuroethics JEL classification: M31, M39 Etični vidiki pri raziskavah nevromarketinga POVZETEK: Raziskovali smo etiko tehnik raziskav nevromarketinga, manipulacijo prodaje izdelkov in storitev s pomočjo neuromarketinškega znanja, nepooblaščene izmenjave rezultati neuromarketinga za tretje osebe in morebitni neželeni učinki uporabe nevroznanstvenega instrumenti med raziskovalnim procesom. Ta članek izboljšuje razumevanje raziskave nevromarketinga v okviru splošnih etičnih načel. Glavni poudarek na kvantitativna raziskava, izvedena na 107 anketirancih v Republiki Srbiji (vključno z nevrologi, akademska skupnost in strokovnjaki) je bil etični vidik razumevanja in nadzor nevrobioloških občutkov potrošnikov. Nevromarketing je bil potrjen kot sodobna raziskovalna metoda, ki nam pomaga razumeti nakupno vedenje in se drži splošna etična načela. Spoštovanje etičnih kodeksov s strani pobudnika nevromarketinga raziskave, ne glede na to, ali gre za neprofitno ali nepridobitno ustanovo, dodatno zagotoviti polno odgovornost in strokovnost do vseh subjektov v nevromarketingu raziskovalni proces. Ta študija prispeva k našemu razumevanju etike nevromarketinga raziskovalne tehnike in razširja literaturo o neuromarketingu o etiki, etičnih načelih, in etični kodeksi pri raziskavah nevromarketinga. Ključne besede: nevromarketing, raziskave nevromarketinga, vedenje potrošnikov, nevroznanost, nevroetika
... Other authors describe neuromarketing as a science that requires the use of the principle, methodology and applications of the significant achievements of the neuroscience, with a view to a better understanding of neurological and psychological base of consumers' behaviour (Thomas et al., 2017). It is believed that practitioners in the field of neuromarketing should have an adequate knowledge in the area of the nervous system in general as well as how the human brain functions in order to reach efficient conclusions. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
We have explored the ethics of neuromarketing research techniques, manipulation of sales of products and services through neuromarketing knowledge, unauthorized sharing of neuromarketing results to third parties and the potential side effects of using neuroscientific instruments during the research process. This paper enhances the understanding of neuromarketing research in the context of general ethical principles. The main focus of the quantitative research conducted on 107 respondents in the Republic of Serbia (comprising neurologists, academic community and professionals) was the ethical aspect of grasping and controlling the neurobiological consumer sensations. Neuromarketing has been confirmed as a contemporary research method that helps us understand the buying behaviour andabides by the general principles of ethics. The respect of ethical codes by the initiator of neuromarketing research, regardless of whether it is a for-profit or non-profit institution, would additionally ensure full responsibility and professionalism towards all subjects in the neuromarketing research process. This study contributes to our understanding of the ethics of neuromarketing research techniques and it extends the neuromarketing literature on ethics, ethical principles, and ethical codes in neuromarketing research.
... Neuromarketing emphasizes which emotions are important in tourist decision-making and how to use this information to improve marketing effectiveness (Reutov et al., 2020). The information is put to use in product design, better promotions and advertising, pricing, retail design, and overall improving the consumer experience (Thomas et al., 2017). Neuromarketing may assist with such information by analyzing the brain using neuroscience technologies and contributing to a better and more accurate understanding of the tourist's emotional and cognitive processes (Araújo et al., 2017). ...
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The main objectives of this research are to identify the neuromarketing concept, to address the importance and advantages of using the neuromarketing approach over conventional marketing methods, to demonstrate the factors that affect tourists’ purchase-decision behavior, to recognize the awareness and knowledge levels of neuromarketing in Egypt, and to investigate factors that can be influenced by applying neuromarketing techniques. Quantitative analysis was carried out on data from 472 tourists, and 82 destination marketing designers. Results revealed that neuromarketing is positively affected tourist behavior, decision-making, tourist preferences, tourist loyalty, product improvement, marketing effectiveness, marketing strategies, and sustainable product marketing. It was concluded that the usage of neuromarketing in the Egyptian destination is in its infancy, despite the level of awareness about neuromarketing being relatively high. The study contributes to providing destination policymakers full insights about neuromarketing, which provides a full picture for tourists, shows the path of tourism products development, and the need of producing new tourists’ products. Destination marketing designers need to integrate neuromarketing in their marketing method, and to create smarter marketing that will increase the effectiveness of their marketing efforts.
... Recommendations and guidelines for dealing with neuroethics in neuromarketing may be found in many forms and are based on the type of research (cf., e.g., Hensel, Iorga, Wolter & Znanewitz, 2017;Thomas, Pop, Iorga & Ducu, 2017;Coutinho, 2018). The most detailed proposal for neuromarketing code of ethics was introduced by Murphy, Illes & Reiner (2008). ...
Chapter
Full-text available
This chapter elucidates the origins and changes in understanding of neuroethics. An accent is then put on the role neuroethics should play. As a consequence, limitations in research are identified, especially in connection with ethical questions that had been proposed by philosophers in previous centuries. The urgency of their remarks has intensified due to the expansion of neuroscience. This theoretical part is subsequently enriched by practical aspects and ethical codes of which prescripts are key and neuromarketing practitioners are expected to obey them. Despite a growth of interest in neuroethics, the author presumes that the field still represents a ceaseless combat from within, and he claims that it may even remain invincible as a vicious circle. In conclusion, new trajectories are brought and considered together with recommendations and suggestions of new research possibilities as in case of political neuromarketing. This branch, however, perfectly illustrates the complexities associated with neuroethics.
... The breadth of neuroethics must now comprise both academically oriented philosophical questions as well as application-centred considerations. Indeed, some academic institutions, practitioners, and client-side adopters have begun to understand this and put into place rules and language concerning the commercial use of applied measures of neuroscience (Al Pop et al., 2014;Thomas et al., 2016). In general, these rules speak to the need for the ethical treatment of human participants, focusing on informed consent and assurances of personal data protection to maintain participant privacy following participation in neuromarketing research. ...
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This chapter examines the advent of the neuromarketing revolution, which over the past 10 years changed the way market research is conducted worldwide to include nonconscious measures in everyday studies. It required a form of technology transformation as traditional researchers and marketers came to accept that nonconscious response and emotion are critical in driving brand perceptions and behaviors. Moreover, it demanded a steep learning curve for understanding and adopting new types of scientifically driven methodologies such as EEG and Biometrics. Now with experience and extensive research by academics and practitioners, neurometrics are considered of high value for understanding consumer response and of great potential value for improving prediction leveraging AI and machine learning.
... Mind Genomics allows the researcher to test many combinations of messages, not just a few combinations repeated dozens or hundreds of times to reduce the error of estimate, a strategy used by most other researchers. By testing many combinations through the systematic permutation of the underlying experimental design a valuable byproduct emerges [16]. That byproduct is the fact that most of the vignettes, the combinations of messages according to design, in fact, differ from each other. ...
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Die Manipulation der Wahrnehmung und des Verhaltens von Menschen ist nach wie vor ein spannendes und immer wieder aufs Neue diskutiertes Thema. Gerade die Einflussmöglichkeiten, die sich durch eine professionelle Live-Kommunikation und Point-of-Sale-Gestaltung bieten, erfordern die ethische und juristische Reflexion des Umfangs des jeweiligen Einsatzes. Die Handlungsfelder bewegen sich hier von einer individuellen ethischen Bewertung bis hin zur Beachtung des staatlich gesetzten Gesetzesrahmens. Um hier einen Überblick zu schaffen, werden erstmals die ethischen und juristischen Reflexions- und Handlungsfelder der angewandten Eventpsychologie dargestellt. Anhand zweier umfangreicher Studien zur olfaktorischen und multisensualen Kommunikation werden die Akzeptanzgrenzen solcher manipulativer Eingriffe in die Wahrnehmung von KonsumentInnen näher beleuchtet und diskutiert.
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We demonstrate the knowledge-development power of the emerging science of Mind Genomics, doing so by a study of appeals to fund a wind-power project in Texas. The paper focuses on the method, analyses, results, and application of the findings, showing what can be learned and implemented with the easy-to-do and affordable, iterated studies offered by Mind Genomics. Two groups of respondents evaluated 24 vignettes, comprising different combinations of 16 messages about wind power opportunities and benefits for the State of Texas. The first group of 51 respondents evaluated vignettes about wind-power, rating the vignettes on regarding whether they understood the messages and would recommend what they read. The second group of 50 respondents estimated the unit price of a share of stock based upon the messages in the vignette. The analysis linked the ratings to the presence/absence of each message. Two new-to-the-world mind-sets emerged, those focusing on the benefits to Texas, and those focusing on what specific actions must be taken. The mind-sets suggest different ways that people have of dealing with information in which appeals are embedded. Study 2 reaffirmed these two mind-sets when economic judgments were substituted for opinions. The paper incorporates the PVI, the personal viewpoint identifier, a technology to assign a new person to one of these two mind-sets, thus expanding the scope of the research from a study of a single population to the possible identification of the mind-sets in the general population around the United States or even around the world.
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Cognitive enhancers include a wide range of substances including prescription medication for attentional deficient disorders and pharmacological substances for cognitive augmentation. Students have recently been identified as the largest cohort of users. Most research on student use of cognitive enhancers has been undertaken in the United States. This study utilised a mixed methods sequential explanatory approach to investigate cognitive enhancer use among UK university students specifically to aid study. A bespoke online survey was distributed throughout the UK. The findings informed the development of a qualitative interview study comprising 15 participants. In total, 506 responses to the online survey were received from 54 UK institutions. Forty-six per cent of respondents reported using recreational drugs and 19% reported having used cognitive enhancers. Males were two and a half times more likely to use cognitive enhancers than females. Participants reported various motives for using cognitive enhancers, the most frequent being to meet the demands of coursework, to improve focus or maintain wakefulness. The qualitative findings revealed that cognitive enhancers are widely accessible and are used to enhance performance in terms of motivation, concentration and meeting academic deadlines. The findings of this study will be of interest to a wide range of services within Universities across the UK.
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Resumo Pesquisas sobre atenção visual e tempo de observação relatam como o design de embalagem desperta o interesse e estimula a escolha no ponto de venda. No entanto, pouca atenção é dedicada às embalagens que apresentam layout similar ou congruentes. Este estudo avalia a atenção visual e a tomada de decisão do consumidor frente a uma embalagem com layout congruente entre as marcas de uma mesma categoria de produto. O experimento testou as hipóteses construídas a partir da revisão da literatura. Os resultados do estudo mostram uma correspondência entre a posição de gôndola e a escolha do consumidor, independente do tempo de observação, da congruência e da distância de observação. Estes achados são interessantes para futuras pesquisas, pois fornecem informações sobre quais elementos do
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Die Diskussion um ethische Fragestellungen in der Marktforschung ist nicht neu; schon lange befassen sich die einschlägigen Verbände (in Deutschland z. B. ADM und BVM, international ICC/ESOMAR) mit der Frage, was ethisch „korrekte“ Marktforschung ist und was nicht. Auch die wissenschaftliche Diskussion befasst sich zunehmend mit ethischen Fragen, insb. im Zusammenhang mit dem Einsatz neuer experimenteller neurowissenschaftlicher Methoden (Fantapié Altobelli 2017, S. 39). Gerade Verfahren wie funktionelle Magnetresonanztomografie (fMRT) oder Positronen-Emissions-Tomografie (PET) können erhebliche Eingriffe in physische und psychische Prozesse der Probanden beinhalten, sodass regelmäßig die Frage nach deren ethischer Zulässigkeit aufgeworfen wird. Für die Zukunft kann erwartet werden, dass neurowissenschaftliche Methoden in der Marktforschung an Bedeutung zunehmen werden. Durch die zunehmende Verbreitung dieser experimentellen Verfahren ist deren ethische Verankerung eine zentrale Herausforderung, um die Qualität neurowissenschaftlich fundierter Marktforschung auch für die Zukunft zu gewährleisten.
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