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The effects of gelled konjac glucomannan fibre on appetite and energy intake in healthy individuals: a randomised cross-over trial

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Abstract

Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a viscous dietary fibre that can form a solid, low-energy gel when hydrated and is commonly consumed in a noodle form (KGM-gel). Increased meal viscosity from gel-forming fibres have been associated with prolonged satiety, but no studies to date have evaluated this effect with KGM-gel. Thus, our objective was to evaluate subsequent food intake and satiety of KGM-gel noodles when replacing a high-carbohydrate preload, in a dose–response manner. Utilising a randomised, controlled, cross-over design, sixteen healthy individuals (twelve females/four males; age: 26·0 ( sd 11·8) years; BMI: 23·1 ( sd 3·2) kg/m ² ) received 325 ml volume-matched preloads of three KGM-gel noodle substitution levels: (i) all pasta with no KGM-gel (1849 kJ (442 kcal), control), half pasta and half KGM-gel (1084 kJ (259 kcal), 50-KGM) or no pasta and all KGM-gel (322 kJ (77 kcal), 100-KGM). Satiety was assessed over 90 min followed by an ad libitum dessert. Compared with control, cumulative energy intake was 47 % (−1761 kJ (−421 kcal)) and 23 % (−841 kJ (−201 kcal)) lower for 100-KGM and 50-KGM, respectively (both P <0·001), but no differences in subsequent energy intake was observed. Ratings of hunger were 31 % higher ( P =0·03) for 100-KGM when compared with control, and were 19 % lower ( P =0·04) for fullness and 28 % higher ( P =0·04) for prospective consumption when comparing 100-KGM to 50-KGM. Palatability was similar across all treatments. Replacement of a high-carbohydrate preload with low-energy KGM-gel noodles did not promote additional food intake despite large differences in energy. The energy deficit incurred from partial KGM-gel substitution may have relevance in weight loss regimens, and should be further evaluated beyond the healthy population.

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... Our data suggests that microfluidic noodles provide a similar level of satiety responses compared to commercially available noodles. It is consistent with other studies that showed gel-forming fibres could increase subjective ratings of fullness due to greater oral exposure resulting from chewing the fibre gels (Au-Yeung et al., 2018;Clegg & Shafat, 2014;Wanders et al., 2014). The unique properties of alginate could also affect mechanical digestion in the stomach, as the high gel strength may affect the extent of gastric distension and enhanced satiety signalling (El Khoury et al., 2015). ...
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The well-documented lipid-lowering effects of fibre may be related to its viscosity, a phenomenon that has been understudied, especially when fibre is given against the background of a typical North American (NA) diet. In this three-arm experiment, we compared the lipid-lowering effect of low-viscosity wheat bran (WB), medium-viscosity psyllium (PSY) and a high-viscosity viscous fibre blend (VFB), as part of a fibre intervention aimed at increasing fibre intake to recommended levels within the context of a NA diet in apparently healthy individuals. Using a randomised cross-over design, twenty-three participants (twelve males and eleven females; age 35 (SD 12) years; LDL-cholesterol (C) 2.9 (SEM 0.6) mmol/l) consuming a typical NA diet received a standard, fibre-enriched cereal, where approximately one-third of the fibre was either a low-viscosity (570 centipoise (cP)) WB, medium-viscosity (14,300 cP) PSY or a high-viscosity (136,300 cP) novel VFB, for 3 weeks separated by washout periods of ≥ 2 weeks. There were no differences among the treatments in the amount of food consumed, total dietary fibre intake, reported physical activity and body weight. Final intake of the WB, PSY and VFB was 10.8, 9.0 and 5.1 g, respectively. Reduction in LDL-C was greater with the VFB compared with the medium-viscosity PSY (-12.6 (SEM 3.5) %, P = 0.002) and low-viscosity WB (-14.6 (SEM 4.2) %, P = 0.003). The magnitude of LDL-C reduction showed a positive association with fibre apparent viscosity (r - 0.41, P = 0.001). Despite the smaller quantity consumed, the high-viscosity fibre lowered LDL-C to a greater extent than lower-viscosity fibres. These data support the inclusion of high-viscosity fibre in the diet to reduce plasma lipids among apparently healthy individuals consuming a typical NA diet.
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Dietary fibres have many functions in the diet, one of which may be to promote control of energy intake and reduce the risk of developing obesity. This is linked to the unique physico-chemical properties of dietary fibres which aid early signalling of satiation and prolonged or enhanced sensation of satiety. Particularly the ability of some dietary fibres to increase viscosity of intestinal contents offers numerous opportunities to affect appetite regulation. Few papers on the satiating effect of dietary fibres include information on the physico-chemical characteristics of the dietary fibres being tested, including molecular weight and viscosity. For viscosity to serve as a proxy for soluble dietary fibres it is essential to have an understanding of individual dietary fibre viscosity characteristics. The goal of this paper is to provide a brief overview on the role of dietary fibres in appetite regulation highlighting the importance of viscosity.
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This study examined the effect of energy density, independent of fat content and palatability, on food and energy intakes. With use of a within-subjects design, normal-weight women (n = 18) were provided with meals for 2 d during each of three test sessions. During lunch, dinner, and an evening snack, subjects were given free access to a main entree varying in energy density (low, medium, or high). The manipulated main entrees were similar in palatability to their counterparts across conditions. Low-energy compulsory (consumption required) side dishes accompanied each meal. Subjects also consumed a standard, compulsory breakfast. Results showed that subjects consumed a similar amount of food (by weight) across the three conditions of energy density. Thus, significantly more energy was consumed in the condition of high energy density (7532 +/- 363 kJ, or 1800 +/- 86 kcal) than in the medium- (6356 +/- 281 kJ, or 1519 +/- 67 kcal) and low- (5756 +/- 178 kJ, or 1376 +/- 43 kcal) energy-density conditions (P < 0.0001). There were no differences in hunger or fullness before meals, after meals, or over the 2 d across conditions. The results from this study indicate that energy density affects energy intake independent of macronutrient content or palatability, suggesting that the overconsumption of high-fat foods may be due to their high energy density rather than to their fat content.
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To examine whether Konjac-mannan (KJM) fiber improves metabolic control as measured by glycemia, lipidemia, and blood pressure in high-risk type 2 diabetic patients. A total of 11 hyperlipidemic and hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients treated conventionally by a low-fat diet and drug therapy participated. After an 8-week baseline, all were randomly assigned to take either KJM fiber-enriched test biscuits (0.7 g/412 kJ [100 kcal] of glucomannan) or matched placebo wheat bran fiber biscuits during two 3-week treatment phases separated by a 2-week washout period. The diet in either case was metabolically controlled and conformed to National Cholesterol Education Program Step 2 guidelines, while medications were maintained constant. Efficacy measures included serum fructosamine, lipid profiles, apolipoproteins, blood pressure, body weight, and nutritional analysis. Compared with placebo, KJM significantly reduced the metabolic control primary end points: serum fructosamine (5.7%, P = 0.007, adjusted alpha = 0.0167), total:HDL cholesterol ratio (10%, P = 0.03, adjusted alpha = 0.05), and systolic blood pressure (sBP) (6.9%, P = 0.02, adjusted alpha = 0.025). Secondary end points, including body weight, total, LDL, and HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoproteins A-1, B, and their ratio, glucose, insulin, and diastolic blood pressure, were not significant after adjustment by the Bonferroni-Hochberg procedure. KJM fiber added to conventional treatment may ameliorate glycemic control, blood lipid profile, and sBP in high-risk diabetic individuals, possibly improving the effectiveness of conventional treatment in type 2 diabetes.
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Large portions of food may contribute to excess energy intake and greater obesity. However, data on the effects of portion size on food intake in adults are limited. We examined the effect of portion size on intake during a single meal. We also investigated whether the response to portion size depended on which person, the subject or the experimenter, determined the amount of food on the plate. Fifty-one men and women were served lunch 1 d/wk for 4 wk. Lunch included an entrée of macaroni and cheese consumed ad libitum. At each meal, subjects were presented with 1 of 4 portions of the entrée: 500, 625, 750, or 1000 g. One group of subjects received the portion on a plate, and a second group received it in a serving dish and took the amount they desired on their plates. Portion size significantly influenced energy intake at lunch (P < 0.0001). Subjects consumed 30% more energy (676 kJ) when offered the largest portion than when offered the smallest portion. The response to the variations in portion size was not influenced by who determined the amount of food on the plate or by subject characteristics such as sex, body mass index, or scores for dietary restraint or disinhibition. Larger portions led to greater energy intake regardless of serving method and subject characteristics. Portion size is a modifiable determinant of energy intake that should be addressed in connection with the prevention and treatment of obesity.
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Dietary energy density (ED) reductions are associated with energy intake (EI) reductions. Little is known about influences on body weight (BW). We examined the effects of behavioral interventions on ED values and explored how 6-mo ED changes relate to BW. Prehypertensive and hypertensive persons were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 groups: the established group received an 18-session intervention implementing well-established hypertension recommendations (eg, weight loss, sodium reduction, and physical activity), the established+Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) group received an 18-session intervention also implementing the DASH diet, and the advice group received 1 session on these topics. Two 24-h dietary recalls were collected (n=658). Each group had significant declines in EI, ED, and BW. The established and established+DASH groups had the greatest EI and BW reductions. The established+DASH group had the greatest ED reduction and the greatest increase in the weight of food consumed. When groups were combined and analyzed by ED change tertiles, participants in the highest tertile (ie, largest ED reduction) lost more weight (5.9 kg) than did those in the middle (4.0 kg) or lowest (2.4 kg) tertile. Participants in the highest and middle tertiles increased the weight of food they consumed (300 and 80 g/d, respectively) but decreased their EI (500 and 250 kcal/d). Conversely, those in the lowest tertile decreased the weight of food consumed (100 g/d), with little change in EI. The highest and middle tertiles had favorable changes in fruit, vegetable, vitamin, and mineral intakes. Both large and modest ED reductions were associated with weight loss and improved diet quality.
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Insoluble fiber consumption is associated with reduced risk of obesity and diabetes, but its mechanisms of action are unknown. The objective was to describe the effect of insoluble fiber on appetite, short-term food intake, and blood glucose (BG) before and after a meal 75 min later in healthy men. In a crossover design, high-fiber (HF; 33 g insoluble fiber) cereal, low-fiber (LF) cereal, white bread (WB), and water control were administered to young men after an overnight fast. Caloric treatments had similar energy, macronutrient content, volume, and weight. In the first experiment, subjective appetite and BG were measured at 15-min intervals before and after an ad libitum meal at 75 min. In the second experiment, a preset pizza meal (850 kcal) was consumed at 75 min. Appetite and blood glucose were measured for 150 min at fasting and at 15-min intervals before and after the fixed meal. In experiment 1, ad libitum food intake was lower after the HF cereal and WB than after the LF cereal and water (937 +/- 86, 970 +/- 65, 1109 +/- 90, 1224 +/- 89 kcal, respectively; P < 0.001). Appetite was lower (P < 0.05) after the HF cereal than after the WB but not different from the LF cereal. The BG area under the curve (AUC) did not differ among the HF cereal, WB, and LF cereal from 0 to 75 min, but the postmeal BG increased after the WB and LF cereal but not after the HF cereal. In experiment 2, the HF cereal, but not the LF cereal or WB, increased fullness before and prevented an increase in the BG AUC after the preset meal (P < 0.05). A serving of 33 g insoluble fiber reduced appetite, lowered food intake, and reduced glycemic response to a meal consumed 75 min later.
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Background: Previous research indicated that increasing the volume of food by adding water can lead to reductions in energy intake. However, the addition of water affects not only the volume but also the energy density (kJ/g) of foods. No studies have examined the effect of volume independent of energy density on intake. Objective: We examined the effect of food volume independent of energy density on satiety. Design: In a within-subjects design, 28 lean men consumed breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory 1 d/wk for 4 wk. On 3 d, participants received a preload 30 min before lunch and on 1 d no preload was served. Preloads consisted of isoenergetic (2088 kJ), yogurt-based milk shakes that varied in volume (300, 450, and 600 mL) as a result of the incorporation of different amounts of air. Preloads contained identical ingredients and weighed the same. Results: The volume of the milk shake significantly affected energy intake at lunch (P < 0.04) such that intake was 12% lower after the 600-mL preload (2966 ± 247 kJ) than after the 300-mL preload (3368 ± 197 kJ). Subjects also reported greater reductions in hunger and greater increases in fullness after consumption of both the 450- and 600-mL preloads than after the 300-mL preload. Conclusions: Changing the volume of a preload by incorporating air affected energy intake. Thus, the volume of a preload independent of its energy density can influence satiety.
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IntroductionRaw materialsProcessingStructureFunctional propertiesFood applicationsNutritional applicationsFuture developments
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An increased intake of dietary fiber has been associated with reduced appetite and reduced energy intake. Research on the effects of seemingly identical classes of dietary fiber on appetite has, however, resulted in conflicting findings. The present study investigated the effects of different fiber properties, including methods of supplementation, on appetite and energy intake. This was a randomized crossover study with 29 subjects (21 ± 2y, BMI 21.9 ± 1.8 kg/m2) consuming dairy based liquid test products (1.5 MJ, 435 g) containing either: no pectin, bulking pectin (10 g), viscous pectin (10 g), or gelled pectin (10 g). The gelled pectin was also supplemented as capsules (10 g), and as liquid (10 g). Physicochemical properties of the test products were assessed. Appetite, glucose, insulin and gastric emptying were measured before ingestion and after fixed time intervals. Energy intake was measured after 3 hours. Preload viscosity was larger for gelled > viscous > bulking > no pectin, and was larger for gelled > liquid > capsules. Appetite reduced after gelled pectin compared to bulking (p < 0.0001), viscous (p = 0.005) and no pectin (p < 0.0001), without differences in subsequent energy intake (p = 0.32). Gastric emptying rate was delayed after gelled pectin (82 ± 18 min) compared to no pectin (70 ± 19 min, p = 0.015). Furthermore, gelled (p = 0.002) and viscous (p < 0.0001) pectin lowered insulin responses compared to no pectin, with minor reductions in glucose response. Regarding methods of supplementation, appetite reduced after the gelled test product compared to after capsules (p < 0.0001) and liquid (p < 0.0001). Energy intake was lower after capsules compared to liquid (-12.4%, p = 0.03). Different methods of supplementation resulted in distinct metabolic parameters. Results suggest that different physicochemical properties of pectin, including methods of supplementation, impact appetite and energy intake differently. Reduced appetite was probably mediated by preload physical properties, whereas inconsistent associations with metabolic parameters were found.
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The intrinsic viscosity [η] and the theoretical critical concentration c* of Konjac glucomannan (KGM) solution were 18.91 dL/g and 0.053 wt% respectively in distilled water. However, the values of [η] and c* became to 11.55 dL/g and 0.086 wt% in sodium hydroxide solution (0.25 mol/L), moreover, the transition from KGM sol to gel even occurred at 0.5 wt% over 55 °C, furthermore, the morphology structure of KGM was thicker than that in distilled water as observed in SEM. It suggested that the sodium hydroxide solution would restrain the expansion of the molecular chain and promoted the gelation of KGM, which might be due to the obvious effects of deacetylation, self-aggregation, entanglement, local and continuous gel network structure.
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Background: Viscous or gel-forming dietary fibers can increase satiety by a more firm texture and increased eating time. Effects of viscous or gel-forming fibers on satiety by post-ingestive mechanisms such as gastric emptying, hormonal signals, nutrient absorption or fermentation are unclear. Moreover, it is unclear whether the effects persist after repeated exposure. Objective: To investigate satiety and energy intake after single and repeated exposure to gelled fiber by post-ingestive mechanisms. Design: In a two-arm crossover design, 32 subjects (24 female subjects, 21±2 y, BMI 21.8±1.9 kg m(-2)) consumed test foods once daily for 15 consecutive days, with 2 weeks of washout. Test foods were isocaloric (0.5 MJ, 200 g) with either 10 g gel-forming pectin or 3 g gelatin and 2 g starch, matched for texture and eating time. Hourly satiety ratings, ad libitum energy intake and body weight were measured on days 1 (single exposure) and 15 (repeated exposure). In addition, hourly breath hydrogen, fasting glucose, insulin, leptin and short-chain fatty acids were measured. Results: Subjects rated hunger, desire to eat and prospective intake about 2% lower (P<0.015) and fullness higher (+1.4%; P=0.041) when they received pectin compared with control. This difference was similar after single and repeated exposure (P>0.64). After receiving pectin, energy intake was lower (-5.6%, P=0.012) and breath hydrogen was elevated (+12.6%, P=0.008) after single exposure, but not after repeated exposure. Fasting glucose concentrations were higher both after single and repeated exposure to pectin (+2.1%, P=0.019). Body weight and concentrations of insulin, leptin and short-chain fatty acids did not change during the study. Conclusions: Gelled pectin can increase satiety and reduce energy intake by post-ingestive mechanisms. Although the effects were small, the effects on satiety were consistent over time, whereas the effects on energy intake reduction were not.
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Epidemiologic studies have shown that fiber intake is associated with a lower body weight. Satiety and energy intake are possible explanations for this effect. The purpose of this study was to recommend fiber types and doses that are effective in reducing appetite and energy intake. A systematic review was conducted using the American Dietetic Association's evidence analysis process as a guide. Studies were identified from PubMed and bibliographies of review articles. Studies measuring appetite, food and/or energy intake with a treatment period of ≤24 hours, a reported fiber type and amount, a low- or no-fiber control, and healthy human participants were included. Forty-four publications were identified, from which 107 treatments were analyzed. Thirty-eight fiber sources were identified. The percentage of treatments that significantly reduced subjective appetite rating compared with the control was 39%. The percentage that significantly reduced food or energy intake was 22%. The satiety-enhancing effects of β-glucan, lupin kernel fiber, rye bran, whole grain rye, or a mixed high-fiber diet were supported in more than one publication. Most fibers do not reduce appetite or energy intake in acute study designs. Key teaching points: • Dietary fiber intake is associated with lower body weight in epidemiologic studies. • Most acute fiber treatments (61%) did not enhance satiety. • Most acute fiber treatments (78%) did not reduce food intake. • Neither fiber type nor fiber dose were related to satiety response or food intake.
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Four dispersions of 3% glucomannan in water, deacetylated with 5% 0.6N and 1N KOH (lots L1 and L2) and 0.6N and 1N NaOH (lots L3 and L4) as gelling agents, were evaluated for use in raw restructured seafood products. Several properties (pH, moisture content, water binding capacity, cooking loss and lightness) together with puncture data (breaking force and breaking deformation) were determined after 1 and 10 days of chilled storage at 5°C. All these data were analyzed together with different viscoelastic parameters obtained at small amplitude oscillatory strain (SAOS) after 1 day of chilled storage, showing that L1 and L4 samples were the most suitable gels for incorporation in raw restructured fish products. In both cases the highest stress (σmax) and strain (γmax) amplitude values were found in the linear viscoelastic (LVE) range; however, L1 showed both high strain amplitude and breaking deformation values. Moreover, creep and recovery (transient) data showed that L1 was the most time-stable gel with the highest elasticity and the lowest relaxation exponent (n). L4 gel showed strong rigidity, i.e. the highest values of breaking force and storage moduli (G′) and the highest n value, making it less gel-like. Both L1 and L4 gels became significantly less gel-like over 10 days of chilled storage due to the loss of gel strength (S) and a noticeable increase of n. These chilled storage effects were more intense in L4 than in L1.
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Some individuals report weak appetite sensations and thus, have higher susceptibility to overeating. The aim of this study was 1) to evaluate the reliability of the satiety quotient (SQ), a marker of satiety efficiency; 2) to characterize the biopsychobehavioural profiles of individual presenting low satiety efficiency, i.e. the low satiety phenotype and 3) to document the impact of a weight loss program on these profiles. Sixty-nine obese men (BMI 33.6 ± 3.0 kg/m(2), age 41.5 ± 5.7 yrs) participated in a 16-week, non-restrictive weight loss intervention. Visual analog scales for appetite sensations in response to a test-meal were completed twice at baseline. Blood samples were collected before and during one test-meal. Questionnaires were administered before and after the intervention. The mean SQ showed good reliability (ICC = 0.67). Baseline SQ scores tended to be negatively correlated with external hunger, anxiety and night eating symptoms (p < 0.10). Moreover, the low satiety phenotype showed a lower cortisol response to the test-meal (p < 0.05). The SQ seems to be a reliable marker of weaker appetite sensation responses. Stress/anxiety could be involved in the low satiety phenotype but did not influence the biopsychobehavioural changes in response to the intervention.
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Reductions in food energy density can decrease energy intake, but it is not known if the effects depend on the way that energy density is reduced. We investigated whether three methods of reducing energy density (decreasing fat, increasing fruit and vegetables, and adding water) differed in their effects on energy intake across the day. In a crossover design, 59 adults ate breakfast, lunch, and dinner in the laboratory once a week for four weeks. Across conditions, the entrées were either standard in energy density or were reduced in energy density by 20% using one of the three methods. Each meal included a manipulated entrée along with unmanipulated side dishes, and all foods were consumed ad libitum. Reducing the energy density of entrées significantly decreased daily energy intake compared to standard entrées (mean intake 2667±77 kcal/day; 11,166±322 kJ/day). The mean decrease was 396±44 kcal/day (1658±184 kJ/day) when fat was reduced, 308±41 kcal/day (1290±172 kJ/day) when fruit and vegetables were increased, and 230±35 kcal/day (963±147 kJ/day) when water was added. Daily energy intake was lower when fat was decreased compared to the other methods. These findings indicate that a variety of diet compositions can be recommended to reduce overall dietary energy density in order to moderate energy intake.
Article
Much of the research in ingestive behavior has focused on the macronutrient composition of foods; however, these studies are incomplete, or could be misleading, if they do not consider the energy density (ED) of the diet under investigation. Lowering the ED (kcal/g) by increasing the volume of preloads without changing macronutrient content can enhance satiety and reduce subsequent energy intake at a meal. Ad libitum intake or satiation has also been shown to be influenced by ED when the proportions of macronutrients are constant. Since people tend to eat a consistent weight of food, when the ED of the available foods is reduced, energy intake is reduced. The effects of ED have been seen in adults of different weight status, sex, and behavioral characteristics, as well as in 3- to 5-year-old children. The mechanisms underlying the response to variations in ED are not yet well understood and data from controlled studies lasting more than several days are limited. However, both population-based studies and long-term clinical trials indicate that the effects of dietary ED can be persistent. Several clinical trials have shown that reducing the ED of the diet by the addition of water-rich foods such as fruits and vegetables was associated with substantial weight loss even when patients were not told to restrict calories. Since lowering dietary energy density could provide effective strategies for the prevention and treatment of obesity, there is a need for more studies of mechanisms underlying the effect and ways to apply these findings.
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Konjac glucomannan (KGM) is a dietary fiber found in Amophophallus konjac. This fiber is fermentable based on human and animal trials, but short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production profiles are unknown. The aim of this study is to characterize the digestibility and fermentability in vitro of two preparations of KGM, to better understand how KGM improves human health. Konnyaku (yam cake made of A. konjac), isolated KGM, inulin, and guar gum were subjected to in vitro digestion and in vitro fermentation. Fermentation samples were removed at 0, 4, 8, 12, and 24 hours for gas volume, pH, and SCFA measurements. Acetate, propionate, and butyrate were measured with gas chromatography. Results of the in vitro digestion confirm that KGM and konnyaku are resistant to degradation by digestive enzymes. Gas production in fermentation vessels containing konnyaku and KGM was lower than for inulin from 8 to 24 hours. Both samples produced SCFA concentrations similar to guar gum, which favored acetate and propionate over butyrate production. This study is the first to characterize SCFA production by KGM in its isolated form and in food form. Fermentation patterns presented in this study may provide a mechanism for the previously published health benefit of konnyaku and KGM.
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Dietary fibres are believed to reduce subjective appetite, energy intake and body weight. However, different types of dietary fibre may affect these outcomes differently. The aim of this review was to systematically investigate the available literature on the relationship between dietary fibre types, appetite, acute and long-term energy intake, and body weight. Fibres were grouped according to chemical structure and physicochemical properties (viscosity, solubility and fermentability). Effect rates were calculated as the proportion of all fibre-control comparisons that reduced appetite (n = 58 comparisons), acute energy intake (n = 26), long-term energy intake (n = 38) or body weight (n = 66). For appetite, acute energy intake, long-term energy intake and body weight, there were clear differences in effect rates depending on chemical structure. Interestingly, fibres characterized as being more viscous (e.g. pectins, β-glucans and guar gum) reduced appetite more often than those less viscous fibres (59% vs. 14%), which also applied to acute energy intake (69% vs. 30%). Overall, effects on energy intake and body weight were relatively small, and distinct dose-response relationships were not observed. Short- and long-term effects of dietary fibres appear to differ and multiple mechanisms relating to their different physicochemical properties seem to interplay. This warrants further exploration.
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The aim of this study was to compare the effects of cellulose and three soluble dietary fibers, pectin, konjac glucomannan (KGM), and inulin, on the cytotoxicity and DNA damage of fecal water-treated Caco-2 cells, a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line, and to investigate the fecal components that potentially modulate the fecal toxicity, that is, bacterial enzymes, bile acids, and short-chain fatty acids. Six-week-old BALB/cJ mice were randomly allocated to consume an AIN-93 diet that contained no dietary fiber (fiber-free) or 5% (w/w) cellulose, pectin, KGM, and inulin for 3 weeks. Feces were collected during days 18-21. Fecal waters were co-incubated with Caco-2 cells to determine the cytotoxicity and DNA damage. In addition, the fecal bacterial enzymes, bile acids, and short-chain fatty acids were determined. Results indicated that all fiber diets similarly increased the survival rate (%) of fecal water-treated Caco-2 cells as compared with the fiber-free diet. The inhibition of fecal water-induced DNA damage in Caco-2 cells was greater for the pectin and inulin diets than for the cellulose and KGM diets. In contrast, cellulose exerted the greatest inhibitory effect on the fecal β-glucuronidase activity. Cellulose and all soluble dietary fibers reduced the secondary bile acid concentrations in the fecal water, but only soluble fibers increased the fecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, as compared with no fiber. Therefore, this study suggests that all dietary fibers substantially reduced the fecal water toxicity, which is associated with decreased secondary bile acid levels by all fibers, reduced fecal β-glucuronidase activity by cellulose, and increased short-chain fatty acid levels by soluble dietary fibers.
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This report describes a set of scientific procedures used to assess the impact of foods and food ingredients on the expression of appetite (psychological and behavioural). An overarching priority has been to enable potential evaluators of health claims about foods to identify justified claims and to exclude claims that are not supported by scientific evidence for the effect cited. This priority follows precisely from the principles set down in the PASSCLAIM report. The report allows the evaluation of the strength of health claims, about the effects of foods on appetite, which can be sustained on the basis of the commonly used scientific designs and experimental procedures. The report includes different designs for assessing effects on satiation as opposed to satiety, detailed coverage of the extent to which a change in hunger can stand alone as a measure of appetite control and an extensive discussion of the statistical procedures appropriate for handling data in this field of research. Because research in this area is continually evolving, new improved methodologies may emerge over time and will need to be incorporated into the framework. One main objective of the report has been to produce guidance on good practice in carrying out appetite research, and not to set down a series of commandments that must be followed.
Article
Amorphophallus konjac (konjac) has long been used in China, Japan and South East Asia as a food source and as a traditional medicine. Flour extracted from the corm of this species is used in Far Eastern cuisine to make noodles, tofu and snacks. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), a gel prepared from the flour has been used for detoxification, tumour-suppression, blood stasis alleviation and phlegm liquefaction; and for more than 2000 years has been consumed by the indigenous people of China for the treatment of asthma, cough, hernia, breast pain, burns as well as haematological and skin disorders.
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In randomized controlled trials, viscous soluble fibers have demonstrated acute and long-term metabolic improvements in type 2 diabetes, such as reductions in hemoglobin A1c, fasting and post-prandial glycemia, insulinemia, and cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, they may be helpful in weight control through promoting feelings of fullness. Increasing consumption of foods containing fiber or use of fiber supplements could play an important role in managing diabetes with positive outcomes on vascular complications and reduced cardio-vascular disease risk.
Article
This study assessed the effects of meal volume (MV) and calorie load (CL) on gastric function. MRI and a minimally invasive fiber-optic recording system (FORS) provided simultaneous measurement of gastric volume and pressure changes during gastric filling and emptying of a liquid nutrient meal in physiological conditions. The gastric response to 12 iso-osmolar MV-CL combinations of a multinutrient drink (MV: 200, 400, 600, 800 ml; CL: 200, 300, 400 kcal) was tested in 16 healthy subjects according to a factorial design. Total gastric volume (TGV) and gastric content volume (GCV = MV + secretion) were measured by MRI during nasogastric meal infusion and gastric emptying over 60 min. Intragastric pressure was assessed at 1 Hz by FORS. The dynamic change in postprandial gastric volumes was described by a validated three-component linear exponential model. The stomach expanded with MV, but the ratio of GCV:MV at t(0) diminished with increasing MV (P < 0.01). Postprandial changes in TGV followed those of GCV. Intragastric pressure increased with MV, and this effect was augmented further by CL (P = 0.02); however, the absolute pressure rise was <4 mmHg. A further postprandial increase of gastric volumes was observed early on before any subsequent volume decrease. This "early" increase in GCV was greater for smaller than larger MV (P < 0.01), indicating faster initial gastric emptying of larger MV. In contrast, volume change during filling and in the early postprandial period were unaffected by CL. In the later postprandial period, gastric emptying rate continued to be more rapid with high MVs (P < 0.001); however, at any given volume, gastric emptying was slowed by higher CL (P < 0.001). GCV half-emptying time decreased with CL at 18 +/- 6 min for each additional 100-kcal load (P < 0.001). These findings indicate that gastric wall stress (passive strain and active tone) provides the driving force for gastric emptying, but distal resistance to gastric outflow regulates further passage of nutrients. The distinct early phase of gastric emptying with relatively rapid, uncontrolled passage of nutrients into the small bowel, modulated by meal volume but not nutrient composition, ensures that the delivery of nutrients in the later postprandial period is related to the overall calorie load of the meal.
Article
Dietary fiber that develops viscosity in the gastrointestinal tract is capable of addressing various aspects of food intake control. The aim of this study was to assess subsequent food intake and appetite in relation to the level of viscosity following three liquid preloads each containing 5 g of either a high (novel viscous polysaccharide; NVP), medium (glucomannan; GLM), or low (cellulose; CE) viscosity fiber. In this double-blind, randomized, controlled and crossover trial, 31 healthy weight adolescents (25 F:6 M; age 16.1+/-0.6 years; BMI 22.2+/-3.7 kg/m(2)) consumed one of the three preloads 90 min prior to an ad libitum pizza meal. Preloads were identical in taste, appearance, nutrient content and quantity of fiber, but different in their viscosities (10, 410, and 700 poise for CE, GLM, and NVP, respectively). Pizza intake was significantly lower (p=0.008) after consumption of the high-viscosity NVP (278+/-111 g) compared to the medium-viscosity GLM (313+/-123 g) and low-viscosity CE (316+/-138 g) preloads, with no difference between the GLM and CE preloads. Appetite scores, physical symptoms and 24-h intake did not differ among treatment groups. A highly viscous NVP preload leads to reduced subsequent food intake, in terms of both gram weight and calories, in healthy weight adolescents. This study provides preliminary evidence of an independent contribution of viscosity on food intake and may form a basis for further studies on factors influencing food intake in adolescents.
Article
To compare the blood glucose-lowering effect of a highly viscous fiber blend (VFB) added to a starchy snack on postprandial glycemia between healthy participants and participants with diabetes mellitus. Ten healthy participants (4 men and 6 women, aged 28+/-2.6 years, body mass index [BMI], 24.3+/-0.8 kg/m(2)) and 9 participants with diabetes mellitus type 2 (3 men and 6 women, aged 68+/-3.8 years, BMI 28.8+/-1.2 kg/m(2)) on four separate occasions took either 50 g available carbohydrates as control biscuits, biscuits with 10 g of highly viscous fiber blend, white bread with 12 g of margarine, or white bread alone. Postprandial blood glucose response, glycemic index (GI), and palatability were determined. Mean (95% confidence interval) GI values of the viscous fiber blend biscuits were 26 (16-36) and 37 (27-47) GI units for healthy participants and participants with diabetes mellitus, respectively. These values were significantly lower than those of white bread, white bread with 12 g of margarine, and control biscuits (P<0.001, paired t test) both in healthy participants (GI 100, 108 [57-159], and 101 [44-158], respectively) and participants with diabetes mellitus (GI 100, 103 [79-127], and 94 [78-110], respectively). Viscous fiber blend significantly reduced the glycemic index by 74% (7.4 GI units/g of fiber) in healthy participants and by 63% (6.3 GI units/g of fiber) in participants with diabetes. The GI did not differ between control meals in both healthy participants and participants with diabetes. There were no significant differences in palatability among the types of meals, although participants with diabetes found the viscous fiber blend biscuits more palatable (P=0.002, t test). Viscous fiber blend is a very potent and palatable soluble fiber addition to a starchy snack, which is able to reduce the glycemic response to a similar extent in both healthy participants and individuals with diabetes mellitus. Biscuits with low GI, and possibly other viscous fiber blend fortified starchy foods, may potentially be a useful replacement of high GI snack foods in the diet.
Article
This paper introduces a satiety quotient (SQ) to assess the satiating effect of an eating episode. This procedure constitutes an improvement on previous measures by considering the satiating effects of the eating episode over time. A satiety quotient was calculated from data obtained from several studies involving the presentation of a preload/meal to young lean male and female subjects. Subjects were presented with preloads/meals of varying composition, and motivation to eat immediately prior to, and periodically following, the eating episode were measured. Food and fluids were not consumed whilst motivation to eat was measured in the post preload/meal period. The SQ was calculated by dividing the difference between ratings of motivation to eat before and after the eating episode (pre minus post) by the weight or energy content of intake during the episode. This quotient relates intake to the rate of return of motivation to eat in the post-ingestive period, a relationship which is not apparent on separate examination of the amount consumed or ratings of motivation to eat. Development of this satiety quotient is a further contribution to the evolution of the concept of quantifying satiating effects of foods, and provides additional information on the effects of food attributes on short-term appetite control.
Article
Konjac (konnyaku) glucomannan was examined for its degradation in human intestines and fermentation products. The konjac glucomannan was degraded almost 100% by soluble enzymes in human feces to give 4-O-beta-D-mannopyranosyl-D-mannopyranose (beta-1,4-D-mannobiose), 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-D-glucopyranose (cellobiose), 4-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-D-mannopyranose, and small amounts of glucose and mannose. These three disaccharides were further degraded by a cell-associated enzyme(s) to glucose or mannose, or to both. Konjac glucomannan underwent fermentation by intestinal anaerobic bacteria and produced formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, and 1-butyric acid. These fatty acids were different in their proportions among test subjects, their total amounts ranging from 17.1% to 48.8% of the initial konjac glucomannan.
Article
Viscous fibres such as guar, glucomannans, pectins, oat betaglucan and psyllium continue to be seen as hypocholesterolaemic. Nevertheless, in large cohort studies, ironically it is the insoluble cereal fibre that has been demonstrated to relate negatively to cardiovascular disease and diabetes, despite an absence of effect on fasting lipids or postprandial glycaemia. In general, resistant or nonabsorbable starch is lipid neutral, whereas some nonabsorbable sugars or oligosaccharides may raise serum cholesterol, possibly through providing more acetate after colonic fermentation by colonic microflora. On the other hand, fructo-oligosaccharides appear to reduce serum triglycerides for reasons that are not entirely clear. Of possibly greater recent interest have been the carbohydrates that are not so much resistant to absorption, but rather are slowly absorbed. They possess some of the features of dietary fibre in providing a substrate for colonic bacterial fermentation. In the small intestine, however, they form lente or sustained release carbohydrate. In the form of low glycaemic index foods, lente carbohydrate consumption has been shown to relate to improved blood lipid profiles in hyperlipidaemic individuals and improved glycaemic control in diabetes. In larger cohort studies, low glycaemic index foods or low glycaemic load diets have been associated with higher HDL-cholesterol levels and reduced incidence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease.
Article
The influence of dietary fiber on energy regulation remains controversial. This review summarizes published studies on the effects of dietary fiber on hunger, satiety, energy intake, and body composition in healthy individuals. Under conditions of fixed energy intake, the majority of studies indicate that an increase in either soluble or insoluble fiber intake increases postmeal satiety and decreases subsequent hunger. When energy intake is ad libitum, mean values for published studies indicate that consumption of an additional 14 g/day fiber for >2 days is associated with a 10% decrease in energy intake and body weight loss of 1.9 kg over 3.8 months. Furthermore, obese individuals may exhibit a greater suppression of energy intake and body weight loss (mean energy intake in all studies was reduced to 82% by higher fiber intake in overweight/obese people versus 94% in lean people; body weight loss was 2.4 kg versus 0.8 kg). These amounts are very similar to the mean changes in energy intake and body weight changes observed when dietary fat content is lowered from 38% to 24% of energy intake in controlled studies of nonobese and obese subjects. The observed changes in energy intake and body weight occur both when the fiber is from naturally high-fiber foods and when it is from a fiber supplement. In view of the fact that mean dietary fiber intake in the United States is currently only 15 g/day (i.e., approximately half the American Heart Association recommendation of 25-30 g/day), efforts to increase dietary fiber in individuals consuming <25 g/day may help to decrease the currently high national prevalence of obesity.
Article
This experiment examined whether food volume and energy content affected satiety in lean and obese women, when visual and oral cues were bypassed by infusing food intragastrically. The effects of volume and energy content were examined separately by using liquid foods that differed in energy density (kcal/g). On 5 separate days, 25 lean and 29 obese women consumed all of their meals in the laboratory. A nasogastric tube was inserted 30 min before lunch on 4 days; on three of these occasions, a liquid preload was infused for 15 min and, on the fourth occasion (control), the preload was diverted covertly. On the remaining day, no tube was inserted. The three preloads varied two-fold in volume and energy content: 200 ml/200 kcal, 400 ml/200 kcal and 400 ml/400 kcal. The results showed that increasing the volume of infused food, but not the energy content, affected satiety in both lean and obese women. There was a mean decrease in energy intake at lunch of 77 kcal (13%) after the 400-ml preload compared with the iso-energetic 200-ml preload (P=.013). Increasing the energy content of infused food, but not the volume, did not affect satiety. Thus, when sensory cues were bypassed, the volume of liquid food infused intragastrically affected subsequent energy intake in both lean and obese women. These results suggest that gastric and postgastric mechanisms are involved in the effects of high-volume, low-energy-dense foods on satiety.
Article
Pleasure from foods can stimulate "non-homoeostatic" eating, and might therefore also potentially contribute toward obesity. However, obesity is not reliably associated with heightened hedonic responses to foods. This apparent discrepancy may reflect the differentiation between "liking" and "wanting". Supporting this, behavioural and neurophysiological data on responsiveness to food-related cues indicate that obesity may be associated with increased motivation for food consumption, without necessarily any greater explicit pleasure derived from the orosensory experience of eating. This distinction may have important implications for further research, and applications in commercial and public health approaches to modifying energy intakes.
Article
The aim of this study was to further evaluate the validity and clinical meaningfulness of appetite sensations to predict overall energy intake as well as body weight loss. Men (n = 176) and women (n = 139) involved in six weight loss studies were selected to participate in this study. Visual analogue scales were used to measure appetite sensations before and after a fixed test meal. Fasting appetite sensations, 1 h post-prandial area under the curve (AUC) and the satiety quotient (SQ) were used as predictors of energy intake and body weight loss. Two separate measures of energy intake were used: a buffet style ad libitum test lunch and a three-day self-report dietary record. One-hour post-prandial AUC for all appetite sensations represented the strongest predictors of ad libitum test lunch energy intake (p < or = 0.001). These associations were more consistent and pronounced for women than men. Only SQ for fullness was associated with ad libitum test lunch energy intake in women. Similar but weaker relationships were found between appetite sensations and the 3-day self-reported energy intake. Weight loss was associated with changes in appetite sensations (p < or = 0.01) and the best predictors of body weight loss were fasting desire to eat; hunger; and PFC (p < or = 0.01). These results demonstrate that appetite sensations are relatively useful predictors of spontaneous energy intake, free-living total energy intake and body weight loss. They also confirm that SQ for fullness predicts energy intake, at least in women.
Satiety and energy intake after single and repeated exposure to gel-forming dietary fiber: post-ingestive effects
  • A J Wanders
  • M Mars
  • Borgonjen-Van Den
  • K J Berg
Wanders AJ, Mars M, Borgonjen-van den Berg KJ, et al. (2014) Satiety and energy intake after single and repeated exposure to gel-forming dietary fiber: post-ingestive effects. Int J Obes (Lond) 38, 794-800.